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Sample records for breeding habitat improves

  1. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  2. Endangered Roseate Tern Breeding and Staging Habitat Management and Enhancement Progress Report FY13-FY14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this project are to enhance and protect roseate tern breeding and staging habitat to increase productivity, and improve survival of fledglings and...

  3. Factors affecting diet, habitat selection and breeding success of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting diet, habitat selection and breeding success of the African Crowned Eagle Stephanoaetus coronatus in a fragmented landscape. Christopher J Swatridge, Ara Monadjem, David J Steyn, Garth R Batchelor, Ian CW Hardy ...

  4. Habitat selection by breeding red-winged blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Habitat preferences of breeding Red-winged Blackbirds in an agricultural area were determined by comparing population density, landscape characteristics, and vegetational descriptions. Observations were made throughout the breeding season. Preferred breeding habitats of Red-wings, in order of preference, were wetlands, hayfields, old fields, and pastures. Males and females occupied old fields and wetlands first, then hayfields, and finally, pastures. Cutting of hayfields caused territorial abandonment by both sexes within 48 h. The apparent movement of displaced females from cut hayfields to uncut hayfields suggests that habitat fidelity of females is strong after the breeding effort has begun. Breeding Red-wings exhibited general preferences for trees, large amounts of habitat edge, erect old vegetation, and sturdy, tall, and dense vegetation. Vegetative forms and species, such as upland grasses, broad- and narrow-leafed monocots in wetlands, and forbs were important to the Red-wing at various times during the breeding season. Landscape and vegetational preferences of breeding adults were easier to observe early in the breeding season (March through May) than later. Vegetational growth and increases in the size of the breeding population probably make these preferences more difficult to detect. Territory size was poorly correlated with landscape and vegetational characteristics in uplands but strongly correlated with broad- and narrow-leafed mono cots and vegetative height in wetlands. Wetland territories were smaller than upland territories. Territories increased in size during the middle and late portions of the breedi g season. Habitat selection by the Red-winged Blackbird can best be studied by evaluating vegetative preferences throughout the breeding season.

  5. Current distribution, breeding population and habitat use of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas is a globally threatened bird species in Africa with a wild population of less than 10,000 individuals. The Nigerian population, which has been poorly studied, is restricted to the forest of Cross River. This study re-assessed the distribution, breeding population, habitat use and ...

  6. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  7. Breeding habitat associations and predicted distribution of an obligate tundra-breeding bird, Smith's Longspur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Teri C.; Kendall, Steven J.; Guldager, Nikki; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern which breeds in Arctic habitats that are expected to be especially vulnerable to climate change. We used bird presence and habitat data from point-transect surveys conducted at 12 sites across the Brooks Range, Alaska, 2003–2009, to identify breeding areas, describe local habitat associations, and identify suitable habitat using a predictive model of Smith's Longspur distribution. Smith's Longspurs were observed at seven sites, where they were associated with a variety of sedge–shrub habitats composed primarily of mosses, sedges, tussocks, and dwarf shrubs; erect shrubs were common but sparse. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of ground cover revealed positive associations of Smith's Longspur presence with sedges and mosses and a negative association with high cover of shrubs. To model predicted distribution, we used boosted regression trees to relate landscape variables to occurrence. Our model predicted that Smith's Longspurs may occur in valleys and foothills of the northeastern and southeastern mountains and in upland plateaus of the western mountains, and farther west than currently documented, over a predicted area no larger than 15% of the Brooks Range. With climate change, shrubs are expected to grow larger and denser, while soil moisture and moss cover are predicted to decrease. These changes may reduce Smith's Longspur habitat quality and limit distribution in the Brooks Range to poorly drained lowlands and alpine plateaus where sedge–shrub tundra is likely to persist. Conversely, northward advance of shrubs into sedge tundra may create suitable habitat, thus supporting a northward longspur distribution shift.

  8. Translocation as a novel approach to study effects of a new breeding habitat on reproductive output in wild birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Claudia; Both, Christiaan

    2011-01-01

    Environmental conditions under which species reproduce have major consequences on breeding success and subsequent fitness. Therefore breeding habitat choice is ultimately important. Studies rarely address the potential fitness pay-offs of alternative natural breeding habitats by experimental

  9. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  10. Slipping through the cracks: rubber plantation is unsuitable breeding habitat for frogs in Xishuangbanna, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn E Behm

    Full Text Available Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that 'slips through the cracks' of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support

  11. A Test of the California Wildlife-Habitat Relationship System for Breeding Birds in Valley-Foothill Riparian Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Laymon

    1989-01-01

    The California Wildlife-Habitat Relationship (WHR) system was tested for birds breeding in the Valley-Foothill Riparian habitat along California's Sacramento and South Fork Kern rivers. The model performed poorly with 33 pct and 21 pct correct predictions respectively at the two locations. Changes to the model for 60 species on the Sacramento River and 66 species...

  12. Effects of food provisioning and habitat management on spatial behaviour of Little Owls during the breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Chrenkova, Monika; Sunde, Peter

    2016-01-01

    the nests. In addition to increasing the reproductive output, feeding and habitat management may cause parents to work less hard improving their future reproductive value. We studied working efforts of five radio-tagged Little Owl pairs in years of absence and presence of food provisioning, and/or access......The population of Little Owls in Denmark is close to extinction. The main cause is food limitation during the breeding season. Efforts to improve breeding success include providing breeding pairs with supplementary food and attempts to improve foraging habitats by creating short grass areas near...... to short sward vegetation areas near to the nest. We quantified movement as the minimum flight distance hour–1 (MFD), using the mean distance from the nest (DN) as a supplementary index. Under unmanipulated conditions, males had higher MFD and DN than females. If provided with food and/or areas with short...

  13. Habitat Effects on the Breeding Performance of Three Forest-Dwelling Hawks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Björklund

    Full Text Available Habitat loss causes population declines, but the mechanisms are rarely known. In the European Boreal Zone, loss of old forest due to intensive forestry is suspected to cause declines in forest-dwelling raptors by reducing their breeding performance. We studied the boreal breeding habitat and habitat-associated breeding performance of the northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis, common buzzard (Buteo buteo and European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus. We combined long-term Finnish bird-of-prey data with multi-source national forest inventory data at various distances (100-4000 m around the hawk nests. We found that breeding success of the goshawk was best explained by the habitat within a 2000-m radius around the nests; breeding was more successful with increasing proportions of old spruce forest and water, and decreasing proportions of young thinning forest. None of the habitat variables affected significantly the breeding success of the common buzzard or the honey buzzard, or the brood size of any of the species. The amount of old spruce forest decreased both around goshawk and common buzzard nests and throughout southern Finland in 1992-2010. In contrast, the area of young forest increased in southern Finland but not around hawk nests. We emphasize the importance of studying habitats at several spatial and temporal scales to determine the relevant species-specific scale and to detect environmental changes. Further effort is needed to reconcile the socioeconomic and ecological functions of forests and habitat requirements of old forest specialists.

  14. Habitat selection and movements of Piping Plover broods suggest a tradeoff between breeding stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Pearse, Aaron T.

    2015-01-01

    In precocial birds, adults select breeding areas using cues associated with habitat characteristics that are favorable for nesting success and chick survival, but there may be tradeoffs in habitat selection between these breeding stages. Here we describe habitat selection and intra-territory movements of 53 Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) broods (320 observations) during the 2007–2008 breeding seasons on mainland- and island-shoreline habitats at Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota, USA. We used remotely sensed habitat characteristics to separately examine habitat selection and movements at two spatiotemporal scales to account for potential confounding effects of nest-site selection on brood-rearing habitat used. The scales used were (1) the entire brood-rearing period within available brood-rearing areas and (2) 2-day observation intervals within age-specific discrete habitat selection choice sets. Analyses at both scales indicated that broods selected areas which were non-vegetated, moderately level, and nearer to the shoreline. Rate of brood movement increased with age up to 5 days, then stabilized; broods that hatched >50 m away from the shoreline moved toward the shoreline. Brood movements were greater when they were in vegetated areas, when the brood-rearing area was of greater topographic complexity, and when broods aged 6–25 days were further away from the shoreline. Using inferences from our results and those of previously published work, we postulate how a potential tradeoff in habitat selection between nesting and brood-rearing can contribute to an ecological trap in a novel habitat. This work, in the context of published works, suggests that plover breeding habitat is a complex of both nesting and brood-rearing habitats and provides a basis for making remotely sensed abundance estimates of suitable breeding habitat for Piping Plovers.

  15. Breeding Habitat Selection of Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Zheng, Guang-Mei; Ruan, Xiang-Feng; Zhang, Ke-Yin; Xi, Bo

    2010-04-01

    Reeves's Pheasant (Syrmaticus reevesii) is a threatened pheasant species endemic to China. The habitat use of territorial male birds was surveyed by the help of live decoys in a core area of Dongzhai National Nature Reserve. The breeding habitat selection of this pheasant was examined at two scales (115 m and 250 m scale, i.e. 4.15 hm(2 ) and 19.63 hm(2 ), respectively), including the characteristics at distance scale. Investigation was based on line transect, RS and GIS in Dongzhai National Natural Reserve from 2001 to 2003. Moreover, a range of habitat variables were compared between used and control points at each scale, and stepwise logistic regression was applied to select the key scale and the key habitat factors in relation to breeding habitat selection of this bird. Our results stated that the territorial males at Baiyun occurred mostly in mixed forests, followed by fir forests, pine forests, shrubs, and broadleaf forests. The area of conifer forests was the key factor influencing habitat selection of this bird in breeding period at the scales of 115 m and 250 m, and the proximity of farmland was important for habitat selection in breeding seasons. Furthermore, Reeves's Pheasants attached great importance to the scale of 115 m. When considering a range of habitat variables at all scales within a multivariate regression, the leading factors having effect on habitat selection in the breeding period were areas of conifer forests at 115 m scale and the distance to farmland. In addition, these above results suggested that strengthening the management of suitable habitat, and optimizing the habitat configuration are important in promoting conservation of this bird. However, it also highlighted the importance of initiating future researches on the conifer forests and their impact on the population of Reeves's Pheasants, which would be beneficial to promote the habitat conservation of this pheasant more effectively.

  16. Home range and habitat utilization of breeding male merlins, Falco columbarius, in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale M. Becker; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    1987-01-01

    Home range size and habitat utilization of three breeding male Richardson’s Merlins (Falco columbarius richardsonii) in southeastern Montana were studied using radio telemetry. Home ranges of these birds encompassed 13,23, and 28 km2. Each bird traveled up to 9 km from its nest. Each home range encompassed five habitats;...

  17. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Janos C; James, David J; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2015-01-01

    In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi) were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas) allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  18. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  19. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  20. Sex-Specific Habitat Utilization and Differential Breeding Investments in Christmas Island Frigatebirds throughout the Breeding Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos C Hennicke

    Full Text Available In seabirds, equal bi-parental care is the rule, as it is considered crucial for raising chicks successfully because seabirds forage in an environment with unpredictable and highly variable food supply. Frigatebirds forage in poor tropical waters, yet males reduce and even stop parental care soon after chick brooding, leaving the female to provision the chick alone for an extended fledging period. Using bird-borne tracking devices, male and female Christmas Island Frigatebirds (Fregata andrewsi were investigated during the brooding, late chick rearing and post-fledging period to examine whether sexes exhibit foraging strategies that may be linked to differential breeding investments. During brooding, males and females showed similar foraging behaviour under average marine productivity of oceanic waters close to the colony, but males shifted to more distant and more productive habitats when conditions deteriorated to continue with reduced chick provisioning. During the late chick rearing period, females progressively increased their foraging range to the more distant but productive marine areas that only males had visited during brooding. Birds spent the non-breeding period roosting in highly productive waters of the Sunda Shelf. The sex-specific utilisation of three different foraging habitats with different primary productivity (oceanic, coastal, and shelf areas allowed for temporal and spatial segregation in the exploitation of favourable habitats which seems to enable each sex to optimise its foraging profitability. In addition, post-fledging foraging movements of females suggest a biennial breeding cycle, while limited information on males suggests the possibility of an annual breeding cycle.

  1. Habitat and sex differences in physiological condition of breeding Southwestern Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J.C.; Sogge, M.K.; Kern, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus; here- after “flycatcher”) is a federally listed endangered species that breeds in densely vegetated riparian habitats dominated by native and exotic plants, including introduced monotypic saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima). Some workers have theorized that saltcedar is unsuitable habitat for the flycatcher, primarily because it generally supports a smaller and less diverse invertebrate community (the flycatcher's food base) than native habitats (e.g. Salix spp.). However, differences in insect communities between native and saltcedar habitats are not proof that saltcedar habitats are inferior. The only way to evaluate whether the habitats differ in dietary or energetic quality is to document actual food limitation or its manifestations. Measurements of an individual's body condition and metabolic state can serve as indicators of environmental stressors, such as food limitation and environmental extremes. We captured 130 flycatchers breeding in native and saltcedar habitats in Arizona and New Mexico and measured 12 variables of physiological condition. These variables included body mass, fat level, body condition index, hematocrit, plasma triglycerides, plasma free fatty acids and glycerol, plasma glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate, plasma uric acid, total leukocyte count, and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. We found substantial sex-based differences in the condition of male and female flycatchers. Ten of the 12 measures of physiological condition differed significantly between the sexes. In all cases where male and female condition differed (except mass), the differences suggest that males were in poorer condition than females. We found few habitat-based differences in flycatcher condition. Only 3 of the 12 physiological condition indices differed significantly between habitats. Our data show that, at least in some parts of the flycatcher's range, there is no evidence that flycatchers breeding in

  2. Does land irrigation actually reduce foraging habitat for breeding lesser kestrels? The role of crop types

    OpenAIRE

    Ursúa, Esperanza; Serrano, David; Tella, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    The lesser kestrel is a Globally Threatened Species which large decline has been related to recent agricultural changes in European pseudo-steppes. Irrigation is considered as one of the major threats for this and other steppe birds, but the actual effects of irrigation on foraging habitat selection have been scarcely examined. We studied the selection of traditional dry cereal farming and irrigated habitats by foraging lesser kestrels during the breeding cycle, paying especial attention to p...

  3. Marine Habitat Selection by Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa J Lorenz

    Full Text Available The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus is a declining seabird that is well-known for nesting in coastal old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Most studies of habitat selection have focused on modeling terrestrial nesting habitat even though marine habitat is believed to be a major contributor to population declines in some regions. To address this information gap, we conducted a 5-year study of marine resource selection by murrelets in Washington, which contains a population experiencing the steepest documented declines and where marine habitat is believed to be compromised. Across five years we tracked 157 radio-tagged murrelets during the breeding season (May to August, and used discrete choice models to examine habitat selection. Using an information theoretic approach, our global model had the most support, suggesting that murrelet resource selection at-sea is affected by many factors, both terrestrial and marine. Locations with higher amounts of nesting habitat (β = 21.49, P < 0.001 that were closer to shore (β = -0.0007, P < 0.001 and in cool waters (β = -0.2026, P < 0.001 with low footprint (β = -0.0087, P < 0.001 had higher probabilities of use. While past conservation efforts have focused on protecting terrestrial nesting habitat, we echo many past studies calling for future efforts to protect marine habitat for murrelets, as the current emphasis on terrestrial habitat alone may be insufficient for conserving populations. In particular, marine areas in close proximity to old-growth nesting habitat appear important for murrelets during the breeding season and should be priorities for protection.

  4. Habitat use throughout migration: linking individual consistency, prior breeding success and future breeding potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoye, B.J.; Hahn, S.M.; Nolet, B.A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2012-01-01

    1. Habitat use can influence individual performance in a wide range of animals, either immediately or through carry-over effects in subsequent seasons. Given that many animal species also show consistent individual differences in reproductive success, it seems plausible that individuals may have

  5. Landscape effects on mallard habitat selection at multiple spatial scales during the non-breeding period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, William S.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Naylor, Luke W.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies that evaluated effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on migratory waterbird distributions were spatially limited and temporally restricted to one major life-history phase. However, effects of landscape-scale habitat heterogeneity on long-distance migratory waterbirds can be studied across the annual cycle using new technologies, including global positioning system satellite transmitters. We used Bayesian discrete choice models to examine the influence of local habitats and landscape composition on habitat selection by a generalist dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), in the midcontinent of North America during the non-breeding period. Using a previously published empirical movement metric, we separated the non-breeding period into three seasons, including autumn migration, winter, and spring migration. We defined spatial scales based on movement patterns such that movements >0.25 and 30.00 km were classified as relocation scale. Habitat selection at the local scale was generally influenced by local and landscape-level variables across all seasons. Variables in top models at the local scale included proximities to cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland. Similarly, variables associated with area of cropland, emergent wetland, open water, and woody wetland were also included at the local scale. At the relocation scale, mallards selected resource units based on more generalized variables, including proximity to wetlands and total wetland area. Our results emphasize the role of landscape composition in waterbird habitat selection and provide further support for local wetland landscapes to be considered functional units of waterbird conservation and management.

  6. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrínardóttir, Borgný; Alves, José A; Sigurjónsdóttir, Hrefna; Hersteinsson, Páll; Gunnarsson, Tómas G

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  7. The Effects of Habitat Type and Volcanic Eruptions on the Breeding Demography of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borgný Katrínardóttir

    Full Text Available Distinct preference of species for habitats is most often driven by long term differences in demographic rates between habitats. Estimating variation in those rates is key for developing successful conservation strategies. Stochastic events can interact with underlying variation in habitat quality in regulating demography but the opportunities to explore such interactions are rare. Whimbrels in Iceland show a strong preference for sparsely vegetated riverplains. Such habitats in Iceland face various threats, e.g., climate change, river regulation and spread of alien plant species. In this study we compared demographic parameters of breeding Whimbrels between riverplains and other habitats before, during and after volcanic eruption events to estimate the importance of the habitats for the species and the effect of ash deposit on breeding success. We found that an estimated minimum of 23% of the Icelandic population of Whimbrels and c. 10% of the world population of the species breed in riverplain habitats in Iceland. Whimbrels bred consistently at much higher densities in riverplain habitats than in other habitats and riverplains also had higher densities of pairs with fledglings although the proportion of successful breeders was similar between habitats. Predation by livestock may have had a considerable negative effect on breeding success on our study sites. Breeding was negatively affected by the volcanic activity, probably through the effects of ash on the invertebrate food supply, with breeding success being gradually worse closer to the eruption. Breeding success was equally affected by volcanism across habitats which differed in underlying habitat quality. This study gives an example of how populations can be regulated by factors which operate at different spatial scales, such as local variation in habitat quality and stochastic events which impact larger areas.

  8. Greater shrub dominance alters breeding habitat and food resources for migratory songbirds in Alaskan arctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, Natalie T; Gough, Laura; Wingfield, John; Goetz, Scott; Asmus, Ashley; Chmura, Helen E; Krause, Jesse S; Perez, Jonathan H; Sweet, Shannan K; Guay, Kevin C

    2015-04-01

    Climate warming is affecting the Arctic in multiple ways, including via increased dominance of deciduous shrubs. Although many studies have focused on how this vegetation shift is altering nutrient cycling and energy balance, few have explicitly considered effects on tundra fauna, such as the millions of migratory songbirds that breed in northern regions every year. To understand how increasing deciduous shrub dominance may alter breeding songbird habitat, we quantified vegetation and arthropod community characteristics in both graminoid and shrub dominated tundra. We combined measurements of preferred nest site characteristics for Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) and Gambel's White-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) with modeled predictions for the distribution of plant community types in the Alaskan arctic foothills region for the year 2050. Lapland longspur nests were found in sedge-dominated tussock tundra where shrub height does not exceed 20 cm, whereas White-crowned sparrows nested only under shrubs between 20 cm and 1 m in height, with no preference for shrub species. Shrub canopies had higher canopy-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. small flies and spiders) but lower ground-dwelling arthropod availability (i.e. large spiders and beetles). Since flies are the birds' preferred prey, increasing shrubs may result in a net enhancement in preferred prey availability. Acknowledging the coarse resolution of existing tundra vegetation models, we predict that by 2050 there will be a northward shift in current White-crowned sparrow habitat range and a 20-60% increase in their preferred habitat extent, while Lapland longspur habitat extent will be equivalently reduced. Our findings can be used to make first approximations of future habitat change for species with similar nesting requirements. However, we contend that as exemplified by this study's findings, existing tundra modeling tools cannot yet simulate the fine-scale habitat

  9. Breeding habitat survey of blackthroat (Luscinia obscura) in Foping nature reserve of Qinling Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfeng; Han, Ning; Luo, Lei; Zhao, Leigang; Gao, Xuebin

    2014-05-01

    We carried out a primary survey by quadrat sampling to quantify breeding habitat characteristics of blackthroat (Luscnia obscura), a poorly documented and vulnerable bird species, in Foping nature reserve on the central southern Qinling Mountains. Tree layer information was collected in 10 m × 10 m plots, bamboo and shrub layer information was collected in 2 m × 2 m plots, and grass and ground layer information was collected in 1 m × 1 m plots. Our observations showed that blackthroat lives in coniferous forest and coniferous broadleaved forest with dense bamboos at the elevation ranging from 2130 m to 2600 m. Shrub cover, density and height, and ground cover in sites with blackthroat were significantly higher than those in random sites, while tree density, grass height and cover in habitat sites were significantly lower than those in random sites. These results suggest that shrub cover, shrub density, and canopy cover may be relevant to breeding habitat selection by these birds. Our study suggests that Qinling Mountains may be an important blackthroat breeding site.

  10. Nutritional improvement of an Egyptian breed of mung bean by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional improvement of an Egyptian breed of mung bean by probiotic lactobacilli. Ashraf A. Khalil. Abstract. Germination and/or fermentation processes for Egyptian breeds of mung seeds were carried out with three Lactobacillus strains namely, L. reuteri, L. case, and L. heleviticus. Results revealed increase in protein ...

  11. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat breeding by anther culture has the advantage of reducing breeding time, as well as high efficiency and accuracy in progeny selection. However, low percentage of callus induction, green plantlet regeneration and chromosome doubling of the haploid regenerants has limited its practical application. We improved the ...

  12. New Brahman breed improvement program at STARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) in Brooksville, Florida we have initiated a new ambitious research project that many believe will have a positive influence on the Brahman breed. This research was developed from a meeting held at STARS that included past and prese...

  13. The lifetime production of Bovec and Improved Bovec sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Gorjanc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Production data of Bovec and Improved (with East-Friesian Bovec sheep born between years 1989 and 2006 were used for the analysis of culling dynamics and lifetime production. Lifetime production was calculated as the sum of production at each lambing (number of born and liveborn lambs and litter birth weight, weaning (number of weaned lambs and litter weaning weight or during each lactation (milk yield, fat (6.5 % and protein (5.8 % corrected milk yield (FPC; Pulina et al., 2005., and fat and protein yield for culled sheep. Animals with any missing records from the first till the last lambing, weaning or lactation were removed from the analysis. Animals that left the system of animal recording alive, due to selling or the cancellation of recording by a breeder were also excluded. Dataset included records for 2254 sheep: 1734 of Bovec and 520 of Improved Bovec breed. Data preparation and statistical analysis were performed with the use of a statistical program R (R Development Core Team, 2007. and additional packages Zelig (Imai et al., 2007; Bailey and Alimadhi, 2007; Imai et al., 2008 and lme4 (Bates and DebRoy, 2004; Bates, 2007. Results have shown that in the period ≤1996 Bovec breed had on average 4.4 lactations in their lifetime, which was almost one lactation more than in Improved Bovec breed. In the period after the year 1996 the highest proportion of animals were culled in the first lactation (as expected due to culling dynamics, with slightly higher proportion in Improved Bovec breed than in Bovec breed. Lifetime number of born, liveborn and weaned lambs was higher for about one lamb in Improved Bovec breed. Lifetime lamb weight gain did not differ between breeds, due to the high frequency of early weaning in Improved Bovec breed. During lifetime, Improved Bovec sheep produced around 200 kg (~34 % more milk, around 190 kg (~32 % more FPC milk, around 12 kg (~32 % more milk fat, and around 10 kg (~34 % more milk protein than Bovec

  14. Conspecific reproductive success and breeding habitat selection: Implications for the study of coloniality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, E.; Boulinier, T.; Massot, M.

    1998-01-01

    Habitat selection is a crucial process in the life cycle of animals because it can affect most components of fitness. It has been proposed that some animals cue on the reproductive success of conspecifics to select breeding habitats. We tested this hypothesis with demographic and behavioral data from a 17-yr study of the Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), a cliff-nesting seabird. As the hypothesis assumes, the Black-legged Kittiwake nesting environment was patchy, and the relative quality of the different patches (i.e., breeding cliffs) varied in time. The average reproductive success of the breeders of a given cliff was predictable from one year to the next, but this predictability faded after several years. The dynamic nature of cliff quality in the long term is partly explained by the autocorrelation of the prevalence of an ectoparasite that influences reproductive success. As predicted by the performance-based conspecific attraction hypothesis, the reproductive success of current breeders on a given cliff was predictive of the reproductive success of new recruits on the cliff in the following year. Breeders tended to recruit to the previous year's most productive cliffs and to emigrate from the least productive ones. Consequently, the dynamics of breeder numbers on the cliffs were explained by local reproductive success on a year-to-year basis. Because, on average, young Black-legged Kittiwakes first breed when 4 yr old, such a relationship probably results from individual choices based on the assessment of previous-year local quality. When breeders changed breeding cliffs between years, they selected cliffs of per capita higher reproductive success. Furthermore, after accounting for the potential effects of age and sex as well as between-year variations, the effect of individual breeding performance on breeding dispersal was strongly influenced by the average reproductive success of other breeders on the same cliff. Individual breeding performance did

  15. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    There are two ways for genetic improvement in classical plant breeding: crossing and mutation. Plant varieties can also be improved through genetic modification; however, the present GMO regulations are based on risk assessments with the transgenes coming from non-crossable species. Nowadays, DNA

  17. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  18. Animal Breeding Considerations for Improved Animal Performance in Hot Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Fuquay

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of options are available for improved performance including altering genotype with genetic improvement of indigenous breeds through selective breeding; upgrading through crossbreeding of indigenous females with semen from genetically superior exotic males with a possible goal of developing a new breed; and introduction of new breeds through transfer of embryos from genetically superior exotic breeds into indigenous females or importation of exotic animals of the desired breeding. Each option has its advantages and disadvantages. The most rapid gains mightbe possible new environment can be a problem.  In the interest of adaptation and survival, systems that utilize the maternal influences of indigenous females are advantageous. In consideration of this maternal influences along with rate of improvement and potential for extensive improvement, both crossbreeding programs that use semen from genetically superior exotic males and those that involve transfer of genetically superior embryo survival and neonatal survival will affect management of any option chosen for genetic improvement but should be of less concern in programs that utilize indigenous females.

  19. Spatial variation in breeding habitat selection by Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) throughout the Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boves, Than J.; Buehler, David A.; Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Newell, Felicity L.; Evans, Andrea; George, Gregory A.; Wigley, T.B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of habitat selection are often of limited utility because they focus on small geographic areas, fail to examine behavior at multiple scales, or lack an assessment of the fitness consequences of habitat decisions. These limitations can hamper the identification of successful site-specific management strategies, which are urgently needed for severely declining species like Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea). We assessed how breeding habitat decisions made by Cerulean Warblers at multiple scales, and the subsequent effects of these decisions on nest survival, varied across the Appalachian Mountains. Selection for structural habitat features varied substantially among areas, particularly at the territory scale. Males within the least-forested landscapes selected microhabitat features that reflected more closed-canopy forest conditions, whereas males in highly forested landscapes favored features associated with canopy disturbance. Selection of nest-patch and nest-site attributes by females was more consistent across areas, with females selecting for increased tree size and understory cover and decreased basal area and midstory cover. Floristic preferences were similar across study areas: White Oak (Quercus alba), Cucumber-tree (Magnolia acuminata), and Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) were preferred as nest trees, whereas red oak species (subgenus Erythrobalanus) and Red Maple (A. rubrum) were avoided. The habitat features that were related to nest survival also varied among study areas, and preferred features were negatively associated with nest survival at one area. Thus, our results indicate that large-scale spatial heterogeneity may influence local habitat-selection behavior and that it may be necessary to articulate site-specific management strategies for Cerulean Warblers.

  20. Diet and foraging habitats of non-breeding white storks (Ciconia ciconia in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchev Boyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of non-breeding White Storks was studied by pellet analysis and included mainly insects (99.9%, n=28947 with a predominance of grasshoppers (Orthoptera, 76.1%, and beetles (Coleoptera, 26.1%. The bush crickets Decticus albifrons/verrucivorus were the most numerous prey (29.9% by items, occurring in almost all pellets (98% occurrence in pellets, n=147 and predominating in half of them (49.7%. The grasshopper associations in the pellets specify foraging mainly in mesophytic grasslands that usually replace abandoned fields and overgrown pastures with a low level of grazing. The xerophytic grass-shrubby habitats, not rare on stony terrains, were of less importance, providing around 20% by prey. The typical aquatic inhabitants and the use of carrion around villages were exceptions in the study diet. The number of innutritious materials in the pellets rose when the White Storks hunted on nippy and agile grasshoppers and decreased when the main pray was slower beetles taken from the ground. The roosting of non-breeding White Storks disappeared when their preferred feeding habitats were ploughed up in the following years.

  1. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E; Gallant, Alisa L; Klaver, Robert W; Wright, Chris K; Patla, Debra A; Peterson, Charles R

    2011-10-01

    The ability to predict amphibian breeding across landscapes is important for informing land management decisions and helping biologists better understand and remediate factors contributing to declines in amphibian populations. We built geospatial models of likely breeding habitats for each of four amphibian species that breed in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used field data collected in 2000-2002 from 497 sites among 16 basins and predictor variables from geospatial models produced from remotely sensed data (e.g., digital elevation model, complex topographic index, landform data, wetland probability, and vegetative cover). Except for 31 sites in one basin that were surveyed in both 2000 and 2002, all sites were surveyed once. We used polytomous regression to build statistical models for each species of amphibian from (1) field survey site data only, (2) field data combined with data from geospatial models, and (3) data from geospatial models only. Based on measures of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores, models of the second type best explained likely breeding habitat because they contained the most information (ROC values ranged from 0.70 to 0.88). However, models of the third type could be applied to the entire YNP landscape and produced maps that could be verified with reserve field data. Accuracy rates for models built for single years were highly variable, ranging from 0.30 to 0.78. Accuracy rates for models built with data combined from multiple years were higher and less variable, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Combining results from the geospatial multiyear models yielded maps of "core" breeding areas (areas with high probability values for all three years) surrounded by areas that scored high for only one or two years, providing an estimate of variability among years. Such information can highlight landscape options for amphibian conservation. For example, our models identify alternative areas that could be protected for each species

  2. Predicting breeding habitat for amphibians: a spatiotemporal analysis across Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Gallant, Alisa L.; Klaver, Robert W.; Wright, Christopher K.; Patla, Debra A.; Peterson, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to predict amphibian breeding across landscapes is important for informing land management decisions and helping biologists better understand and remediate factors contributing to declines in amphibian populations. We built geospatial models of likely breeding habitats for each of four amphibian species that breed in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). We used field data collected in 2000-2002 from 497 sites among 16 basins and predictor variables from geospatial models produced from remotely sensed data (e.g., digital elevation model, complex topographic index, landform data, wetland probabililty, and vegetative cover). Except for 31 sites in one basin that were surveyed in both 2000 and 2002, all sites were surveyed once. We used polytomous regression to build statistical models for each species of amphibian from 1) field survey site data only, 2) field data combined with data from geospatial models, and 3) data from geospatial models only. Based on measures of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scores, models of the second type best explained likely breeding habitat because they contained the most information (ROC values ranged from 0.70 - 0.88). However, models of the third type could be applied to the entire YNP landscape and produced maps that could be verified with reserve field data. Accuracy rates for models built for single years were highly variable, ranging from 0.30 to 0.78. Accuracy rates for models built with data combined from multiple years were higher and less variable, ranging from 0.60 to 0.80. Combining results from the geospatial multiyear models yielded maps of "core" breeding areas (areas with high probability values for all three years) surrounded by areas that scored high for only one or two years, providing an estimate of variability among years. Such information can highlight landscape options for amphibian conservation. For example, our models identify alternative for areas that could be protected for each species

  3. Heterospecific attraction in breeding bird communities:implications to habitat selection and species interactions in a landscape perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract I studied the structure of European breeding forest bird communities on several spatial scales focusing on heterospecific attraction among birds (i.e., the attraction of individuals to the company of interspecifics). Namely, I examined how heterospecific attraction affects habitat selection in migrant birds and the potential role of predation risk in enhancing heterospecific attraction during breeding with particular emphasis regarding the interaction between resident and migrant ...

  4. Machine Learning Model Analysis of Breeding Habitats for the Black-necked Crane in Central Asian Uplands under Anthropogenic Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Guo, Yumin; Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Wen, Lijia

    2017-07-21

    The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is the only alpine crane species and is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The breeding habitats of this species are poorly understood, which greatly hampers practical research and conservation work. Using machine learning methods and the best-available data from our 7,000-kilometer mega-transect survey and open access data, we built the first species distribution model (SDM) to analyze the black-necked crane's breeding habitats. Our model showed that current conservation gaps account for 26.7% of its predicted breeding habitats. Specifically, the northern parts of the Hengduan Mountains and the southeastern Tibet Valley, the northern side of the middle Kunlun Mountains, parts of the Pamir Plateau, the northern Pakistan Highlands and the western Hindu Kush should be considered as its main potential breeding areas. Additionally, our model suggested that the crane prefers to breed in alpine meadows at an elevation over 2,800 m, a maximum temperature of the warmest month below 20.5 °C, and a temperature seasonality above 7,800 units. The identified conservation gaps and potential breeding areas can aid in clearly prioritizing future conservation and research, but more attention and study should be directed to the unassessed Western Development of China to secure this endangered crane lineage and other wildlife on the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  6. Effect of human disturbance on long-term habitat use and breeding success of the European Nightjar, Caprimulgus europaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Land managers often respond to declining numbers of target species by creating additional areas of habitat. If these habitats are also subject to human disturbance, then their efforts may be wasted. The European Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus is a ground-nesting bird that is listed as a species of European Conservation Concern. It appears to be susceptible to human disturbance during the breeding season. We examined habitat use and reproductive success over 10 years in a breeding population on 1335 ha of managed land in Nottinghamshire, England. The study site was divided into a heavily disturbed section and a less disturbed section of equal habitat availability, forming a natural long-term experiment. The site is open to the public, and visitor numbers approximately doubled during the study. We found that overall Nightjar density was significantly lower and there were significantly fewer breeding pairs in the heavily disturbed habitat compared with the less disturbed habitat. However, average breeding success per pair, in terms of eggs and fledglings produced, was not significantly different between the two sections across years. Our findings suggest that human recreational disturbance may drastically alter settlement patterns and nest site selection of arriving females in some migratory ground-nesting species and may reduce the utility of apparently suitable patches of remnant and created habitat. Land managers should bear this in mind when creating new areas of habitat that will also be accessible to the public. Our study also highlights the value of long-term population monitoring, which can detect trends that short-term studies may miss.

  7. Combining traditional breeding and genomics to improve pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuven, H.C.M.; Wijk, van H.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Breeding or improved pork quality has been the focus of much research in recent years and some of the results have already been put into practice. The realized genetic response in pork quality to selection within lines has generally been limited, however, compared with the responses obtained for

  8. Breeding for improved production of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to generate knowledge that supports the design of breeding programs for Nile tilapia targeting genetic improvement of body weight and fillet yield to serve the European market. To this end, both the genetic variation and the performance levels of different strains of

  9. Simulating range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Duarte,; Hatfield, Jeffrey; Todd M. Swannack,; Michael R. J. Forstner,; M. Clay Green,; Floyd W. Weckerly,

    2015-01-01

    Population viability analyses provide a quantitative approach that seeks to predict the possible future status of a species of interest under different scenarios and, therefore, can be important components of large-scale species’ conservation programs. We created a model and simulated range-wide population and breeding habitat dynamics for an endangered woodland warbler, the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia). Habitat-transition probabilities were estimated across the warbler's breeding range by combining National Land Cover Database imagery with multistate modeling. Using these estimates, along with recently published demographic estimates, we examined if the species can remain viable into the future given the current conditions. Lastly, we evaluated if protecting a greater amount of habitat would increase the number of warblers that can be supported in the future by systematically increasing the amount of protected habitat and comparing the estimated terminal carrying capacity at the end of 50 years of simulated habitat change. The estimated habitat-transition probabilities supported the hypothesis that habitat transitions are unidirectional, whereby habitat is more likely to diminish than regenerate. The model results indicated population viability could be achieved under current conditions, depending on dispersal. However, there is considerable uncertainty associated with the population projections due to parametric uncertainty. Model results suggested that increasing the amount of protected lands would have a substantial impact on terminal carrying capacities at the end of a 50-year simulation. Notably, this study identifies the need for collecting the data required to estimate demographic parameters in relation to changes in habitat metrics and population density in multiple regions, and highlights the importance of establishing a common definition of what constitutes protected habitat, what management goals are suitable within those protected

  10. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  11. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  12. Breeding habitat of sparrowhawks, Accipiter nisus on spoil heaps after coal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šálek, Miroslav; Hendrychová, Markéta; Řehoř, Michal

    2010-03-01

    Natural succession of spoil heaps after brown coal mining leads to the development of rich plant and invertebrate communities and therefore has been considered a proper alternative to conventional reclamation practice. Little is known, however, about the effects of these alternative approaches on vertebrate predators. This study analyses nest-site choice of the sparrowhawk, Accipiter nisus on afforested spoil heaps in the brown coal basin of north-west Bohemia, Czech Republic. Nest places of sparrowhawks, numbers of their main prey (small birds) and habitat attributes were investigated in 2007 and 2008 on 28 individual spoil heaps that were either reclaimed by silviculture or spontaneously afforested. Our results revealed preferences of breeding sparrowhawks for spontaneously developed birch growths with diverse mosaics of tree clumps, open patches and edge structures, all providing for opportunities to hunt. In addition, the proximity of large forests positively influenced nest-site choice of sparrowhawks. Although small birds were more abundant on Successions than Reclamations, our results did not suggest that numbers of this main prey were of higher importance for the sparrowhawks than habitat components of prey availability. These results highlight the importance of spontaneous succession as a rehabilitation alternative in post-mining landscapes.

