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Sample records for breeding canada geese

  1. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and the Methodology for Mitigation and Enhancement in the Flathead Drainage, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Flathead System Canada Goose Study was initiated to determine population trends and the effects of water level fluctuations on nest and brood habitat on the southern half of Flathead Lake and the lower Flathead River as a result of the operations of Kerr Dam. This report presents data collected during the 1984 field season as part of an ongoing project. Geese used Pablo, Kicking Horse, Ninepipe Reservoirs heavily during late summer and fall. Use of the river by geese was high during the winter, when the reservoirs were frozen, and during the breeding period. Most breeding geese left the river after broods fledged. Thirteen percent of the artificial tree nest structures on the river were used by nesting geese. Goose nest initiation on the river peaked the last week in March through the first week in April, and hatching peaked the first week in May. Predation was the most significant cause of nest loss on the river, and nest loss by flooding was not observed. Avian predation was the single largest factor contributing to nest loss on the lake. Habitat use was studied in 4 brood areas on the river and 8 brood areas on the lake, and available habitat was assessed for 2 portions of both the lake and the river. Brood habitat use was significantly different from the available habitat in all areas studied. On the lower river, broods used wheat fields, gravel bars, and shrub habitats. On the upper river, coniferous forest and shrub habitats were preferred. On the West Bay of the lake, brood areas consisted primarily of lawns and tall herbaceous habitat, while on the South Bay, marshes dominated the brood areas studied. Water levels on the river and lake affect both accessibility of these areas to brooding geese, and the ecology of the habitats preferred by geese. 43 refs., 24 figs., 31 tabs.

  2. Canada geese of the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: family relationships, behavior and productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Geese described are non-migratory, free-flying Todd's Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior). The genealogy of 261 of these geese was traced by archival research and three years of field observations. Nest locations and densities, preferences for various types of artificial nest structures, clutch sizes, hatching success, brood survival to flight stage, and food habits were recorded. Resul ts indicate geese may:,pair as yearlings, but these bonds may be broken and re-formed before breeding. Pair bonding generally resulted in geese of similar ages remaining together until the death of one partner, although re-pairing, polygamy, and pairing between broodmates also occurred. The dominance hierarchy of related birds strongly influenced the position of 'outsiders' pairing with indigenous females. Dominant status passed not only from male to male, but, upon the death of the dominant male, in at least one instance, the surviving female retained dominant status. Gang broods were composed of progeny of the rearing pair, plus goslings relinquished by female offspring or siblings of the rearing pair. Among indentifiable geese, gang broods were reared by the dominant pair on each impoundment. Geese retained their family integrity both in flight and during the post-molt dispersion. Female and males paired with local females, nested in their natal areas. No significant relationship (P family. Collars, legbands, and telemetry were initially used to distinguish conspecifics. It was subsequently discovered that individual geese could be recognized by cheek-patch patterns, unusual plumage, or mannerisms. It is suggested that cheek-patch similarities in related Canada geese might be used to trace gene flow within flocks, and may be used for individual recognition by other Canada geese.

  3. Impacts of Water Levels on Breeding Canada Geese and Methods for Mitigation and Management in the Southern Flathead Valley, Montana, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Dennis L.; Gregory, Shari K.; Matthews, William C. Jr.; Claar, James J.; Ball, I. Joseph

    1987-11-01

    Kerr Hydroelectric Dam is located at the south end of Flathead Lake, controls water levels on the lake and the Flathead River below the dam, and is currently operated as a load control facility. Current operation of Kerr Dam creates the greatest yearly water level fluctuations on both the lake and river during the Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) brood and nesting period. Data collected from 1980-1982 indicated that goose nest numbers on the river were lower than during the 1950's, and that brood habitat on the lake may be limiting the goose population there. Our study was conducted from 1983-1987 to determine the effects of Kerr Dam operation on Canada goose populations and habitat on the south half of Flathead Lake and the Flathead River, and to formulate management and mitigation recommendations. Nesting geese on the river appeared to be negatively affected by a lack of nest sites free from predators, and responded to available artificial nest structures with an increase in nest numbers and nesting success. Under current dam operation, river channel depths and widths do not discourage access to nesting islands by mammalian predators during some years and high predation on ground nests occurs. Intensively used brood areas on the lake and river were identified and described. Brood habitat on the lake was lower in quality and quantity than on the river due to dam operations. Gosling mortality on the lake was high, almost 2 times higher than on the river. Lake broods expended more energy obtaining food than river broods. Losses of brood habitat in the form of wet meadow marshes were documented and mitigation options developed. Management/mitigation alternatives and monitoring methods for nesting and brooding geese were identified.