  13. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  14. Genomic-based-breeding tools for tropical maize improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, Thammineni; Hindu, Vemuri; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar

    2017-12-01

    Maize has traditionally been the main staple diet in the Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and widely grown by millions of resource poor small scale farmers. Approximately, 35.4 million hectares are sown to tropical maize, constituting around 59% of the developing worlds. Tropical maize encounters tremendous challenges besides poor agro-climatic situations with average yields recorded <3 tones/hectare that is far less than the average of developed countries. On the contrary to poor yields, the demand for maize as food, feed, and fuel is continuously increasing in these regions. Heterosis breeding introduced in early 90 s improved maize yields significantly, but genetic gains is still a mirage, particularly for crop growing under marginal environments. Application of molecular markers has accelerated the pace of maize breeding to some extent. The availability of array of sequencing and genotyping technologies offers unrivalled service to improve precision in maize-breeding programs through modern approaches such as genomic selection, genome-wide association studies, bulk segregant analysis-based sequencing approaches, etc. Superior alleles underlying complex traits can easily be identified and introgressed efficiently using these sequence-based approaches. Integration of genomic tools and techniques with advanced genetic resources such as nested association mapping and backcross nested association mapping could certainly address the genetic issues in maize improvement programs in developing countries. Huge diversity in tropical maize and its inherent capacity for doubled haploid technology offers advantage to apply the next generation genomic tools for accelerating production in marginal environments of tropical and subtropical world. Precision in phenotyping is the key for success of any molecular-breeding approach. This article reviews genomic technologies and their application to improve agronomic traits in tropical maize breeding has been reviewed in

  15. Influence of environmental parameters on movements and habitat utilization of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Madagascar breeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle, Laurène; Cerchio, Salvatore; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Geyer, Ygor; Mayer, François-Xavier; Jung, Jean-Luc; Hervé, Maxime R; Pous, Stephane; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Adam, Olivier; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the movement patterns and key habitat features of breeding humpback whales is a prerequisite for the conservation management of this philopatric species. To investigate the interactions between humpback whale movements and environmental conditions off Madagascar, we deployed 25 satellite tags in the northeast and southwest coast of Madagascar. For each recorded position, we collated estimates of environmental variables and computed two behavioural metrics: behavioural state of 'transiting' (consistent/directional) versus 'localized' (variable/non-directional), and active swimming speed (i.e. speed relative to the current). On coastal habitats (i.e. bathymetry humpback whales probably exploit prevailing ocean currents to maximize displacement. This study provides evidence that coastal areas, generally subject to strong human pressure, remain the core habitat of humpback whales off Madagascar. Our results expand the knowledge of humpback whale habitat use in oceanic habitat and response to variability of environmental factors such as oceanic current and chlorophyll level.

  16. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  17. Spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Soumendranath; Chakraborty, Arunima; Sinha, Shuvra Kanti

    2015-12-01

    Dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the disease prone areas for its effective management and prevention. Water samples were collected from various breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes of Kolkata and adjoining areas and were analysed for various physicochemical properties like acidity, alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, concentration of chloride (Cl - ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), fluoride (F - ) in relation to larval prevalence. Parameters like water pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride, sodium and potassium were seen to vary throughout the year. Certain parameters were found to be dependent on container type, like concentration of fluoride. Significant positive correlations were seen between per dip larval density and total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were seen to play a major role in the ovipositional preferences. Container type did not seem to affect TDS. Tyres had the highest TDS in most of the cases. Nutrient composition like sodium concentration was mostly found in the coconut shells, potassium concentration also showed the same. Thus, container type and various parameters and nutrients play a major role in determining where a gravid female mosquito will lay its eggs. It was observed that by altering various chemical and physical properties of breeding habitats it was possible to control the

  18. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  19. Identifying a breeding habitat of a critically endangered fish, Acheilognathus typus, in a natural river in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Masayuki K.; Maki, Nobutaka; Sugiyama, Hideki; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-12-01

    Freshwater biodiversity has been severely threatened in recent years, and to conserve endangered species, their distribution and breeding habitats need to be clarified. However, identifying breeding sites in a large area is generally difficult. Here, by combining the emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis with subsequent traditional collection surveys, we successfully identified a breeding habitat for the critically endangered freshwater fish Acheilognathus typus in the mainstream of Omono River in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is one of the original habitats of this species. Based on DNA cytochrome B sequences of A. typus and closely related species, we developed species-specific primers and a probe that were used in real-time PCR for detecting A. typus eDNA. After verifying the specificity and applicability of the primers and probe on water samples from known artificial habitats, eDNA analysis was applied to water samples collected at 99 sites along Omono River. Two of the samples were positive for A. typus eDNA, and thus, small fixed nets and bottle traps were set out to capture adult fish and verify egg deposition in bivalves (the preferred breeding substrate for A. typus) in the corresponding regions. Mature female and male individuals and bivalves containing laid eggs were collected at one of the eDNA-positive sites. This was the first record of adult A. typus in Omono River in 11 years. This study highlights the value of eDNA analysis to guide conventional monitoring surveys and shows that combining both methods can provide important information on breeding sites that is essential for species' conservation.

  20. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, L; Solís, M

    2008-06-01

    Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006). Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA), where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Protected Areas (MPA's) network plans should consider connectivity of Cafio Island-Drake Bay and the extension of Corcovado National Park maritime borders.

  1. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  2. Breeding crops for improved mineral nutrition under climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbeam, David J

    2015-06-01

    Improvements in understanding how climate change may influence chemical and physical processes in soils, how this may affect nutrient availability, and how plants may respond to changed availability of nutrients will influence crop breeding programmes. The effects of increased atmospheric CO2 and warmer temperatures, both individually and combined, on soil microbial activity, including mycorrhizas and N-fixing organisms, are evaluated, together with their implications for nutrient availability. Potential changes to plant growth, and the combined effects of soil and plant changes on nutrient uptake, are discussed. The organization of research on the efficient use of macro- and micronutrients by crops under climate change conditions is outlined, including analysis of QTLs for nutrient efficiency. Suggestions for how the information gained can be used in plant breeding programmes are given. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea home range and habitat use during the non-breeding season in Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgail, T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Sivananinthaperumal, B.; Areendran, G.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Mundkur, T.; Mccracken, T.; Newman, S.

    2011-01-01

    India is an important non-breeding ground for migratory waterfowl in the Central Asian Flyway. Millions of birds visit wetlands across the country, yet information on their distribution, abundance, and use of resources is rudimentary at best. Limited information suggests that populations of several species of migratory ducks are declining due to encroachment of wetland habitats largely by agriculture and industry. The development of conservation strategies is stymied by a lack of ecological information on these species. We conducted a preliminary assessment of the home range and habitat use of Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea in the northeast Indian state of Assam. Seven Ruddy Shelducks were fitted with solar-powered Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite transmitters, and were tracked on a daily basis during the winter of 2009-2010. Locations from all seven were used to describe habitat use, while locations from four were used to quantify their home range, as the other three had too few locations (2 (range = 22-87 km2) and an average home range (95% contour) of 610 km2 (range = 222-1,550 km2). Resource Selection Functions (RSF), used to describe habitat use, showed that the birds frequented riverine wetlands more than expected, occurred on grasslands and shrublands in proportion to their availability, and avoided woods and cropland habitats. The core use areas for three individuals (75%) were on the Brahmaputra River, indicating their preference for riverine habitats. Management and protection of riverine habitats and nearby grasslands may benefit conservation efforts for the Ruddy Shelduck and waterfowl species that share these habitats during the non-breeding season.

  4. Household disposables as breeding habitats of dengue vectors: Linking wastes and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Soumyajit, E-mail: soumyajitb@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Aditya, Gautam, E-mail: gautamaditya2001@gmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India); Department of Zoology, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104 (India); Saha, Goutam K, E-mail: gkszoo@rediffmail.com [Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, 35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019 (India)

    2013-01-15

    are most frequently disposed off contributed largely to the sustenance of Aedes mosquito population in the city. This calls for a strict legislation towards disposal as well as enhanced management of the household wastes. A link between the wastes disposed and subsequent conversion to the mosquito larval habitats cautions for continuance of Aedes population and possibility of dengue epidemics if the existing management practices are not improved.

  5. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breeding habitat preference of preimaginal black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Pramual, Pairot; Low, Van Lun; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resource partitioning in sympatric arctic-breeding geese: summer habitat use, spatial and dietary overlap of Barnacle and Pink-footed Geese in Svalbard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FOX, TONY (A. D.); EIDE, NINA E; BERGERSEN, ESPEN; MADSEN, JESPER

    2009-01-01

    The spatial, habitat and dietary overlap of two breeding goose species was studied in Sassendalen, Svalbard, in summer 2003 based on abundance within 500 x 500-m grid squares and faecal diet analyses...

  8. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled.

  9. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  10. The Highs and Lows of Making a Bucket List—Quantifying Potential Mosquito Breeding Habitats in Metropolitan Backyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sharan Lamichhane

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While the development of land for residential housing along the Swan and Canning Rivers in Perth, WA, Australia has reduced natural mosquito breeding sites, the role of backyard container breeding remains a relatively unknown factor. Local Governments responsible for these areas focus management and control efforts on low lying, tidally driven mosquito habitats to control Aedes vigilax (Skuse and Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson mosquitoes in an effort to reduce both the nuisance and disease risk to residents. In spite of their efforts, Local Governments continue to receive complaints regarding mosquito nuisance, even when environmental conditions do not favor hatching and development of the two species in the Swan River tidal flats. In this study, 150 backyard inspections were conducted in the residential suburb of Bassendean, Perth, WA, Australia, situated in close proximity to the Swan River tidal plain. The occurrence and species composition of the mosquito fauna found in residential backyards was documented. Of the backyards inspected, 94% were found to possess containers capable of breeding mosquitoes, although only 3% contained mosquito larvae. Nine species of mosquito were collected from containers ranging in capacity from 0.05 to 50 L across the study area. Additionally, encephalitis virus surveillance trapping was conducted within residential properties and compared to the tidally driven natural habitat at Ashfield Flats and a tidally influenced brackish creekline at Bindaring Park. The species composition of the fauna at the three habitat types differed significantly, with Aedes notoscriptus (Skuse dominating residential lots and A. vigilax more prevalent at the saltmarsh site. Bindaring Park had an adult composition at the mid-point of these two habitats, reflecting its proximity to both the Swan River and residential lots.

  11. Marine habitat selection by marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) during the breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Martin G. Raphael; Thomas D. Bloxton; Christian Andrew Hagen

    2016-01-01

    The marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus) is a declining seabird that is wellknown for nesting in coastal old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest. Most studies of habitat selection have focused on modeling terrestrial nesting habitat even though marine habitat is believed to be a major contributor to population declines in some regions....

  12. [Breeding habitat characteristics of red-crowned crane at Zhalong of Northeast China: a multi-scale approach based on TM and ASAR image data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Yue; Jiang, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Hou, Yun-Qiu; Lu, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV imagery data and by using the GPS data of red-crowned crane nesting sites (n = 28) at Zhalong National Nature Reserve of Northeast China, the models of the breeding habitat selection of red-crowned crane at the Reserve were established by binary Logistic regression to identify the key variables for the habitat selection at eight spatial scales (30-240 m). The relative performance of the two models based on the Landsat TM and Envisat ASAR HH/HV databases was compared, and the prediction capacity of the models across the eight scales was approached. The overall precisions of the two models were satisfactory (> or = 69.0%). At scale 30 m, only variable TCA_2 entered with negative value into the model based on Landsat TM database, which indicated that the crane at this scale avoided selecting higher density reed marshes. At scales 60-120 m, the variable PCA_2 entered with positive value into the two models, indicating that the crane at these scales had higher demand of high density reed marshes to improve its concealment. At scale 90 m, the variable HV backward scatting coefficient also entered into the combined model, which indicated that water condition was the important factor for the habitat selection of the crane at this scale. At scales > 120 m, the texture information of the two satellite sensors started to be involved into the two models, indicating that at larger scales, the crane had decreasing demand on the vegetation features for its breeding habitat selection but increasing sensitivity to the anthropogenic disturbance factors. The introduction of ASAR variables into the models increased the prediction accuracy of the models markedly at all scales.

  13. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  14. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  15. Species associations and habitat influence the range-wide distribution of breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.; Raedeke, Andrew H.; Humburg, Dale D.

    2017-01-01

    Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.

  16. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  17. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thitaram, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838608

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to

  18. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat conditions. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, through the restoration of stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2005 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2005), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance (O&M), and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E). This report also summarizes activities associated with Program Administration, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education.

  19. Foraging behaviour and habitat use by brown skuas Stercorarius lonnbergi breeding at South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ana Paula B.; Manica, Andrea; Phillips, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Top predators are critical to ecosystem function, exerting a stabilising effect on the food web. Brown skuas are opportunistic predators and scavengers. Although skuas are often the dominant land-based predator at seabird colonies, this is the first detailed study of their movements and activity during breeding. The study was carried out at Bird Island, South Georgia (54°00′S, 38°03′W), in the austral summer of 2011/2012 and included GPS data from 33 breeding adults tracked during the late in...

  20. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; Labonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  2. Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Cimadom

    Full Text Available Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus, on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundanceis lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss.

  3. Invasive parasites, habitat change and heavy rainfall reduce breeding success in Darwin's finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadom, Arno; Ulloa, Angel; Meidl, Patrick; Zöttl, Markus; Zöttl, Elisabet; Fessl, Birgit; Nemeth, Erwin; Dvorak, Michael; Cunninghame, Francesca; Tebbich, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Invasive alien parasites and pathogens are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide, which can contribute to the extinction of endemic species. On the Galápagos Islands, the invasive parasitic fly Philornis downsi poses a major threat to the endemic avifauna. Here, we investigated the influence of this parasite on the breeding success of two Darwin's finch species, the warbler finch (Certhidea olivacea) and the sympatric small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), on Santa Cruz Island in 2010 and 2012. While the population of the small tree finch appeared to be stable, the warbler finch has experienced a dramatic decline in population size on Santa Cruz Island since 1997. We aimed to identify whether warbler finches are particularly vulnerable during different stages of the breeding cycle. Contrary to our prediction, breeding success was lower in the small tree finch than in the warbler finch. In both species P. downsi had a strong negative impact on breeding success and our data suggest that heavy rain events also lowered the fledging success. On the one hand parents might be less efficient in compensating their chicks' energy loss due to parasitism as they might be less efficient in foraging on days of heavy rain. On the other hand, intense rainfalls might lead to increased humidity and more rapid cooling of the nests. In the case of the warbler finch we found that the control of invasive plant species with herbicides had a significant additive negative impact on the breeding success. It is very likely that the availability of insects (i.e. food abundance)is lower in such controlled areas, as herbicide usage led to the removal of the entire understory. Predation seems to be a minor factor in brood loss.

  4. Influence of breeding habitat on bear predation and age at maturity and sexual dimorphism of sockeye salmon populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Thomas P.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.

  5. [Foraging habitat selection of Otis tarda dybowskil during its breeding season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Wan, Dongmei; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Wei

    2005-03-01

    From April to July of 2000 and 2001, the authors studied the foraging habitat selection of Otis tarda dybowskil in the southeast Keerqin of Inner Mongolia by sampling method. The results showed that whether at burned or at non-burned grassland, the foraging habitat of Otis tarda dybowski had the same feature in vegetation structure, the plant height was about 13 cm on average, with the highest of 30 cm, and there were abundant species of plants and insects with big density that the bird favored to eat. The bird more concerned with the abundance of plants at burned grassland, while that of insects at non-burned grassland.

  6. Breeding loggerhead marine turtles Caretta caretta in Dry Tortugas National Park, USA, show high fidelity to diverse habitats near nesting beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Zawada, David G.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Fujisaki, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    We used satellite telemetry to identify in-water habitat used by individuals in the smallest North-west Atlantic subpopulation of adult nesting loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta during the breeding season. During 2010, 2011 and 2012 breeding periods, a total of 20 adult females used habitats proximal to nesting beaches with various levels of protection within Dry Tortugas National Park. We then used a rapid, high-resolution, digital imaging system to map habitat adjacent to nesting beaches, revealing the diversity and distribution of available benthic cover. Turtle behaviour showing measurable site-fidelity to these diverse habitats has implications for managing protected areas and human activities within them. Protecting diverse benthic areas adjacent to loggerhead turtle nesting beaches here and elsewhere could provide benefits for overall biodiversity conservation.

  7. Slipping through the cracks: rubber plantation is unsuitable breeding habitat for frogs in Xishuangbanna, China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behm, J.E.; Yang, X.; Chen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical

  8. Coastal grassland wader abundance in relation to breeding habitat characteristics in Matsalu Bay, Estonia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aivar Leito; Jaanus Elts; Eve Mägi; Jaak Truu; Mari Ivask; Annely Kuu; Merle Ööpik; Mart Meriste; Raymond Ward; Andres Kuresoo; Hannes Pehlak; Kalev Sepp; Leho Luigujõe

    2014-01-01

    .... The study was carried out in the Matsalu Bay area,Western Estonia between 2001 and 2005. Results showed that most wader species were strongly related to habitat flooding type but not to plant species richness or evenness or mean vegetation coverage...

  9. Climate Impacts on Sea Turtle Breeding Phenology in Greece and Associated Foraging Habitats in the Wider Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H Patel

    Full Text Available Sea turtles are vulnerable to climate change impacts in both their terrestrial (nesting beach and oceanic habitats. From 1982 to 2012, air and sea surface temperatures at major high use foraging and nesting regions (n = 5 of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta nesting in Greece have steadily increased. Here, we update the established relationships between sea surface temperature and nesting data from Zakynthos (latitude: 37.7°N, a major nesting beach, while also expanding these analyses to include precipitation and air temperature and additional nesting data from two other key beaches in Greece: Kyparissia Bay (latitude: 37.3°N and Rethymno, Crete (latitude: 35.4°N. We confirmed that nesting phenology at Zakynthos has continued to be impacted by breeding season temperature; however, temperature has no consistent relationship with nest numbers, which are declining on Zakynthos and Crete but increasing at Kyparissia. Then using statistically downscaled outputs of 14 climate models assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, we projected future shifts in nesting for these populations. Based on the climate models, we projected that temperature at the key foraging and breeding sites (Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Crete, Gulf of Gabès and Zakynthos/Kyparissia Bay; overall latitudinal range: 33.0°-45.8°N for loggerhead turtles nesting in Greece will rise by 3-5°C by 2100. Our calculations indicate that the projected rise in air and ocean temperature at Zakynthos could cause the nesting season in this major rookery to shift to an earlier date by as much as 50-74 days by 2100. Although an earlier onset of the nesting season may provide minor relief for nest success as temperatures rise, the overall climatic changes to the various important habitats will most likely have an overall negative impact on this population.

  10. improving breeding performance of fingerlings of clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aquaculture in Nigeria due to inbreeding. The study was conducted to ... inbreeding depression over several generations, leading to reduction in .... DISCUSSION. The feasibility of crosses of natural populations and domesticated strains C. gariepinus and its reciprocal cross-breeding was demonstrated in the present study.

  11. Models for navigating biological complexity in breeding improved crop plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, G.; Cooper, M.; Tardieu, F.; Welch, S.; Walsh, B.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Chapman, S.; Podlich, D.

    2006-01-01

    Progress in breeding higher-yielding crop plants would be greatly accelerated if the phenotypic consequences of making changes to the genetic makeup of an organism could be reliably predicted. Developing a predictive capacity that scales from genotype to phenotype is impeded by biological

  12. Population Densities of Birds Breeding in Urbanized Habitats in the Grabiszyn District in the City of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopij Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha, gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%, in/on buildings (30.2% and in trees/shrubs (25.6%. Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.

  13. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L.) Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidahmed, Osama M E; Eltahir, Elfatih A B

    2016-07-01

    In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67). We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54) were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE) between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43) of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW) between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  14. A Sequence of Flushing and Drying of Breeding Habitats of Aedes aegypti (L. Prior to the Low Dengue Season in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M E Seidahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In dengue-endemic areas, transmission shows both a seasonal and interannual variability. To investigate how rainfall impacts dengue seasonality in Singapore, we carried out a longitudinal survey in the Geylang neighborhood from August 2014 to August 2015. The survey comprised of twice-weekly random inspections to outdoor breeding habitats and continuous monitoring for positive ones. In addition, observations of rainstorms were collected. Out of 6824 inspected habitats, 67 contained Aedes aegypti, 11 contained Aedes albopictus and 24 contained Culex spp. The main outdoors habitat of Aedes aegypti was storm drains (54/67. We found that 80% of breeding sites in drains (43/54 were lost after intense rainstorms related to the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (NE between November 2014 and early January 2015. Subsequently, 95% (41/43 of these flushed drains had dried out during the dry phase of the NE in late January-February 2015. A return in the outdoor breeding of Aedes aegypti was observed after the onset of Southwest monsoon (SW between May and August 2015. There was also a reduction in productivity of breeding habitats for larvae and pupae after the onset of the NE. In wet equatorial regions like Singapore, rainfall varies with the monsoons. A monsoon-driven sequence of flushing and drying shapes the outdoor seasonal abundance of Aedes aegypti. This finding can be used to optimize vector control strategies and better understand dengue in the context of climate change.

  15. Yakima Habitat Improvement Project Master Plan, Technical Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golder Associates, Inc.

    2003-04-22

    The Yakima Urban Growth Area (UGA) is a developing and growing urban area in south-central Washington. Despite increased development, the Yakima River and its tributaries within the UGA continue to support threatened populations of summer steelhead and bull trout as well as a variety of non-listed salmonid species. In order to provide for the maintenance and recovery of these species, while successfully planning for the continued growth and development within the UGA, the City of Yakima has undertaken the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project. The overall goal of the project is to maintain, preserve, and restore functioning fish and wildlife habitat within and immediately surrounding the Yakima UGA over the long term. Acquisition and protection of the fish and wildlife habitat associated with key properties in the UGA will prevent future subdivision along riparian corridors, reduce further degradation or removal of riparian habitat, and maintain or enhance the long term condition of aquatic habitat. By placing these properties in long-term protection, the threat of development from continued growth in the urban area will be removed. To most effectively implement the multi-year habitat acquisition and protection effort, the City has developed this Master Plan. The Master Plan provides the structure and guidance for future habitat acquisition and restoration activities to be performed within the Yakima Urban Area. The development of this Master Plan also supports several Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPAs) of the NOAA Fisheries 2000 Biological Opinion (BiOp), as well as the Water Investment Action Agenda for the Yakima Basin, local planning efforts, and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority's 2000 Fish and Wildlife Program. This Master Plan also provides the framework for coordination of the Yakima Habitat Improvement Project with other fish and wildlife habitat acquisition and protection activities currently being implemented in the area. As a

  16. Assessing the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic breeding bird guilds using landscape metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Friederike; Glemnitz, Michael; Schultz, Alfred; Stachow, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Many of the processes behind the decline of farmland birds can be related to modifications in landscape structure (composition and configuration), which can partly be expressed quantitatively with measurable or computable indices, i.e. landscape metrics. This paper aims to identify statistical relationships between the occurrence of birds and the landscape structure. We present a method that combines two comprehensive procedures: the "landscape-centred approach" and "guild classification". Our study is based on more than 20,000 individual bird observations based on a 4-year bird monitoring approach in a typical agricultural area in the north-eastern German lowlands. Five characteristic bird guilds, each with three characteristic species, are defined for the typical habitat types of that area: farmland, grassland, hedgerow, forest and settlement. The suitability of each sample plot for each guild is indicated by the level of persistence (LOP) of occurrence of three respective species. Thus, the sample plots can be classified as "preferred" or "less preferred" depending on the lower and upper quartiles of the LOP values. The landscape structure is characterized by 16 different landscape metrics expressing various aspects of landscape composition and configuration. For each guild, the three landscape metrics with the strongest rank correlation with the LOP values and that are not mutually dependent were identified. For four of the bird guilds, the classification success was better than 80%, compared with only 66% for the grassland bird guild. A subset of six landscape metrics proved to be the most meaningful and sufficiently classified the sample areas with respect to bird guild suitability. In addition, derived logistic functions allowed the production of guild-specific habitat suitability maps for the whole landscape. The analytical results show that the proposed approach is appropriate to assess the habitat suitability of agricultural landscapes for characteristic

  17. Underwater topography determines critical breeding habitat for humpback whales near Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica: implications for Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Oviedo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Migrating humpback whales from northern and southern feeding grounds come to the tropical waters near Osa Peninsula, Pacific of Costa Rica, to reproduce and raise their calves. Planning effective marine protected areas that encompass humpback critical habitats require data about which oceanographic features influence distribution during the breeding period. This study examines the relationship between water depth and ocean floor slope with humpback whale distribution, based on sightings during two breeding seasons (2005 and 2006. Data are from the Southern and Northern subpopulations in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP. Analysis followed the basic principles of the Ecological Niche Factors Analysis (ENFA, where indices of Marginality and Tolerance provide insights on the restrictiveness of habitat use. At a fine scale, physical factors such as water depth and slope define the critical breeding and nursing habitat for M. novaeangliae. Divergence in the subsamples means of depths and slope distribution, with the global mean of the study area in both eco-geographical variables, determine habitat requirements restricted by topographic features such as depths (Las ballenas jorobadas viajan a aguas tropicales para reproducirse y criar a sus ballenatos. Es importante entender las características oceanográficas que influencian su distribución para lograr una planificación efectiva de áreas marinas protegidas con hábitats críticos para estos cetáceos. Este estudio examina la relación entre la profundidad, la pendiente del suelo oceánico y la distribución de estas ballenas, usando avistamientos del 2005 y 2006 en la costa Pacífica de la Península de Osa, Costa Rica (temporada de reproducción del sur y norte en el Pacífico Tropical Oriental. Usamos Análisis de Factores de Nicho Ecológico (ENFA por sus siglas en inglés, donde los índices de Marginalidad y Tolerancia ilustran las restricciones en uso de hábitat. En una escala local

  18. The Importance of Maintaining Upland Forest Habitat Surrounding Salamander Breeding Ponds: Case Study of the Eastern Tiger Salamander in New York, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie Titus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most amphibians use both wetland and upland habitats, but the extent of their movement in forested habitats is poorly known. We used radiotelemetry to observe the movements of adult and juvenile eastern tiger salamanders over a 4-year period. Females tended to move farther from the breeding ponds into upland forested habitat than males, while the distance a juvenile moved appeared to be related to body size, with the largest individuals moving as far as the adult females. Individuals chose refugia in native pitch pine—oak forested habitat and avoided open fields, roads, and developed areas. We also observed a difference in potential predation pressures in relation to the distance an individual moved from the edge of the pond. Our results support delineating forested wetland buffer zones on a case-by-case basis to reduce the impacts of concentrated predation, to increase and protect the availability of pitch pine—oak forests near the breeding pond, and to focus primarily on the habitat needs of the adult females and larger juveniles, which in turn will encompass habitat needs of adult males and smaller juveniles.

  19. Between a rock and a hard place: habitat selection in female-calf humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae Pairs on the Hawaiian breeding grounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cartwright

    Full Text Available The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40-60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap.

  20. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Rimbach, Gregory P. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1993-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. The major activities undertaken during this report period were: (1) procurement of one cooperative lease agreement and one access easement with private landowners, (2) design and layout of 1.3 miles of riparian exclosure fence and 1.4 miles of instream structure maintenance, and (3) development of one fencing contract and three instream work contracts. Results include implementation of 1.9 miles of fencing, 1.4 miles of instream maintenance work, reconstruction of 0.75 miles of flood damaged fence, inspection and routine maintenance of 13.5 miles of fence, and planting of grasses, legumes and shrubs along 4.6 miles of stream. Other activities undertaken during this report period are: collection and summarization of temperature data, establishment and data collection from habitat monitoring transects, electrofishing surveys and spawning ground counts, photopoint establishment, coordination with numerous agencies and tribes and education of high school students on habitat improvement and preservation.

  1. ALTERNATIVES TO IMPROVE HYBRIDIZATION EFFICIENCY IN Eucalyptus BREEDING PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Cristina Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple and quick hybridization procedures and ways to keep pollen grains viable for long periods are sought in plant breeding programs to provide greater work flexibility. The presentstudy was carried out to assess the efficiency of pollinations made shortly after flower emasculationand the viability of stored pollen from Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Eucalyptus urophylla clones cultivated in Northwestern Minas Gerais State. Controlled pollinations were carried out at zero, one,three, five and seven days after emasculation. Hybridization efficiency was assessed by thepercentage of viable fruits, number of seeds produced per fruit, percentage of viable seeds and also bycytological observation of the pollen development along the style. Flower buds from clones of the twospecies were collected close to anthesis to assess the viability of pollen grain storage. Pollen was thencollected and stored in a freezer (-18oC for 1, 2 and 3 months. Pollen assessed was carried out by invitro and in vivo germination tests. The efficiency of the pollinations varied with their delay and alsobetween species. The greatest pollination efficiency was obtained when they were carried out on thethird and fifth day after emasculation, but those performed simultaneously with emasculationproduced enough seeds to allow this practice in breeding programs. The decrease in pollen viabilitywith storage was not sufficiently significant to preclude the use of this procedure in artificialhybridization.

  2. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, Troy S. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1995 and November 1995 floods, (2) reconstruction of 0.75 miles of riparian fence, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, (4) collection of approximately 55,000 native willow and cottonwood cuttings and installation of approximately 21,600 of these material, (5) implementation of two bioengineering projects and initiation of a third project, (6) installation of approximately 30 tree/rootwads for fish habitat enhancement, (7) removal of an abandoned flood irrigation dam/fish barrier, (8) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and (9) extensive interagency coordination.

  3. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, Troy S. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1995-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: 1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1994 flood, 2) reconstruction of 1.25 miles of high tensile steel fence, 3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, 4) collection of approximately 6,600 cottonwood and willow cuttings for transplanting in spring of 1995, 5) establishment of three bioengineered habitat restoration demonstration projects, 6) Implementation of a streambank stabilization workshop (bioengineering techniques) for Umatilla Basin residents and resource agency personnel, 7) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and 8) extensive interagency coordination.

  4. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Advanced phenotyping, i.e. the application of automated, high-throughput methods to characterize plant architecture and performance, has the potential to accelerate breeding progress but is far from being routinely used in current breeding approaches. In forage and turf improvement programmes, in particular, where breeding populations and cultivars are characterized by high genetic diversity and substantial genotype × environment interactions, precise and efficient phenotyping is essential to meet future challenges imposed by climate change, growing demand and declining resources. Scope This review highlights recent achievements in the establishment of phenotyping tools and platforms. Some of these tools have originally been established in remote sensing, some in precision agriculture, while others are laboratory-based imaging procedures. They quantify plant colour, spectral reflection, chlorophyll-fluorescence, temperature and other properties, from which traits such as biomass, architecture, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal aperture or stress resistance can be derived. Applications of these methods in the context of forage and turf breeding are discussed. Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future and will thereby contribute to amended performance of managed grassland agroecosystems. PMID:22362662

  5. Nest-site selection and population trend of Collared Pratincoles (Glareola pratincola breeding in agricultural habitats of the Nagykunság region (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Collared Pratincole (Glareola pratincola, which was once a typical breeding species of the sodic grasslands of the Great Plain, has become threatened with extinction from Hungary. It disappeared from the traditional grassland breeding sites before the 2000 and is currently breeding only in three sites in agricultural environments in Hungary. The objectives of our research were to find links between the use of shallow wetlands and the breeding behaviour of the species and to identify the characteristics of its breeding on ploughed fields. Data were collected between 2008 and 2016 as part of preparations for the conservation of the largest population which is found in the Nagykunság. We found a positive correlation between colony size and the area of the nearby wetland. We calculated the proportion of habitat-types used for nesting, and found that cultivated fields and fallow lands were the most important. Additionally, we also found that colony sizes were substantially smaller during the research period than those found earlier in the traditional grassland habitats. Finally, we found a positive trend in the size of the population during the research period.

  6. 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, B.G.; Cowie, D.M.

    2005-01-15

    Formed in 1979 after the completion of the Peace Canyon Dam, Dinosaur Reservoir is 21 km long and backs water up to the tailrace of W.A.C. Bennett Dam. BC Hydro has funded studies to evaluate fish stocking programs and assess habitat limitations and potential enhancements as part of a water licence agreement. The Peace/Williston Fish and Wildlife Compensation Programs (PWFWCP) have undertaken a number of projects to address fish habitat limitations, entrainment and stocking assessments as a result of recommendations stemming from these studies. It was determined that existing baseline fish data was needed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities. A preliminary boat electro-fishing program which was started in October 2001, noted that a propensity for rainbow trout to concentrate near woody debris. In response, a program was started in 2002 to add woody debris to embayment areas throughout the reservoir. These enhanced woody debris structures are located in small sheltered bays and consist of a series of large trees cabled together and anchored to the shore. The area between the cabled trees and the shoreline is filled with woody debris and root wads collected from along the shoreline. The 2004 assessment of habitat improvements in Dinosaur Reservoir presents the findings from a study that compares the number of fish captured using trap nets, angling, and minnow traps, at the woody debris structures to sites with similar physical characteristics where woody debris had not been added. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Analysis of humpback whale sounds in shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea: An indication of breeding habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Madan M; Latha, G; Thirunavukkarasu, A

    2015-06-01

    The primary objective of this work was to present the acoustical identification of humpback whales, detected by using an autonomous ambient noise measurement system, deployed in the shallow waters of the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) during the period January to May 2011. Seven types of sounds were detected. These were characteristically upsweeps and downsweeps along with harmonics. Sounds produced repeatedly in a specific pattern were referred to as phrases (PQRS and ABC). Repeated phrases in a particular pattern were referred to as themes, and from the spectrographic analysis, two themes (I and II) were identified. The variation in the acoustic characteristics such as fundamental frequency, range, duration of the sound unit, and the structure of the phrases and themes are discussed. Sound units were recorded from mid-January to mid-March, with a peak in February, when the mean SST is approx. 28 degree C, and no presence was recorded after mid-March. The temporal and thematic structures strongly determine the functions of the humpback whale song form. Given the use of song in the SEAS, this area is possibly used as an active breeding habitat by humpback whales during the winter season.

  8. Does ownership of improved dairy cow breeds improve child nutrition? A pathway analysis for Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabunga, Nassul S; Ghosh, Shibani; Webb, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The promotion of livestock production is widely believed to support enhanced diet quality and child nutrition, but the empirical evidence for this causal linkage remains narrow and ambiguous. This study examines whether adoption of improved dairy cow breeds is linked to farm-level outcomes that translate into household-level benefits including improved child nutrition outcomes in Uganda. Using nationwide data from Uganda's National Panel Survey, propensity score matching is used to create an unbiased counterfactual, based on observed characteristics, to assess the net impacts of improved dairy cow adoption. All estimates were tested for robustness and sensitivity to variations in observable and unobservable confounders. Results based on the matched samples showed that households adopting improved dairy cows significantly increased milk yield-by over 200% on average. This resulted in higher milk sales and milk intakes, demonstrating the potential of this agricultural technology to both integrate households into modern value chains and increase households' access to animal source foods. Use of improved dairy cows increased household food expenditures by about 16%. Although undernutrition was widely prevalent in the study sample and in matched households, the adoption of improved dairy cows was associated with lower child stunting in adopter household. In scale terms, results also showed that holding larger farms tends to support adoption, but that this also stimulates the household's ability to achieve gains from adoption, which can translate into enhanced nutrition.

  9. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  10. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Timothy D.; Laws, Troy S. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    1994-05-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) procurement of one access easement with a private landowner, (2) design, layout, and implementation of 3.36 miles of instream structure maintenance, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 15.1 miles of fence, (4) revegetation along 3.36 miles of stream, (5) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, (6) extensive interagency coordination, and (7) environmental education activities with local high school students.

  11. Breeding for Improved Disease Resistance in Organic Farming – Possibilities and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Ulf

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lowered incidences of disease may be reached in several ways: management and rearing measures, vaccination programmes and preventive medications as well as breeding for improved disease resistance. Here the focus is on breeding for improved resistance to infectious diseases. In comparison to conventional farming, one has to acknowledge that the spectrum of diseases in animals reared under organic conditions is different and that the proportion of the breeding stock of animals in organic farming is considerably smaller. There are at least four different approaches that may be used in breeding towards resistance to infectious diseases. The most obvious is to record disease incidence in the progeny and select those parents that produce the progeny with the lowest incidences of disease. Another approach is to use breeders possessing certain major histo-compatibility complex antigens suggested being associated with resistance to certain infections. A third approach is to analyse the heritability of a set of immune functions or related traits crucial for resistance to infections and then use the traits with high heritability in breeding programmes. Finally, one may genetically select animals for high immune response using an index that combines estimated breeding values for several immunological traits. Examples of these various approaches are given and the feasibility for using these in organic farming are discussed.

  12. Predicted riparian vegetation - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  13. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  14. Improving nutrition in Ethiopia through plant breeding and soil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project trains smallholder farmers in the use of more sustainable farming practices that protect the soil against erosion, improve soil fertility, and increase yields. A strong focus is placed on Ethiopian women as change agents as they adopt and integrate improved production methods into their indigenous farming ...

  15. Improving feed efficiency in fish using selective breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdal, de Hugues; Komen, Hans; Quillet, Edwige; Chatain, Béatrice; Allal, François; Benzie, John A.H.; Vandeputte, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Improving feed efficiency (FE) is key to reducing production costs in aquaculture and to achieving sustainability for the aquaculture industry. Feed costs account for 30-70% of total production costs in aquaculture; much work has been done on nutritional and husbandry approaches to improve FE but

  16. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  17. INTRA-VARIETAL CROSSING AS METHOD TO IMPROVE ADAPTATION CHARACTERISTICS IN INITIAL BREEDING ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kozlovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The important goal of breeding program is to achieve the heterosis effect and develop the appropriate breeding lines to be used for crossing. The cultivation of the variety or breeding line for a long time and selection process under the same environmental factors lead to decrease of livability and productivity of the variety or breeding line. The intra-varietal and intra-line crossing is the method that enables to improve the genetic basis of the existing breeding accessions, when increasing the recombination ability, particular-ly among valuable and rare characteristics. The accessions of sweet pepper of different ecological origin: local varieties ‘Aeneas’, ‘Ivanhoe’ (Ukraine, ‘Sladkiy’ (Italy, breeding line ‘n 138d’ (Russia were taken to study the influence of intra-varietal crossing on recovery of combining ability in breeding lines. The progeny produced from intra-varietal crossing has been assessed for the fruit number, average fruit weight, yielding ability and marketability, and then consequently compared with control accession. As results showed the yielding ability had increased by 2.3-25.7%, depending on genotype, while the fruit weight had increased by 2-11%. Phenological observation showed that there is no significant difference at the phase of growing and development between control plants and plants produced through intra-varietal crossing. The detailed progeny assessment has revealed the different effect of adaptive ability among different plants when the plants crossing within the same accession. This enables to select the best accessions to be used in further heterosis breeding pro-gram.

  18. New classification of natural breeding habitats for Neotropical anophelines in the Yanomami Indian Reserve, Amazon Region, Brazil and a new larval sampling methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sánchez-Ribas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the first in a series of articles about the ecology of immature stages of anophelines in the Brazilian Yanomami area. We propose a new larval habitat classification and a new larval sampling methodology. We also report some preliminary results illustrating the applicability of the methodology based on data collected in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest in a longitudinal study of two remote Yanomami communities, Parafuri and Toototobi. In these areas, we mapped and classified 112 natural breeding habitats located in low-order river systems based on their association with river flood pulses, seasonality and exposure to sun. Our classification rendered seven types of larval habitats: lakes associated with the river, which are subdivided into oxbow lakes and nonoxbow lakes, flooded areas associated with the river, flooded areas not associated with the river, rainfall pools, small forest streams, medium forest streams and rivers. The methodology for larval sampling was based on the accurate quantification of the effective breeding area, taking into account the area of the perimeter and subtypes of microenvironments present per larval habitat type using a laser range finder and a small portable inflatable boat. The new classification and new sampling methodology proposed herein may be useful in vector control programs.

  19. Effects of habitat characteristics and interspecific interactions on co-occurrence patterns of saproxylic beetles breeding in tree boles after forest fire: null model analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeria, Ermias T; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian

    2012-04-01

    It is often suggested that habitat attributes and interspecific interactions can cause non-random species co-occurrence patterns, but quantifying their contributions can be difficult. Null models that systematically exclude and include habitat effects can give information on the contribution of these factors to community assembly. In the boreal forest, saproxylic beetles are known to be attracted to recently burned forests where they breed in dead and dying trees. We examined whether species co-occurrences of saproxylic beetles that develop in, and emerge from, boles of recently burned trees show non-random patterns. We also estimated the extent to which both the post-fire habitat attributes and interspecific interactions among beetles contribute to such patterns. We sampled tree boles encompassing key attributes (tree species, tree size/dbh and burn severity) that are thought to characterize species-habitat associations of saproxylic beetles, a proposition that we tested using indicator species analysis. Two null models with no habitat constraints ("unconstrained") indicated that a total of 29.4% of the species pairs tested had significant co-occurrence patterns. Habitat-constrained null models indicated that most of the detected species aggregations (72%) and segregations (59%) can be explained by shared and distinct species-habitat relationships, respectively. The assembly pattern was also driven by interspecific interactions, of which some were modulated by habitat; for example, predator and prey species tended to co-occur in large-sized trees (a proxy of available bark/wood food resource primarily for the prey). In addition, some species segregation suggesting antagonistic, competitive, or prey-predator interactions were evident after accounting for the species' affinities for the same tree species. Overall, our results suggest that an intimate link between habitat and interspecific interactions can have important roles for community assembly of saproxylic

  20. Breeding of newly licensed wheat variety Huapei 8 and improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-28

    Dec 28, 2011 ... quantitative trait loci for heading date based on the doubled haploid progeny of two elite Chinese wheat cultivars. Genetica, 135: 257-265. Zhou H, and Konzak C F (1989). Improvement of anther culture methods for haploid production in wheat. Crop Sci. 29: 817-821. Zhou H, Ball ST, Konzak CF (1992a).

  1. Fish breeding and habitat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 2 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt stream_source_info Biodiversity_Western_Ghats_Inf_Kit_1994_3.11_1.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type... text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Considerations in breeding for improved yield and quality in arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walyaro, D.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Variation for growth., yield and quality characters was studied in a diallel cross among 11 varieties of arabica coffee. The objective was to demonstrate the possible application of such information in breeding programmes for improved yield and coffee quality.
    Growth characters

  3. Habitat use by the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps (Gruiformes: Otididae in breeding and non-breeding seasons in Kachchh, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Munjpara

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps, a threatened and endemic species of the Indian subcontinent, is declining in its natural habitats. The Great Indian Bustard is a bird of open land and was observed using the grasslands habitat (73%, followed by areas covered with Prosopis (11%. In the grasslands, the communities dominated with Cymbopogon martinii were utilized the highest, while those dominated by Aristida adenemsoidis were least utilized. As Cymbopogon martinii is non-palatable, we infer that it does not attract livestock and herdsmen resulting in minimum movement and trampling that favors the Great Indian Bustard.

  4. Crop improvement by using radiation mutation breeding in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young IL [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-07-01

    For crop improvement by the application of radiation technology, induction of mutants by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis were developed in various crop plants in Korea. Several mutants have been released as recommended cultivars to farmers in rice, soybean, sesame and barley since 1970. Induced mutations were widely used for the introduction of genetic transformation and extending plant genetic resources. High yield, short plant, earliness, resistance to diseases, high protein and oil contents were obtained in the advanced generation of mutation by radiation application to several crops of in vivo and in vitro cultured materials. For induction and selection of promising mutants by in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis, various crops were successively irradiated with radiation to investigate the radiosensitivities, the mutation spectrum and mutation rate for selection of useful mutants. Plant tissue culture methods were developed for in vitro mutagenesis in the seed and the vegetatively propagating crops. Embryogenic callus was obtained from shoot tip culture of sweet potato, and micro propagation was developed from nodal stem culture of potato. The radiosensitivities were investigated in cell, callus, and in vitro plant lets. About 800 lines of mutants were evaluated for the agro-genetic resources. (author). 19 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Organic and Conventional Dairy Farmers Prefer Different Improvements in Breeding Goal Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    In dairy cattle breeding, breeding goals (BG) are developed and subsequently a selection index that farmers want to use. Therefore it is important to take their preferences for BG traits into account. Two production systems that are expected to influence farmer preferences for BG traits are organ....... This study shows that organic and conventional farmers differ in their preferences for improvements in BG traits, and the results can be used to set up specific breeding goals for organic and conventional farming systems....... and conventional systems. The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of organic and conventional Danish dairy farmers for improvements in BG traits for Holstein cattle. A survey was established to characterize preferences for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online...... software 1000Minds. These pairwise rankings were based on equal economic worth of trait improvements. The survey was filled in by 106 organic and 290 conventional farmers. The most preferred trait improvement for both production systems was in cow fertility, and the least preferred improvement...

  6. Improving salinity tolerance of plants through conventional breeding and genetic engineering: An analytical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Muhammad; Akram, Nudrat Aisha

    2009-01-01

    The last century has witnessed a substantial improvement in yield potential, quality and disease resistance in crops. This was indeed the outcome of conventional breeding, which was achieved with little or no knowledge of underlying physiological and biochemical phenomena related to a trait. Also the resources utilized on programs involving conventional breeding were not of great magnitude. Plant breeders have also been successful during the last century in producing a few salt-tolerant cultivars/lines of some potential crops through conventional breeding, but this again has utilized modest resources. However, this approach seems now inefficient due to a number of reasons, and alternatively, genetic engineering for improving crop salt tolerance is being actively followed these days by the plant scientists, world-over. A large number of transgenic lines with enhanced salt tolerance of different crops can be deciphered from the literature but up to now only a very few field-tested cultivars/lines are known despite the fact that considerable resources have been expended on the sophisticated protocols employed for generating such transgenics. This review analytically compares the achievements made so far in terms of producing salt-tolerant lines/cultivars through conventional breeding or genetic engineering.

  7. Genomics-assisted breeding for boosting crop improvement in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekha ePazhamala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pigeonpea is an important pulse crop grown predominantly in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Although pigeonpea growing area has considerably increased, yield has remained stagnant for the last six decades mainly due to the exposure of the crop to various biotic and abiotic constraints. In addition, low level of genetic variability and limited genomic resources have been serious impediments to pigeonpea crop improvement through modern breeding approaches. In recent years, however, due to the availability of next generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies, the scenario has changed tremendously. The reduced sequencing costs resulting in the decoding of the pigeonpea genome has led to the development of various genomic resources including molecular markers, transcript sequences and comprehensive genetic maps. Mapping of some important traits including resistance to Fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, fertility restoration, determinacy with other agronomically important traits have paved the way for applying genomics-assisted breeding (GAB through marker assisted selection as well as genomic selection. This would lead to accelerate the development and improvement of both varieties and hybrids in pigeonpea. Particularly for hybrid breeding programme, mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic male sterile lines, maintainers and hybrids have also been sequenced to identify genes responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore, several diagnostic molecular markers have been developed to assess the purity of commercial hybrids. In summary, pigeonpea has become a genomic resources-rich crop and efforts have already been initiated to integrate these resources in pigeonpea breeding.

  8. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  9. Molecular Breeding Algae For Improved Traits For The Conversion Of Waste To Fuels And Commodities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-14

    This Exploratory LDRD aimed to develop molecular breeding methodology for biofuel algal strain improvement for applications in waste to energy / commodity conversion technologies. Genome shuffling technologies, specifically protoplast fusion, are readily available for the rapid production of genetic hybrids for trait improvement and have been used successfully in bacteria, yeast, plants and animals. However, genome fusion has not been developed for exploiting the remarkable untapped potential of eukaryotic microalgae for large scale integrated bio-conversion and upgrading of waste components to valued commodities, fuel and energy. The proposed molecular breeding technology is effectively sexual reproduction in algae; though compared to traditional breeding, the molecular route is rapid, high-throughput and permits selection / improvement of complex traits which cannot be accomplished by traditional genetics. Genome fusion technologies are the cutting edge of applied biotechnology. The goals of this Exploratory LDRD were to 1) establish reliable methodology for protoplast production among diverse microalgal strains, and 2) demonstrate genome fusion for hybrid strain production using a single gene encoded trait as a proof of the concept.

  10. Selection of pigs for improved coping with health and environmental challenges: breeding for resistance or tolerance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Zhe Ying Guy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of improved health and welfare in pigs have driven refinements in management and selection practices, one of which is the production of pig phenotypes that can maintain health and productivity by improving response against pathogens. Selection has traditionally been made for host resistance; but the alternative host defence mechanism – host tolerance – is now being considered, as breeding for disease tolerance allows maintenance of high performance across environments of increasing pathogenic load. A distinction must be made between these two mechanisms as they vary in their influence on host-pathogen interactions and pathogen evolution, and consequently on the results of breeding programmes. Many pig production studies have failed to distinguish between resistance and tolerance; although a distinction may not always be possible. This article reviews current perspectives in selective breeding for disease resistance and tolerance in growing pigs, and the attendant industry implications. To assess the viability of breeding for resistance and/or tolerance for improved response to disease and other environmental challenges, we propose the use of routine farm records, instead of data measurements taken from laboratory experiments. Consequently, a number of factors need to be taken into account simultaneously for a multidimensional modelling approach. This includes not only genotype and disease variables, but also descriptors of the environment, as well as any possible interactions. It may not be feasible to record individual pathogen loads, and therefore true tolerance, on farm using routinely collected data. However, it may be estimated with group (farm means, or other proxy measures. Although this results in a bias, this may still be useful for modelling and quantifying resistance and tolerance. We can then quantify success of selection, and this may enable us to decide whether to select for disease resistance versus disease

  11. Habitat Use, Spatial Relationships, and Censusing Techniques of Breeding Eastern Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis) in Northern Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project proposed this report will provide data on the habitats of the eastern black rail through the use of radio telemetry, vegetative samples, and weekly...

  12. Reducing bird-strike risk at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM) through research on breeding upland sandpiper habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to identify the habitat use and behavior of the upland sandpiper, : a state-endangered bird species, at Portsmouth International Airport (PSM), which is near the Great Bay National : Wildlife Refuge (GBNW...

  13. Characters analysis of genetic improvement at the males population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze, within a group of 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed, 13 characters of genetically improved, characters stipulated in, „Selection sheet and body measurements for Romanian shepherds".The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club fromRomania.  Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed inCarpathian Mountains. In order to develop a genetic improvement program at this effective of 26 males from Romanian Sheperd Dog breed, found in evidence of Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania, should be considered the following conclusions on variance those 13 characters studied in this paper, respectively, the variability was middle for the width of skull and ear  and low for the other 11 characters analyzed. Also, this paper highlighted the following reports of the characters analyzed at the males taken in the study: the ratio between the average of length and width skull was 1.005:1, the ratio between the average of length skull and the average of length muzzle was 1.31:1 and between average of the width of skull and the muzzle was 1.82:1. By Comparing between them length, width and depth of muzzle, resulted a ratio of 1.38:1:1.10.

  14. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  15. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  16. Predicting occurrence of juvenile shark habitat to improve conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Beverly Z L; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-06-01

    Fishing and habitat degradation have increased the extinction risk of sharks, and conservation strategies recognize that survival of juveniles is critical for the effective management of shark populations. Despite the rapid expansion of marine protected areas (MPAs) globally, the paucity of shark-monitoring data on large scales (100s-1000s km) means that the effectiveness of MPAs in halting shark declines remains unclear. Using data collected by baited remote underwater video systems (BRUVS) in northwestern Australia, we developed generalized linear models to elucidate the ecological drivers of habitat suitability for juvenile sharks. We assessed occurrence patterns at the order and species levels. We included all juvenile sharks sampled and the 3 most abundant species sampled separately (grey reef [Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos], sandbar [Carcharhinus plumbeus], and whitetip reef sharks [Triaenodon obesus]). We predicted the occurrence of juvenile sharks across 490,515 km 2 of coastal waters and quantified the representation of highly suitable habitats within MPAs. Our species-level models had higher accuracy (ĸ ≥ 0.69) and deviance explained (≥48%) than our order-level model (ĸ = 0.36 and deviance explained of 10%). Maps of predicted occurrence revealed different species-specific patterns of highly suitable habitat. These differences likely reflect different physiological or resource requirements between individual species and validate concerns over the utility of conservation targets based on aggregate species groups as opposed to a species-focused approach. Highly suitable habitats were poorly represented in MPAs with the most restrictions on extractive activities. This spatial mismatch possibly indicates a lack of explicit conservation targets and information on species distribution during the planning process. Non-extractive BRUVS provided a useful platform for building the suitability models across large scales to assist conservation planning across

  17. Breeding of a high yielding chamomile variety (Matricaria recutita L. with improved traits for machine harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A more productive variety of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L., which is more efficient in machine processing with consistent quality traits, will benefit the viability of german products in the global market. Breeding of an enhanced chamomile variety is part of a german multi-network project called KAMEL whose research aims on Matricaria recutita L., Valeriana officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L. The agronomic and qualitative improvement of these speciality crops are the basis for further economic prosperity of medicinal and aromatic plant cultivation in Germany. The main breeding goals of a new variety of chamomile are the increase of blossom product yield (Matricariae flos to 6 dt/ha in up to three harvest stages through a homogenous flower horizon (pick height, an even flowering time, large flower heads and a high regeneration rate after each harvest stage. The upgrade of the content of essential oil content to a minimum of 0.8 % with its compostion according to Ph. Eur. and a chamazulene content of min. 25 % are further objectives of the breeding process. In addition to these quality traits, high tolerances against common fungal diseases are of particular interest. Development of an innovative chamomile variety is realized over nine years in three stages (2010 - 2019.

  18. Human Disturbance and Stage-Specific Habitat Requirements Influence Snowy Plover Site Occupancy during the Breeding Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    colonization (c), extinction (e), and detection probability (P) for each site. Initial occupancy (during the pre-breeding season) was calculated...c1 and e1) and between nesting and brood-rearing (c2 and e2). We included year as a covariate for detection because the amount of time we spent on a...analyses for human disturbance, land cover, and landform variables to check for multicollinearity in predictors. For any pair of variables with r

  19. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown.

  20. Habitat history improves prediction of biodiversity in rainforest fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Catherine H; Moritz, Craig; Williams, Stephen E

    2006-01-17

    Patterns of biological diversity should be interpreted in light of both contemporary and historical influences; however, to date, most attempts to explain diversity patterns have largely ignored history or have been unable to quantify the influence of historical processes. The historical effects on patterns of diversity have been hypothesized to be most important for taxonomic groups with poor dispersal abilities. We quantified the relative stability of rainforests over the late Quaternary period by modeling rainforest expansion and contraction in 21 biogeographic subregions in northeast Australia across four time periods. We demonstrate that historical habitat stability can be as important, and in endemic low-dispersal taxa even more important, than current habitat area in explaining spatial patterns of species richness. In contrast, patterns of endemic species richness for taxa with high dispersal capacity are best predicted by using current environmental parameters. We also show that contemporary patterns of species turnover across the region are best explained by historical patterns of habitat connectivity. These results clearly demonstrate that spatially explicit analyses of the historical processes of persistence and colonization are both effective and necessary for understanding observed patterns of biodiversity.

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1986 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Amy

    1987-01-01

    This report describes activities implemented for fisheries habitat improvement work on priority drainages in the Clackamas and Hood River sub-basins. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the reports on individual projects. (ACR)

  2. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, 1984 Final and Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Rod

    1986-02-01

    This volume contains reports on habitat improvement and fisheries enhancement projects conducted in the following subbasins: (1) Clackamas River; (2) Hood River; :(3) Deschutes River; (4) John Day River; (5) Umatilla River; and (6) Grande Ronde River. (ACR)

  3. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  4. Application of Mutation Techniques in Sorghum Breeding for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Human

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum is not native to Indonesia and has not yet as popular as other cereal crops. This crop has a big potential to be grown and cultivated owing to its wide adaptability and high productivity. Genetic variability of this crop is still low, thus, plant breeding program is required to support sorghum development in the country. The objective is to develop superior genotypes to improve sorghum production and quality, as food, animal feed or for industry. Research on sorghum improvement through induced mutations has been conducted at the Center for the Application of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. Durra variety was used as parental material in the breeding program. Induced mutation was made by Gamma irradiation on seed treatments. The optimal radiation dose was to be around 300-500 Gy. Through selection processes and direct screening for drought tolerance, a number of ten putative mutant lines were obtained. In dry season, the mutant lines B-68, B-72, B-95 and B-100 produced grain yield of 4.55, 4.50, 4.20 and 4.62 t/ha, respectively. These yields were significantly higher than the original parent Durra (3.50 t/ha and the control check varieties UPCA (2.68 t/ha and Higari (3.75 t/ha. These promising mutant lines might be of useful for further sorghum research and development in Indonesia

  5. Breeding and improvement of quality traits in alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important objective in alfalfa breeding is the improvement of forage quality. The aim of this experiment was to determine the genetic control of the most important quality traits in whole plant leaves and stems of alfalfa genotypes. Quantitative genetic parameters were estimated for crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and acid detergent lignin (ADL content. A 5x5 diallel design with reciprocals among parents from geographically different populations were studied. In the diallel study, effects due to general combining ability (GCA were higher than those due to specific combining ability (SCA for majority of the tested characters in analyses of whole plant. The F1 progeny effect was significant for almost all characters (except ADF content. The highest values of narrow sense heritability’s were found for NDF (h =0.19 and CP (h =0.17 in whole plant, and in leaves (0.11 and 0.08, while in stems most heritable traits are ADF (h = 0.29 and ADL (h = 0.16 content. As a consequence, CP, NDF and ADF content would be more efficient selection criteria in whole plant analyses, while ADF and ADL content would be more interesting to investigate in stems, in a breeding program for improved nutritive value of alfalfa. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31024

  6. Genetic variation in degradability of wheat straw and potential for improvement through plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Wagner; Magid, Jakob; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The degradability of cereal straw is of importance when it is used for animal feed, biological means of bioenergy production such as bioethanol production and when it is incorporated in soil. We examined wheat straw from 106 different winter wheat cultivars representing the northwest European...... contemporary gene pool. The cultivars were grown at two different locations to assess the potential for breeding for improved degradability. The straws exhibited much variation in degradability ranging from 258 g kg1 to 407 g kg1 of dry matter. The heritability for degradability was estimated to 29% indicating...... a reasonable potential for response to selection. Inclusion of height as a regression-term, indicated that only a minor part of genetic differences are directly related to plant height and that improvements in degradability may be achieved without unacceptable changes in straw length. Finally, a lack...

  7. Improvement of the Support System to Identify Face Using Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takehiko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Haruhiko

    In the process of searching for suspected person, there is a case where an eyewitness looks through some photographs of criminal's face, or mug shots, to identify witnessed suspect's face or a searcher examines some mug shots in order to find some photographs that seem similar to a montage. However the eyewitness or the searcher has a heavy load to look through many photographs. It is widely known that this load causes a marked decline in human's ability to identify photographs. Therefore there is a need for a facial image retrieval system that can help humans to identify the facial images. An interactive facial image retrieval system combined the retrieval using linguistic keywords and the simulated breeding was proposed in order to reduce the user's load. The system performs the retrieval by using the impressive adjective first, and then retrieves the facial images by using simulated breeding that can treat the user's subjectivity. However, this method still requires the user to do heavy work. In order to improve the system, we add a retrieval method using Euclidean distance to the system for retrieving the facial images that are displayed for the user's first selection. In our experiment, firstly displayed facial images in the proposed system are similar to the target, which leads to the reduction of user's load.

  8. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Darren M; Redpath, Stephen M; Evans, Sharon A; Elston, David A; Gardner, Charles J; Dennis, Peter; Pakeman, Robin J

    2006-12-22

    Livestock grazing is a major driver of ecosystem change and has been associated with significant declines in various bird species in Britain and worldwide. However, there is little experimental evidence to show how grazing affects bird populations. We manipulated livestock densities in a replicated field experiment and found that mixed sheep and cattle grazing, at low intensity, improved the breeding abundance of a common upland passerine, the meadow pipit Anthus pratensis, after two years. Plots stocked with sheep alone (at high or low density) or not stocked at all held fewer pipit territories. Despite a year-on-year decline in pairs of meadow pipits in intensively grazed plots, we found no effect of sheep number on breeding abundance. Our results support the hypothesis that mixed species of herbivores generate greater heterogeneity in vegetation structure, which modifies prey availability, resulting in a greater abundance of birds. The results of our study should inform the management of grassland areas and enhance the abundance of some bird species, particularly in areas that have seen significant shifts from mixed livestock grazing to grazing dominated by single species of animals.

  9. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Lun; Wu, Angus; Min, Hua-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO) for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate.

  10. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Lun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate.

  11. Lemhi River Habitat Improvement Study, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorratcaque, Dennis E.

    1986-02-01

    The objective was to develop methods for improving anadromous fish passage in the Lemhi River in east central Idaho. Alternatives assessed include flow concentration, fish screen improvement, groundwater augmentation, groundwater irrigation, water withdrawal reduction, return flow improvement, sprinkler irrigation, storage, and trap and haul. (ACR)

  12. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 1, Oregon, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Ken

    1986-10-01

    The Hot Springs Fork of the Collawash River is a major sub-drainage in the Clackamas River drainage. Emphasis species for natural production are spring chinook, coho salmon, and winter steelhead. Increased natural production appears limited by a lack of quality rearing habitat. Habitat complexity over approximately 70% of accessible area to anadromous fish has been reduced over the last 40 years by numerous factors. Natural passage barriers limit anadromous fish access to over 7 miles of high quality habitat. In the first year of a multi-year effort to improve fish habitat in the Hot Springs Fork drainage, passage enhancement on two tributaries and channel rehabilitation on one of those tributaries was completed. Three waterfalls on Nohorn Creek were evaluated and passage improved on the uppermost waterfall to provide steelhead full access to 2.4 miles of good quality habitat. The work was completed in October 1985 and involved blasting three jump pools and two holding pools into the waterfall. On Pansy Creek, four potential passage barriers were evaluated and passage improvement work conducted on two logjams and one waterfall. Minor modifications were made to a waterfall to increase flow into a side channel which allows passage around the waterfall. Channel rehabilitation efforts on Pansy Creek (RM 0.0 to 0.3) to increase low flow pool rearing habitat and spawning habitat including blasting five pools into areas of bedrock substrate and using a track-mounted backhoe to construct instream structures. On site materials were used to construct three log sills, three boulder berms, a boulder flow deflector, and five log and boulder structures. Also, an alcove was excavated to provide overwinter rearing habitat. Pre-project monitoring consisting of physical and biological data collection was completed in the project area.

  13. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 1996-2003 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R.; Montgomery, Michael; Bailey, Timothy D. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The last Annual Program Report was submitted in 1997, and described projects undertaken in 1995. This report describes Program activities carried out in 2003, along with a summary of projects undertaken during the years 1996 through 2002. The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration agreements, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and re-construction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary table of past projects (1996-2002), along with a text description of more extensive habitat improvement projects, including: (1) Implementation of a four-phased project on the Lobato property (Birch Creek) beginning in 1996 and involving a demonstration bioengineering site and riparian improvements (fencing, planting), (2) Implementation of stable channel design/instream structure placement on the Houser property, East Birch Creek, beginning in 1998, an (3) Implementation of a joint, US Army Corps of Engineers/ODFW (cost share) project beginning in 2001 on the Brogoitti property, East Birch Creek, which involved implementation of stable channel design/construction and riparian improvement treatments.

  14. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Hilaire, Danny R. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Pendleton, OR)

    2006-02-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contractual obligations with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife's (ODFW), Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement Program (Program). The Program works cooperatively with private landowners to develop long-term restoration, under which, passive and active Habitat Improvement Projects are conducted. Historically, projects have included livestock exclusion fencing (passive restoration) to protect riparian habitats, along with the installation of instream structures (active restoration) to address erosion and improve fish habitat. In recent years, the focus of active restoration has shifted to bioengineering treatments and, more recently, to channel re-design and reconstruction aimed at improving fish habitat, by restoring stable channel function. This report provides a summary of Program activities for the 2004 calendar year (January 1 through December 31, 2004), within each of the four main project phases, including: (1) Implementation--Pre-Work, (2) Implementation--On Site Development, (3) Operation and Maintenance, and (4) Monitoring and Evaluation. This report also summarizes Program Administrative, Interagency Coordination, and Public Education activities.

  15. Balancing habitat delivery for breeding marsh birds and nonbreeding waterfowl: An integrated waterbird management and monitoring approach at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Brian W.; Lyons, James E.; Tavernia, Brian G.

    2017-08-23

    The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) in the Mississippi River flood plain of eastern Missouri provides high quality emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat benefitting both nesting marsh birds and migrating waterfowl. Staff of CCNWR manipulate water levels and vegetation in the 17 units of the CCNWR to provide conditions favorable to these two important guilds. Although both guilds include focal species at multiple planning levels and complement objectives to provide a diversity of wetland community types and water regimes, additional decision support is needed for choosing how much emergent marsh and moist-soil habitat should be provided through annual management actions.To develop decision guidance for balanced delivery of high-energy waterfowl habitat and breeding marsh bird habitat, two measureable management objectives were identified: nonbreeding Anas Linnaeus (dabbling duck) use-days and Rallus elegans (king rail) occupancy of managed units. Three different composite management actions were identified to achieve these objectives. Each composite management action is a unique combination of growing season water regime and soil disturbance. The three composite management actions are intense moist-soil management (moist-soil), intermediate moist-soil (intermediate), and perennial management, which idles soils disturbance (perennial). The two management objectives and three management options were used in a multi-criteria decision analysis to indicate resource allocations and inform annual decision making. Outcomes of the composite management actions were predicted in two ways and multi-criteria decision analysis was used with each set of predictions. First, outcomes were predicted using expert-elicitation techniques and a panel of subject matter experts. Second, empirical data from the Integrated Waterbird Management and Monitoring Initiative collected between 2010 and 2013 were used; where data were lacking, expert judgment was used. Also, a

  16. Using modern plant breeding to improve the nutritional and technological qualities of oil crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Denis J.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The last few decades have seen huge advances in our understanding of plant biology and in the development of new technologies for the manipulation of crop plants. The application of relatively straightforward breeding and selection methods made possible the “Green Revolution” of the 1960s and 1970s that effectively doubled or trebled cereal production in much of the world and averted mass famine in Asia. During the 2000s, much attention has been focused on genomic approaches to plant breeding with the deployment of a new generation of technologies, such as marker-assisted selection, next-generation sequencing, transgenesis (genetic engineering or GM and automatic mutagenesis/selection (TILLING, TargetIng Local Lesions IN Genomes. These methods are now being applied to a wide range of crops and have particularly good potential for oil crop improvement in terms of both overall food and non-food yield and nutritional and technical quality of the oils. Key targets include increasing overall oil yield and stability on a per seed or per fruit basis and very high oleic acid content in seed and fruit oils for both premium edible and oleochemical applications. Other more specialised targets include oils enriched in nutritionally desirable “fish oil”-like fatty acids, especially very long chain !-3 acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, or increased levels of lipidic vitamins such as carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienes. Progress in producing such oils in commercial crops has been good in recent years with several varieties being released or at advanced stages of development.

  17. Irrigation Strategies and Crop Breeding As Complementary Measures for Improved Water Management and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, G.; Manzoni, S.; Weih, M.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The projected population growth and changes in climate and dietary habits will further increase the pressure on water resources globally. Within precision farming, a host of technical solutions has been developed to reduce water consumption for agricultural uses. Examples are the shift from scheduled to demand-based irrigation and the use of sophisticated water distribution techniques. The next frontier for a more sustainable agriculture is the combination of reduced water requirements with enhanced ecosystem services. Currently, staple grains are obtained from annuals crops. Enhanced ecosystem services could be obtained shifting from annual to perennial crops, obtained by means of targeted breeding. In fact, perennial plants, with their continuous soil cover and the higher allocation of resources to the below ground, contribute to the reduction of soil erosion, water and nutrient losses, while enhancing carbon sequestration in the root zone. We explore here the implications for water management at the field- to farm-scale of both improved irrigation methods and targeted breeding. A probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development is employed to quantify water requirements and yields and their inter-annual variability, as a function of rainfall patterns, soil and crop features. Optimal irrigation strategies are thus defined in terms of maximization of yield and minimization of required irrigation volumes and their inter-annual variability. The probabilistic model is parameterized based on an extensive meta-analysis of traits of co-generic annual and perennial species (including both selected and wild species) to explore the consequences for water requirements of shifting from annual to perennial crops under current and future climates. The larger and more developed roots of perennial crops may allow a better exploitation of soil water resources than annual species. At the same time, perennial crops may require adequate water supply for

  18. Logging impacts on avian species richness and composition differ across latitudes and foraging and breeding habitat preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A; Martin, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the causes underlying changes in species diversity is a fundamental pursuit of ecology. Animal species richness and composition often change with decreased forest structural complexity associated with logging. Yet differences in latitude and forest type may strongly influence how species diversity responds to logging. We performed a meta-analysis of logging effects on local species richness and composition of birds across the world and assessed responses by different guilds (nesting strata, foraging strata, diet, and body size). This approach allowed identification of species attributes that might underlie responses to this anthropogenic disturbance. We only examined studies that allowed forests to regrow naturally following logging, and accounted for logging intensity, spatial extent, successional regrowth after logging, and the change in species composition expected due to random assembly from regional species pools. Selective logging in the tropics and clearcut logging in temperate latitudes caused loss of species from nearly all forest strata (ground to canopy), leading to substantial declines in species richness (up to 27% of species). Few species were lost or gained following any intensity of logging in lower-latitude temperate forests, but the relative abundances of these species changed substantially. Selective logging at higher-temperate latitudes generally replaced late-successional specialists with early-successional specialists, leading to no net changes in species richness but large changes in species composition. Removing less basal area during logging mitigated the loss of avian species from all forests and, in some cases, increased diversity in temperate forests. This meta-analysis provides insights into the important role of habitat specialization in determining differential responses of animal communities to logging across tropical and temperate latitudes. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  19. Logging impacts on avian species richness and composition differ across latitudes relative to foraging and breeding habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the causes underlying changes in species diversity is a fundamental pursuit of ecology. Animal species richness and composition often change with decreased forest structural complexity associated with logging. Yet differences in latitude and forest type may strongly influence how species diversity responds to logging. We performed a meta-analysis of logging effects on local species richness and composition of birds across the world and assessed responses by different guilds (nesting strata, foraging strata, diet, and body size). This approach allowed identification of species attributes that might underlie responses to this anthropogenic disturbance. We only examined studies that allowed forests to regrow naturally following logging, and accounted for logging intensity, spatial extent, successional regrowth after logging, and the change in species composition expected due to random assembly from regional species pools. Selective logging in the tropics and clearcut logging in temperate latitudes caused loss of species from nearly all forest strata (ground to canopy), leading to substantial declines in species richness (up to 27% of species). Few species were lost or gained following any intensity of logging in lower-latitude temperate forests, but the relative abundances of these species changed substantially. Selective logging at higher-temperate latitudes generally replaced late-successional specialists with early-successional specialists, leading to no net changes in species richness but large changes in species composition. Removing less basal area during logging mitigated the loss of avian species from all forests and, in some cases, increased diversity in temperate forests. This meta-analysis provides insights into the important role of habitat specialization in determining differential responses of animal communities to logging across tropical and temperate latitudes.

  20. Improving wildlife habitat model performance: Sensitivity to the scale and detail of vegetation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lance Jay, Jr.

    Monitoring the impacts of resource use and landscape change on wildlife habitat over large areas is a daunting assignment. Forest land managers could benefit from linking the frequent decisions of resource use (timber harvesting) with a system of wildlife habitat accounting, but to date these tools are not widely available. I examined aspects of wildlife habitat modeling that: (in Chapter 2) could potentially lead to the establishment of wildlife habitat accounting within a resource decision support tool, (in Chapter 3) improve our theoretical understanding and methods to interpret the accuracy of wildlife habitat models, (in Chapter 4) explore the effects of vegetation classification systems on wildlife habitat model results, and (in Chapter 5) show that forest structural estimates from satellite imagery can improve potential habitat distribution models (GAP) for forest bird species. The majority of the analyses in this dissertation were done using a forest resource inventory developed by the State of Michigan (IFMAP). Paired with field vegetation and bird samples from sites across the lower peninsula of Michigan, we compared the relative accuracy of wildlife habitat relationship models built with plot-scale vegetation samples and stand-scale forest inventory maps. Recursive partitioning trees were used to build wildlife habitat models for 30 bird species. The habitat distribution maps from the Michigan Gap Analysis (MIGAP) were used as a baseline for comparison of model accuracy results. Both the plot and stand-scale measurements achieved high accuracy and there were few large differences between plot and stand-scale models for any individual species. Where the plot and stand-scale models were different, they tended to be species associated with mixed habitats. This may be evidence that scale of vegetation measurement has a larger influence on species associated with edges and ecotones. Habitat models that were built solely with land cover data were less accurate

  1. Camas Creek (Meyers Cove) Anadromous Species Habitat Improvement: Annual Report 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaberg, Glen

    1990-06-01

    Populations of wild salmon and steelhead in the Middle Fork of the Salmon River are at historical lows. Until passage and flow problems associated with Columbia River dams are corrected to reduce mortalities of migrating smolts, continuance of habitat enhancements that decrease sediment loads, increase vegetative cover, remove passage barriers, and provide habitat diversity is imperative to maintain surviving populations of these specially adapted fish. In 1987-1988, 4.3 miles of fence was constructed establishing a riparian livestock exclosure. One end-gap and two water-crossing corridors were constructed in 1989 to complete the fence system. Areas within the exclosure have been fertilized to promote tree and shrub root growth and meadow recovery. A stream crossing ford was stabilized with angular cobble. Streambank stabilization/habitat cover work was completed at three sites and three additional habitat structures were placed. Extensive inventories were completed to identify habitat available to anadromous fish. Streambank stabilization work was limited to extremely unstable banks, minimizing radical alterations to an active stream channel. Enhancement activities will improve spawning, incubation, and rearing habitat for wild populations of steelhead trout and chinook salmon. Anadromous species population increases resulting from these enhancement activities will provide partial compensation for downstream losses resulting from hydroelectric developments on the Columbia River system. 10 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Notice of release of iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce breeding lines with improved disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-Il, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  3. Systems Modeling to Improve River, Riparian, and Wetland Habitat Quality and Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alafifi, A.