  4. Movements and Habitat Use by Temperate-Nesting Canada Geese During the Postbreeding Period in Southern Québec

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    Matthieu Beaumont

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual behavior that reduces vulnerability to predation can affect population dynamics of animals. Temperate-nesting Canada Geese (Branta canadensis maxima have increased steadily throughout the Atlantic flyway and have become a nuisance in some parts of their range. The objective of our study was to describe movements and habitat use during the postbreeding period of Canada Geese recently established in southern Québec. More specifically, we wanted to determine whether geese were using areas where hunting was allowed to assess the potential of harvest to control the number of geese. We tracked a sample of geese fitted with radio or conventional alphanumeric collars throughout the fall in three zones characterized by different habitats and hunting pressure. Before the hunting season, geese left the breeding area where hunting was allowed to reach suburban areas where firearm discharge was prohibited or hunters' numbers were low. These postbreeding movements occurred when juveniles were approximately three months old. We observed few local movements among zones once migrant geese from northern breeding populations reached the study area. Radio-collared geese used mainly natural habitats (75.4 ± 2.6%, followed by urban (14.4 ± 2.7%, and agricultural habitats (10.3 ± 0.8%. They were located 73.8 ± 6.2% of the time in areas where hunting was prohibited. Geese that attended their juveniles during brood rearing were more prone to use areas where firearm discharge was restricted than geese that had abandoned or lost their brood. This study shows that under the prevailing regulations, the potential of hunting to manage the increasing breeding population of Canada Geese in southern Québec is limited.

  5. 50 CFR 21.52 - Public health control order for resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health control order for resident... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.52 Public health control order for resident Canada geese. (a) Which... Canada geese, as defined in § 21.3. (b) What is the public health control order for resident Canada geese...

  6. 50 CFR 21.50 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... geese nests and eggs. 21.50 Section 21.50 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.50 Depredation order for resident Canada geese nests and eggs. (a... nests and eggs, and what is its purpose? The nest and egg depredation order for resident Canada geese...

  7. Organophosphate insecticide poisoning of Canada geese in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Wynn, L.D.; Flickinger, Edward L.; Kolbe, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen hundred waterfowl, mostly Canada Geese, died near Etter, Texas, in late January 1981 from anticholinesterase poisoning. Winter wheat in the area of the die-off had been treated with organophosphate insecticides to control greenbugs. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in brains of a sample of geese found dead were 75% below normal, enough to account for death (Ludke et al. 1975). The gastrointestinal (G I) tracts of geese found dead were packed with winter wheat; gas chromatography techniques identified parathion and methyl parathion in the GI tract contents. Residues of both chemicals were confirmed by mass spectrometry. We recommend that less toxic materials, such as malathion, be used on grain crops when waterfowl are in the vicinity of treatment.

  8. Leucocytozoonosis in Canada Geese at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Barrow, J.H.; Tarshis, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    A history is given of the Seney National Wildlife Refuge and the losses of goslings of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) recorded since inception of the refuge in 1935. Since 1960, when more reliable data became available, losses have been extensive every 4 years. Gosling deaths are attributed to the infection with Leucocytozoon simondi. The blackfly (Simulium innocens) is considered to be the prime vector in the transmission of this blood parasite to goslings.