    2016-12-01

    The suitability of watershed habitat to support the livelihood of its biota primarily depends on managing flow. Ecological restoration requires finding opportunities to reallocate available water in a watershed to increase ecological benefits and maintain other beneficial uses. We present the Watershed Area of Suitable Habitat (WASH) systems model that recommends reservoir releases, streamflows, and water allocations throughout a watershed to maximize the ecosystem habitat quality. WASH embeds and aggregates area-weighted metrics for aquatic, floodplain, and wetland habitat components as an ecosystem objective to maximize, while maintaining water deliveries for domestic and agricultural uses, mass balance, and available budget for restoration actions. The metrics add spatial and temporal functionality and area coverage to traditional habitat quality indexes and can accommodate multiple species of concern. We apply the WASH model to the Utah portion of the Bear River watershed which includes 8 demand sites, 5 reservoirs and 37 nodes between the Utah-Idaho state line and the Great Salt Lake. We recommend water allocations to improve current conservation efforts and show tradeoffs between human and ecosystem uses of water. WASH results are displayed on an open-source web mapping application that allows stakeholders to access, visualize, and interact with the model data and results and compare current and model-recommended operations. Results show that the Bear River is largely developed and appropriated for human water uses. However, increasing reservoirs winter and early spring releases and minimizing late spring spill volumes can significantly improve habitat quality without harming agricultural or urban water users. The spatial and temporal reallocation of spring spills to environmental uses creates additional 70 thousand acres of suitable habitat in the watershed without harming human users. WASH also quantifies the potential environmental gains and losses from

  4. Effect of habitat-improvement thinnings on lumber products from coastal Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis P. Dykstra; Patricia K. Lebow; Stephen Pilkerton; Jamie Barbour; Susan Hummel; Stuart R. Johnston

    2016-01-01

    We selected 66 sample trees from two thinning treatments, each of which was applied at three sites on the Siuslaw National Forest in Oregon. The first commercial thinnings, conducted in 1992 and 1993, had been designed to accelerate the development of large trees with large branches and other old-growth characteristics so as to improve habitat for bird species that...

  5. Cover crops to improve soil health and pollinator habitat in nut orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry. Van Sambeek

    2017-01-01

    Recently several national programs have been initiated calling for improving soil health and creating pollinator habitat using cover crops. Opportunities exist for nut growers to do both with the use of cover crops in our nut orchards. Because we can include perennial ground covers as cover crops, we have even more choices than landowners managing cover crops during...

  6. Evaluating projects for improving fish and wildlife habitat on National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred H. Everest; Daniel R. Talhelm

    1982-01-01

    Recent legislation (PL. 93-452; P.L. 94-588) has emphasized improvement of fish and wildlife habitat on lands of the National Forest System. A sequential procedure has been developed for screening potential projects to identify those producing the greatest fishery benefits. The procedure—which includes program planning, project planning, and intensive benefit/cost...

  7. Improving production efficiency in the presence of genotype by environment interactions in pig genomic selection breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirea, K G; Meuwissen, T H E

    2017-04-01

    We simulated a genomic selection pig breeding schemes containing nucleus and production herds to improve feed efficiency of production pigs that were cross-breed. Elite nucleus herds had access to high-quality feed, and production herds were fed low-quality feed. Feed efficiency in the nucleus herds had a heritability of 0.3 and 0.25 in the production herds. It was assumed the genetic relationships between feed efficiency in the nucleus and production were low (rg  = 0.2), medium (rg  = 0.5) and high (rg  = 0.8). In our alternative breeding schemes, different proportion of production animals were recorded for feed efficiency and genotyped with high-density panel of genetic markers. Genomic breeding value of the selection candidates for feed efficiency was estimated based on three different approaches. In one approach, genomic breeding value was estimated including nucleus animals in the reference population. In the second approach, the reference population was containing a mixture of nucleus and production animals. In the third approach, the reference population was only consisting of production herds. Using a mixture reference population, we generated 40-115% more genetic gain in the production environment as compared to only using nucleus reference population that were fed high-quality feed sources when the production animals were offspring of the nucleus animals. When the production animals were grand offspring of the nucleus animals, 43-104% more genetic gain was generated. Similarly, a higher genetic gain generated in the production environment when mixed reference population was used as compared to only using production animals. This was up to 19 and 14% when the production animals were offspring and grand offspring of nucleus animals, respectively. Therefore, in genomic selection pig breeding programmes, feed efficiency traits could be improved by properly designing the reference population. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Fifteenmile Creek and Trout Creek Basins of Central Oregon: Field Review and Management Recommendations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, J. Boone

    1993-07-01

    A field review of stream habitat improvement project sites in the lower Deschutes River Basin was conducted by riparian ecology, fisheries, and hydrology specialists. Habitat management objectives, limiting factors, project implementation, land use history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer`s field inspections of portions of a particular habitat project, provided the basis for this report.

  9. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  10. A review of studies on breed evaluation and genetic improvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The programmes involved the use of Zebu × Taurine (e.g. White Fulani × West African Shorthorn) crossbreds, exotic × local (e. g. Friesian × Sanga), or purebred exotics (e. g. Friesian). The exotics and their crossses had better growth rates and milk yields than the local or indigenous breeds. The former genetic groups also ...

  11. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  12. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated

  13. Challenges in Aquatic Physical Habitat Assessment: Improving Conservation and Restoration Decisions for Contemporary Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A. Hubbart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attribution of in-stream biological impairment to anthropogenic activities and prioritization for restoration and/or conservation can be challenging in contemporary mixed-land-use watersheds. Critical information necessary to improve decision making can be costly and labor intensive, and thus unobtainable for many municipalities. A reduced cost, rapid stream physical habitat assessment (rPHA can yield information that, when paired with land use data may reveal causal patterns in aquatic physical habitat degradation, and thus assist targeting sites for restoration. However, a great deal of work is needed to reduce associated costs, and validate the potential of rPHA for documenting fine-scale incremental change in physical habitat conditions in complex contemporary watersheds. The following commentary serves to draw attention to rPHA challenges and research needs including (but not limited to field-based validation and optimization of new remote sensing technologies, evaluation of the accuracy and representativeness of rapid vegetation survey methods, refinement of analytical methods, and consideration of legacy land use impacts and hydrologic system evolution in rPHA results interpretation. Considering the value of rPHA-generated data for improvement of watershed resource management, such challenges constitute timely, high-impact research opportunities for investigators wishing to advance complex, contemporary aquatic ecosystem management.

  14. A survey of current breeding habitats: Chapter 5 in Status, ecology and conservation of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (RMRS-GTR-60)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogge, Mark K.; Marshall, Robert M.; Finch, Deborah M.; Stoleson, Scott H.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of a species across a landscape depends, in part, on the distribution and abundance of appropriate habitat. If basic resource needs such as food, water, and cover are not present, then that species is excluded from the area. Scarcity of appropriate habitat is generally the key reason for the status of most rare and endangered species. An understanding of an endangered species’ habitat characteristics is crucial to effective management, conservation and recovery.

  15. Technological advances in temperate hardwood tree improvement including breeding and molecular marker applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Keith E. Woeste; G. Vengadesan

    2007-01-01

    Hardwood forests and plantations are an important economic resource for the forest products industry worldwide and to the international trade of lumber and logs. Hardwood trees are also planted for ecological reasons, for example, wildlife habitat, native woodland restoration, and riparian buffers. The demand for quality hardwood from tree plantations will continue to...

  16. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    in rice breeding programs aimed at improving blast resistance in this species. We also discuss the various advantages, disadvantages and uses of microsatellite markers relative to other molecular marker types.

  17. The Importance of Providing Multiple-Channel Sections in Dredging Activities to Improve Fish Habitat Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Pin Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After Typhoon Morakot, dredging engineering was conducted while taking the safety of humans and structures into consideration, but partial stream reaches were formed in the multiple-channel sections in Cishan Stream because of anthropogenic and natural influences. This study mainly explores the distribution of each fish species in both the multiple- and single-channel sections in the Cishan Stream. Parts of the environments did not exhibit significant differences according to a one-way ANOVA comparing the multiple- and single-channel sections, but certain areas of the multiple-channel sections had more diverse habitats. Each fish species was widely distributed by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the multiple-channel sections as compared to those in the single-channel sections. In addition, according to the principal component analysis, each fish species has a preferred environment, and all of them have a wide choice of habitat environments in the multiple-channel sections. Finally, the existence of multiple-channel sections could significantly affect the existence of the fish species under consideration in this study. However, no environmental factors were found to have an influence on fish species in the single-channel sections, with the exception of Rhinogobius nantaiensis. The results show that providing multiple-channel sections in dredging activities could improve fish habitat environments.

  18. Improving predictive mapping of deep-water habitats: Considering multiple model outputs and ensemble techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Katleen; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Roberts, J. Murray; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2016-07-01

    In the deep sea, biological data are often sparse; hence models capturing relationships between observed fauna and environmental variables (acquired via acoustic mapping techniques) are often used to produce full coverage species assemblage maps. Many statistical modelling techniques are being developed, but there remains a need to determine the most appropriate mapping techniques. Predictive habitat modelling approaches (redundancy analysis, maximum entropy and random forest) were applied to a heterogeneous section of seabed on Rockall Bank, NE Atlantic, for which landscape indices describing the spatial arrangement of habitat patches were calculated. The predictive maps were based on remotely operated vehicle (ROV) imagery transects high-resolution autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) sidescan backscatter maps. Area under the curve (AUC) and accuracy indicated similar performances for the three models tested, but performance varied by species assemblage, with the transitional species assemblage showing the weakest predictive performances. Spatial predictions of habitat suitability differed between statistical approaches, but niche similarity metrics showed redundancy analysis and random forest predictions to be most similar. As one statistical technique could not be found to outperform the others when all assemblages were considered, ensemble mapping techniques, where the outputs of many models are combined, were applied. They showed higher accuracy than any single model. Different statistical approaches for predictive habitat modelling possess varied strengths and weaknesses and by examining the outputs of a range of modelling techniques and their differences, more robust predictions, with better described variation and areas of uncertainties, can be achieved. As improvements to prediction outputs can be achieved without additional costly data collection, ensemble mapping approaches have clear value for spatial management.

  19. Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

    2013-03-01

    Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency.

  20. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  1. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  2. In situ earthworm breeding in orchards significantly improves the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huimin; Zhang, Jia-En; Guo, Lei; Zhao, Benliang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four fertilizer applications-control (C), chemical fertilizer (F), compost (O), and in situ earthworm breeding (E)-on the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, 5 g plant(-1) urea (CH4N2O, %N = 46.3%) and 100 g plant(-1) microelement fertilizer was applied to each treatment. The fertilizer applications of these four treatments are different from each other. The results showed that the E treatment had the highest growth parameters over the whole growth period. At 127 days after transplantation, the order of plant heights from greatest to smallest was E > F > O > C, and the stem diameters were E > F > O > C, with significant differences between all treatments. Soluble-solid, sugar, vitamin C, and protein content significantly increased in the E treatment. In addition, the total acid and the electrical conductivity of the fruit significantly decreased in the E treatment. Fruit firmness clearly increased in the O treatment, and decreased in the F treatment. The fresh individual fruit weights, fruit numbers, and total yields were greatly improved in the F and E treatments, and the total yield of the E treatment was higher than that in the F treatment. In conclusion, the in situ earthworm breeding treatment performed better than conventional compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, in situ earthworm breeding may be a potential organic fertilizer application in orchards because it not only improves the fruit quality and yield but also reduces the amount of organic wastes from agriculture as a result of the activities of earthworms.

  3. Silvicultural and agronomic practices for improving Tuber magnatum habitat in natural woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaferro F

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003 IPLA is taking part, in the project “Innovative interventions for the natural habitat protection and connection in order to create an ecological network” promoted by GAL Alta Langa. The final aim of the project, that has finished at the end of 2006, is to realize an ecological network where the elements are also truffi�res in which management practices are carried out in order to improve the Tuber magnatum Pico habitat. Using two SIR (Site of regional interest, located in Langa, as core areas three truffi�res have been selected; since spring 2004, the experimental activities have been carried out. The first truffi�res (Barbaresco, CN is located in a mixed white poplar wood with black locust. The first practices were the trees and shrubs thinning in order to increase the light and water availability and improve the organic matter cycle. The second one (Monchiero-CN is an oak (Quercus robur and black poplar wood of limited extension (less than 1000 square meters. Here the first practices were the shrubs thinning and the digging of narrow channels in contour in order to make easier the soil wetting. The last truffi�res (Murazzano-CN is a young black poplar wood grown after the cutting of some big trees; here at first Rubus sp., that covers a great part of the undergrowth, has been cut. This first management practices gave good results and the experimental activities will be carried on.

  4. Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia Achieved Modest Genetic Improvement of 74 Dog Breeds over 40 Years in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Qian; Todhunter, Rory J.; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2013-01-01

    Hip (HD) and Elbow Dysplasia (ED) are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV). A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone. PMID:24124555

  5. Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia achieved modest genetic improvement of 74 dog breeds over 40 years in USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Hou

    Full Text Available Hip (HD and Elbow Dysplasia (ED are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV. A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone.

  6. Monitoring Hip and Elbow Dysplasia achieved modest genetic improvement of 74 dog breeds over 40 years in USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Wang, Yachun; Lu, Xuemei; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Qian; Todhunter, Rory J; Zhang, Zhiwu

    2013-01-01

    Hip (HD) and Elbow Dysplasia (ED) are two common complex developmental disorders of dogs. In order to decrease their prevalence and severity, the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) has a voluntary registry of canine hip and elbow conformation certified by boarded radiologists. However, the voluntarily reports have been severely biased against exposing dogs with problems, especially at beginning period. Fluctuated by additional influential factors such as age, the published raw scores barely showed trends of improvement. In this study, we used multiple-trait mixed model to simultaneously adjust these factors and incorporate pedigree to derive Estimated Breeding Values (EBV). A total of 1,264,422 dogs from 74 breeds were evaluated for EBVs from 760,455 hip scores and 135,409 elbow scores. These EBVs have substantially recovered the reporting bias and the other influences. Clear and steady trends of genetic improvement were observed over the 40 years since 1970. The total genetic improvements were 16.4% and 1.1% of the phenotypic standard deviation for HD and ED, respectively. The incidences of dysplasia were 0.83% and 2.08%, and the heritabilities were estimated as 0.22 and 0.17 for hip and elbow scores, respectively. The genetic correlation between them was 0.12. We conclude that EBV is more effective than reporting raw phenotype. The weak genetic correlation suggested that selection based on hip scores would also slightly improve elbow scores but it is necessary to allocate effort toward improvement of elbow scores alone.

  7. Establishing quantitative habitat targets for a "Critically Endangered" neotropical migrant (golden-cheeked warbler Dendroica chrysoparia) during the non-breeding season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. King; Carlin C. Chandler; John H. Rappole; Richard B. Chandler; David W. Mehlman

    2012-01-01

    The Golden-cheeked Warbler Dendroica chrysoparia is a federally endangered Neotropical migrant that inhabits montane pine-oak forests in Mexico and northern Central America during the non-breeding season. Although it is known that Golden-cheeked Warblers are closely associated with ‘encino’ oaks (...

  8. Improvement of non-key traits in radiata pine breeding programme when long-term economic importance is uncertain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    Full Text Available Diameter at breast height (DBH, wood density (DEN and predicted modulus of elasticity (PME are considered as 'key traits' (KT in the improvement in radiata pine breeding programmes in New Zealand. Any other traits which are also of interest to radiata pine breeders and forest growers are called 'non-key traits' (NKTs. External resin bleeding (ERB, internal checking (IC, number of heartwood rings (NHR are three such non-key traits which affect wood quality of radiata pine timber. Economic importance of the KTs and NKTs is hard to define in radiata pine breeding programmes due to long rotation period. Desired-gain index (DGIs and robust selection were proposed to incorporate NKTs into radiata pine breeding programme in order to deal with the uncertainty of economic importance. Four desired-gain indices A-D were proposed in this study. The desired-gain index A (DGI-A emphasized growth and led to small decrease in ERB and small increase in IC and NHR. The expected genetic gains of all traits in the desired-gain index B (DGI-B were in the favourable directions (positive genetic gains in the key traits and negative genetic gains in the non-key traits. The desired-gain index C (DGI-C placed emphasis on wood density, leading to favourable genetic gain in the NKTs but reduced genetic gains for DBH and PME. The desired-gain index D (DGI-D exerted a bit more emphasis on the non-key traits, leading large favourable reduction in the non-key traits and lower increase in the key traits compared with the other DGIs. When selecting both the key traits and the non-key traits, the average EBVs of six traits were all in the same directions as the expected genetic gains except for DBH in the DGI-D. When the key traits were measured and selected, internal checking always had a negative (favourable genetic gain but ERB and NHR had unfavourable genetic gain in the most of time. After removing some individuals with high sensitivity to the change of economic weights

  9. Habitat mosaics and path analysis can improve biological conservation of aquatic biodiversity in ecosystems with low-head dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2017-11-14

    Conserving native biodiversity depends on restoring functional habitats in the face of human-induced disturbances. Low-head dams are a ubiquitous human impact that degrades aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To improve our understanding of how low-head dams impact habitat and associated biodiversity, our research examined complex interactions among three spheres of the total environment. i.e., how low-head dams (anthroposphere) affect aquatic habitat (hydrosphere), and native biodiversity (biosphere) in streams and rivers. Creation of lake-like habitats upstream of low-head dams is a well-documented major impact of dams. Alterations downstream of low head dams also have important consequences, but these downstream dam effects are more challenging to detect. In a multidisciplinary field study at five dammed and five undammed sites within the Neosho River basin, KS, we tested hypotheses about two types of habitat sampling (transect and mosaic) and two types of statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and path analysis). We used fish as our example of biodiversity alteration. Our research provided three insights that can aid environmental professionals who seek to conserve and restore fish biodiversity in aquatic ecosystems threatened by human modifications. First, a mosaic approach identified habitat alterations below low-head dams (e.g. increased proportion of riffles) that were not detected using the more commonly-used transect sampling approach. Second, the habitat mosaic approach illustrated how low-head dams reduced natural variation in stream habitat. Third, path analysis, a statistical approach that tests indirect effects, showed how dams, habitat, and fish biodiversity interact. Specifically, path analysis revealed that low-head dams increased the proportion of riffle habitat below dams, and, as a result, indirectly increased fish species richness. Furthermore, the pool habitat that was created above low-head dams dramatically decreased fish species richness

  10. Perspectives to breed for improved baking quality wheat varieties adapted to organic growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Aart M; Struik, Paul C; van Bueren, Edith T Lammerts

    2012-01-30

    Northwestern European consumers like their bread to be voluminous and easy to chew. These attributes require a raw material that is rich in protein with, among other characteristics, a suitable ratio between gliadins and glutenins. Achieving this is a challenge for organic growers, because they lack cultivars that can realise high protein concentrations under the relatively low and variable availability of nitrogen during the grain-filling phase common in organic farming. Relatively low protein content in wheat grains thus needs to be compensated by a high proportion of high-quality protein. Organic farming therefore needs cultivars with genes encoding for optimal levels of glutenins and gliadins, a maximum ability for nitrogen uptake, a large storage capacity of nitrogen in the biomass, an adequate balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a high nitrogen translocation efficiency for the vegetative parts into the grains during grain filling and an efficient conversion of nitrogen into high-quality proteins. In this perspective paper the options to breed and grow such varieties are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Early Growth Improvement Of Sugarcane Bud Ps-881 Through Cattle Breeding Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of cattle breeding in addition to giving a positive impact providing main products such as meat and milk also have the another advance. As matter of fact the livestock business must produce waste. Within use appropriate technology by utilizing cattle liquid waste into fertilizer material after going through the processing or fermentation process to become an organic fertilizer that is beneficial to the plant. This study proposed to carry out the effect of POC concentration of cattle urine on the germination rate of sugarcane bud that is more effective and efficient. The experiment was conducted at Experimental Garden of Agricultural Faculty at the University of Merdeka Surabaya with an elevation of 5 meters above sea level. This research used Randomized Block Design RAK with 1 treatment factor. The POC concentration of cattle urine P consisted of 8 treatment levels ie 0 ml 10 ml 20 ml 30 ml 40 ml 50 ml 60 ml and 70 ml POC per liter of water. This research revealed two results first the significant influence of POC concentration of cow urine on increasing growth of sugarcane bud plant on the variables studied including bud length root number and dry weight per plant during germination period of sugarcane plant. Second The highest value achieved by treatment P7 is the concentration of 70 ml of POC of cow urine per liter of water at all observation parameters.

  12. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  13. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins of Eastern Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Platts, William S.; Kauffman, J. Boone

    1991-10-01

    The restoration of vegetation adapted to riparian environments and the natural succession of riparian plant communities is necessary to recreate sustainable salmonid habitat and should be the focal point for fish habitat improvement programs. In mid-August of 1991, a field review of 16 Salmon habitat improvement sites in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins in Eastern Oregon was undertaken. The review team visited various types of fish habitat improvements associated with a wide range of reach types, geology, channel gradients, stream sizes, and vegetation communities. Enhancement objectives, limiting factors, landuse history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer's field inspection of portions of a particular habitat improvement project, provided the basis for the following report. This report that follows is divided into four sections: (1) Recommendations, (2) Objectives, (3) Discussion and Conclusions, and (4) Site Comments. The first section represents a synthesis of major recommendations that were developed during this review. The remaining sections provide more detailed information and comments related to specific aspects of the field review.

  14. Application of remotely sensed multispectral data to automated analysis of marshland vegetation. Inference to the location of breeding habitats of the salt marsh mosquito (Aedes Sollicitans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibula, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques used for the automated classification of marshland vegetation and for the color-coded display of remotely acquired data to facilitate the control of mosquito breeding are presented. A multispectral scanner system and its mode of operation are described, and the computer processing techniques are discussed. The procedures for the selection of calibration sites are explained. Three methods for displaying color-coded classification data are presented.

  15. Changes in potential habitat of 147 North American breeding bird species in response to redistribution of trees and climate following predicted climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Matthew P. Peters

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that organisms have already begun to respond to global climate change. Advances in our knowledge of how climate shapes species distributional patterns has helped us better understand the response of birds to climate change. However, the distribution of birds across the landscape is also driven by biotic and abiotic components, including habitat...

  16. Genome-wide scan for seed composition provides insights into the improvement of soybean quality and the impacts of domestication and modern breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is a world-widely grown major crop rich in both protein and oil. Improvement of seed nutrients has long been one of the most important breeding objectives in soybean. To better understand the genetic architecture of the traits for improvement, we conducted genome-w...

  17. Breeding of lager yeast with Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves stress resistance and fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Sanchez, Rosa; Solodovnikova, Natalia; Wendland, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

    Lager beer brewing relies on strains collectively known as Saccharomyces carlsbergensis, which are hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus-like strains. Lager yeasts are particularly adapted to low-temperature fermentations. Selection of new yeast strains for improved traits or fermentation performance is laborious, due to the allotetraploid nature of lager yeasts. Initially, we have generated new F1 hybrids by classical genetics, using spore clones of lager yeast and S. cerevisiae and complementation of auxotrophies of the single strains upon mating. These hybrids were improved on several parameters, including growth at elevated temperature and resistance against high osmolarity or high ethanol concentrations. Due to the uncertainty of chromosomal make-up of lager yeast spore clones, we introduced molecular markers to analyse mating-type composition by PCR. Based on these results, new hybrids between a lager and an ale yeast strain were isolated by micromanipulation. These hybrids were not subject to genetic modification. We generated and verified 13 hybrid strains. All of these hybrid strains showed improved stress resistance as seen in the ale parent, including improved survival at the end of fermentation. Importantly, some of the strains showed improved fermentation rates using 18° Plato at 18-25°C. Uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance was observed mostly from the S. cerevisiae parent. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Can Cultivars from participatory plant breeding improve seed provision to small-scale farmers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almekinders, C.J.M.; Thiele, G.; Danial, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    Seed provision for small-scale farmers deals with multiple constraints. These include, on the supply side, high seed production costs and poor adaptedness of the cultivars, and on the demand side, anticyclical demand and low and variable sales. Approaches to improve seed provision to this sector of

  19. Identifying keystone habitats with a mosaic approach can improve biodiversity conservation in disturbed ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sean M; Mather, Martha E; Smith, Joseph M; Fencl, Jane S

    2017-07-28

    Conserving native biodiversity in the face of human- and climate-related impacts is a challenging and globally important ecological problem that requires an understanding of spatially connected, organismal-habitat relationships. Globally, a suite of disturbances (e.g., agriculture, urbanization, climate change) degrades habitats and threatens biodiversity. A mosaic approach (in which connected, interacting collections of juxtaposed habitat patches are examined) provides a scientific foundation for addressing many disturbance-related, ecologically based conservation problems. For example, if specific habitat types disproportionately increase biodiversity, these keystones should be incorporated into research and management plans. Our sampling of fish biodiversity and aquatic habitat along ten 3-km sites within the Upper Neosho River subdrainage, KS, from June-August 2013 yielded three generalizable ecological insights. First, specific types of mesohabitat patches (i.e., pool, riffle, run, and glide) were physically distinct and created unique mosaics of mesohabitats that varied across sites. Second, species richness was higher in riffle mesohabitats when mesohabitat size reflected field availability. Furthermore, habitat mosaics that included more riffles had greater habitat diversity and more fish species. Thus, riffles (scientific understanding of organismal-habitat relationships, maintain natural biodiversity, advance spatial ecology, and facilitate effective conservation of native biodiversity in human-altered ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Investigation on Agronomical and Quality Characteristics of Improved Clonnes in Origanum (Origanum onites L.) Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    CEYLAN, Ayhan; BAYRAM, Emine; GEREN, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Flora of west and southwest Anatolian regions are very rich in terms of Origanum species. A large amount of Origanum onites L. plants collected from the flora is consumed in Turkey and exported. In order to determine agronomical and technological characteristics of 14 improved clonnes by selection of Origanum onites L. populations collected flora of İzmir, Muğla and Antalya regions this study was conducted under Bornova ecological conditions. According to two years averages; drog herbage and ...

  1. Genoproteomics-assisted improvement of Andrographis paniculata: toward a promising molecular and conventional breeding platform for autogamous plants affecting the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiani, Alireza; Talei, Daryush; Lattoo, Surrinder K; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard; Batley, Jacqueline; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Maziah, Mahmood; Sabu, Kallevettankuzhy K; Abiri, Rambod; Sakuanrungsirikul, Suchirat; Tan, Soon Guan

    2017-09-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees. (AP) is a hermaphroditic, self-compatible, and habitual inbreeding plant. Its main bioactive component is andrographolide, which is capable of inducing autophagic cell death in some human cancer cells and helps fight HIV/AIDS. Increasing the andrographolide content by investigating the genetic mechanisms controlling its biosynthesis in order to improve and develop high-yielding cultivars are the main breeding targets for AP. However, there might exist some limitations or barriers for crossability within AP accessions. Recently, this problem was addressed in AP by using a combination of crossbreeding and biotechnology-aided genetic methods. This review emphasizes that development of a breeding platform in a hard-to-breed plant, such as AP, requires the involvement of a broad range of methods from classical genetics to molecular breeding. To this end, a phenological stage (for example, flowering and stigma development) can be simplified to a quantitative morphological trait (for example, bud or stigma length) to be used as an index to express the highest level of receptivity in order to manage outcrossing. The outcomes of the basic crossability research can be then employed in diallel mating and crossbreeding. This review explains how genomic data could produce useful information regarding genetic distance and its influence on the crossability of AP accessions. Our review indicates that co-dominant DNA markers, such as microsatellites, are also capable of resolving the evolutionary pathway and cryptic features of plant populations and such information can be used to select the best breeding strategy. This review also highlights the importance of proteomic analysis as a breeding tool. In this regard, protein diversification, as well as the impact of normal and stress-responsive proteins on morphometric and physiological behaviors, could be used in breeding programs. These findings have immense potential for improving

  2. Multi-scale habitat selection in highly territorial bird species: Exploring the contribution of nest, territory and landscape levels to site choice in breeding rallids (Aves: Rallidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlikowski, Jan; Chibowski, Piotr; Karasek, Tomasz; Brambilla, Mattia

    2016-05-01

    Habitat selection often involves choices made at different spatial scales, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, and studies that investigate the relative importance of individual scales are rare. We investigated the effect of three spatial scales (landscape, territory, nest-site) on the occurrence pattern of little crake Zapornia parva and water rail Rallus aquaticus at 74 ponds in the Masurian Lakeland, Poland. Habitat structure, food abundance and water chemical parameters were measured at nests and random points within landscape plots (from 300-m to 50-m radius), territory (14-m) and nest-site plots (3-m). Regression analyses suggested that the most relevant scale was territory level, followed by landscape, and finally by nest-site for both species. Variation partitioning confirmed this pattern for water rail, but also highlighted the importance of nest-site (the level explaining the highest share of unique variation) for little crake. The most important variables determining the occurrence of both species were water body fragmentation (landscape), vegetation density (territory) and water depth (at territory level for little crake, and at nest-site level for water rail). Finally, for both species multi-scale models including factors from different levels were more parsimonious than single-scale ones, i.e. habitat selection was likely a multi-scale process. The importance of particular spatial scales seemed more related to life-history traits than to the extent of the scales considered. In the case of our study species, the territory level was highly important likely because both rallids have to obtain all the resources they need (nest site, food and mates) in relatively small areas, the multi-purpose territories they defend.

  3. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  4. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  5. Food science meets plant science: A case study on improved nutritional quality by breeding for glucosinolate retention during food processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennig, K.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.; Bonnema, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional quality of vegetables is affected by several steps in the food chain. Up to now the effects of these different steps are mostly studied separately. We propose the cooperation between plant breeding and food technology by using food technological parameters as breeding traits to identify

  6. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  7. Habitat use of breeding green turtles Chelonia mydas tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park: Making use of local and regional MPAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen; Zawada, David G.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Lidz, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    Use of existing marine protected areas (MPAs) by far-ranging marine turtles can be determined using satellite telemetry. Because of a lack of information on MPA use by marine turtles in the Gulf of Mexico, we used satellite transmitters in 2010 and 2011 to track movements of 11 adult female breeding green turtles (Chelonia mydas) tagged in Dry Tortugas National Park (DRTO), in the Gulf of Mexico, south Florida, USA. Throughout the study period, turtles emerged every 9–18 days to nest. During the intervals between nesting episodes (i.e., inter-nesting periods), the turtles consistently used a common core-area within the DRTO boundary, determined using individual 50% kernel-density estimates (KDEs). We mapped the area in DRTO where individual turtle 50% KDEs overlapped using the USGS Along-Track Reef-Imaging System, and determined the diversity and distribution of various benthic-cover types within the mapped area. We also tracked turtles post-nesting as they transited to foraging sites 5–282 km away from tagging beaches; these sites were located both within DRTO and in the surrounding area of the Florida Keys and Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), a regional MPA. Year-round residency of 9 out of 11 individuals (82%) both within DRTO and in the FKNMS represents novel non-migratory behavior, which offers an opportunity for conservation of this imperiled species at both local and regional scales. These data comprise the first satellite-tracking results on adult nesting green turtles at this remote study site. Additional tracking could reveal whether the distinct inter-nesting and foraging sites delineated here will be repeatedly used in the future by these and other breeding green turtles.

  8. Narrative plots of teaching mathematics to improve the breed in Colombian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Fernando Guerrero Recalde

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to show the reasons which have led to consider the school as a privileged institution for the civilizing process. In particular understand the reasons which have led to argue that mathematical knowledge are key to the formation of the civilized individual parts. To account for this thesis was chosen in the history of Colombia the period 1873-1960, which have called period of "eugenic math" or "period of improving the race." In this period we are oriented to eliminate those features of our society seen as savage and barbaric speech. Also, this speech was accompanied with the idea of building a new republic from scientific educational devices. The most prominent figure in this period were the german physical and mathematical Julius Sieber.

  9. [Comparison of three approaches to breed industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved ethanol tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Zhao, Xinqing; Kim, Jin-Soo; Bai, Fengwu

    2013-11-01

    Ethanol tolerance is related to the expression of multiple genes, and genome-based engineering approaches are much more efficient than manipulation of single genes. In this study, ultraviolet (UV) mutagenesis, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) air plasma mutagenesis, and artificial transcription factor (ATF) technology were adopted to treat an industrial yeast strain S. cerevisiae Sc4126 to obtain mutants with improved ethanol tolerance. Mutants with high ethanol tolerance were obtained, and the ratio of positive mutants was compared. Among the three approaches, the rate of positive mutation obtained by ATF technology was 10- to 100-folds of that of the two other methods, with highest genetic stability, suggesting the ATF technology promising for rapid alteration of phenotypes of industry yeast strains for efficient ethanol fermentation.

  10. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 2, Idaho, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hair, Don

    1986-09-01

    The individual reports in this volume have been separately abstracted for inclusion in the data base. The reports describe fish habitat enhancement projects on the Lochsa River, Eldorado and Camas Creeks, and the Clearwater River. (ACR)

  11. Shesher and Welala Floodplain Wetlands (Lake Tana, Ethiopia): Are They Important Breeding Habitats for Clarias gariepinus and the Migratory Labeobarbus Fish Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteneh, Wassie; Dejen, Eshete; Getahun, Abebe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the spawning migration of the endemic Labeobarbus species and C. gariepinus from Lake Tana, through Ribb River, to Welala and Shesher wetlands. The study was conducted during peak spawning months (July to October, 2010). Fish were collected through overnight gillnet settings. A total of 1725 specimens of the genus Labeobarbus (13 species) and 506 specimens of C. gariepinus were collected. Six species of Labeobarbus formed prespawning aggregation at Ribb River mouth. However, no Labeobarbus species was found to spawn in the two wetlands. More than 90% of the catch in Welala and Shesher wetlands was contributed by C. gariepinus. This implies that these wetlands are ideal spawning and nursery habitats for C. gariepinus but not for the endemic Labeobarbus species. Except L. intermedius, all the six Labeobarbus species (aggregated at Ribb River mouth) and C. gariepinus (spawning at Shesher and Welala wetlands) were temporally segregated. PMID:22654587

  12. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  13. Population structure of ice-breeding seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corey S; Stirling, Ian; Strobeck, Curtis; Coltman, David W

    2008-07-01

    The development of population genetic structure in ice-breeding seal species is likely to be shaped by a combination of breeding habitat and life-history characteristics. Species that return to breed on predictable fast-ice locations are more likely to exhibit natal fidelity than pack-ice-breeding species, which in turn facilitates the development of genetic differentiation between subpopulations. Other aspects of life history such as geographically distinct vocalizations, female gregariousness, and the potential for polygynous breeding may also facilitate population structure. Based on these factors, we predicted that fast-ice-breeding seal species (the Weddell and ringed seal) would show elevated genetic differentiation compared to pack-ice-breeding species (the leopard, Ross, crabeater and bearded seals). We tested this prediction using microsatellite analysis to examine population structure of these six ice-breeding species. Our results did not support this prediction. While none of the Antarctic pack-ice species showed statistically significant population structure, the bearded seal of the Arctic pack ice showed strong differentiation between subpopulations. Again in contrast, the fast-ice-breeding Weddell seal of the Antarctic showed clear evidence for genetic differentiation while the ringed seal, breeding in similar habitat in the Arctic, did not. These results suggest that the development of population structure in ice-breeding phocid seals is a more complex outcome of the interplay of phylogenetic and ecological factors than can be predicted on the basis of breeding substrate and life-history characteristics.

  14. Mosquito breeding site water temperature observations and simulations towards improved vector-borne disease models for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest O. Asare

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An energy budget model is developed to predict water temperature of typical mosquito larval developmental habitats. It assumes a homogeneous mixed water column driven by empirically derived fluxes. The model shows good agreement at both hourly and daily time scales with 10-min temporal resolution observed water temperatures, monitored between June and November 2013 within a peri-urban area of Kumasi, Ghana. There was a close match between larvae development times calculated using either the model-derived or observed water temperatures. The water temperature scheme represents a significant improvement over assuming the water temperature to be equal to air temperature. The energy budget model requires observed minimum and maximum temperatures, information that is generally available from weather stations. Our results show that hourly variations in water temperature are important for the simulation of aquatic-stage development times. By contrast, we found that larval development is insensitive to sub-hourly variations. Modelling suggests that in addition to water temperature, accurate estimation of degree-day development time is very important to correctly predict the larvae development times. The results highlight the potential of the model to predict water temperature of temporary bodies of surface water. Our study represents an important contribution towards the improvement of weatherdriven dynamical disease models, including those designed for malaria early forecasting systems.

  15. Mosquito breeding site water temperature observations and simulations towards improved vector-borne disease models for Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Ernest O; Tompkins, Adrian M; Amekudzi, Leonard K; Ermert, Volker; Redl, Robert

    2016-03-31

    An energy budget model is developed to predict water temperature of typical mosquito larval developmental habitats. It assumes a homogeneous mixed water column driven by empirically derived fluxes. The model shows good agreement at both hourly and daily time scales with 10-min temporal resolution observed water temperatures, monitored between June and November 2013 within a peri-urban area of Kumasi, Ghana. There was a close match between larvae development times calculated using either the model-derived or observed water temperatures. The water temperature scheme represents a significant improvement over assuming the water temperature to be equal to air temperature. The energy budget model requires observed minimum and maximum temperatures, information that is generally available from weather stations. Our results show that hourly variations in water temperature are important for the simulation of aquatic-stage development times. By contrast, we found that larval development is insensitive to sub-hourly variations. Modelling suggests that in addition to water temperature, accurate estimation of degree-day development time is very important to correctly predict the larvae development times. The results highlight the potential of the model to predict water temperature of temporary bodies of surface water. Our study represents an important contribution towards the improvement of weatherdriven dynamical disease models, including those designed for malaria early forecasting systems.

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Central Quebec: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Central Quebec during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Final Performance Report : Snowy Plover Breeding Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surveys of breeding populations and nesting habitat of the snowy plover were conducted from January to August, 1989 along the Gulf Coast of Florida and Alabama....

  19. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  20. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  1. Improving extinction projections across scales and habitats using the countryside species-area relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Inês Santos; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2017-10-10

    The species-area relationship (SAR) has been often used to project species extinctions as a consequence of habitat loss. However, recent studies have suggested that the SAR may overestimate species extinctions, at least in the short-term. We argue that the main reason for this overestimation is that the classic SAR ignores the persistence of species in human-modified habitats. We use data collected worldwide to analyse what is the fraction of bird and plant species that remain in different human-modified habitats at the local scale after full habitat conversion. We observe that both taxa have consistent responses to the different land-use types, with strongest reductions in species richness in cropland across the globe, and in pasture in the tropics. We show that the results from these studies cannot be linearly scaled from plots to large regions, as this again overestimates the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity. The countryside SAR provides a unifying framework to incorporate both the effect of species persistence in the landscape matrix and the non-linear response of the proportion of species extinctions to sampling area, generating more realistic projections of biodiversity loss.

  2. Estimating habitat carrying capacity for migrating and wintering waterfowl: Considerations, pitfalls and improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher; Dugger, Bruce D.; Brasher, Michael G.; Coluccy, John M.; Cramer, Dane M.; Eadie, John M.; Gray, Matthew J.; Hagy, Heath M.; Livolsi, Mark; McWilliams, Scott R.; Petrie, Matthew; Soulliere, Gregory J.; Tirpak, John M.; Webb, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based habitat conservation planning for migrating and wintering waterfowl in North America is carried out by habitat Joint Venture (JV) initiatives and is based on the premise that food can limit demography (i.e. food limitation hypothesis). Consequently, planners use bioenergetic models to estimate food (energy) availability and population-level energy demands at appropriate spatial and temporal scales, and translate these values into regional habitat objectives. While simple in principle, there are both empirical and theoretical challenges associated with calculating energy supply and demand including: 1) estimating food availability, 2) estimating the energy content of specific foods, 3) extrapolating site-specific estimates of food availability to landscapes for focal species, 4) applicability of estimates from a single species to other species, 5) estimating resting metabolic rate, 6) estimating cost of daily behaviours, and 7) estimating costs of thermoregulation or tissue synthesis. Most models being used are daily ration models (DRMs) whose set of simplifying assumptions are well established and whose use is widely accepted and feasible given the empirical data available to populate such models. However, DRMs do not link habitat objectives to metrics of ultimate ecological importance such as individual body condition or survival, and largely only consider food-producing habitats. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide a possible alternative for creating more biologically realistic models under some conditions; however, ABMs require different types of empirical inputs, many of which have yet to be estimated for key North American waterfowl. Decisions about how JVs can best proceed with habitat conservation would benefit from the use of sensitivity analyses that could identify the empirical and theoretical uncertainties that have the greatest influence on efforts to estimate habitat carrying capacity. Development of ABMs at

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    Key words: Malaria, Anopheles mosquitoes, breeding habitat, physico-chemical properties. INTRODUCTION. Mosquitoes exploit almost all types of lentic aquatic habitats for breeding. Larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes have been found to thrive in aquatic bodies such as fresh or salt water marshes, mangrove swamps, rice ...

  4. Dam operations may improve aquatic habitat and offset negative effects of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjankar, Rohan; Tonina, Daniele; McKean, James A; Sohrabi, Mohammad M; Chen, Quiwen; Vidergar, Dmitri

    2018-02-23

    Dam operation impacts on stream hydraulics and ecological processes are well documented, but their effect depends on geographical regions and varies spatially and temporally. Many studies have quantified their effects on aquatic ecosystem based mostly on flow hydraulics overlooking stream water temperature and climatic conditions. Here, we used an integrated modeling framework, an ecohydraulics virtual watershed, that links catchment hydrology, hydraulics, stream water temperature and aquatic habitat models to test the hypothesis that reservoir management may help to mitigate some impacts caused by climate change on downstream flows and temperature. To address this hypothesis we applied the model to analyze the impact of reservoir operation (regulated flows) on Bull Trout, a cold water obligate salmonid, habitat, against unregulated flows for dry, average, and wet climatic conditions in the South Fork Boise River (SFBR), Idaho, USA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering Rusty Blackbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia Mettke-Hofmann; Paul B. Hamel; Gerhard Hofmann; Theodore J. Zenzal Jr.; Anne Pellegrini; Jennifer Malpass; Megan Garfinkel; Nathan Schiff; Russell Greenberg

    2015-01-01

    Bird habitat quality is often inferred from species abundance measures during the breeding and non-breeding season and used for conservation management decisions. However, during the non-breeding season age and sex classes often occupy different habitats which suggest a need for more habitat-specific data. Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a...

  6. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  7. Non-Invasive Spectral Phenotyping Methods can Improve and Accelerate Cercospora Disease Scoring in Sugar Beet Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Jansen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for Cercospora resistant sugar beet cultivars requires field experiments for testing resistance levels of candidate genotypes in conditions that are close to agricultural cultivation. Non-invasive spectral phenotyping methods can support and accelerate resistance rating and thereby speed up breeding process. In a case study, experimental field plots with strongly infected beet genotypes of different resistance levels were measured with two different spectrometers. Vegetation indices were calculated from measured wavelength signature to determine leaf physiological status, e.g., greenness with the Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf water content with the Leaf Water Index (LWI and Cercospora disease severity with the Cercospora Leaf Spot Index (CLSI. Indices values correlated significantly with visually scored disease severity, thus connecting the classical breeders’ scoring approach with advanced non-invasive technology.

  8. Biofortified Crops Generated by Breeding, Agronomy, and Transgenic Approaches Are Improving Lives of Millions of People around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Garg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification is an upcoming, promising, cost-effective, and sustainable technique of delivering micronutrients to a population that has limited access to diverse diets and other micronutrient interventions. Unfortunately, major food crops are poor sources of micronutrients required for normal human growth. The manuscript deals in all aspects of crop biofortification which includes—breeding, agronomy, and genetic modification. It tries to summarize all the biofortification research that has been conducted on different crops. Success stories of biofortification include lysine and tryptophan rich quality protein maize (World food prize 2000, Vitamin A rich orange sweet potato (World food prize 2016; generated by crop breeding, oleic acid, and stearidonic acid soybean enrichment; through genetic transformation and selenium, iodine, and zinc supplementation. The biofortified food crops, especially cereals, legumes, vegetables, and fruits, are providing sufficient levels of micronutrients to targeted populations. Although a greater emphasis is being laid on transgenic research, the success rate and acceptability of breeding is much higher. Besides the challenges biofortified crops hold a bright future to address the malnutrition challenge.

  9. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  10. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  11. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  13. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370632656

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  14. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  15. Natural transformation in plant breeding - a biotechnological platform for quality improvement of ornamental, agricultural and medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Himmelboe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    the environment and human health. With the aim to develop an alternative to chemical growth regulators, a biotechnological approach without the use of recombinant DNA technology has been developed. In this method, the soil borne bacterium Agrobacterium rhizogenes inserts T-DNA, containing four root oncogenic loci...... be useful in a broader range of application than ornamental breeding. One important aspect of this technology is that the hairy roots can be used directly in the selection proceß as a primary indicator of a succeßful transformation. Thus the technology avoids use of undesired antibiotic resistance marker...

  16. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  18. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  19. The use of agrobiodiversity for plant improvement and the intellectual property paradigm: institutional fit and legal tools for mass selection, conventional and molecular plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Fulya; Dedeurwaerdere, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Focused on the impact of stringent intellectual property mechanisms over the uses of plant agricultural biodiversity in crop improvement, the article delves into a systematic analysis of the relationship between institutional paradigms and their technological contexts of application, identified as mass selection, controlled hybridisation, molecular breeding tools and transgenics. While the strong property paradigm has proven effective in the context of major leaps forward in genetic engineering, it faces a systematic breakdown when extended to mass selection, where innovation often displays a collective nature. However, it also creates partial blockages in those innovation schemes rested between on-farm observation and genetic modification, i.e. conventional plant breeding and upstream molecular biology research tools. Neither overly strong intellectual property rights, nor the absence of well delineated protection have proven an optimal fit for these two intermediary socio-technological systems of cumulative incremental innovation. To address these challenges, the authors look at appropriate institutional alternatives which can create effective incentives for in situ agrobiodiversity conservation and the equitable distribution of technologies in plant improvement, using the flexibilities of the TRIPS Agreement, the liability rules set forth in patents or plant variety rights themselves (in the form of farmers', breeders' and research exceptions), and other ad hoc reward regimes.

  20. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rohani; Ali, Wan N W M; Nor, Zurainee M; Ismail, Zamree; Hadi, Azahari A; Ibrahim, Mohd N; Lim, Lee H

    2011-12-13

    The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p Eurasian lynx revealed that the measurement of faecal progesterone metabolites led to profiles dissimilar to profiles shown in other felid species, but similar to those from faecal gestagen metabolite analysis in the Iberian lynx. To identify faecal gestagen and oestrogen metabolites a radio-metabolism study was performed. Using the progesterone immunoassay two major progesterone metabolites were detected demonstrating that the assay indeed tracks the relevant metabolites. The oestrogen assay measured authentic 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone, and their conjugates. The analysis of the faecal metabolite composition in samples from early and late pregnancy and lactation particularly revealed a distinct shift in the relation between 17beta-oestradiol and oestrone that changed in favour of oestrone. This

  2. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  3. Accelerating plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bald eagle habitat suitability on Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, D.A. [Univ., of Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The area around Melton Hill Reservoir and sections of the Clinch River along the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide suitable habitat for bald eagles for both breeding and wintering activities. Primary limitations on habitat suitability appear to be human activity in aquatic habitats and along shoreline areas, and human development along shoreline areas. ORR provides the majority of the suitable habitat because shoreline development is very limited. Four eagle management strategies discussed for ORR include planning development away from high-quality habitats, allowing forest stands near water to mature, conducting timber stand improvement to foster growth and development in pines and hardwoods, and using introductions to foster the development of a breeding population. The primary objective of this project was to make a qualitative assessment of bald eagle habitat suitability along Melton Hill Reservoir and the Clinch River and in adjacent areas on the ORR, including the proposed Advanced Neutron Source site. This survey`s aim was to provide ORR managers with an indication of whether suitable habitat exists and, if so, where it occurs on ORR. This information should provide the basis for incorporating eagle management into the overall ORR land management plan.

  5. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation : Fish Passage and Habitat Improvement in the Upper Flathead River Basin, 1991-1996 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knotek, W.Ladd; Deleray, Mark; Marotz, Brian L.

    1997-08-01

    In the past 50 years, dramatic changes have occurred in the Flathead Lake and River system. Degradation of fishery resources has been evident, in part due to deterioration of aquatic habitat and introduction of non-endemic fish and invertebrate species. Habitat loss has been attributed to many factors including the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam, unsound land use practices, urban development, and other anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Fish migration has also been limited by barriers such as dams and impassible culverts. Cumulatively, these factors have contributed to declines in the distribution and abundance of native fish populations. Recovery of fish populations requires that a watershed approach be developed that incorporates long-term aquatic habitat needs and promotes sound land use practices and cooperation among natural resource management agencies. In this document, the authors (1) describe completed and ongoing habitat improvement and fish passage activities under the Hungry Horse Fisheries Mitigation Program, (2) describe recently identified projects that are in the planning stage, and (3) develop a framework for identifying prioritizing, implementing, and evaluating future fish habitat improvement and passage projects.

  6. Maine & the Maritimes: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine and the Maritimes during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Road to the Future: Strategies for Wildlife Crossings and Youth Empowerment to Improve Wildlife Habitat in Roaded Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dawn Renee

    2010-01-01

    As the footprint of human society expands upon the earth, habitat loss and landscape fragmentation is an increasing global problem. That problem includes loss of native habitats as these areas are harvested, converted to agricultural crops, and occupied by human settlement. Roads increase human access to previously inaccessible areas, encourage…

  8. Managing Intermountain rangelands - improvement of range and wildlife habitats: proceedings; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy Shaw

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings summarizes recent research and existing literature pertaining to the restoration and management of game and livestock ranges in the Intermountain Region. Improved plant materials and planting practices are emphasized. The series of 28 papers was presented at the Restoration of Range and Wildlife Habitat Training Sessions held in Twin Falls, Idaho,...

  9. Composition of breeding bird communities in Gulf Coast Chenier Plain marshes: Effects of winter burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrey, S.W.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh managers along the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain frequently use winter burns to alter marsh vegetation and improve habitat quality for wintering waterfowl. However, effects of these burns on marsh avifauna are not well documented. We recorded abundances of breeding bird species and vegetation structure in burned and unburned control marshes during one breeding season before (1996) and two breeding seasons after (1997, 1998) experimental winter burns. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis to assess the extent and direction of changes in bird community compositions of burned and unburned control marshes and to investigate the influence of vegetation structure on bird community composition. Overall, we found that Seaside Sparrows (Emberizidae: Ammodramus maritimus [Wilson]) and Red-winged Blackbirds and Boat-tailed Grackles (Icteridae: Agelaius phoeniceus [L.] and Quiscalus major Vieillot, respectively) comprised > 85% of observed birds. In burned marshes during the first breeding season following experimental burns (1997), icterid abundance increased while Seaside Sparrow abundance decreased relative to pre-burn (1996) conditions. This pattern was reversed during the second breeding season post-burn. No obvious patterns of change in avian abundance were detected in unburned control marshes over the 3-year period. Qualitative changes in breeding bird community composition were related to effects of winter burning on percent cover of dead vegetation and Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.

  10. Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 6. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production

    OpenAIRE

    LowInputBreeds Consortium,

    2012-01-01

    This 6th newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project is quite a lengthy document reporting on the second Symposium of the LowInputBreeds project, which was held in Hammamet, Tunisia, in May 2012. This issue serves as proceedings of the papers presented as well as progress reports on the four speciesspecific subprojects of LowInputBreeds, which were also presented in Hammamet. The second LowInputBreeds Symposium was held together with the 14th International Seminar of the FAO-CIHEAM Network on...

  11. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  12. Breeding biology and diet of Banded Kestrels Falco zoniventris on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We studied the breeding biology of the Banded Kestrel (Falco zoniventris) in the forest edge habitat of Masoala Peninsula of north-eastern Madagascar from 1997 to 1999. Banded Kestrels begin their breeding season at the end of the wet season during August and the start of the dry season in September. Courtship began ...

  13. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M.; Both, Christiaan

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in

  14. Meat characteristics of chickens from an F1 cross of two improved Spanish breeds depending on slaughter age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. A.; Escoda, L.; Cubilo, M. D.; Tor, M.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Francesch, A.

    2011-07-01

    The present study analysed the meat characteristics of i) improved Castellana Negra chickens slaughtered at 18 weeks (CN-18) and ii) F1 crossbred chickens from improved Castellana Negra hens and improved Penedesenca Negra cocks (CNPN) slaughtered at 12 weeks and 18 weeks of age (young and adult animals, respectively). Purebred and crossbred specimens were compared at similar weights (CN-18 and CNPN-12) and ages (CN-18 and CNPN-18). The protein content of the meat was similar for the three types of animals; heavier animals (CNPN-18) had more fat than those slaughtered at lower weights (CNPN-12 and CN-18). Adults had a higher saturated fatty acid content and the young CNPN chickens had more monounsaturated fatty acids than CN chickens. In the CNPN adults, less water was lost during cooking, which is directly related to the juiciness of the meat. With regard to sensory analysis, a darker colour was observed in the meat as much as the internal fat of adult animals, in addition to greater colour uniformity. The meat of young CNPN birds was juicier, whereas that of the CN chickens was more fibrous. Therefore, we conclude that meat from CNPN chickens presents chemical, physical, and sensorial characteristics that make these animals a genetic base for alternative poultry production. (Author) 42 refs.

  15. Landscape selection by piping plovers has implications for measuring habitat and population size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.; Sherfy, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How breeding birds distribute in relation to landscape-scale habitat features has important implications for conservation because those features may constrain habitat suitability. Furthermore, knowledge of these associations can help build models to improve area-wide demographic estimates or to develop a sampling stratification for research and monitoring. This is particularly important for rare species that have uneven distributions across vast areas, such as the federally listed piping plover (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plover). We examined how remotely-sensed landscape features influenced the distribution of breeding plover pairs among 2-km shoreline segments during 2006–2009 at Lake Sakakawea in North Dakota, USA. We found strong associations between remotely-sensed landscape features and plover abundance and distribution (R2 = 0.65). Plovers were nearly absent from segments with bluffs (>25 m elevation increase within 250 m of shoreline). Relative plover density (pairs/ha) was markedly greater on islands (4.84 ± 1.22 SE) than on mainlands (0.85 ± 0.17 SE). Pair numbers increased with abundance of nesting habitat (unvegetated-flat areas β^=0.28±0.08SE ). On islands, pair numbers also increased with the relative proportion of the total area that was habitat ( β^=3.27±0.46SE ). Our model could be adapted to estimate the breeding population of plovers or to make predictions that provide a basis for stratification and design of future surveys. Knowledge of landscape features, such as bluffs, that exclude use by birds refines habitat suitability and facilitates more accurate estimates of habitat and population abundance, by decreasing the size of the sampling universe. Furthermore, techniques demonstrated here are applicable to other vast areas where birds breed in sparse or uneven densities.

  16. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A test of 3 models of Kirtland's warbler habitat suitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Richard R. Buech

    1996-01-01

    We tested 3 models of Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) habitat suitability during a period when we believe there was a surplus of good quality breeding habitat. A jack pine canopy-cover model was superior to 2 jack pine stem-density models in predicting Kirtland's warbler habitat use and non-use. Estimated density of birds in high...

  18. Habitat-specific foraging of prothonotary warblers: Deducing habitat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Foraging behavior often reflects food availability in predictable ways. For example, in habitats where food availability is high, predators should attack prey more often and move more slowly than in habitats where food availability is low. To assess relative food availability and habitat quality, I studied the foraging behavior of breeding Prothonotary Warblers (Protonotaria citrea) in two forest habitat types, cypress-gum swamp forest and coastal-plain levee forest. I quantified foraging behavior with focal animal sampling and continuous recording during foraging bouts. I measured two aspects of foraging behavior: 1) prey attack rate (attacks per minute), using four attack maneuvers (glean, sally, hover, strike), and 2) foraging speed (movements per minute), using three types of movement (hop, short flight [???1 m], long flight [>1 m]). Warblers attacked prey more often in cypress-gum swamp forest than in coastal-plain levee forest. Foraging speed, however, was not different between habitats. I also measured foraging effort (% time spent foraging) and relative frequency of attack maneuvers employed in each habitat; neither of these variables was influenced by forest type. I conclude that Prothonotary Warblers encounter more prey when foraging in cypress-gum swamps than in coastal-plain levee forest, and that greater food availability results in higher density and greater reproductive success for birds breeding in cypress-gum swamp.

  19. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinger, Johannes; Wolter, Christian; Kail, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream) to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049) and topological variables (e.g., stream order) were included (AUC = +0.014). Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity) were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types) and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform) were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i) the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables) to predict fish presence, (ii) the

  20. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Radinger

    Full Text Available Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049 and topological variables (e.g., stream order were included (AUC = +0.014. Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables to predict fish presence, (ii the

  1. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radinger, Johannes; Wolter, Christian; Kail, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream) to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049) and topological variables (e.g., stream order) were included (AUC = +0.014). Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species’ presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity) were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types) and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform) were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i) the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables) to predict fish presence, (ii) the

  2. Productive responses of breeding Cashmere goats and their kids to different stocking rates on improved upland pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, R; Moreno-Gonzalo, J; López López, C; Ferreira, L M M; García, U; Ferre, I; Osoro, K

    2016-03-01

    Although goat meat production could be an option for diversification in improved upland pastures in northern Spain, precise information on the optimal grazing management to enhance goat performance and maximize production per unit land area is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 stocking rates, high stocking rate (HSR; 20 goats/ha), medium stocking rate (MSR; 15 goats/ha), and low stocking rate (LSR; 10 goats/ha), on gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections and productive responses of Cashmere goats grazing such pastures. Treatments were replicated twice on 6 paddocks sown with and and with a high presence of the native grass . The experiment lasted 3 grazing seasons (from spring to autumn). Pastures were sampled for sward height and botanical and proximate composition. Body weight and BCS changes of goats were monitored and GI nematode infections were assessed by fecal egg counts (FEC). The established treatments resulted in lower mean sward height in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (9.6, 11.5, and 14.4 cm, respectively; productivity per unit land area in this type of upland pastures, but stricter controls of parasite levels during the grazing season would be necessary to avoid production losses, unless alternative nutraceuticals are provided.

  3. Large forest patches promote breeding success of a terrestrial mammal in urban landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Soga

    Full Text Available Despite a marked increase in the focus toward biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, studies that confirm species breeding success are scarce and limited. In this paper, we asked whether local (area of forest patches and landscape (amount of suitable habitat surrounding of focal patches factors affect the breeding success of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Tokyo, Central Japan. The breeding success of raccoon dogs is easy to judge as adults travel with pups during the breeding season. We selected 21 forest patches (3.3-797.8 ha as study sites. In each forest patch, we used infra-red-triggered cameras for a total of 60 camera days per site. We inspected each photo to determine whether it was of an adult or a pup. Although we found adult raccoon dogs in all 21 forest patches, pups were found only in 13 patches. To estimate probability of occurrence and detection for raccoon in 21 forest fragments, we used single season site occupancy models in PRESENCE program. Model selection based on AIC and model averaging showed that the occupancy probability of pups was positively affected by patch area. This result suggests that large forests improve breeding success of raccoon dogs. A major reason for the low habitat value of small, isolated patches may be the low availability of food sources and the high risk of being killed on the roads in such areas. Understanding the effects of local and landscape parameters on species breeding success may help us to devise and implement effective long-term conservation and management plans.

  4. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  5. Habitat-specific breeder survival of Florida Scrub-Jays: Inferences from multistate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, D.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Carter, G.M.; Oddy, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying habitat-specific survival and changes in habitat quality within disturbance-prone habitats is critical for understanding population dynamics and variation in fitness, and for managing degraded ecosystems. We used 18 years of color-banding data and multistate capture-recapture models to test whether habitat quality within territories influences survival and detection probability of breeding Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and to estimate bird transition probabilities from one territory quality state to another. Our study sites were along central Florida's Atlantic coast and included two of the four largest metapopulations within the species range. We developed Markov models for habitat transitions and compared these to bird transition probabilities. Florida Scrub-Jay detection probabilities ranged from 0.88 in the tall territory state to 0.99 in the optimal state; detection probabilities were intermediate in the short state. Transition probabilities were similar for birds and habitat in grid cells mapped independently of birds. Thus, bird transitions resulted primarily from habitat transitions between states over time and not from bird movement. Survival ranged from 0.71 in the short state to 0.82 in the optimal state, with tall states being intermediate. We conclude that average Florida Scrub-Jay survival will remain at levels that lead to continued population declines because most current habitat quality is only marginally suitable across most of the species range. Improvements in habitat are likely to be slow and difficult because tall states are resistant to change and the optimal state represents an intermediate transitional stage. The multistate modeling approach to quantifying survival and habitat transition probabilities is useful for quantifying habitat transition probabilities and comparing them to bird transition probabilities to test for habitat selection in dynamic environments. ?? 2009 by the Ecological society ot America.

  6. Predicting breeding bird occurrence by stand- and microhabitat-scale features in even-aged stands in the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M.E.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, G.W.; Simpson, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial scale is an important consideration when managing forest wildlife habitat, and models can be used to improve our understanding of these habitats at relevant scales. Our objectives were to determine whether stand- or microhabitat-scale variables better predicted bird metrics (diversity, species presence, and abundance) and to examine breeding bird response to clearcut size and age in a highly forested landscape. In 2004-2007, vegetation data were collected from 62 even-aged stands that were 3.6-34.6. ha in size and harvested in 1963-1990 on the Monongahela National Forest, WV, USA. In 2005-2007, we also surveyed birds at vegetation plots. We used classification and regression trees to model breeding bird habitat use with a suite of stand and microhabitat variables. Among stand variables, elevation, stand age, and stand size were most commonly retained as important variables in guild and species models. Among microhabitat variables, medium-sized tree density and tree species diversity most commonly predicted bird presence or abundance. Early successional and generalist bird presence, abundance, and diversity were better predicted by microhabitat variables than stand variables. Thus, more intensive field sampling may be required to predict habitat use for these species, and management may be needed at a finer scale. Conversely, stand-level variables had greater utility in predicting late-successional species occurrence and abundance; thus management decisions and modeling at this scale may be suitable in areas with a uniform landscape, such as our study area. Our study suggests that late-successional breeding bird diversity can be maximized long-term by including harvests >10. ha in size into our study area and by increasing tree diversity. Some harvesting will need to be incorporated regularly, because after 15 years, the study stands did not provide habitat for most early successional breeding specialists. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  7. [Progress and countermeasures of Dendrobium officinale breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jin-Ping; He, Bo-wei; Yu, Qiao-xian

    2013-02-01

    The standandized cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials is based on variety. With the rapid development of Dendrobium officinale industry and increasing demand of improved varieties, many studies have concentrated on the variety breeding of D. officinale and subsequently achieved remarkable success. This paper systematically expounds the research progress of D. officinale breeding, e. g. the collection and differentiated evaluation for germplasm, theory and practice for variety breeding, tissue culture and efficient production with low-carbon for germchit, and DNA molecular marker-assisted breeding, and then indicates the main problems of the current breeding of D. officinale. Furthermore, the priorities and keys for the further breeding of D. officinale have been pointed out.

  8. Effects of agri-environmental schemes on farmland birds: do food availability measurements improve patterns obtained from simple habitat models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos; Bravo, Carolina; Alonso, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Studies evaluating agri-environmental schemes (AES) usually focus on responses of single species or functional groups. Analyses are generally based on simple habitat measurements but ignore food availability and other important factors. This can limit our understanding of the ultimate causes determining the reactions of birds to AES. We investigated these issues in detail and throughout the main seasons of a bird's annual cycle (mating, postfledging and wintering) in a dry cereal farmland in a Special Protection Area for farmland birds in central Spain. First, we modeled four bird response parameters (abundance, species richness, diversity and “Species of European Conservation Concern” [SPEC]-score), using detailed food availability and vegetation structure measurements (food models). Second, we fitted new models, built using only substrate composition variables (habitat models). Whereas habitat models revealed that both, fields included and not included in the AES benefited birds, food models went a step further and included seed and arthropod biomass as important predictors, respectively, in winter and during the postfledging season. The validation process showed that food models were on average 13% better (up to 20% in some variables) in predicting bird responses. However, the cost of obtaining data for food models was five times higher than for habitat models. This novel approach highlighted the importance of food availability-related causal processes involved in bird responses to AES, which remained undetected when using conventional substrate composition assessment models. Despite their higher costs, measurements of food availability add important details to interpret the reactions of the bird community to AES interventions and thus facilitate evaluating the real efficiency of AES programs. PMID:25165523

  9. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  10. Newsletter of the LowInputBreeds project. Issue 5. EU project LowInputBreeds - Development of integrated livestock breeding and management strategies to improve animal health, product quality and performance in European organic and ‘low input’ milk, meat and egg production

    OpenAIRE

    LowInputBreeds Consortium,

    2011-01-01

    With this newsletter we are informing our readers about progress made in the subprojects of the LowInputBreeds project. Our thematic article in this issue by Ferry Leenstra and Veronika Maurer explains the difference of free range and organic poultry farms and farmers. We would particularly like to draw your attention to the 1st article on page 2 about the next LowInputBreeds symposium which takes place from May 15 to 18 2012 in Tunisia – this is an ideal opportunity to share findings f...

  11. Emperor Penguins Breeding on Iceshelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Trathan, Phil N.; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin’s reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as “near threatened” in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species. PMID:24416381

  12. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  13. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  14. Mapping of mosquito breeding sites in malaria endemic areas in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rohani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS to the study of vector transmitted diseases considerably improves the management of the information obtained from the field survey and facilitates the study of the distribution patterns of the vector species. Methods As part of a study to assess remote sensing data as a tool for vector mapping, geographical features like rivers, small streams, forest, roads and residential area were digitized from the satellite images and overlaid with entomological data. Map of larval breeding habitats distribution and map of malaria transmission risk area were developed using a combination of field data, satellite image analysis and GIS technique. All digital data in the GIS were displayed in the WGS 1984 coordinate system. Six occasions of larval surveillance were also conducted to determine the species of mosquitoes, their characteristics and the abundance of habitats. Results Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected and mapped from 79 and 67 breeding sites respectively. Breeding habitats were located at 100-400 m from human settlement. Map of villages with 400 m buffer zone visualizes that more than 80% of Anopheles maculatus s.s. immature habitats were found within the buffer zone. Conclusions This study amplifies the need for a broadening of the GIS approach which is emphasized with the aim of rejuvenating the dynamic aspect of entomological studies in Malaysia. In fact, the use of such basic GIS platforms promote a more rational basis for strategic planning and management in the control of endemic diseases at the national level.

  15. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  16. Farmer management of gene flow: The impact of gender and breeding system on genetic diversity and crop improvement in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, H.A.C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In many tropical countries we can distinguish two seed systems: a formal seed system (comprising breeding companies and national institutes) and an informal seed system, often called farmer seed system (comprising of all farmer activities related to the transfer of seeds). These two systems are

  17. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  18. The use of clones and dairy cattle breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and

  19. Captive breeding of pangolins: current status, problems and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Liushuai; Gong, Shiping; Wang, Fumin; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Li, Xiaonan; Hou, Fanghui

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are unique placental mammals with eight species existing in the world, which have adapted to a highly specialized diet of ants and termites, and are of significance in the control of forest termite disaster. Besides their ecological value, pangolins are extremely important economic animals with the value as medicine and food. At present, illegal hunting and habitat destruction have drastically decreased the wild population of pangolins, pushing them to the edge of extinction. Captive breeding is an important way to protect these species, but because of pangolin's specialized behaviors and high dependence on natural ecosystem, there still exist many technical barriers to successful captive breeding programs. In this paper, based on the literatures and our practical experience, we reviewed the status and existing problems in captive breeding of pangolins, including four aspects, the naturalistic habitat, dietary husbandry, reproduction and disease control. Some recommendations are presented for effective captive breeding and protection of pangolins.

  20. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  1. Habitat Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data provide information on the relationship between California red-legged frogs and their habitat in a unique ecosystem to better conserve this threatened...

  2. Habitat manipulation influences northern bobwhite resource selection on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Peters, David C.; Unger, Ashley M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2015-01-01

    lacked cover during the non-breeding season. Individuals also selected areas treated with herbicide to control sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) throughout the year. During the breeding season, bobwhites avoided areas burned during the previous dormant season. Habitat quality of reclaimed mine lands may be limited by a lack of shrub cover and extensive coverage of non-native herbaceous vegetation. Managers aiming to increase bobwhite abundance should focus on increasing interspersion of shrub cover, with no area >100 m from shrub cover. We suggest disking and herbicide application to control invasive species and improve the structure and composition of vegetation for bobwhites.

  3. Population size of snowy plovers breeding in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M.; Lyons, James E.; Andres, Brad A.; T-Smith, Elise Elliot; Palacios, Eduardo; Cavitt, John F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Fellows, Suzanne D.; Maty, Kendra; Howe, William H.; Mellink, Eric; Melvin, Stefani; Zimmerman, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Snowy Plovers (Charadrius nivosus) may be one of the rarest shorebirds in North America yet a comprehensive assessment of their abundance and distribution has not been completed. During 2007 and 2008, 557 discrete wetlands were surveyed and nine additional large wetland complexes sampled in México and the USA. From these surveys, a population of 23,555 (95% CI = 17,299 – 29,859) breeding Snowy Plovers was estimated. Combining the estimate with information from areas not surveyed, the total North American population was assessed at 25,869 (95% CI = 18,917 – 32,173). Approximately 42% of all breeding Snowy Plovers in North America resided at two sites (Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma), and 33% of all these were on wetlands in the Great Basin (including Great Salt Lake). Also, coastal habitats in central and southern Texas supported large numbers of breeding plovers. New breeding sites were discovered in interior deserts and highlands and along the Pacific coast of México; approximately 9% of the North American breeding population occurred in México. Because of uncertainties about effects of climate change and current stresses to breeding habitats, the species should be a management and conservation priority. Periodic monitoring should be undertaken at important sites to ensure high quality habitat is available to support the Snowy Plover population.

  4. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  5. Adaptation to climate change--exploring the potential of locally adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2013-06-01

    The livestock sector and agriculture as a whole face unprecedented challenges to increase production while improving the environment. On the basis of a literature review, the paper first discusses challenges related to climate change, food security and other drivers of change in livestock production. On the basis of a recent discourse in ecology, a framework for assessing livestock species' and breeds' vulnerability to climate change is presented. The second part of the paper draws on an analysis of data on breed qualities obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization's Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) to explore the range of adaptation traits present in today's breed diversity. The analysis produced a first mapping of a range of ascribed adaptation traits of national breed populations. It allowed to explore what National Coordinators understand by 'locally adapted' and other terms that describe general adaptation, to better understand the habitat, fodder and temperature range of each species and to shed light on the environments in which targeted search for adaptation traits could focus.

  6. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  7. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  8. Condition varies with habitat choice in postbreeding forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Stoleson

    2013-01-01

    Many birds that are experiencing population declines require extensive tracts of mature forest habitat for breeding. Recent work suggests that at least some may shift their habitat use to early-successional areas after nesting but before migration. I used constant-effort mist netting in regenerating clearcuts (4-8 years postcut) and dense mature-forest understories to...

  9. Songbird use of regenerating forest, glade, and edge habitat types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix D. Fink; Frank R., III Thompson; April A. Tudor

    2006-01-01

    Population numbers of many bird species associated with early-successional or disturbance-dependent habitat types are declining. We used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate hypotheses concerning factors affecting breeding bird densities in different early-successional habitat types. We studied shrubland bird communities in 3- to 5-year-old regenerating forest...

  10. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  11. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose of...

  12. The Breeding Ecology of White-faced Ibis in the Carson River Basin, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To ensure long-term breeding population viability of White-faced Ibis, it may be necessary to develop local water management strategies with consideration of habitat...

  13. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  14. Seasonal variation in coastal marine habitat use by the European shag: Insights from fine scale habitat selection modeling and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Candice; Pinaud, David; Fortin, Matthieu; Maes, Philippe; Callard, Benjamin; Leicher, Marine; Barbraud, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Studies of habitat selection by higher trophic level species are necessary for using top predator species as indicators of ecosystem functioning. However, contrary to terrestrial ecosystems, few habitat selection studies have been conducted at a fine scale for coastal marine top predator species, and fewer have coupled diet data with habitat selection modeling to highlight a link between prey selection and habitat use. The aim of this study was to characterize spatially and oceanographically, at a fine scale, the habitats used by the European Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis in the Special Protection Area (SPA) of Houat-Hœdic in the Mor Braz Bay during its foraging activity. Habitat selection models were built using in situ observation data of foraging shags (transect sampling) and spatially explicit environmental data to characterize marine benthic habitats. Observations were first adjusted for detectability biases and shag abundance was subsequently spatialized. The influence of habitat variables on shag abundance was tested using Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Diet data were finally confronted to habitat selection models. Results showed that European shags breeding in the Mor Braz Bay changed foraging habitats according to the season and to the different environmental and energetic constraints. The proportion of the main preys also varied seasonally. Rocky and coarse sand habitats were clearly preferred compared to fine or muddy sand habitats. Shags appeared to be more selective in their foraging habitats during the breeding period and the rearing of chicks, using essentially rocky areas close to the colony and consuming preferentially fish from the Labridae family and three other fish families in lower proportions. During the post-breeding period shags used a broader range of habitats and mainly consumed Gadidae. Thus, European shags seem to adjust their feeding strategy to minimize energetic costs, to avoid intra-specific competition and to maximize access

  15. Animal breeding in organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, W.J.; Baars, T. (Theodor); Groen, A.F.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Roep, D.

    2001-01-01

    After a general introduction into the available breeding techniques for animal breeding and an overview of the organic principles, points for discussion are identified and scenario's for organically accepted breeding methods are discussed.

  16. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  17. Improved dissolved oxygen status following removal of exotic weed mats in important fish habitat lagoons of the tropical Burdekin River floodplain, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Colton; Burrows, Damien

    2005-01-01

    The Burdekin delta floodplain, north Queensland, is highly modified for agricultural purposes. Riparian condition is very poor and exotic aquatic weeds dominate waterways. Historically, most streams and lagoons were highly seasonal, but those now used for the delivery of irrigation water maintain elevated flows and increased turbidity and nutrient loading. These factors have aided exotic weed growth and many major lagoons are covered by dense water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) mats which greatly reduce dissolved oxygen levels, one of the most important water quality variables for aquatic fauna. Mechanical harvesting of water hyacinth from several of these lagoons resulted in rapid and substantial increases in dissolved oxygen saturation, and improved suitability of the habitat to support fish species. Decrease in dissolved oxygen as water passes sequentially through weed-infested lagoons, justified the approach of harvesting upstream lagoons first, however, the channels that connect these lagoons remain weed-infested and are still impacting upon downstream oxygen levels.