  9. Hematologic parameters and hemoparasites of nonmigratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from Greensboro, North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-Smith, Lauren E; Rutledge, M Elizabeth; Meek, Caroline J; Baine, Katherine; Massey, Elizabeth; Ellsaesser, Laura N; DePerno, Christopher S; Moorman, Christopher E; Degernes, Laurel A

    2014-03-01

    Large flocks of wild, nonmigratory Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have established permanent residence throughout the eastern United States and have become a public concern. Few studies have assessed the hematologic parameters for these populations, which could provide useful information for monitoring individual and population health of Canada geese. This study measured the hematologic parameters and detected the presence of hemoparasites from 146 wild, nonmigratory Canada geese in central North Carolina, USA, during their annual molt. The age class, sex, and weight of each bird were recorded at capture. Values for packed cell volume (PCV), estimated white blood cell count, white blood cell differentials, and heterophil: lymphocyte ratios were calculated for each bird. Adults and female geese had higher estimated white blood cell counts compared with juveniles and males, respectively. The PCV increased with weight and age class. Adult geese had higher percentages of heterophils and heterophil: lymphocyte ratios, whereas juvenile geese had higher percentages of lymphocytes. Relative eosinophil counts in adults increased with decreasing bird weight, and relative monocyte counts in juveniles increased with increasing weight. Three percent of geese were infected with species of Hemoproteus blood parasites. Atypical lymphocyte morphology, including pseudopods, split nuclei, and cytoplasmic granules, was observed in 5% of the birds. The hematologic values reported for adult and juvenile nonmigratory Canada geese in this study may serve as reference intervals for ecological studies and veterinary care of wild and captive Canada geese.

  10. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site - Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  11. Canada Geese at the Hanford Site – Trends in Reproductive Success, Migration Patterns, and Contaminant Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Mary Ann; Poston, Ted M.; Tiller, Brett L.; Stegen, Amanda; Hand, Kristine D.; Brandenberger, Jill M.

    2010-05-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has conducted several studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the status and condition of Canada geese on the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. This report summarizes results of studies of Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) at the Hanford Site dating back to the 1950s. Results include information on the nesting (reproductive) success of Canada geese using the Hanford Reach, review of the local and regional migration of this species using data from bird banding studies, and summary data describing monitoring and investigations of the accumulation of Hanford-derived and environmental contaminants by resident goose populations.

  12. Subtype-Specific Influenza A Virus Antibodies in Canada Geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Whitney M.; Stallknecht, David E.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Van Why, Kyle; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, surveillance for influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild birds has relied on viral detection assays. This was largely due to poor performance of serological assays in wild birds; however, recently developed commercial serological assays have improved the ability to detect IAV antibodies in wild birds. Serological surveillance for IAV antibodies in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) has shown that, despite a low prevalence of virus isolations, Canada geese are frequently exposed to IAVs and that exposure increases with latitude, which follows virus isolation prevalence patterns observed in dabbling ducks. The objectives of this study were to further evaluate IAV antibodies in Canada geese using a subtype-specific serological assay to determine if Canada geese are exposed to subtypes that commonly circulate in dabbling ducks. We collected serum samples from Canada geese in Minnesota, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin and tested for antibodies to IAVs using a blocking ELISA. Positive samples were further tested by hemagglutination inhibition for 10 hemagglutinin IAV subtypes (H1–H10). Overall, we detected antibodies to NP in 24% (714/2,919) of geese. Antibodies to H3, H4, H5, and H6 subtypes predominated, with H5 being detected most frequently. A decrease in H5 HI antibody prevalence and titers was observed from 2009 to 2012. We also detected similar exposure pattern in Canada geese from New Jersey, Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Based on the published literature, H3, H4, and H6 viruses are the most commonly reported IAVs from dabbling ducks. These results indicate that Canada geese also are frequently exposed to viruses of the same HA subtypes; however, the high prevalence of antibodies to H5 viruses was not expected as H5 IAVs are generally not well represented in reported isolates from ducks. PMID:25845755

  13. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenglai Yin

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis, Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis and Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons, from their breeding grounds, spring stopover sites, and wintering grounds. We tested if the geese were infected with low pathogenic avian influenza virus outside of their wintering grounds, and analysed the spatial and temporal patterns of infection prevalence on their wintering grounds. Our results show that geese were not infected before their arrival on wintering grounds. Barnacle geese and Greater white-fronted geese had low prevalence of infection just after their arrival on wintering grounds in the Netherlands, but the prevalence increased in successive months, and peaked after December. This suggests that migratory geese are exposed to the virus after their arrival on wintering grounds, indicating that migratory geese might not disperse low pathogenic avian influenza virus during autumn migration.