  18. Facilitated by nature and agriculture: performance of a specialist herbivore improves with host-plant life history evolution, domestication, and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Flores, Amanda M; DeWitt, Thomas J; Bernal, Julio S

    2013-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores are predicted to change as plant lineages diversify, and with domestication and subsequent selection and breeding in the case of crop plants. We addressed whether defense against a specialist herbivore declined coincidently with life history evolution, domestication, and breeding within the grass genus Zea (Poaceae). For this, we assessed performance of corn leafhopper (Dalbulus maidis) following colonization of one of four Zea species containing three successive transitions: the evolutionary transition from perennial to annual life cycle, the agricultural transition from wild annual grass to primitive crop cultivar, and the agronomic transition from primitive to modern crop cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was measured through seven variables relevant to development speed, survivorship, fecundity, and body size. The plants included in our study were perennial teosinte (Zea diploperennis), Balsas teosinte (Zea mays parviglumis), a landrace maize (Zea mays mays), and a hybrid maize. Perennial teosinte is a perennial, iteroparous species, and is basal in Zea; Balsas teosinte is an annual species, and the progenitor of maize; the landrace maize is a primitive, genetically diverse cultivar, and is ancestral to the hybrid maize; and, the hybrid maize is a highly inbred, modern cultivar. Performance of corn leafhopper was poorest on perennial teosinte, intermediate on Balsas teosinte and landrace maize, and best on hybrid maize, consistent with our expectation of declining defense from perennial teosinte to hybrid maize. Overall, our results indicated that corn leafhopper performance increased most with the agronomic transition, followed by the life history transition, and least with the domestication transition.

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  20. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  1. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    available to quantify changes in managed habitats for least terns and piping plovers, so that management effectiveness can be evaluated. Extremely high flows and flooding of the Missouri River in 1997 created and improved vast amounts of nesting habitat for least terns and piping plovers. Since 1998, there has been an apparent loss and/or degradation of habitat throughout the river system. However, during the same timeframe reservoir water levels have declined, exposing extensive piping plover breeding habitat. For example, 64 percent of adult piping plovers using the Missouri River in 2005 were observed on reservoir habitats, and 43 percent were observed on Lake Sakakawea (Threatened and Endangered Species Section, Omaha District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, unpub. data, 2006). Given the vast dynamics of this river and reservoir system, systemwide monitoring of habitat is clearly needed for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to employ adaptive management (with respect to river operations) to provide most optimal conditions for the maintenance of breeding habitat of least terns and piping plovers. As a result of this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began work on a habitat monitoring plan in 2005 as a conceptual framework for adaptive management.

  2. Influence of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by a variety of factors at both small and large scales that range from the presence of suitable nesting habitat, predators, and food supplies to climate conditions and land-use patterns. We evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on wetland breeding birds in the Canada section of Bird Conservation Region 11 (CA-BCR11), the Prairie Potholes. We used bird abundance data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, land-use data from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and weather data from the National Climatic Data and Information Archive to model effects of regional environmental variables on bird abundance. Models were constructed a priori using information from published habitat associations in the literature, and fitting was performed with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both land-use and climate variables contributed to predicting bird abundance in CA-BCR11, although climate predictors contributed the most to improving model fit. Examination of regional effects of climate and land use on wetland birds in CA-BCR11 revealed relationships with environmental covariates that are often overlooked by small-scale habitat studies. Results from these studies can be used to improve conservation and management planning for regional populations of avifauna. ?? 2007 NRC.

  3. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles breeding sites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ELO

    Also, wing length for determining adult size showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitat which may have bearing on vector population and distribution as well as malaria transmission in a particular area. Key words: Malaria, Anopheles ...

  4. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  5. Wallpaper May Breed Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166850.html Wallpaper May Breed Toxins: Study Fungus on the walls might ... 2017 FRIDAY, June 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Wallpaper may contribute to "sick building syndrome," a new study ...

  6. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  7. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  8. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  9. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  10. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A McKinnon

    Full Text Available For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina. We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration

  11. Citrus breeding, genetics and genomics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Citrus is one of the most cultivated fruits in the world, and satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) is a major cultivated citrus in Japan. Many excellent cultivars derived from satsuma mandarin have been released through the improvement of mandarins using a conventional breeding method. The citrus breeding program is a lengthy process owing to the long juvenility, and it is predicted that marker-assisted selection (MAS) will overcome the obstacle and improve the efficiency of conventional breeding methods. To promote citrus molecular breeding in Japan, a genetic mapping was initiated in 1987, and the experimental tools and resources necessary for citrus functional genomics have been developed in relation to the physiological analysis of satsuma mandarin. In this paper, we review the progress of citrus breeding and genome researches in Japan and report the studies on genetic mapping, expression sequence tag cataloguing, and molecular characterization of breeding characteristics, mainly in terms of the metabolism of bio-functional substances as well as factors relating to, for example, fruit quality, disease resistance, polyembryony, and flowering. PMID:27069387

  12. Is income breeding an appropriate construct for waterfowl?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Adam K.; Anteau, Michael J.; Markl, Nicholas; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding birds use a range of nutrient accumulation and allocation strategies to meet the nutritional demands of clutch formation and incubation. On one end of the spectrum, capital breeders use stored nutrients acquired prior to clutch formation and incubation to sustain metabolism during reproduction, while on the opposite end, income breeders derive nutrients solely from exogenous sources on the breeding grounds. Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors) are an ideal candidate to test for adoption of an income strategy among migratory waterfowl because of their small body size, temperate breeding range, and timing of reproduction relative to pulses in nutrient availability within breeding habitats. We collected migrating and pre-breeding Blue-winged Teal (n = 110) during the warmest spring in over a century in the southern edge of the species’ breeding range, which produced ideal conditions to test for adoption of an income breeding strategy among migratory waterfowl. Regression analyses revealed that females accumulated protein and fat reserves early in follicle development and appeared to mobilize at least some reserves coincident with the onset of clutch formation. Accumulation and subsequent mobilization of nutrient reserves was inconsistent with adherence to an income breeding strategy and suggested breeding Blue-winged Teal used capital (albeit locally acquired) for reproduction. Our results add to existing knowledge on the ubiquity of endogenous nutrient reserve accumulation prior to and during reproduction by waterfowl, perhaps suggesting endogenous nutrient reserves are universally used for clutch formation or incubation to some degree. If indeed Blue-winged Teal and other waterfowl universally use capital for breeding, research and conservation efforts should shift from evaluating whether an income breeding strategy is used and focus on when and where necessary capital is acquired prior to clutch formation.

  13. Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2011-12-01

    Identification of breeding objective traits pertinent to specific production environments with the involvement of target beneficiaries is crucial to the success of a breed improvement program. A choice experiment was conducted in four locations representing different production systems and agro-ecologies that are habitat to four indigenous sheep breeds (Afar, Bonga, Horro and Menz) of Ethiopia with the objective of identifying farmers'/pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits. Following a synthesis of secondary information and diagnostic surveys, two communities per location consisting of 60 households each having at least four breeding ewes were identified. Producers' priority attributes used in the choice sets were identified through in-depth production system studies conducted from December 2007 to March 2008. On the basis of prior information, four to seven attributes were used to design choice sets with different profiles in order to capture results that mimic real life of the different communities. The attributes and levels chosen for the sheep profile were as follows: body size (large/small), coat color (brown/white/black), tail type (good/bad) for both rams and ewes; horn (polled/horned) and libido (active/poor) for rams; and lambing interval (three lambings in 2 years/two lambings in 2 years time), mothering ability (good mother/bad mother), twinning rate (twin bearer/single bearer) and milk yield (two cups per milking/one cup per milking) for ewes. A fractional factorial design was implemented to construct the alternatives included in the choice sets. The design resulted in a randomized selection of 48 sheep profiles (24 sets) for both sexes, which were grouped into four blocks with six choice sets each. An individual respondent was presented with one of the four blocks to make his/her choices. Results indicate that producers' trait preferences were heterogeneous except for body size in rams and mothering ability in ewes where nearly

  14. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Challenges of Participatory Plant Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Messmer, Monika

    2012-01-01

    FiBL Plant breeding strategies - Why participatory plant breeding ? - Level of participation - Principles of participatory research - Challenges of participatory plant breeding - Who to get started - Communication / Common language - Definition of common goals - Long term engagement & Gender aspect - Implementation of PPB & Struggle with on farm trials - Data assessment & sample handling - Legal aspects and financing - Impact of participative plant breeding

  16. Species-specific variation in nesting and postfledging resource selection for two forest breeding migrant songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julianna M. A. Jenkins; Frank R. Thompson; John Faaborg; Andrew J. Kroll

    2017-01-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental component of community ecology, population ecology, and evolutionary biology and can be especially important to species with complex annual habitat requirements, such as migratory birds. Resource preferences on the breeding grounds may change during the postfledging period for migrant songbirds, however, the degree to which selection...

  17. Nest site selection and breeding success in three Turdus thrush species coexisting in an urban environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Hromada, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Tryjanowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 83-92 ISSN 0001-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : breeding success * coexistence * nest-habitat partitioning * nest site selection * predation * synurbization * urban habitat * thrushes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2014

  18. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows,

  19. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide Golden-cheeked Warbler habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Adam; Jensen, Jennifer; Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Weckerly, Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Habitat availability ultimately limits the distribution and abundance of wildlife species. Consequently, it is paramount to identify where wildlife habitat is and understand how it changes over time in order to implement large scale wildlife conservation plans. Yet, no work has quantified the degree of change in range-wide breeding habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia), despite the species being listed as endangered by the U.S. federal government. Thus, using available geographic information system (GIS) data and Landsat satellite imagery we quantified range-wide warbler breeding habitat change from 1999-2001 to 2010-2011. We detected a 29% reduction in total warbler breeding habitat and found that warbler breeding habitat was removed and became more fragmented at uneven rates across the warbler’s breeding range during this time period. This information will assist researchers and managers in prioritizing breeding habitat conservation efforts for the species and provide a foundation for more realistic carrying capacity scenarios when modeling golden-cheeked warbler populations over time. Additionally, this study highlights the need for future work centered on quantifying golden-cheeked warbler movement rates and distances in order to assess the degree of connectivity between increasingly fragmented habitat patches.

  20. Ultra-Fine Scale Spatially-Integrated Mapping of Habitat and Occupancy Using Structure-From-Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip McDowall

    Full Text Available Organisms respond to and often simultaneously modify their environment. While these interactions are apparent at the landscape extent, the driving mechanisms often occur at very fine spatial scales. Structure-from-Motion (SfM, a computer vision technique, allows the simultaneous mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat, and will greatly improve our understanding of habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use. SfM can be used to create high-resolution (centimeter-scale three-dimensional (3D habitat models at low cost. These models can capture the abiotic conditions formed by terrain and simultaneously record the position of individual organisms within that terrain. While coloniality is common in seabird species, we have a poor understanding of the extent to which dense breeding aggregations are driven by fine-scale active aggregation or limited suitable habitat. We demonstrate the use of SfM for fine-scale habitat suitability by reconstructing the locations of nests in a gentoo penguin colony and fitting models that explicitly account for conspecific attraction. The resulting digital elevation models (DEMs are used as covariates in an inhomogeneous hybrid point process model. We find that gentoo penguin nest site selection is a function of the topography of the landscape, but that nests are far more aggregated than would be expected based on terrain alone, suggesting a strong role of behavioral aggregation in driving coloniality in this species. This integrated mapping of organisms and fine scale habitat will greatly improve our understanding of fine-scale habitat suitability, ecophysiology, and the complex bi-directional relationship between geomorphology and habitat use.

  1. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  2. Determining habitat quality for species that demonstrate dynamic habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Frederick, Peter C; Noonburg, Erik G; Gawlik, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Determining habitat quality for wildlife populations requires relating a species' habitat to its survival and reproduction. Within a season, species occurrence and density can be disconnected from measures of habitat quality when resources are highly seasonal, unpredictable over time, and patchy. Here we establish an explicit link among dynamic selection of changing resources, spatio-temporal species distributions, and fitness for predictive abundance and occurrence models that are used for short-term water management and long-term restoration planning. We used the wading bird distribution and evaluation models (WADEM) that estimate (1) daily changes in selection across resource gradients, (2) landscape abundance of flocks and individuals, (3) conspecific foraging aggregation, and (4) resource unit occurrence (at fixed 400 m cells) to quantify habitat quality and its consequences on reproduction for wetland indicator species. We linked maximum annual numbers of nests detected across the study area and nesting success of Great Egrets (Ardea alba), White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) over a 20-year period to estimated daily dynamics of food resources produced by WADEM over a 7490 km2 area. For all species, increases in predicted species abundance in March and high abundance in April were strongly linked to breeding responses. Great Egret nesting effort and success were higher when birds also showed greater conspecific foraging aggregation. Synthesis and applications: This study provides the first empirical evidence that dynamic habitat selection processes and distributions of wading birds over environmental gradients are linked with reproductive measures over periods of decades. Further, predictor variables at a variety of temporal (daily-multiannual) resolutions and spatial (400 m to regional) scales effectively explained variation in ecological processes that change habitat quality. The process used here allows managers to develop

  3. Behavioural cues surpass habitat factors in explaining prebreeding resource selection by a migratory diving duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Shawn T.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Parker, Michael W.; Yee, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    Prebreeding habitat selection in birds can often be explained in part by habitat characteristics. However, females may also select habitats on the basis of fidelity to areas of previous reproductive success or use by conspecifics. The relative influences of sociobehavioural attributes versus habitat characteristics in habitat selection has been primarily investigated in songbirds, while less is known about how these factors affect habitat selection processes in migratory waterfowl. Animal resource selection models often exhibit much unexplained variation; spatial patterns driven by social and behavioural characteristics may account for some of this. We radiomarked female lesser scaup, Aythya affinis, in the southwestern extent of their breeding range to explore hypotheses regarding relative roles of habitat quality, site fidelity and conspecific density in prebreeding habitat selection. We used linear mixed-effects models to relate intensity of use within female home ranges to habitat features, distance to areas of reproductive success during the previous breeding season and conspecific density. Home range habitats included shallow water (≤118 cm), moderate to high densities of flooded emergent vegetation/open water edge and open water areas with submerged aquatic vegetation. Compared with habitat features, conspecific female density and proximity to successful nesting habitats from the previous breeding season had greater influences on habitat use within home ranges. Fidelity and conspecific attraction are behavioural characteristics in some waterfowl species that may exert a greater influence than habitat features in influencing prebreeding space use and habitat selection within home ranges, particularly where quality habitat is abundant. These processes may be of critical importance to a better understanding of habitat selection in breeding birds.

  4. Kegiatan Bisnis Layanan Pemeliharaan Ternak : Studi Kasus di Unit Breeding Services Elders Limited Australia (Animal Breeding Services Business Activity : Study Case in Breeding Services Unit at Elders Limited Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maharani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the business activity of animal breeding services in livestock services company at Elders Limited Australia. Primary and secondary data in this paper were collected from Elders Limited Australia database and Elders staff interviewed. Data were analyzed in full descriptively. The study indicated that the business of breeding services can help the farmer especially breeder to improve the genetic performance of their cattle farm and help them to make the decision of breeding program. The product of Elders Breeding Services are semen sales, breed exact and next exact program (breeding program, Taylor Made Seedstock (embryo transfer program. The breeding services also help farmers to promote their product by using Elders Limited website. In Australia, the using breeding services are more effective and efficient than the farmers conducting their farm by their own program. (Key words: Business activity, Breeding services, Elders Limited

  5. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Washington, Volume IIA, Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown Author

    1984-05-01

    This engineering feasibility and predesign report on the Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dam Fish Passage Project provides BPA with information for planning purposes and will serve as a discussion document for interested agencies. Tumwater Falls and Dryden Dams, both on the Wenatchee River, were built in the early 1900's as diversions for hydropower, and irrigation and hydropower, respectively. The present fishway facilities at both sites are inadequate to properly pass the anadromous fish runs in the Wenatchee River. These runs include spring and summer chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon and steelhead trout. Predesign level drawings are provided in this report that represent fishway schemes capable of adequately passing present and projected fish runs. The effects of present passage facilities on anadromous fish stocks is addressed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative treatment assesses losses of adult migrants due to the structures and places an estimated value on those fish. The dollar figure is estimated to be between $391,000 and $701,000 per year for both structures. The qualitative approach to benefits deals with the concept of stock vigor, the need for passage improvements to help ensure the health of the anadromous fish stock. 29 references, 27 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Social success of in-stream habitat improvement: from fisheries enhancement to the delivery of multiple ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maare Marttila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stream restoration often aims to enhance fisheries by improving stream conditions for target fish species. However, river restoration has a potential impact on a variety of ecosystem services. Among stakeholders, the emerging expectations about restoration attain different priorities. How well these expectations are met influences social perceptions of success or failure. Although public support for restoration is known to have a significant impact on the sustainability and overall success of restoration, social aspects are rarely considered in this context. To address these issues, we conducted a questionnaire study among the residents and fishermen of three recently restored rivers in Finland. Results indicate that both user groups highly supported the restoration goals, but they were not always satisfied with the restoration outcomes. The changes in landscape value and amenity and fish provisioning had the highest influence on the user groups' attitudes. Restoration-induced changes in ecosystem services showed clear variation between the different locations, but the differences in the perceptions of the two user groups were less evident. Comparing perceptions between the user groups and locations and applying the ecosystem services approach are a novel contribution to the debate on restoration success. Our study highlights the importance of perspective, social-ecological context, and adequate communication for success.

  7. Testicular Histomorphometric Evaluation of Zebu Bull Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Terrabuio Andreussi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative histology and testicular biometrics in zebu bulls of different breeds. Testicular fragments of Nelore (n=10, Polled Nelore (n=6, Gir (n=5, Guzerat (n=5 and Tabapuã bulls (n=5 were used. The fragments were perfusion-fixed in Karnovsky solution, embedded in glycol methacrylate and stained with toluidine blue-1% sodium borate. The Nelore animals had a higher tubular volumetric proportion (85.2% and greater height of the seminiferous epithelium (73.2 µm than the Gir, Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. The Nelore animals also had a higher volumetric proportion of Leydig cells (5.2% than the Guzerat and Tabapuã breeds. There was no significant difference for any of these parameters between the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds. The gonadosomatic index, seminiferous tubule diameter, cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubule and tubule length (total length and length per gram of testicular parenchyma did not vary among the breeds studied. The morphometric parameters evaluated suggested that the genetic selection applied to the Nelore and Polled Nelore breeds improved the efficiency of spermatogenesis in these breeders.

  8. BIBI: Bayesian inference of breed composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, C A; Khare, K; Elzo, M A

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop statistical models to estimate individual breed composition based on the previously proposed idea of regressing discrete random variables corresponding to counts of reference alleles of biallelic molecular markers located across the genome on the allele frequencies of each marker in the pure (base) breeds. Some of the existing regression-based methods do not guarantee that estimators of breed composition will lie in the appropriate parameter space, and none of them account for uncertainty about allele frequencies in the pure breeds, that is, uncertainty about the design matrix. To overcome these limitations, we proposed two Bayesian generalized linear models. For each individual, both models assume that the counts of the reference allele at each marker locus follow independent Binomial distributions, use the logit link and pose a Dirichlet prior over the vector of regression coefficients (which corresponds to breed composition). This prior guarantees that point estimators of breed composition such as the posterior mean pertain to the appropriate space. The difference between these models is that model termed BIBI does not account for uncertainty about the design matrix, while model termed BIBI2 accounts for such an uncertainty by assigning independent Beta priors to the entries of this matrix. We implemented these models in a data set from the University of Florida's multibreed Angus-Brahman population. Posterior means were used as point estimators of breed composition. In addition, the ordinary least squares estimator proposed by Kuehn et al. () (OLSK) was also computed. BIBI and BIBI2 estimated breed composition more accurately than OLSK, and BIBI2 had a 7.69% improvement in accuracy as compared to BIBI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic......Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...... was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...

  10. Spatial habitat for eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Supriatna

    2017-07-01

    The estuarine ecosystem is known as suitable breeding sites for fishes because this particular habitat is receiving continuous organic matters from river ways and constant sunlight due to its depth that allows sunlight penetration. Cimandiri estuary is one of the estuaries located in the south of Java Island close to the Indian Ocean and known as a suitable habitat for eel larva that routinely collected by local people. Eel habitat has a relationship with the dynamic of space. This dynamic influenced by season, water flow, tide, bathymetry, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO). The geographic information system is an approach in studying habitat dynamic, through modeling. Furthermore, the spatial model for eel larva habitat is required for land use planning that aimed to achieve sustainable eels larva rearing and conserve estuarine habitat as well. The aim of this research was to investigate dynamics on spatial habitat of eel larva at Cimandiri estuary, West Java.

  11. Northern bobwhite breeding season ecology on a reclaimed surface mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Jarred M.; Tanner, Evan P.; Peters, David C.; Tanner, Ashley M.; Harper, Craig A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Clark, Joseph D.; Morgan, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Surface coal mining and subsequent reclamation of surface mines have converted large forest areas into early successional vegetative communities in the eastern United States. This reclamation can provide a novel opportunity to conserve northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). We evaluated the influence of habitat management activities on nest survival, nest-site selection, and brood resource selection on managed and unmanaged units of a reclaimed surface mine, Peabody Wildlife Management Area (Peabody), in west-central Kentucky, USA, from 2010 to 2013. We compared resource selection, using discrete-choice analysis, and nest survival, using the nest survival model in Program MARK, between managed and unmanaged units of Peabody at 2 spatial scales: the composition and configuration of vegetation types (i.e., macrohabitat) and vegetation characteristics at nest sites and brood locations (i.e., microhabitat). On managed sites, we also investigated resource selection relative to a number of different treatments (e.g., herbicide, disking, prescribed fire). We found no evidence that nest-site selection was influenced by macrohabitat variables, but bobwhite selected nest sites in areas with greater litter depth than was available at random sites. On managed units, bobwhite were more likely to nest where herbicide was applied to reduce sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) compared with areas untreated with herbicide. Daily nest survival was not influenced by habitat characteristics or by habitat management but was influenced by nest age and the interaction of nest initiation date and nest age. Daily nest survival was greater for older nests occurring early in the breeding season (0.99, SE warm season grass stands than would be expected at random. Our results suggest the vegetation at Peabody was sufficient without manipulation to support nesting and brood-rearing northern bobwhite at a low level, but habitat management practices improved vegetation for nesting and brood

  12. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  13. Observations on the breeding of toads in a restricted habitat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevent the overpopulation of the pond by tadpoles. Never- theless fairly large quantities of tadpoles did develop, and metamorphosis of some of them into toadlets was observed every year. The garden seems to have been an unfavourable biotope for the futher development of the toadlets, however, as juvenile toads were ...

  14. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a

  15. Lettuce and spinach breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce and spinach production is beset by numerous biotic an abiotic challenges. This report to the California Leafy Greens Research Program annual meeting provides an update by the ‘Genetic Enhancement of Lettuce, Spinach, Melon, and Related Species’ project at Salinas on the genetics and breeding...

  16. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  17. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  18. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding pair survey: May 9 - June 9, 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  19. A Breeding Season Survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostritis obsoletus) in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project was to determine the densities and nesting success, and to investigate the habitat requirements of California Clapper Rails breeding in...

  20. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on

  1. Breeding for postharvest performance in chrysanthemum by selection against storage-induced degreening of disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Post, Aike; Arens, Paul; Visser, Richard G.F.; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2017-01-01

    Breeding for postharvest performance in ornamentals is challenging, since many different deteriorative processes determine vase life. In order to improve postharvest performance by breeding, selection should take place on these processes separately. To define processes that are important for

  2. Alligator, Alligator mississippiensis, habitat suitability index model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddle, J. Hardin

    2017-01-01

    The 2012 Coastal Master Plan utilized Habitat Suitability Indices (HSIs) to evaluate potential project effects on wildlife species. Even though HSIs quantify habitat condition, which may not directly correlate to species abundance, they remain a practical and tractable way to assess changes in habitat quality from various restoration actions. As part of the legislatively mandated five year update to the 2012 plan, the wildlife habitat suitability indices were updated and revised using literature and existing field data where available. The outcome of these efforts resulted in improved, or in some cases entirely new suitability indices. This report describes the development of the habitat suitability indices for the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis.

  3. Genetic characterization of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds and analysis of their relationship to cosmopolitan dog breeds using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigi, D; Marelli, S P; Randi, E; Polli, M

    2015-12-01

    Very little research into genetic diversity of Italian native dog breeds has been carried out so far. In this study we aimed to estimate and compare the genetic diversity of four native Italian shepherd dog breeds: the Maremma, Bergamasco, Lupino del Gigante and Oropa shepherds. Therefore, some cosmopolitan dog breeds, which have been widely raised in Italy for a long time past, have also been considered to check possible influence of these dog populations on the Italian autochthonous breeds considered here. A total of 212 individuals, belonging to 10 different dog breeds, were sampled and genotyped using 18 autosomal microsatellite loci. We analyzed the genetic diversity of these breeds, within breed diversity, breed relationship and population structure. The 10 breeds considered in this study were clearly genetically differentiated from each other, regardless of current population sizes and the onset of separate breeding history. The level of genetic diversity explained 20% of the total genetic variation. The level of H E found here is in agreement with that found by other studies. The native Italian breeds showed generally higher genetic diversity compared with the long established, well-defined cosmopolitan dog breeds. As the Border Collie seems closer to the Italian breeds than the other cosmopolitan shepherd dogs considered here, a possible utilization of this breed to improve working performance in Italian traditional working shepherd dogs cannot be ignored. The data and information found here can be utilized in the organization of conservation programs planned to reduce inbreeding and to minimize loss of genetic variability.

  4. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  5. Breeding ecology of the Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of breeding ecology is required for many conservation interventions. The Seychelles Black Parrot Coracopsis barklyi, endemic to the island of Praslin, is vulnerable to extinction. We aimed to improve understanding of C. barklyi breeding ecology to aid conservation planning. We present the results of four years of ...

  6. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  7. Opportunities for Products of New Plant Breeding Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Various new plant breeding techniques (NPBT) have a similar aim, namely to produce improved crop varieties that are difficult to obtain through traditional breeding methods. Here, we review the opportunities for products created using NPBTs. We categorize products of these NPBTs into three product

  8. Genetic variation within and among three ostrich breeds, estimated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Southern African ostrich (S. c. australis) to improve feather production in the early 1900s (Deurden, 1913). ... to confirm this genetic distinction among the three breeds, where a breed can be defined as a group of animals within a .... stage or because of possible mutations occurring at these loci (Beuzen et al., 2000). Genetic ...

  9. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  10. Breeding soundness evaluation and reproductive management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assisted reproductive techniques such as artificial insemination (AI) have been used to improve genetic diversity and performance in equines. Employment of breeding soundness evaluation is critical in the selection of the best animal. Semen evaluation in equine includes gross evaluation of raw semen for color.

  11. Landscape Analysis of Adult Florida Panther Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Frakes

    Full Text Available Historically occurring throughout the southeastern United States, the Florida panther is now restricted to less than 5% of its historic range in one breeding population located in southern Florida. Using radio-telemetry data from 87 prime-aged (≥3 years old adult panthers (35 males and 52 females during the period 2004 through 2013 (28,720 radio-locations, we analyzed the characteristics of the occupied area and used those attributes in a random forest model to develop a predictive distribution map for resident breeding panthers in southern Florida. Using 10-fold cross validation, the model was 87.5 % accurate in predicting presence or absence of panthers in the 16,678 km2 study area. Analysis of variable importance indicated that the amount of forests and forest edge, hydrology, and human population density were the most important factors determining presence or absence of panthers. Sensitivity analysis showed that the presence of human populations, roads, and agriculture (other than pasture had strong negative effects on the probability of panther presence. Forest cover and forest edge had strong positive effects. The median model-predicted probability of presence for panther home ranges was 0.81 (0.82 for females and 0.74 for males. The model identified 5579 km2 of suitable breeding habitat remaining in southern Florida; 1399 km2 (25% of this habitat is in non-protected private ownership. Because there is less panther habitat remaining than previously thought, we recommend that all remaining breeding habitat in south Florida should be maintained, and the current panther range should be expanded into south-central Florida. This model should be useful for evaluating the impacts of future development projects, in prioritizing areas for panther conservation, and in evaluating the potential impacts of sea-level rise and changes in hydrology.

  12. [Historic treasures of Swiss horse breeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H

    2017-01-01

    Both a mandate of the Bernese Government (1705) and statements in the Georgica Helvetica of 1706 prove that Swiss horse breeding was lucrative and of good quality at that time. However, the political turmoil at the transition from the 18th to 19th century and excessive sales to France and Italy led to a severe drop in quantity as well in quality. The exhibition of horses in Aarau in 1865 showed a wretched state of the material. In the same year, Rudolf Zangger wrote a guide for the discussion of horse breeding in Switzerland. In the following year (1866), Johann Jakob Rychner published a report on horse breeding, and a further treatise on Swiss horse breeding by Johann Heinrich Hirzel followed in 1883. These publications created good and comprehensive fundamentals, which can still be considered valid. However history shows that the results and recommendations of these analyses barely led to improvements. Todays genomics with their possibilities open up a new era of animal breeding and raise bigger demands than ever.

  13. Breeding vegetables tolerant to environmental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoner, A.K.

    1978-12-01

    Much progress has been made in breeding vegetables tolerant to environmental stresses. However, in many cases the authors have only begun to exploit the potential of germplasm collections. Progress in breeding for stress tolerance will probably always be slow, but it can be maximized by improved support and better cooperation within and outside organizations. Better cooperation is needed among breeders and scientists of other disciplines and among breeders from different organizations. Vegetable breeders must also be willing to tackle and follow through on difficult problems. Many of the easier breeding problems have been solved. In instances where breeders are discouraged from working on difficult problems, the system needs to be changed to encourage and reward breeders. More effort must be devoted to developing stress tolerant vegetable cultivars if the US vegetable industry is to continue to meet consumer demands for reasonable priced, high-quality vegetables.

  14. Breed structure of Senepol cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island.

  15. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  16. Dynamics of Chytridiomycosis during the Breeding Season in an Australian Alpine Amphibian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Brannelly

    Full Text Available Understanding disease dynamics during the breeding season of declining amphibian species will improve our understanding of how remnant populations persist with endemic infection, and will assist the development of management techniques to protect disease-threatened species from extinction. We monitored the endangered Litoria verreauxii alpina (alpine treefrog during the breeding season through capture-mark-recapture (CMR studies in which we investigated the dynamics of chytridiomycosis in relation to population size in two populations. We found that infection prevalence and intensity increased throughout the breeding season in both populations, but infection prevalence and intensity was higher (3.49 and 2.02 times higher prevalence and intensity, respectively at the site that had a 90-fold higher population density. This suggests that Bd transmission is density-dependent. Weekly survival probability was related to disease state, with heavily infected animals having the lowest survival. There was low recovery from infection, especially when animals were heavily infected with Bd. Sympatric amphibian species are likely to be reservoir hosts for the disease and can play an important role in the disease ecology of Bd. Although we found 0% prevalence in crayfish (Cherax destructor, we found that a sympatric amphibian (Crinia signifera maintained 100% infection prevalence at a high intensity throughout the season. Our results demonstrate the importance of including infection intensity into CMR disease analysis in order to fully understand the implications of disease on the amphibian community. We recommend a combined management approach to promote lower population densities and ensure consistent progeny survival. The most effective management strategy to safeguard the persistence of this susceptible species might be to increase habitat area while maintaining a similar sized suitable breeding zone and to increase water flow and area to reduce drought.

  17. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  18. Influence of fine-scale habitat structure on nest-site occupancy, laying date and clutch size in Blue Tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amininasab, Seyed Mehdi; Vedder, Oscar; Schut, Elske; de Jong, Berber; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Korsten, Peter; Komdeur, Jan

    Most birds have specific habitat requirements for breeding. The vegetation structure surrounding nest sites is an important component of habitat quality, and can have large effects on avian breeding performance. We studied 13 years of Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus population data to determine whether

  19. Neotropical migratory landbird species and their habitats of special concern within the Southeast Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Hunter; David N. Pashley; Ronald E. F. Escano

    1993-01-01

    The Southeast Management Working Group for Partners in Flight initiated a prioritization scheme in April 1991 to help guide regional and local conservation efforts for Neotropical migratory landbirds. Preliminary breeding season priorities have been established in each of 24 physiographic areas for species and habitats, with some non-breeding season priorities set as...

  20. 76 FR 2863 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sonoma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... County, utilizing historic information and all known breeding and adult locality data available at that... considers recent documentation of adult salamanders with potential breeding habitat in additional areas... with fewer than 500 employees, wholesale trade entities with fewer than 100 employees, retail and...

  1. Breeding objectives, selection criteria and breeding system of indigenous goat types in bale zone, oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belete Asefa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken in bale zone to assess farmer’s selective breeding objectives, trait preferences, selection criteria and breeding system October 2012 to November 2013. A purposive and multistage sampling technique was applied for selection of 3 district and 9 kebeles. Then 360 households were selected by using simple random sampling techniques after the list of pastoralist having goats was identified. Statistical analysis system version 9.1 was used for analysis of data. Indices, effective population size and rate of inbreeding were calculated on average each respondent holds about 14 goats. Milk production is the main reason of goat keeping in the study area. Appearance is the first rank as selection criteria for male and female in all studies area. About 47.8% of the respondents have their own buck. The main use of breeding buck in the study area was for mating purpose (76.2%. Mean estimate of effective population size and mean rate of inbreeding was 2.43 and 0.21, respectively when a household flock is herded alone and under random mating. Therefore, any breed improvement strategies that are intended to be implemented in the study area and else- where should consider the traditional breeding practices and breeding objectives of the community.

  2. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Eissen, J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a bet...

  3. Coping mechanisms of alpine and arctic breeding birds: extreme weather and limitations to reproductive resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kathy; Wiebe, Karen L

    2004-04-01

    As ground nesting homeotherms, alpine and arctic birds must meet similar physiological requirements for breeding as other birds, but must do so in more extreme conditions. Annual spring snowfall and timing of snow melt can vary by up to 1 month and daily temperatures near the ground surface vary from below freezing to over 45°C in alpine and arctic habitats. Species breeding in these environments have various behavioral, physiological, and morphological adaptations to cope with energetically demanding conditions. We review the ways birds cope with harsh and variable weather, and present data from long term field studies of ptarmigan to examine effects of spring weather on reproduction. In variable but normal spring conditions, timing of breeding was not influenced by snow melt, snow depth or daily temperatures in the alpine, as breeding did not commence until conditions were generally favorable. Arctic ptarmigan tended to vary breeding onset in response to spring conditions. Generally, birds breeding in alpine and arctic habitats suffer a seasonal reproductive disadvantage compared to birds at lower latitudes or elevations because the breeding window is short and in late years, nest failure may be high with little opportunity for renesting. Coping mechanisms may only be effective below a threshold of climactic extremes. Despite strong resilience in fecundity parameters, when snowmelt is extremely delayed breeding success is greatly reduced. Alpine and arctic birds will be further challenged as they attempt to cope with anticipated increases in the frequency and severity of weather events (climate variability), as well as general climate warming.

  4. Clark's Nutcracker Breeding Season Space Use and Foraging Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available Considering the entire life history of a species is fundamental to developing effective conservation strategies. Decreasing populations of five-needle white pines may be leading to the decline of Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana. These birds are important seed dispersers for at least ten conifer species in the western U.S., including whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, an obligate mutualist of Clark's nutcrackers. For effective conservation of both Clark's nutcrackers and whitebark pine, it is essential to ensure stability of Clark's nutcracker populations. My objectives were to examine Clark's nutcracker breeding season home range size, territoriality, habitat selection, and foraging behavior in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, a region where whitebark pine is declining. I radio-tracked Clark's nutcrackers in 2011, a population-wide nonbreeding year following a low whitebark pine cone crop, and 2012, a breeding year following a high cone crop. Results suggest Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii communities are important habitat for Clark's nutcrackers because they selected it for home ranges. In contrast, they did not select whitebark pine habitat. However, Clark's nutcrackers did adjust their use of whitebark pine habitat between years, suggesting that, in some springs, whitebark pine habitat may be used more than previously expected. Newly extracted Douglas-fir seeds were an important food source both years. On the other hand, cached seeds made up a relatively lower proportion of the diet in 2011, suggesting cached seeds are not a reliable spring food source. Land managers focus on restoring whitebark pine habitat with the assumption that Clark's nutcrackers will be available to continue seed dispersal. In the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, Clark's nutcracker populations may be more likely to be retained year-round when whitebark pine restoration efforts are located adjacent to Douglas-fir habitat. By extrapolation, whitebark

  5. Captive breeding, reintroduction, and the conservation of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard A; Pavajeau, Lissette

    2008-08-01

    The global amphibian crisis has resulted in renewed interest in captive breeding as a conservation tool for amphibians. Although captive breeding and reintroduction are controversial management actions, amphibians possess a number of attributes that make them potentially good models for such programs. We reviewed the extent and effectiveness of captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians through an analysis of data from the Global Amphibian Assessment and other sources. Most captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians have focused on threatened species from industrialized countries with relatively low amphibian diversity. Out of 110 species in such programs, 52 were in programs with no plans for reintroduction that had conservation research or conservation education as their main purpose. A further 39 species were in programs that entailed captive breeding and reintroduction or combined captive breeding with relocations of wild animals. Nineteen species were in programs with relocations of wild animals only. Eighteen out of 58 reintroduced species have subsequently bred successfully in the wild, and 13 of these species have established self-sustaining populations. As with threatened amphibians generally, amphibians in captive breeding or reintroduction programs face multiple threats, with habitat loss being the most important. Nevertheless, only 18 out of 58 reintroduced species faced threats that are all potentially reversible. When selecting species for captive programs, dilemmas may emerge between choosing species that have a good chance of surviving after reintroduction because their threats are reversible and those that are doomed to extinction in the wild as a result of irreversible threats. Captive breeding and reintroduction programs for amphibians require long-term commitments to ensure success, and different management strategies may be needed for species earmarked for reintroduction and species used for conservation

  6. Recent reduction in the water level of Lake Victoria has created more habitats for Anopheles funestus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futami Kyoko

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The water level of Lake Victoria has fallen more than 1.5 m since 1998, revealing a narrow strip of land along the shore. This study determined whether the recent drop in the water level has created additional breeding grounds for malaria vectors. Methods The recent and past shorelines were estimated using landmarks and a satellite image. The locations of breeding habitats were recorded using a GPS unit during the high and low lake water periods. GIS was used to determine whether the breeding habitats were located on newly emerged land between the new and old shorelines. Results Over half of the breeding habitats existed on newly emerged land. Fewer habitats for the Anopheles gambiae complex were found during the low water level period compared to the high water period. However, more habitats for Anopheles funestus were found during the high water level period, and they were all located on the newly emerged land. Conclusion The recent reduction in water level of Lake Victoria has increased the amount of available habitat for A. funestus. The results suggest that the water drop has substantially affected the population of this malaria vector in the Lake Victoria basin, particularly because the lake has a long shoreline that may harbour many new breeding habitats.

  7. Seasonal Habitat Use by Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on a Landscape with Low Density Oil and Gas Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mindy B; Rossi, Liza G; Apa, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation of the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem has led to concern about a variety of sagebrush obligates including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Given the increase of energy development within greater sage-grouse habitats, mapping seasonal habitats in pre-development populations is critical. The North Park population in Colorado is one of the largest and most stable in the state and provides a unique case study for investigating resource selection at a relatively low level of energy development compared to other populations both within and outside the state. We used locations from 117 radio-marked female greater sage-grouse in North Park, Colorado to develop seasonal resource selection models. We then added energy development variables to the base models at both a landscape and local scale to determine if energy variables improved the fit of the seasonal models. The base models for breeding and winter resource selection predicted greater use in large expanses of sagebrush whereas the base summer model predicted greater use along the edge of riparian areas. Energy development variables did not improve the winter or the summer models at either scale of analysis, but distance to oil/gas roads slightly improved model fit at both scales in the breeding season, albeit in opposite ways. At the landscape scale, greater sage-grouse were closer to oil/gas roads whereas they were further from oil/gas roads at the local scale during the breeding season. Although we found limited effects from low level energy development in the breeding season, the scale of analysis can influence the interpretation of effects. The lack of strong effects from energy development may be indicative that energy development at current levels are not impacting greater sage-grouse in North Park. Our baseline seasonal resource selection maps can be used for conservation to help identify ways of minimizing the effects of energy development.

  8. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Rob; van Dun, Kees; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; van den Berg, Mark; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; Voermans, William; Woudenberg, Leo; de Wit, Jack P C; Reinink, Kees; Schut, Johan W; van der Zeeuw, Eveline; Vogelaar, Aat; Freymark, Gerald; Gutteling, Evert W; Keppel, Marina N; van Drongelen, Paul; Kieny, Matthieu; Ellul, Philippe; Touraev, Alisher; Ma, Hong; de Jong, Hans; Wijnker, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on reducing genetic recombination in the selected heterozygote by eliminating meiotic crossing over. Male or female spores obtained from such plants contain combinations of non-recombinant parental chromosomes which can be cultured in vitro to generate homozygous doubled haploid plants (DHs). From these DHs, complementary parents can be selected and used to reconstitute the heterozygote in perpetuity. Since the fixation of unknown heterozygous genotypes is impossible in traditional plant breeding, RB could fundamentally change future plant breeding. In this review, we discuss various other applications of RB, including breeding per chromosome. PMID:19811618

  9. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  10. Southern Elephant Seals Replenish Their Lipid Reserves at Different Rates According to Foraging Habitat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Richard

    Full Text Available Assessing energy gain and expenditure in free ranging marine predators is difficult. However, such measurements are critical if we are to understand how variation in foraging efficiency, and in turn individual body condition, is impacted by environmentally driven changes in prey abundance and/or accessibility. To investigate the influence of oceanographic habitat type on foraging efficiency, ten post-breeding female southern elephant seals Mirounga leonina (SES were equipped and tracked with bio-loggers to give continuous information of prey catch attempts, body density and body activity. Variations in these indices of foraging efficiency were then compared between three different oceanographic habitats, delineated by the main frontal structures of the Southern Ocean. Results show that changes in body density are related not only to the number of previous prey catch attempts and to the body activity (at a 6 day lag, but also foraging habitat type. For example, despite a lower daily prey catch attempt rate, SESs foraging north of the sub-Antarctic front improve their body density at a higher rate than individuals foraging south of the sub-Antarctic and polar fronts, suggesting that they may forage on easier to catch and/or more energetically rich prey in this area. Our study highlights a need to understand the influence of habitat type on top predator foraging behaviour and efficiency when attempting a better comprehension of marine ecosystems.

  11. Plant Breeding by Using Radiation Mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Si Yong; Kim, Dong Sub; Lee, Geung Joo (and others)

    2007-06-15

    A mutation breeding is to use physical or chemical mutagens to induce mutagenesis, followed by individual selections with favorable traits. The mutation breeding has many advantages over other breeding methods, which include the usefulness for improving one or two inferior characteristics, applications to broad species with different reproductive systems or to diverse plant materials, native or plant introduction with narrow genetic background, time and cost-effectiveness, and valuable mutant resources for genomic researches. Recent applications of the radiation breeding techniques to developments of flowering plants or food crops with improved functional constituents heightened the public's interests in agriculture and in our genetic resources and seed industries. The goals of this project, therefore, include achieving advances in domestic seed industries and agricultural productivities by developing and using new radiation mutants with favored traits, protecting an intellectual property right of domestic seeds or germplasm, and sharing the valuable mutants and mutated gene information for the genomic and biotech researches that eventually leads to economic benefits.

  12. Genetic parameters and factors influencing survival to 24 hrs after birth in Danish meat sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxa, J; Sharifi, A R; Pedersen, J

    2009-01-01

    negative, which will make breeding for this trait more difficult. However, on the basis of estimated genetic parameters, it can be concluded that it is possible to improve survival to 24 h after birth in meat sheep breeds by accounting for both direct and maternal genetic effects in breeding programs...

  13. Developing elite Neurospora crassa strains for cellulosic ethanol production using fungal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Joshua C; Nixon, Andrew; Dwyer, Morgan; Biffinger, Justin C; Lee, Kwangwon

    2017-08-01

    The demand for renewable and sustainable energy has generated considerable interest in the conversion of cellulosic biomass into liquid fuels such as ethanol using a filamentous fungus. While attempts have been made to study cellulose metabolism through the use of knock-out mutants, there have been no systematic effort to characterize natural variation for cellulose metabolism in ecotypes adapted to different habitats. Here, we characterized natural variation in saccharification of cellulose and fermentation in 73 ecotypes and 89 laboratory strains of the model fungus Neurospora crassa. We observed significant variation in both traits among natural and laboratory generated populations, with some elite strains performing better than the reference strain. In the F1 population N345, 15% of the population outperformed both parents with the top performing strain having 10% improvement in ethanol production. These results suggest that natural alleles can be exploited through fungal breeding for developing elite industrial strains for bioethanol production.

  14. [Assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of pet animals: principles, rules and other measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, A

    2008-05-01

    The review deals with fundamental aspects of the problems and the assessment of animal welfare aspects in extreme breeds of companion and pet animals, with legislation and with other measures to avoid breeding animals with extreme characteristics. Efforts are important in particular by breeding organisations to adapt breeding standards and to improve the education of judges and breeders. Furthermore adequate activities to correctly inform animal keepers are important.

  15. Intermediate Pond Sizes Contain the Highest Density, Richness, and Diversity of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    OpenAIRE

    Semlitsch, Raymond D.; Peterman, William E.; Anderson, Thomas L.; Drake, Dana L.; Ousterhout, Brittany H.

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a...

  16. Charge Breeding Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F

    2004-01-01

    The numerous newly built and forthcoming post-accelerators for radioactive ions, produced with the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) technique, all have a need for an efficient method to accelerate the precious primary ions. By increasing the ion charge-to-mass ratio directly after the radioactive ion production stage, a short and compact linear accelerator can be employed. Not only the efficiency, but also the rapidity of such a charge-to-mass increasing process, called charge breeding, is a crucial factor for the often short-lived radioisotopes. The traditional foil or gas stripping technique was challenged some five to ten years ago by novel schemes for charge breeding. The transformation from 1+ to n+ charged ions takes place inside an Electron Beam Ion Source/Trap (EBIS/T) or Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source/Trap (ECRIS/T) by electron-ion collisions. These charge breeders are located in the low-energy part of the machine before the accelerating structures. Because of the capability of these devices...

  17. High Performance Home Building Guide for Habitat for Humanity Affiliates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey Marburger

    2010-10-01

    This guide covers basic principles of high performance Habitat construction, steps to achieving high performance Habitat construction, resources to help improve building practices, materials, etc., and affiliate profiles and recommendations.

  18. Environmental Assessment of the Forest Habitat Management Plan Noxubee 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forest habitat management provides the single greatest opportunity to improve habitat conditions for the endangered red-cockated woodpecker (RCW), migratory birds,...

  19. Habitat use of barnacle geese at a subarctic salt marsh in the Kolokolkova Bay, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, AJ; Lavrinenko, OV; Elsakov, [No Value; van Eerden, MR; Stahl, J

    2004-01-01

    Along the east Atlantic migratory flyway, goose and swan species rely on the availability of suitable coastal habitats as staging sites during migration and for breeding. Especially for the Russian part of the flyway, detailed descriptions of these habitats in relation to use by herbivores are

  20. A Proposed Habitat Management Plan for Yellow-Billed Cuckoos in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen A. Laymon; Mary D. Halterman

    1989-01-01

    The California Wildlife-Habitat Relationship (WHR) system was tested for birds breeding in the Valley-Foothill Riparian habitat along California's Sacramento and South Fork Kern rivers. The model performed poorly with 33 pct and 21 pct correct predictions respectively at the two locations. Changes to the model for 60 species on the Sacramento River and 66 species...

  1. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... differences between plant breeding methods. The framework can contribute to an improved dialogue between the scientific community and the wider public by making the scepticism towards GM-technology more intelligible.......The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...

  2. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  3. A Qualitative Evidence of the Breeding Sites of Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in and Around Kassala Town, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Asma Mahmoud; El Rayah, El Amin

    2016-01-01

    Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) is considered the most efficient malaria vector in eastern Sudan. This study aims to characterize the breeding sites of An. arabiensis throughout the year in and around Kassala town, eastern Sudan. Diverse larval habitat types were visited and characterized based on the habitat type and chemical composition. Mosquito larvae were found in many diverse habitats. During the rainy season, rain pools and water bodies created by the seasonal Gash River serve as the main breeding sites. In the dry season, irrigation canals, seepage from water pipes, neglected wells, artificial containers, and man-made ditches serve as the main breeding sites. Breeding water showed a pH of 7.9 and a low concentration of the total dissolved salts. The results of this study may be considered in planning and implementing larval control programs in the area.

  4. Effect of habitat fragmentation on diversity and abundance of nesting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known of the nesting bird species in most of urban areas of East Africa. An investigation was made of the occurrence of breeding bird species in the fragmented thickets found in the Mwalimu Nyerere Campus of the University of Dar es Salaam, in the City of Dar es Salaam. The study examined how habitat ...

  5. The influence of food abundance, food dispersion and habitat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most tropical insectivorous birds, unlike their temperate counterparts, hold and defend a feeding and breeding territory year-around. However, our understanding of ... We believe the most likely explanation for the Usambara Thrush's preference for open understorey and closed overstorey habitat relates to foraging behavior.

  6. Reproductive success of migratory birds in habitat sources and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Donovan; Frank R. , III Thompson; John Faaborg; John R. Probst

    1995-01-01

    Fragmentation of breeding habitat in North America has been implicated in the decline of forest-nesting, Neotropical migrant birds. We used a comparative approach to examine the effects of fragmentation on three forest-nesting migrants: Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo ofivaceus), and Wood Thrush (...

  7. Foraging Behavior and Energetics of Albatrosses in Contrasting Breeding Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Antolos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals can maximize fitness by optimizing energy acquisition through the selection of favorable foraging habitats, but trade-offs exist between time spent in preferred feeding habitats, energetic costs of travel, and reproductive constraints. For pelagic seabirds, geographic distribution of suitable breeding islands can restrict access to marine prey resources and influence foraging strategies. Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes breeding in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, and Indian yellow-nosed albatrosses (Thalassarche carteri breeding in the Southern Indian Ocean, utilize productive subtropical-subpolar transition zones during their breeding and non-breeding periods, but this marine feature is at a comparatively greater distance for Hawaiian albatrosses during the breeding period due to location of nesting islands. We investigated the foraging behavior and energetics of these three species to evaluate how proximity to preferred marine habitats has influenced their overall foraging strategies. During incubation, all three species traveled to subtropical-subpolar transition zones, however, Hawaiian albatrosses ranged farther to reach this habitat. All species reduced time at sea during brooding, and Hawaiian albatrosses reduced their foraging ranges to distances similar to yellow-nosed albatrosses. As a consequence, Hawaiian albatrosses foraged in the warm, oligotrophic environment of the subtropical gyre during brooding while yellow-nosed albatrosses continued to forage in a subtropical-subpolar transition zone. Landing rates, an indicator of foraging effort, did not differ between reproductive stages and were highly variable within and among species. Hawaiian albatrosses generally spent more time in flight compared to yellow-nosed albatrosses, a strategy that may relate to searching for dispersed and unpredictable prey. Mean absolute field-metabolic rate (FMR was greatest for black-footed albatrosses

  8. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    OpenAIRE

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der, E.H.

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR (University and Research Centre).

  9. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  10. Tornadic storm avoidance behavior in breeding songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Buehler, David A.; Andersen, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Migration is a common behavior used by animals of many taxa to occupy different habitats during different periods. Migrant birds are categorized as either facultative (i.e., those that are forced to migrate by some proximal cue, often weather) or obligate (i.e., those that migrate on a regular cycle). During migration, obligate migrants can curtail or delay flights in response to inclement weather or until favorable winds prevail, and they can temporarily reorient or reverse direction when ecological or meteorological obstacles are encountered. However, it is not known whether obligate migrants undertake facultative migrations and make large-scale movements in response to proximal cues outside of their regular migration periods. Here, we present the first documentation of obligate long-distance migrant birds undertaking a facultative migration, wherein breeding golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) carrying light-level geolocators performed a >1,500 km 5-day circumvention of a severe tornadic storm. The birds evacuated their breeding territories >24 hr before the arrival of the storm and atmospheric variation associated with it. The probable cue, radiating >1,000 km from tornadic storms, perceived by birds and influencing bird behavior and movements, is infrasound (i.e., sound below the range of human hearing). With the predicted increase in severity and frequency of similar storms as anthropogenic climate change progresses, understanding large-scale behavioral responses of animals to such events will be an important objective of future research.

  11. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change....... Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...

  12. Environmental variables associated with immature stage habitats of culicidae collected in aboriginal villages in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad; Ahmad, Rohani; Nor, Zurainee Mohamed; Ismail, Zamree; Ibrahim, Mohd Noor; Hadi, Azahari Abdul; Hassan, Rahimi; Lim, Lee Han

    2012-11-01

    Many of the most widely spread vector-borne diseases are water related, in that the mosquito vectors concerned breed or pass part of their lifecycle in or close to water. A major reason for the study of mosquito larval ecology is to gather information on environmental variables that may determine the species of mosquitoes and the distribution of larvae in the breeding habitats. Larval surveillance studies were conducted six times between May 2008 and October 2009 in Pos Lenjang, Kuala Lipis, Pahang. Twelve environmental variables were recorded for each sampling site, and samples of mosquito larvae were collected. Larval survey studies showed that anopheline and culicine larvae were collected from 79 and 67 breeding sites, respectively. All breeding sites were classified into nine habitat groups. Culicine larvae were found in all habitat groups, suggesting that they are very versatile and highly adaptable to different types of environment. Rock pools or water pockets with clear water formed on the bank of rivers and waterfalls were the most common habitats associated with An. maculatus. Environmental variables influence the suitability of aquatic habitats for anopheline and culicine larvae, but not significantly associated with the occurrence of both larvae genera (p>0.05). This study provides information on mosquito ecology in relation to breeding habitats that will be useful in designing and implementing larval control operations.

  13. Nest predation, temporal and spatial breeding strategy in the woodchat shrike Lanius senator in Mediterranean France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechet, Arnaud; Isenmann, Paul; Gaudin, Rodolphe

    1998-02-01

    A low breeding success (36.5%) due primarily to nest predation by mammals, birds and reptiles has been found in the Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator at three study sites in Mediterranean France. Data collected for 3 years on natural and artificial nests showed no year, time, season or spatial effect on nest predation rate in this species. No particular spatial breeding strategy is used, breeding success being no better at any nest site currently used along roadsides or far from roads. With respect to nest predation pressures, the best breeding strategy for Woodchat Shrike should be to breed as early as possible at any suitable site within its territory. Nevertheless, the impact of high predation on the viability of the studied populations of this species cannot be fully explained by the large impact of habitat transformations (closure of open, bushy grasslands) on current day populations.

  14. Molecular Genetics of Sex Identification, Breed Ancestry and Polydactyly in the Norwegian Lundehund Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropatsch, Regina; Melis, Claudia; Stronen, Astrid V; Jensen, Henrik; Epplen, Joerg T

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund breed of dog has undergone a severe loss of genetic diversity as a result of inbreeding and epizootics of canine distemper. As a consequence, the breed is extremely homogeneous and accurate sex identification is not always possible by standard screening of X-chromosomal loci. To improve our genetic understanding of the breed we genotyped 17 individuals using a genome-wide array of 170 000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Standard analyses based on expected homozygosity of X-chromosomal loci failed in assigning individuals to the correct sex, as determined initially by physical examination and confirmed with the Y-chromosomal marker, amelogenin. This demonstrates that identification of sex using standard SNP assays can be erroneous in highly inbred individuals. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Changes in breeding bird populations in North Dakota: 1967 to 1992-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, L.D.; Johnson, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    We compared breeding bird populations in North Dakota using surveys conducted in 1967 and 1992-93. In decreasing order, the five most frequently occurring species were Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris), Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), and Eastern Kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus). The five most abundant species - Horned Lark, Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus), Red-winged Blackbird, Western Meadowlark, and Brown-headed Cowbird - accounted for 31-41% of the estimated statewide breeding bird population in the three years. Although species composition remained relatively similar among years, between-year patterns in abundance and frequency varied considerably among species. Data from this survey and the North American Breeding Bird Survey indicated that species exhibiting significant declines were primarily grassland- and wetland-breeding birds, whereas species exhibiting significant increases primarily were those associated with human structures and woody vegetation. Population declines and increases for species with similar habitat associations paralleled breeding habitat changes, providing evidence that factors on the breeding grounds are having a detectable effect on breeding birds in the northern Great Plains.

  16. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Hobson, Keith A.; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km2 that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  17. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... This study was initiated to assess the effectiveness of three selection procedures applied in the early segregating generations of barley crosses for quality traits. The selection procedures were pedigree selection (PS), bulk selection (BS) and single seed descent selection (SSD). Selection was operated in.

  18. The Current Status, Problems, and Prospects of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. Breeding in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangli Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status, methodology, achievements, and prospects of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. breeding in China. There are 77 cultivars that have been registered in the country, these include 36 cultivars bred through breeding programs, 17 introduced from overseas, 5 domesticated from wild ecotypes, and 19 through regional collection/breeding programs. Cultivars have been selected for cold resistance, disease resistance, salt tolerance, grazing tolerance, high yield, and early maturity. Most of these cultivars have been developed through conventional breeding techniques, such as selective and cross breeding, and some are now being evaluated that have been developed through the application of transgenic technology. The major problems for alfalfa breeding in China include low success rate, slow progress to breed resistant varieties, lack of breeding materials and their systematic collection, storage and evaluation, lack of advanced breeding techniques, and low adoption rate of new cultivars. There are gaps in alfalfa breeding between China and the developed world. Improvement of alfalfa breeding techniques, development of cultivars with adaptations to different regions within China, and the protection and utilization of alfalfa germplasm resources have been identified as major strategies to improve the efficiency of alfalfa breeding in China.

  19. Smartphone technologies and Bayesian networks to assess shorebird habitat selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Sara; Thieler, E. Robert; Gutierrez, Ben; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hines, Megan K.; Fraser, James D.; Catlin, Daniel H.; Karpanty, Sarah M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding patterns of habitat selection across a species’ geographic distribution can be critical for adequately managing populations and planning for habitat loss and related threats. However, studies of habitat selection can be time consuming and expensive over broad spatial scales, and a lack of standardized monitoring targets or methods can impede the generalization of site-based studies. Our objective was to collaborate with natural resource managers to define available nesting habitat for piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) throughout their U.S. Atlantic coast distribution from Maine to North Carolina, with a goal of providing science that could inform habitat management in response to sea-level rise. We characterized a data collection and analysis approach as being effective if it provided low-cost collection of standardized habitat-selection data across the species’ breeding range within 1–2 nesting seasons and accurate nesting location predictions. In the method developed, >30 managers and conservation practitioners from government agencies and private organizations used a smartphone application, “iPlover,” to collect data on landcover characteristics at piping plover nest locations and random points on 83 beaches and barrier islands in 2014 and 2015. We analyzed these data with a Bayesian network that predicted the probability a specific combination of landcover variables would be associated with a nesting site. Although we focused on a shorebird, our approach can be modified for other taxa. Results showed that the Bayesian network performed well in predicting habitat availability and confirmed predicted habitat preferences across the Atlantic coast breeding range of the piping plover. We used the Bayesian network to map areas with a high probability of containing nesting habitat on the Rockaway Peninsula in New York, USA, as an example application. Our approach facilitated the collation of evidence-based information on habitat selection

  20. Coastal Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate critical habitat, areas of habitat essential to the species' conservation, for ESA...

  1. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  2. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  3. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  4. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  5. Movements and habitat-use of loggerhead sea turtles in the northern Gulf of Mexico during the reproductive period

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hart, Kristen M; Lamont, Margaret M; Sartain, Autumn R; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Stephens, Brail S

    2013-01-01

    .... Because of a lack of information on habitat-use by marine turtles in the northern Gulf of Mexico, we used satellite transmitters in 2010 through 2012 to track movements of 39 adult female breeding loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta...

  6. Application of genomic tools in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Castro, A M; Vilanova, S; Cañizares, J; Pascual, L; Blanca, J M; Díez, M J; Prohens, J; Picó, B

    2012-05-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, 'breeding by design', or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the 'superdomestication' of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits.

  7. Breeding implications resulting from classification of patellae luxation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grevenhof, E M; Hazewinkel, H A W; Heuven, H C M

    2016-08-01

    Patellar luxation (PL) is one of the major hereditary orthopaedic abnormalities observed in a variety of dog breeds. When the patellae move sideways out of the trochlear groove, this is called PL. The PL score varies between dogs from normal to very severe. Reducing the prevalence of PL by breeding could prevent surgery, thereby improve welfare. Orthopaedic specialists differentiate between normal and loose patellae, where the patellae can be moved to the edge of the trochlear groove, considering scoring loose patellae as normal in the future. Loose patellae are considered acceptable for breeding so far by the breeding organization. The aim of this study was to analyse the genetic background of PL to decide on the importance of loose patellae when breeding for healthy dogs. Data are available from two dog breeds, that is Flat-coated Retrievers (n = 3808) and Kooiker dogs (n = 794), with a total of 4602 dogs. Results show that loose patellae indicate that dogs are genetically more susceptible to develop PL because family members of the dogs with loose patellae showed more severe PL. In addition, the estimated breeding values for dogs with loose patellae indicate that breeding values of dogs with loose patellae were worse than breeding values obtained for dogs with a normal score. Given these results, it is advised to orthopaedic specialists to continue to score loose patellae as a separate class and to dog breeders to minimize the use of dogs in breeding with a genetically higher susceptibility for PL. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Habitat fragmentation and reproductive success: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tortorec, Eric; Helle, Samuli; Käyhkö, Niina; Suorsa, Petri; Huhta, Esa; Hakkarainen, Harri

    2013-09-01

    1. There is great interest on the effects of habitat fragmentation, whereby habitat is lost and the spatial configuration of remaining habitat patches is altered, on individual breeding performance. However, we still lack consensus of how this important process affects reproductive success, and whether its effects are mainly due to reduced fecundity or nestling survival. 2. The main reason for this may be the way that habitat fragmentation has been previously modelled. Studies have treated habitat loss and altered spatial configuration as two independent processes instead of as one hierarchical and interdependent process, and therefore have not been able to consider the relative direct and indirect effects of habitat loss and altered spatial configuration. 3. We investigated how habitat (i.e. old forest) fragmentation, caused by intense forest harvesting at the territory and landscape scales, is associated with the number of fledged offspring of an area-sensitive passerine, the Eurasian treecreeper (Certhia familiaris). We used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the complex hierarchical associations between habitat loss and altered spatial configuration on the number of fledged offspring, by controlling for individual condition and weather conditions during incubation. 4. Against generally held expectations, treecreeper reproductive success did not show a significant association with habitat fragmentation measured at the territory scale. Instead, our analyses suggested that an increasing amount of habitat at the landscape scale caused a significant increase in nest predation rates, leading to reduced reproductive success. This effect operated directly on nest predation rates, instead of acting indirectly through altered spatial configuration. 5. Because habitat amount and configuration are inherently strongly collinear, particularly when multiple scales are considered, our study demonstrates the usefulness of a SEM approach for hierarchical partitioning

  9. Integrating spatially explicit indices of abundance and habitat quality: an applied example for greater sage-grouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Davis, Dawn M.; Niell, Lara E.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management. Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter “sage-grouse” populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize use of available information. Herein, we improve upon existing species distribution models by combining information about sage-grouse habitat quality, distribution, and abundance from multiple data sources. To measure habitat, we created spatially explicit maps depicting habitat selection indices (HSI) informed by > 35 500 independent telemetry locations from > 1600 sage-grouse collected over 15 years across much of the Great Basin. These indices were derived from models that accounted for selection at different spatial scales and seasons. A region-wide HSI was calculated using the HSI surfaces modelled for 12 independent subregions and then demarcated into distinct habitat quality classes. We also employed a novel index to describe landscape patterns of sage-grouse abundance and space use (AUI). The AUI is a probabilistic composite of: (i) breeding density patterns based on the spatial configuration of breeding leks and associated trends in male attendance; and (ii) year-round patterns of space use indexed by the decreasing probability of use with increasing distance to leks. The continuous AUI surface was then reclassified into two classes representing high and low/no use and abundance. Synthesis and applications. Using the example of sage-grouse, we demonstrate how the joint application of indices of habitat selection, abundance, and space use derived from multiple data sources yields a composite map that can guide effective allocation of management intensity across

  10. Future perspectives of in vitro culture and plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2015-01-01

    fragments from parental plants in respect to identification of desired characteristics in offspring or among hybrid plants. Phylogeny-assisted breeding and knowledge about genetic relationships support the ability to develop new hybrids. Finally, chemical and radiation induced mutagenesis are established......Conventional breeding and plant improvement increasingly become inadequate to keep up with progression and high quality demands. Thus biotechnological techniques are more and more adopted. Initially, biotechnological tools have supported conventional breeding by in vitro culture techniques......, comprising micropropagation, speeding up multiplication and improving uniformity. Also, crossing barriers of incompatible plants have been overcome using in vitro methods and embryo rescue techniques in wide hybridization approaches. Marker-assisted breeding is employed for targeted selection of DNA...

  11. Future directions in breeding for disease resistance in aquaculture species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross D. Houston

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Infectious disease is a major constraint for all species produced via aquaculture. The majority of farmed fish and shellfish production is based on stocks with limited or no selective breeding. Since disease resistance is almost universally heritable, there is huge potential to select for improved resistance to key diseases. This short review discusses the current methods of breeding more resistant aquaculture stocks, with success stories and current bottlenecks highlighted. The current implementation of genomic selection in breeding for disease resistance and routes to wider-scale implementation and improvement in aquaculture are discussed. Future directions are highlighted, including the potential of genome editing tools for mapping causative variation underlying disease resistance traits and for breeding aquaculture animals with enhanced resistance to disease.

  12. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  13. The airspace is habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A preconception concerning habitat persists and has gone unrecognized since use of the term first entered the lexicon of ecological and evolutionary biology many decades ago. Specifically, land and water are considered habitats, while the airspace is not. This might at first seem a reasonable, if unintended, demarcation, since years of education and personal experience as well as limits to perception predispose a traditional view of habitat. Nevertheless, the airspace satisfies the definition and functional role of a habitat, and its recognition as habitat may have implications for policy where expanding anthropogenic development of airspace could impact the conservation of species and subject parts of the airspace to formalized legal protection.

  14. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  15. Estimating the per-capita contribution of habitats and pathways in a migratory network: A modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Runge, Michael C.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura; Fryxell, John; Norris, D. Ryan; Sample, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Every year, migratory species undertake seasonal movements along different pathways between discrete regions and habitats. The ability to assess the relative demographic contributions of these different habitats and pathways to the species’ overall population dynamics is critical for understanding the ecology of migratory species, and also has practical applications for management and conservation. Metrics for assessing habitat contributions have been well-developed for metapopulations, but an equivalent metric is not currently available for migratory populations. Here, we develop a framework for estimating the demographic contributions of the discrete habitats and pathways used by migratory species throughout the annual cycle by estimating the per capita contribution of cohorts using these locations. Our framework accounts for seasonal movements between multiple breeding and non-breeding habitats and for both resident and migratory cohorts. We illustrate our framework using a hypothetical migratory network of four habitats, which allows us to better understand how variations in habitat quality affect per capita contributions. Results indicate that per capita contributions for any habitat or pathway are dependent on habitat-specific survival probabilities in all other areas used as part of the migratory circuit, and that contribution metrics are spatially linked (e.g. reduced survival in one habitat also decreases the contribution metric for other habitats). Our framework expands existing theory on the dynamics of spatiotemporally structured populations by developing a generalized approach to estimate the habitat- and pathway-specific contributions of species migrating between multiple breeding and multiple non-breeding habitats for a range of life histories or migratory strategies. Most importantly, it provides a means of prioritizing conservation efforts towards those migratory pathways and habitats that are most critical for the population viability of

  16. Molecular markers in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treskić Sanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the marker assisted selection (MAS is being routinely applied in breeding programs of large private companies. However, the implementation of molecular markers for commercial use in small companies and public sec- tor is on a considerably smaller scale. Numerous researches on QTL mapping, theoretical analysis and simulation models for MAS give impetus to new research on the validation of quantitative trait loci and the application of molecular markers in maize breeding. This paper presents basic concepts related to MAS, the principles of QTL mapping, marker-trait association analysis and examples of successful application of markers in breeding for qualitative and quantitative traits.

  17. Population distribution, density and habitat preference of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Curley; Terry Master; Gregory George

    2012-01-01

    The breeding range of the Cerulean Warbler has expanded into second-growth forest and converted agricultural land in the northeastern United States where, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the population is increasing. Despite this expansion in one part of its range, the population as a whole is still in rapid decline implying that habitat quality...

  18. Characterization of landscape features associated with mosquito breeding in urban Cairo using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali N. Hassan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems of mosquito vectors proliferation have been increasing in Cairo in conjunction with urbanization and industrialization where several anopheline and culicine species have been collected. The present study was carried out to characterize the landscape variables potentially associated with mosquito breeding in a subset of urban Cairo. The study compared the capabilities of two satellite sensors, namely Landsat TM5 and Ikonos; in such endeavor. The study area encompassed 18 urban districts of Cairo. Mosquito breeding habitats were characterized within the district level using integrated remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS analyses. Different environmental variables derived from both satellite imageries were used to characterize landscapes of districts where mosquito breeding habitats occur. These variables include urbanization level, Land Use Land Cover (LULC, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, wetness, and Band 2/Band 4 (B2/B4 ratios. The majority of mosquito breeding sites (93.5% were found in slum areas. For both sensors, districts where breeding sites occurred were characterized by significantly higher mean of soil percentage and lower mean of majority wetness. At this level of characterization, Landsat TM5 would be adequate for the major identification of habitat areas. For targeting mosquito larval control however, Ikonos would provide better inputs as it allowed a better classification of small land cover classes including water.

  19. Breeding biology and behavior of Hammond's and western flycatchers in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.F. Sakai

    1988-01-01

    The Hammond's (Empidonax hammondii) and Western (E. difficilis) flycatchers are sympatric within portions of their breeding ranges in north- western California. Westerns are common in a variety of habitats (Bent 1942:247, Johnson 1980:11-23); Hammond's are more abundant at higher elevations (Bent 1942:226, Johnson...

  20. Enhancing the diversity of breeding invertebrates within field margins of intensively managed grassland: Effects of alternative management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritch, Rochelle A; Sheridan, Helen; Finn, John A; McCormack, Stephen; Ó hUallacháin, Daire

    2017-11-01

    Severe declines in biodiversity have been well documented for many taxonomic groups due to intensification of agricultural practices. Establishment and appropriate management of arable field margins can improve the diversity and abundance of invertebrate groups; however, there is much less research on field margins within grassland systems. Three grassland field margin treatments (fencing off the existing vegetation "fenced"; fencing with rotavation and natural regeneration "rotavated" and; fencing with rotavation and seeding "seeded") were compared to a grazed control in the adjacent intensively managed pasture. Invertebrates were sampled using emergence traps to investigate species breeding and overwintering within the margins. Using a manipulation experiment, we tested whether the removal of grazing pressure and nutrient inputs would increase the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates within grassland field margins. We also tested whether field margin establishment treatments, with their different vegetation communities, would change the abundance and richness of breeding invertebrates in the field margins. Exclusion of grazing and nutrient inputs led to increased abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups that we sampled. However, there were more complex effects of field margin establishment treatment on the abundance and richness of invertebrate taxa. Each of the three establishment treatments supported a distinct invertebrate community. The removal of grazing from grassland field margins provided a greater range of overwintering/breeding habitat for invertebrates. We demonstrate the capacity of field margin establishment to increase the abundance and richness in nearly all invertebrate groups in study plots that were located on previously more depauperate areas of intensively managed grassland. These results from grassland field margins provide evidence to support practical actions that can inform Greening (Pillar 1) and agri

  1. Predictors of breeding site occupancy by amphibians in montane landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological relationships and processes vary across species’ geographic distributions, life stages and spatial, and temporal scales. Montane landscapes are characterized by low wetland densities, rugged topographies, and cold climates. Consequently, aquatic-dependent and low-vagility ectothermic species (e.g., pool-breeding amphibians) may exhibit unique ecological associations in montane landscapes. We evaluated the relative importance of breeding- and landscape-scale features associated with spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) wetland occupancy in Maine's Upper Montane-Alpine Zone ecoregion, and we determined whether models performed better when the inclusive landscape-scale covariates were estimated with topography-weighted or circular buffers. We surveyed 135 potential breeding sites during May 2013–June 2014 and evaluated environmental relationships with multi-season implicit dynamics occupancy models. Breeding site occupancy by both species was influenced solely by breeding-scale habitat features. Spotted salamander occupancy probabilities increased with previous or current beaver (Castor canadensis) presence, and models generally were better supported when the inclusive landscape-scale covariates were estimated with topography-weighted rather than circular buffers. Wood frog occupancy probabilities increased with site area and percent shallows, but neither buffer type was better supported than the other. Model rank order and support varied between buffer types, but model inferences did not. Our results suggest pool-breeding amphibian conservation in montane Maine include measures to maintain beaver populations and large wetlands with proportionally large areas of shallows ≤1-m deep. Inconsistencies between our study and previous studies substantiate the value of region-specific research for augmenting species’ conservation management plans and suggest the application of out-of-region inferences may promote

  2. Restoring and rehabilitating sagebrush habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, David A.; Knick, S.T.; Connelly, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of the original habitat of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus uropha-sianus) currently exists. Some has been perma-nently lost to farms and urban areas, but the remaining varies in condition from high quality to no longer adequate. Restoration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) grassland ecosystems may be pos-sible for resilient lands. However, Greater Sage-Grouse require a wide variety of habitats over large areas to complete their life cycle. Effective restoration will require a regional approach for prioritizing and identifying appropriate options across the landscape. A landscape triage method is recommended for prioritizing lands for restora-tion. Spatial models can indicate where to protect and connect intact quality habitat with other simi-lar habitat via restoration. The ecological site con-cept of land classification is recommended for characterizing potential habitat across the region along with their accompanying state and transi-tion models of plant community dynamics. These models assist in identifying if passive, manage-ment-based or active, vegetation manipulation?based restoration might accomplish the goals of improved Greater Sage-Grouse habitat. A series of guidelines help formulate questions that manag-ers might consider when developing restoration plans: (1) site prioritization through a landscape triage; (2) soil verification and the implications of soil features on plant establishment success; (3) a comparison of the existing plant community to the potential for the site using ecological site descriptions; (4) a determination of the current successional status of the site using state and transition models to aid in predicting if passive or active restoration is necessary; and (5) implemen-tation of post-treatment monitoring to evaluate restoration effectiveness and post-treatment man-agement implications to restoration success.

  3. Market of dwelling improvement. Energy mastery in existing dwellings in France; Marche de l'amelioration de l'habitat. La maitrise de l'energie dans l'habitat existant en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Videau, S.; Le Fur, B.