  14. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

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    Rodney W. Brook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how climate change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first-year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  15. Density dependence and phenological mismatch: consequences for growth and survival of sub-arctic nesting Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Rodney W.; Leafloor, James O.; Douglas, David C.; Abraham, Kenneth F.

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which species are plastic in the timing of their reproductive events relative to phenology suggests how change might affect their demography. An ecological mismatch between the timing of hatch for avian species and the peak availability in quality and quantity of forage for rapidly growing offspring might ultimately affect recruitment to the breeding population unless individuals can adjust the timing of breeding to adapt to changing phenology. We evaluated effects of goose density, hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology, and weather indices on annual growth of pre-fledging Canada geese (Branta canadensis) from 1993-2010 at Akimiski Island, Nunavut. We found effects of both density and hatch timing relative to forage plant phenology; the earlier that eggs hatched relative to forage plant phenology, the larger the mean gosling size near fledging. Goslings were smallest in years when hatch was latest relative to forage plant phenology, and when local abundance of breeding adults was highest. We found no evidence for a trend in relative hatch timing, but it was apparent that in early springs, Canada geese tended to hatch later relative to vegetation phenology, suggesting that geese were not always able to adjust the timing of nesting as rapidly as vegetation phenology was advanced. Analyses using forage biomass information revealed a positive relationship between gosling size and per capita biomass availability, suggesting a causal mechanism for the density effect. The effects of weather parameters explained additional variation in mean annual gosling size, although total June and July rainfall had a small additive effect on gosling size. Modelling of annual first year survival probability using mean annual gosling size as an annual covariate revealed a positive relationship, suggesting that reduced gosling growth negatively impacts recruitment.

  16. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-01-01

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean ±SE 4.29±0.30 μg/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910±386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249±44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161±36.7 ng/g) may pose a risk if consumed

  17. A study of gizzard nematodes and renal coccidiosis in Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) of the Mississippi Valley population

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    Tuggle, Benjamin N.

    1982-01-01

    A total of 309 Mississippi Valley Population Canada geese, Branta canadensis interior, of different sex and age groups was collected from three locations in the Mississippi Flyway from 1979-1981 and examined for gizzard nematodes and renal coccidia. Three species of nematodes were removed from the gizzards, Amidostomum anseris, A. spatulatum, and Epomidiostomum crami. The latter two species are reported from this population of geese for the first time. Gizzard nematodes were found in 95.2% of all Canada geese examined, with A. anseris being the most abundant of the three species. There was no statistically significant difference between immatures and adults in the abundance of total nematodes species however, immature geese carried significantly more A. anseris and adult geese harbored significantly more A. spatulatum and E. crami infections. No significant difference in gizzard worm infections between male and female birds was observed. The abundance of overall gizzard nematodes was greatest in Canada geese from Winisk, Ontario (11.9), but the abundance of worms in southern Illinois geese (10.0) was similar. Geese from Horicon National Wildlife Refuge had the lowest abundance of infection, 7.5. The overall abundance of nematodes showed a general increase the second year of the study in each sex and age group and at each collection area. Each of three species of nematodes was responsible for some degree of damage to the gizzard lining and koilin, but E. crami was the most pathogenic of the species recovered. The occurrence of renal coccidiosis in Canada geese of this flyway is reported for the first time; the etiologic agent is Eimeria clarkei. The oocysts and/or endogenous stages of E. clarkei were present in 6.8% of the Canada geese sampled and this was the only species found. Male and female geese showed no significant differences in E. clarkei infections, however, significantly more immature geese than adult geese were infected with this species. A cell

  18. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

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    Springer, Paul F.; Lowe, Roy W.; Stroud, Richard K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  19. 50 CFR 21.51 - Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.51 Depredation order for resident Canada geese at agricultural..., Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio...