    2003-09-01

    This documentary study represents a basis of thinking for the development of the market of energy mastery works in existing accommodations. It integrates, analyzes and synthesizes a huge number of data about energy and environment gathered from several sources (Energy Observatory, French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), national program of fight against climatic change (PNLCC), etc..). It presents first, the economical, environmental and social stakes of such a market (energy dependence of France, environmental commitments, energy over-consumption of old buildings), and then it lists the different points that would lead to significant energy savings: use of energy efficient appliances (consumer information), insulation and space heating improvements, and promotion of renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  4. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  5. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  6. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  7. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  8. Canine Hip Dysplasia: Breed Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, S W; Kirby, K.; Pennock, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper is a refinement of previous studies in that only suitably radiographed dogs were included in the data base. The rate of hip dysplasia varied widely by breed from five percent in siberian huskies to eighty-three percent in english bulldogs. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of dysplasia within at least two breeds; golden retrievers and old english sheepdogs. Physical size per se did not appear to be an important determinant of hip dysplasia.

  9. Genomic tools in cowpea breeding programs: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmane eBoukar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. It provides strong support to the livelihood of small-scale farmers through its contributions to their nutritional security, income generation and soil fertility enhancement. Worldwide about 6.5 million metric tons of cowpea are produced annually on about 14.5 million hectares. The low productivity of cowpea is attributable to numerous abiotic and biotic constraints. The abiotic stress factors comprise drought, low soil fertility, and heat while biotic constraints include insects, diseases, parasitic weeds and nematodes. Cowpea farmers also have limited access to quality seeds of improved varieties for planting. Some progress has been made through conventional breeding at international and national research institutions in the last three decades. Cowpea improvement could also benefit from modern breeding methods based on molecular genetic tools. A number of advances in cowpea genetic linkage maps, and quantitative trait loci associated with some desirable traits such as resistance to Striga, Macrophomina, Fusarium wilt, bacterial blight, root-knot nematodes, aphids and foliar thrips have been reported. An improved consensus genetic linkage map has been developed and used to identify QTLs of additional traits. In order to take advantage of these developments single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping is being streamlined to establish an efficient workflow supported by genotyping support service (GSS-client interactions. About 1100 SNPs mapped on the cowpea genome were converted by LGC Genomics to KASP assays. Several cowpea breeding programs have been exploiting these resources to implement molecular breeding, especially for MARS and MABC, to accelerate cowpea variety improvement. The combination of conventional breeding and molecular breeding strategies, with workflow managed through the CGIAR breeding management system (BMS, promises an increase in the number of

  10. Accuracy of genomic selection in European maize elite breeding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; Gowda, Manje; Liu, Wenxin; Würschum, Tobias; Maurer, Hans P; Longin, Friedrich H; Ranc, Nicolas; Reif, Jochen C

    2012-03-01

    Genomic selection is a promising breeding strategy for rapid improvement of complex traits. The objective of our study was to investigate the prediction accuracy of genomic breeding values through cross validation. The study was based on experimental data of six segregating populations from a half-diallel mating design with 788 testcross progenies from an elite maize breeding program. The plants were intensively phenotyped in multi-location field trials and fingerprinted with 960 SNP markers. We used random regression best linear unbiased prediction in combination with fivefold cross validation. The prediction accuracy across populations was higher for grain moisture (0.90) than for grain yield (0.58). The accuracy of genomic selection realized for grain yield corresponds to the precision of phenotyping at unreplicated field trials in 3-4 locations. As for maize up to three generations are feasible per year, selection gain per unit time is high and, consequently, genomic selection holds great promise for maize breeding programs.

  11. Evolution of mammalian migrations for refuge, breeding, and food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Pearse, William D; Shaw, Allison K

    2017-08-01

    Many organisms migrate between distinct habitats, exploiting variable resources while profoundly affecting ecosystem services, disease spread, and human welfare. However, the very characteristics that make migration captivating and significant also make it difficult to study, and we lack a comprehensive understanding of which species migrate and why. Here we show that, among mammals, migration is concentrated within Cetacea and Artiodactyla but also diffusely spread throughout the class (found in 12 of 27 orders). We synthesize the many ecological drivers of round-trip migration into three types of movement-between breeding and foraging sites, between breeding and refuge sites, and continuous tracking of forage/prey-each associated with different traits (body mass, diet, locomotion, and conservation status). Our results provide only partial support for the hypothesis that migration occurs without phylogenetic constraint. Furthermore, our findings suggest that categorizing migration into these three types may aid predictions of migrants' responses to environmental changes.

  12. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed.

  13. Genome-editing technologies and their potential application in horticultural crop breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jin-Song; Ding, Jing; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Plant breeding, one of the oldest agricultural activities, parallels human civilization. Many crops have been domesticated to satisfy human's food and aesthetical needs, including numerous specialty horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental flowers, shrubs, and trees. Crop varieties originated through selection during early human civilization. Other technologies, such as various forms of hybridization, mutation, and transgenics, have also been invented and applied to crop breeding over the past centuries. The progress made in these breeding technologies, especially the modern biotechnology-based breeding technologies, has had a great impact on crop breeding as well as on our lives. Here, we first review the developmental process and applications of these technologies in horticultural crop breeding. Then, we mainly describe the principles of the latest genome-editing technologies and discuss their potential applications in the genetic improvement of horticultural crops. The advantages and challenges of genome-editing technologies in horticultural crop breeding are also discussed. PMID:26504570

  14. Effects of Habitat Enhancement on Steelhead Trout and Coho Salmon Smolt Production, Habitat Utilization, and Habitat Availability in Fish Creek, Oregon, 1986 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H.; Reeves, Gordon H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1987-06-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, was continued in fiscal year 1986 by the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The study began in 1982 when PNW entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to evaluate fish habitat improvements in the Fish Creek basin on the Estacada Ranger District. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1986) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station (see Appendix 2). The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat

  15. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L. in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1 identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2 modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3 simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2 and (3 to 4 locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix, Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9. Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29% would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2% and Alnus viridis (4.8%. The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the

  16. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2003/04 breeding season was the shortest and had the lowest breeding productivity. The 2002/03 breeding season had a lower breeding productivity than 2001/02 because of the loss of a large number of nests during storm surge and spring high tides. The start and duration of the egg-laying period are influenced by ...

  17. Trends on Habitat Management

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Giuşcă

    2008-01-01

    According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the leve...

  18. Trends on Habitat Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Giuşcă

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traditional image, human habitat constitution is the result of natural inter-relations, the fundamental premise of the existence of natural resources, the climate, and the access to more developed proximities for commercial trading. Human habitat represents a complex system, with environmental values, having live and natural components that are inter-related. The dwelling is the fundamental component of the habitat and by relationship with the other components determines the level of habitation.

  19. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  20. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  1. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline of breeding success in a tropical wild bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Samantha J; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Jones, Carl G; Tatayah, Vikash; Norris, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Habitat conversion for agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss, but our understanding of the demographic processes involved remains poor. We typically investigate the impacts of agriculture in isolation even though populations are likely to experience multiple, concurrent changes in the environment (e.g. land and climate change). Drivers of environmental change may interact to affect demography, but the mechanisms have yet to be explored fully in wild populations. Here, we investigate the mechanisms linking agricultural land use with breeding success using long-term data for the formerly Critically Endangered Mauritius kestrel Falco punctatus, a tropical forest specialist that also occupies agricultural habitats. We specifically focused on the relationship between breeding success, agriculture and the timing of breeding because the latter is sensitive to changes in climatic conditions (spring rainfall) and enables us to explore the interactive effects of different (land and climate) drivers of environmental change. Breeding success, measured as egg survival to fledging, declines seasonally in this population, but we found that the rate of this decline became increasingly rapid as the area of agriculture around a nest site increased. If the relationship between breeding success and agriculture was used in isolation to estimate the demographic impact of agriculture, it would significantly under-estimate breeding success in dry (early) springs and over-estimate breeding success in wet (late) springs. Analysis of prey delivered to nests suggests that the relationship between breeding success and agriculture might be due, in part, to spatial variation in the availability of native, arboreal geckos. Synthesis and applications. Agriculture modifies the seasonal decline in breeding success in this population. As springs are becoming wetter in our study area and since the kestrels breed later in wetter springs, the impact of agriculture on breeding success will

  2. [Prospects of molecular breeding in medical plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Jun; Mo, Chang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    The molecular-assisted breeding, transgenic breeding and molecular designing breeding are three development directions of plant molecular breeding. Base on these three development directions, this paper summarizes developing status and new tendency of research field of genetic linkage mapping, QTL mapping, association mapping, molecular-assisted selections, pollen-mediated transformations, agrobacterium-mediated transformations, particle gun-mediated transformations, genome editing technologies, whole-genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, proteome sequencing and varietal molecular designing. The objective and existing problem of medical plant molecular breeding were discussed the prospect of these three molecular breeding technologies application on medical plant molecular breeding was outlooked. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Breeding cassava for multiple pest resistance in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    breeding populations (Hahn and Howland, 1976;. Perreaux, 1977; Hahn, 1978). The improved cultivars in the form of tissue culture and improved populations as seeds have been sent to many national programmes in Africa for selection under their own local conditions. Resistance to CBB seems to be attributable to.

  4. Stratification of habitats for identifying habitat selection by Merriam's turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Stanley H. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    Habitat selection patterns of Merriam’s Turkeys were compared in hierarchical analyses of three levels of habitat stratification. Habitat descriptions in first-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation. Habitat descriptions in second-level analyses were based on dominant species of vegetation and overstory canopy cover. Habitat descriptions in third-...

  5. Application of microsatellite markers as potential tools for traceability of Girgentana goat breed dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, Maria Teresa; Tortorici, Lina; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Tolone, Marco; Portolano, Baldassare

    2015-08-01

    In livestock, breed assignment may play a key role in the certification of products linked to specific breeds. Traceability of farm animals and authentication of their products can contribute to improve breed profitability and sustainability of animal productions with significant impact on the rural economy of particular geographic areas and on breed and biodiversity conservation. With the goal of developing a breed genetic traceability system for Girgentana dairy products, the aim of this study was to identify specific microsatellite markers able to discriminate among the most important Sicilian dairy goat breeds, in order to detect possible adulteration in Girgentana dairy products. A total of 20 microsatellite markers were analyzed on 338 individual samples from Girgentana, Maltese, and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Specific microsatellite markers useful for traceability of dairy products were identified. Eight microsatellite markers showed alleles present at the same time in Maltese and Derivata di Siria and absent in Girgentana and, therefore, they were tested on DNA pools of the three breeds. Considering the electropherograms' results, only FCB20, SRCRSP5, and TGLA122 markers were tested on DNA samples extracted from cheeses of Girgentana goat breed. These three microsatellite markers could be applied in a breed genetic traceability system of Girgentana dairy products in order to detect adulteration due to Maltese and Derivata di Siria goat breeds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving conservation of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris): conceptualization and contributions toward a regional warm-water network management strategy for sustainable winter habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  7. Improving Conservation of Florida Manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris): Conceptualization and Contributions Toward a Regional Warm-Water Network Management Strategy for Sustainable Winter Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Richard Owen; Reynolds, John Elliot; Harmak, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We used southwestern Florida as a case study to lay the groundwork for an intended and organized decision-making process for managing warm-water habitat needed by endangered manatees to survive winters in Florida. Scientists and managers have prioritized (a) projecting how the network of warm-water sites will change over the next 50 years as warmed industrial discharges may expire and as flows of natural springs are reduced through redirection of water for human uses, and (b) mitigating such changes to prevent undue consequences to manatees. Given the complexities introduced by manatee ecology; agency organizational structure; shifting public demands; fluctuating resource availability; and managing within interacting cultural, social, political, and environmental contexts, it was clear that a structured decision process was needed. To help promote such a process, we collected information relevant to future decisions including maps of known and suspected warm-water sites and prototyped a characterization of sites and networks. We propose steps that would lead to models that might serve as core tools in manatee/warm-water decision-making, and we summarized topics relevant for informed decision-making (e.g., manatee spatial cognition, risk of cold-stress morbidity and mortality, and human dimensions). A major impetus behind this effort is to ensure proactively that robust modeling tools are available well in advance of the anticipated need for a critical management decision.

  8. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  9. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM: Climate change and selective breeding in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Olesen, I

    2017-04-01

    breeding programs would be more heavily used. Aquaculture should use genetically improved and robust organisms not suffering from inbreeding depression. This will require using fish from well-managed selective breeding programs with proper inbreeding control and breeding goals. Policymakers and breeding organizations should provide incentives to boost selective breeding programs in aquaculture for more robust fish tolerating climatic change.

  10. A global analysis of bird plumage patterns reveals no association between habitat and camouflage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that animal patterns (motifs function in camouflage. Irregular mottled patterns can facilitate concealment when stationary in cluttered habitats, whereas regular patterns typically prevent capture during movement in open habitats. Bird plumage patterns have predominantly converged on just four types—mottled (irregular, scales, bars and spots (regular—and habitat could be driving convergent evolution in avian patterning. Based on sensory ecology, we therefore predict that irregular patterns would be associated with visually noisy closed habitats and that regular patterns would be associated with open habitats. Regular patterns have also been shown to function in communication for sexually competing males to stand-out and attract females, so we predict that male breeding plumage patterns evolved in both open and closed habitats. Here, taking phylogenetic relatedness into account, we investigate ecological selection for bird plumage patterns across the class Aves. We surveyed plumage patterns in 80% of all avian species worldwide. Of these, 2,756 bird species have regular and irregular plumage patterns as well as habitat information. In this subset, we tested whether adult breeding/non-breeding plumages in each sex, and juvenile plumages, were associated with the habitat types found within the species’ geographical distributions. We found no evidence for an association between habitat and plumage patterns across the world’s birds and little phylogenetic signal. We also found that species with regular and irregular plumage patterns were distributed randomly across the world’s eco-regions without being affected by habitat type. These results indicate that at the global spatial and taxonomic scale, habitat does not predict convergent evolution in bird plumage patterns, contrary to the camouflage hypothesis.

  11. Ecological and social factors affecting the local habitat distribution of western sandpipers wintering at Bah?Santa Mar? Northwest Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Fernᮤez Aceves, Guillermo Juan

    2005-01-01

    The process of habitat selection often requires individuals to choose among habitats that differ in foraging profitability and predation danger. The local habitat distribution of Western Sandpipers (Calidris maur~] was studied at Bahia Santa Maria, northwest Mexico, for three non-breeding seasons (1 999-2002). Western Sandpipers are highly sexually dimorphic, males being lighter and smaller-billed than females, and thus males may use visual foraging more often, be more susceptible to interfer...

  12. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational, ...

  13. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  14. Wildlife habitat considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Fire, insects, disease, harvesting, and precommercial thinning all create mosaics on Northern Rocky Mountain landscapes. These mosaics are important for faunal habitat. Consequently, changes such as created openings or an increase in heavily stocked areas affect the water, cover, and food of forest habitats. The “no action” alternative in ecosystem management of low...

  15. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P < 0.001) smaller (up to an order of magnitude) and more spatially discrete estimates of the total occupied area than climate-based models. The spatial location and extent of the total area occupied with the occupancy models was highly variable between years (131 and 1498 km2 ). Estimates accounting for the area of functional habitats were significantly smaller (2-58% [SD 16]) than estimates based only on the total area occupied. An increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the

  16. Breeding gains of sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mougniot, J. C.; Barre, J. Y.; Clauzon, P.; Ciacometti, C.; Neviere, G.; Ravier, J.; Sichard, B.

    1975-12-01

    Calculated values are presented for the breeding gains of French fast reactors, and the experimental uncertainties are discussed. The effect of various choices of planning on the breeding gains is next analyzed within the framework of classical concepts. In the final part, a new concept involving heterogeneous cores with a single enrichment zone is presented. This concept permits a significant improvement in the breeding gain and doubling time of fast reactors.

  17. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  18. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Veronika; McArthur, Michelle; Smith, Bradley; Hynd, Philip; Hazel, Susan

    2016-11-16

    Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76%) reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams and sires will

  19. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  20. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  1. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  2. Landscape-stream interactions and habitat conservation for amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Marziali, Laura; Rossaro, Bruno; De Bernardi, Fiorenza; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2011-06-01

    Semiaquatic organisms depend on the features of both water bodies and landscapes; the interplay between terrestrial and aquatic systems might influence the semiaquatic communities, determining the scale at which management would be more effective. However, the consequences of such interplay are not frequently quantified, particularly at the community level. We analyzed the distribution of amphibians to evaluate whether the influence of landscape features on freshwater ecosystems can have indirect consequences at both the species and community level. We surveyed 74 streams in northern Italy to obtain data on breeding amphibians, water, and microhabitat features; we also measured features of surrounding landscapes. We used an information-theoretic approach and structural equation models to compare hypotheses on causal relationships between species distribution and variables measured at multiple levels. We also used a constrained redundancy analyses to evaluate causal relationships between multivariate descriptors of habitat features and community composition. Distribution of Salamandra salamandra was related to landscape, hydrological, and water characteristics: salamanders were more frequent in permanent streams with low phosphate concentration within natural landscapes. Water characteristics were dependent on landscape: streams in natural landscapes had less phosphates. Landscape influenced the salamander both directly and indirectly through its influence on phosphates. Community structure was determined by both landscape and water characteristics. Several species were associated with natural landscapes, and with particular water characteristics. Landscape explained a significant proportion of variability of water characteristics; therefore it probably had indirect effects on community. Upland environments play key roles for amphibians, for example, as the habitat of adults, but upland environments also have indirect effects on the aquatic life stages, mediated

  3. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  4. Analysis of the genetic structure of endangered bovine breeds from the Western Pyrenees using DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendo, F; Iriondo, M; Jugo, B M; Aguirre, A; Mazón, L I; Vicario, A; Gómez, M; Estonba, A

    2004-04-01

    In the Western Pyrenees, three out of four native cattle breeds are in grave danger of extinction. Genetic variation of all four breeds was assessed by analyzing 478 animals using 11 microsatellite markers. A moderate/high within-breed variability was found, a favorable factor to consider when planning conservation and improvement programs. Interestingly, the only selected commercial breed, the Pirenaica, showed depressed heterozygosity levels and a low average number of alleles, perhaps explainable by intensive human selection exacerbated by a bottleneck effect. The Pirenaica also exhibited pronounced genetic differences and was the largest contributor of diversity among the breeds from the Western Pyrenees. Among endangered cattle breeds from this region, our results highlight the singularity of the Betizu. Geographic isolation among herds may be responsible for the large F(IS) value found in the Betizu breed. Lastly, our study suggests that the use of highly selected breeds may be one of the causes of distortion in phylogenetic analyses.

  5. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  6. New phenotypes for new breeding goals in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merks, J W M; Mathur, P K; Knol, E F

    2012-04-01

    Pig breeders in the past have adopted their breeding goals according to the needs of the producers, processors and consumers and have made remarkable genetic improvements in the traits of interest. However, it is becoming more and more challenging to meet the market needs and expectations of consumers and in general of the citizens. In view of the current and future trends, the breeding goals have to include several additional traits and new phenotypes. These phenotypes include (a) vitality from birth to slaughter, (b) uniformity at different levels of production, (c) robustness, (d) welfare and health and (e) phenotypes to reduce carbon footprint. Advancements in management, genomics, statistical models and other technologies provide opportunities for recording these phenotypes. These new developments also provide opportunities for making effective use of the new phenotypes for faster genetic improvement to meet the newly adapted breeding goals.

  7. Modeling Habitat Associations for the Common Loon (Gavia immer at Multiple Scales in Northeastern North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kuhn

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Common Loon (Gavia immer is considered an emblematic and ecologically important example of aquatic-dependent wildlife in North America. The northern breeding range of Common Loon has contracted over the last century as a result of habitat degradation from human disturbance and lakeshore development. We focused on the state of New Hampshire, USA, where a long-term monitoring program conducted by the Loon Preservation Committee has been collecting biological data on Common Loon since 1976. The Common Loon population in New Hampshire is distributed throughout the state across a wide range of lake-specific habitats, water quality conditions, and levels of human disturbance. We used a multiscale approach to evaluate the association of Common Loon and breeding habitat within three natural physiographic ecoregions of New Hampshire. These multiple scales reflect Common Loon-specific extents such as territories, home ranges, and lake-landscape influences. We developed ecoregional multiscale models and compared them to single-scale models to evaluate model performance in distinguishing Common Loon breeding habitat. Based on information-theoretic criteria, there is empirical support for both multiscale and single-scale models across all three ecoregions, warranting a model-averaging approach. Our results suggest that the Common Loon responds to both ecological and anthropogenic factors at multiple scales when selecting breeding sites. These multiscale models can be used to identify and prioritize the conservation of preferred nesting habitat for Common Loon populations.

  8. Breeding site heterogeneity reduces variability in frog recruitment and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Eby, Lisa A.; Maxell, Bryce A.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stochasticity can have profound effects on the dynamics and viability of wild populations, and habitat heterogeneity provides one mechanism by which populations may be buffered against the negative effects of environmental fluctuations. Heterogeneity in breeding pond hydroperiod across the landscape may allow amphibian populations to persist despite variable interannual precipitation. We examined recruitment dynamics over 10 yr in a high-elevation Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) population that breeds in ponds with a variety of hydroperiods. We combined these data with matrix population models to quantify the consequences of heterogeneity in pond hydroperiod on net recruitment (i.e. number of metamorphs produced) and population growth rates. We compared our heterogeneous system to hypothetical homogeneous environments with only ephemeral ponds, only semi-permanent ponds, and only permanent ponds. We also examined the effects of breeding pond habitat loss on population growth rates. Most eggs were laid in permanent ponds each year, but survival to metamorphosis was highest in the semi-permanent ponds. Recruitment success varied by both year and pond type. Net recruitment and stochastic population growth rate were highest under a scenario with homogeneous semi-permanent ponds, but variability in recruitment was lowest in the scenario with the observed heterogeneity in hydroperiods. Loss of pond habitat decreased population growth rate, with greater decreases associated with loss of permanent and semi-permanent habitat. The presence of a diversity of pond hydroperiods on the landscape will influence population dynamics, including reducing variability in recruitment in an uncertain climatic future.

  9. Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Vance R.; Powell, Russ M.

    1999-05-01

    The primary goal of ''The Grande Ronde Basin Fish Habitat Improvement Project'' is to access, create, improve, protect, and restore reparian and instream habitat for anadromous salmonids, thereby maximizing opportunities for natural fish production within the basin.

  10. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  11. Breeding Ecology of Birds -22 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ogy, conservation biology and popular science writing. Keywords. Birds. nesting. territory, coloniality, heronries. ecology, nesting strate- gies. Abdul Jamil Urli. One of the most fascinating aspects in the life of birds is their breeding phase, which is intimately tied to the distri- bution and abundance of food resources in their ...

  12. Plant mutation breeding and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Q. Y; Forster, Brian P; Nakagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    ... (FAO / IAEA) Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, with its global coordinating and synergistic roles, that plant mutation breeding became a common tool available to plant breeders worldwide. Since these early days the Joint Division continues to play a considerable role in fostering the use of mutation techni...

  13. Review of the breeding status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni N. Maurício

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on the breeding biology of birds is essential for improving avian life-history theory and implementing sound management and conservation actions for these organisms. Comprehensive reviews of this kind of information are lacking for most Neotropical regions, including Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian state. Aiming to update the knowledge on the reproductive status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, we reviewed breeding records of all potential breeding species recorded in the state using a set of predefined, restrictive criteria for accepting breeding evidences as effective. Data satisfying our criteria were available for 165 species in the literature. We also collected novel breeding information obtained in the state for an additional 126 species, including observations for several species whose reproductive biology is poorly known. Among these are birds previously unknown to breed in Brazil. This new data and the critical review of the previous information resulted in a total of 291 species for which breeding evidences are accepted as effective. This corresponds to 54.7% of the 532 species considered either confirmed or potential breeders in the state. In addition to providing information on nesting dates, clutch size, nest architecture and breeding behavior of south Brazilian birds, our review serves as a benchmark for the adequate assessment of avian breeding records elsewhere. We hope to stimulate observers to rigorously document breeding events, especially for taxa for which basic information is lacking.

  14. Breeding for high water-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, A G; Richards, R A; Rebetzke, G J; Farquhar, G D

    2004-11-01

    There is a pressing need to improve the water-use efficiency of rain-fed and irrigated crop production. Breeding crop varieties with higher water-use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. Three key processes can be exploited in breeding for high water-use efficiency: (i) moving more of the available water through the crop rather than it being wasted as evaporation from the soil surface or drainage beyond the root zone or being left behind in the root zone at harvest; (ii) acquiring more carbon (biomass) in exchange for the water transpired by the crop, i.e. improving crop transpiration efficiency; (iii) partitioning more of the achieved biomass into the harvested product. The relative importance of any one of these processes will vary depending on how water availability varies during the crop cycle. However, these three processes are not independent. Targeting specific traits to improve one process may have detrimental effects on the other two, but there may also be positive interactions. Progress in breeding for improved water-use efficiency of rain-fed wheat is reviewed to illustrate the nature of some of these interactions and to highlight opportunities that may be exploited in other crops as well as potential pitfalls. For C3 species, measuring carbon isotope discrimination provides a powerful means of improving water-use efficiency of leaf gas exchange, but experience has shown that improvements in leaf-level water-use efficiency may not always translate into higher crop water-use efficiency or yield. In fact, the reverse has frequently been observed. Reasons for this are explored in some detail. Crop simulation modelling can be used to assess the likely impact on water-use efficiency and yield of changing the expression of traits of interest. Results of such simulations indicate that greater progress may be achieved by pyramiding traits so that potential negative effects of individual traits are neutralized. DNA-based selection techniques may

  15. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  16. Teaching animal habitat selection using wildlife tracking equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, Jessica; Gillespie, Caitlyn R.; Corral, Lucia; Oden, Amy; Fricke, Kent A.; Fontaine, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a hands-on outdoor activity coupled with classroom discussion to teach students about wildlife habitat selection, the process by which animals choose where to live. By selecting locations or habitats with many benefits (e.g., food, shelter, mates) and few costs (e.g., predators), animals improve their ability to survive and reproduce. Biologists track animal movement using radio telemetry technology to study habitat selection so they can better provide species with habitats that promote population growth. We present a curriculum in which students locate “animals” (transmitters) using radio telemetry equipment and apply math skills (use of fractions and percentages) to assess their “animal's” habitat selection by comparing the availability of habitat types with the proportion of “animals” they find in each habitat type.

  17. Translating knowledge about abiotic stress tolerance to breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliham, Matthew; Able, Jason A; Roy, Stuart J

    2017-06-01

    Plant breeding and improvements in agronomic practice are making a consistent contribution to increasing global crop production year upon year. However, the rate of yield improvement currently lags behind the targets set to produce enough food to meet the demands of the predicted global population in 2050. Furthermore, crops that are exposed to harmful abiotic environmental factors (abiotic stresses, e.g. water limitation, salinity, extreme temperature) are prone to reduced yields. Here, we briefly describe the processes undertaken in conventional breeding programmes, which are usually designed to improve yields in near-optimal conditions rather than specifically breeding for improved crop yield stability under stressed conditions. While there is extensive fundamental research activity that examines mechanisms of plant stress tolerance, there are few examples that apply this research to improving commercial crop yields. There are notable exceptions, and we highlight some of these to demonstrate the magnitude of yield gains that could be made by translating agronomic, phenological and genetic solutions focused on improving or mitigating the effect of abiotic stress in the field; in particular, we focus on improvements in crop water-use efficiency and salinity tolerance. We speculate upon the reasons for the disconnect between research and research translation. We conclude that to realise untapped rapid gains towards food security targets new funding structures need to be embraced. Such funding needs to serve both the core and collaborative activities of the fundamental, pre-breeding and breeding research communities in order to expedite the translation of innovative research into the fields of primary producers. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Green roofs provide habitat for urban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.L. Parkins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding bat use of human-altered habitat is critical for developing effective conservation plans for this ecologically important taxon. Green roofs, building rooftops covered in growing medium and vegetation, are increasingly important conservation tools that make use of underutilized space to provide breeding and foraging grounds for urban wildlife. Green roofs are especially important in highly urbanized areas such as New York City (NYC, which has more rooftops (34% than green space (13%. To date, no studies have examined the extent to which North American bats utilize urban green roofs. To investigate the role of green roofs in supporting urban bats, we monitored bat activity using ultrasonic recorders on four green and four conventional roofs located in highly developed areas of NYC, which were paired to control for location, height, and local variability in surrounding habitat and species diversity. We then identified bat vocalizations on these recordings to the species level. We documented the presence of five of nine possible bat species over both roof types: Lasiurus borealis, L. cinereus, L. noctivagans, P. subflavus,andE. fuscus. Of the bat calls that could be identified to the species level, 66% were from L. borealis. Overall levels of bat activity were higher over green roofs than over conventional roofs. This study provides evidence that, in addition to well documented ecosystem benefits, urban green roofs contribute to urban habitat availability for several North American bat species.

  19. The density and species of mite breeding in stored products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Sun, Entao; Zhao, Jinhong; Wang, Huiyong; He, Ji; Wang, Jiajia; He, Lianping

    2014-09-12

    The aim of our study was to investigate the species and breeding density of acaroid mites in stored products in China. We tentatively harvested the samples from the products stored in warehouses, commercial stores and civilian houses, and the products. The results suggested the mites varied a lot in species regarding their ecological habitus and habitat. Still, the breeding density in different samples was associated with the sampling conditions. These discrepancies may be associated with the samples collected in diverse environment for the mites, and the findings easily suggest that acaroid mites are in universal distribution. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Persistency of accuracy of genomic breeding values for different simulated pig breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, E C; Schenkel, F S; Sargolzaei, M; Friendship, R M; Robinson, J A B

    2014-10-01

    Genetic improvement of pigs in tropical developing countries has focused on imported exotic populations which have been subjected to intensive selection with attendant high population-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD). Presently, indigenous pig population with limited selection and low LD are being considered for improvement. Given that the infrastructure for genetic improvement using the conventional BLUP selection methods are lacking, a genome-wide selection (GS) program was proposed for developing countries. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the option of using 60 K SNP panel and observed amount of LD in the exotic and indigenous pig populations. Several scenarios were evaluated including different size and structure of training and validation populations, different selection methods and long-term accuracy of GS in different population/breeding structures and traits. The training set included previously selected exotic population, unselected indigenous population and their crossbreds. Traits studied included number born alive (NBA), average daily gain (ADG) and back fat thickness (BFT). The ridge regression method was used to train the prediction model. The results showed that accuracies of genomic breeding values (GBVs) in the range of 0.30 (NBA) to 0.86 (BFT) in the validation population are expected if high density marker panels are utilized. The GS method improved accuracy of breeding values better than pedigree-based approach for traits with low heritability and in young animals with no performance data. Crossbred training population performed better than purebreds when validation was in populations with similar or a different structure as in the training set. Genome-wide selection holds promise for genetic improvement of pigs in the tropics. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road breeding bird survey data to assess population change in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Sauer, John

    2017-01-01

    Management interest in North American birds has increasingly focused on species that breed in Alaska, USA, and Canada, where habitats are changing rapidly in response to climatic and anthropogenic factors. We used a series of hierarchical models to estimate rates of population change in 2 forested Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) in Alaska based on data from the roadside North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Alaska Landbird Monitoring Survey, which samples off-road areas on public resource lands. We estimated long-term (1993–2015) population trends for 84 bird species from the BBS and short-term (2003–2015) trends for 31 species from both surveys. Among the 84 species with long-term estimates, 11 had positive trends and 17 had negative trends in 1 or both BCRs; negative trends were primarily found among aerial insectivores and wetland-associated species, confirming range-wide negative continental trends for many of these birds. Three species with negative trends in the contiguous United States and southern Canada had positive trends in Alaska, suggesting different population dynamics at the northern edges of their ranges. Regional population trends within Alaska differed for several species, particularly those represented by different subspecies in the 2 BCRs, which are separated by rugged, glaciated mountain ranges. Analysis of the roadside and off-road data in a joint hierarchical model with shared parameters resulted in improved precision of trend estimates and suggested a roadside-related difference in underlying population trends for several species, particularly within the Northwestern Interior Forest BCR. The combined analysis highlights the importance of considering population structure, physiographic barriers, and spatial heterogeneity in habitat change when assessing patterns of population change across a landscape as broad as Alaska. Combined analysis of roadside and off-road survey data in a hierarchical framework may be particularly

  2. Habitat selection and foraging ecology of seabirds in the Gulf of St. Lawrence

    OpenAIRE

    Guse, Nils

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on at-sea distribution, habitat selection and foraging ecology of seabirds in a seabird hotspot, the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Analyses are based on standardized ship-based surveys with oceanographic sampling, and equipment of breeding birds with data loggers. The Northern Gannet as focal species was most abundant. At-sea totals for the Southern Gulf proved regional and international importance for several species. New insights into links between seabirds and at-sea habitats wer...

  3. Selection Indicates Preference in Diverse Habitats: A Ground-Nesting Bird (Charadrius melodus) Using Reservoir Shoreline

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J Anteau; Sherfy, Mark H.; Wiltermuth, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Animals use proximate cues to select resources that maximize individual fitness. When animals have a diverse array of available habitats, those selected could give insights into true habitat preferences. Since the construction of the Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in North Dakota, Lake Sakakawea (SAK) has become an important breeding area for federally threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus; hereafter plovers). We used conditional logistic regression to examine nest-site selection ...

  4. Union breeds strength [Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Marta-Lazo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the field of research in general, and scientific communication in particular, working in networks is essential in order to improve joint projects and increase the chances of expanding results. For several years now, the editor of this journal, Victoria Tur Viñes, PhD, has given me the chance to collaborate, first as a member of the Scientific Committee, next as Editorial Secretary in charge of coordinating several monographs, and now as co-editor. To paraphrase the writer González Moore, “generosity is always the best path”. Undoubtedly, the act of sharing time and locations means that new synergies come together, moving towards one single objective: for the Mediterranean Journal of Communication to continue gaining in prestige as a wide-ranging source of knowledge that continues to reap success. Talking of success, in May we received the great news that RMC is now indexed in EMERGING SOURCE CITATION INDEX (ESCI - Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters. Scientific publications that are being evaluated to be included in the Web of Science Core Collections Web of Science (SCI, SSCI & A&HCI appear in this database. This inclusion is a major boost to the journal’s visibility and will allow us to have citation metrics in the database.

  5. Critical Habitat Designations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Endangered Species Act (ESA) requires the Federal government to designate 'critical habitat' for any species it lists under the ESA. This dataset combines both...

  6. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  7. Majuro_Benthic_Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed...

  8. VT Wildlife Linkage Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Wildlife Linkage Habitat Analysis uses landscape scale data to identify or predict the location of potentially significant wildlife linkage...

  9. Habitat Mapping Camera (HABCAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset entails imagery collected using the HabCam towed underwater vehicle and annotated data on objects or habitats in the images and notes on image...

  10. Johnsons Seagrass Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Johnson's Seagrass as designated by Federal Register Vol. 65, No. 66, Wednesday, April 5, 2000, Rules and Regulations.

  11. Designated Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Critical habitats include those areas documented as currently supporting self-sustaining populations of any threatened or endangered species of wildlife as well as...

  12. Right Whale Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Right Whale as designated by Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 28805, May 19, 1993, Rules and Regulations.

  13. Smalltooth Sawfish Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinatat) as designated by 74 FR 45353, September 2, 2009, Rules and Regulations.

  14. Green Turtle Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for green turtle as designated by Federal Register Vol. 63, No. 46701, September 2, 1998, Rules and Regulations.

  15. Effects of breed on milk fatty acid profile in dairy ewes, with particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... its conversion into cis-9, trans-11 CLA were more intense in the Turcana breed ewes. In conclusion, breed has a strong effect on the FA composition of ewe milk fat, and on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, in particular. The results obtained, support the sustainable use of animal genetic resources to improve the milk fat quality of ewes.

  16. Response of Nigerian local breed of dog to graded doses of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-01-24

    Jan 24, 2017 ... response of the Nigerian local breed of dog to varying doses of Ancylostoma caninum infective larvae. It is hoped that information from the study will improve our understanding of the dynamics of the infection in this breed and thus aid in the clinical assessment and management of hookworm disease in the ...

  17. Simulated selection responses for breeding programs including resistance and resilience to parasites in Creole goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunia, M.; Phocas, F.; Gourdine, J.L.; Bijma, P.; Mandonnet, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Creole goat is a local breed used for meat production in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). As in other tropical countries, improvement of parasite resistance is needed. In this study, we compared predicted selection responses for alternative breeding programs with or without parasites resistance

  18. Economic appraisal of the utilization of genetic markers in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, E.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groen, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Returns from the utilization of genetic markers in breeding programs have been computed in two ways. In the first approach, returns accrue from additionally improved milk yield that was due to marker utilization in selection. In the second approach, changes in returns from semen sales for a breeding

  19. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour

  20. Amphibian terrestrial habitat selection and movement patterns vary with annual life-history period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Luke A.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Loftin, Cynthia S.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of essential habitat is a fundamental component of amphibian conservation; however, species with complex life histories frequently move among habitats. To better understand dynamic habitat use, we evaluated Wood Frog (Lithobates sylvaticus (LeConte, 1825)) habitat selection and movement patterns during the spring migration and foraging periods and described the spatiotemporal variability of habitats used during all annual life-history periods. We radio-tracked 71 frogs in Maine during 2011–2013 and evaluated spring migration, foraging activity center (FAC), and within-FAC habitat selection. Telemetered frogs spent the greatest percentage of each field season in hibernacula (≥54.4%), followed by FACs (≥25.5%), migration habitat (≥16.9%), and breeding sites (≥4.5%). FACs ranged 49 – 1 335 m2 (568.0 ± 493.4 m2) and annual home ranges spanned 1 413 – 32 165 m2 (11 780.6 ± 12 506.1 m2). During spring migration, Wood Frogs exhibited different movement patterns (e.g., turn angles), selected different habitat features, and selected habitat features less consistently than while occupying FACs, indicating that the migration and foraging periods are ecologically distinct. Habitat-use studies that do not discriminate among annual life-history periods may obscure true ecological relationships and fail to identify essential habitat necessary for sustaining amphibian populations.