  20. Differences in oxidative stress between young Canada geese and mallards exposed to lead-contaminated sediment

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    Mateo, R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure causes an increase in tissue lipid peroxides and variation in glutathione (GSH) concentration, which can be related to peroxidative damage of cell membranes in Pb poisoned animals. Species and individual variation in sensitivity to Pb poisoning among animals may be due to differential resistance to oxidative stress. We compared the effects of oxidative stress caused by Pb exposure (1.7, 414 and 828 ig/g of diet) for the first six weeks in growing young of two species of waterfowl, Canada geese (Branta canadensis) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), with the first species being possibly more sensitive to Pb poisoning based on previous field and laboratory observations. Blood and liver Pb concentrations increased more in mallards than in geese; this may be explained on the basis of body weight, being 3.2 times higher in geese, and hepatic metabolism where GSH-S-transferase activity is 2.9 fold higher in geese and presumably has a role in the binding of Pb to GSH and subsequent biliary excretion. In contrast, mallards showed higher hepatic levels of GSH and activities of GSH peroxidase (GPX) and GSH reductase (GR). Although both species showed an increase in hepatic GSH concentration with Pb exposure, the increase of lipid peroxidation with Pb exposure was more significant in geese. Within treatment groups, hepatic GSH concentrations were inversely related to liver Pb concentration in both species, which may correspond to the role of GSH in Pb excretion. Hepatic GSH was also inversely related to hepatic lipid peroxidation, but only in mallards and in agreement with the differences observed in GPX and GR activities. The lower resistance to lipid peroxidation of Canada geese may explain why birds of this species found dead in the field by Pb shot ingestion often have a lower number of shot in the gizzard and lower liver Pb concentrations than mallards.

  1. Teaching migration routes to canada geese and trumpeter swans using ultralight aircraft, 1990-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen, William J. L.; Lishman, W.A.; Ellis, D.H.; Shire, G.G.; Rininger, D.L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes eleven years (1990-2001) of experiments to teach Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) and Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) pre-selected migration routes using ultralight aircraft. When Canada Geese were trained to follow an ultralight aircraft for southward autumn migrations of 680 or 1,320 km, 81% (83/103) returned on their own in the next spring to near their place of training. In contrast, none returned of 21 similarly raised geese that were transported south in a closed truck over a route of 680 km. Trumpeter Swans have proven more difficult to train. However, in two experiments in which Trumpeter Swans followed an ultralight for the entire pre-selected route, one of three and two of four returned close to their training area. A stage-by-stage method, in which swans were transported in trucks between stops, flown in the vicinity and penned with a view of the night sky, has shown some promise. So far an established migration route (north and south twice) has been confirmed in only two geese

  2. Fueling incubation : Differential use of body stores in Arctic and temperate-breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichhorn, Goetz; van der Jeugd, Henk P.; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Drent, Rudolf H.

    We compared the use of body stores in breeding Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) in traditional Arctic colonies in the Barents Sea with that in recently established temperate-zone breeding colonies in the Baltic Sea and North Sea by studying female body-mass loss and use of fat and protein stores

  3. Dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla breeding near snowy owl Nyctea scandiaca nests lay more and larger eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, H.H. van; Willems, F.; Volkov, A.E.; Smeets, J.H.R.; Nowak, D.; Nowak, A.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that snowy owls Nyctea scandiaca defend an area around their nests against predators, hereby inadvertently creating safe havens for breeding dark-bellied brent geese Branta b. bernicla. However, studies investigating brent goose breeding ecology within the

  4. The effect of lead poisoning on hematologic and biochemical values in trumpeter swans and Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavolos, P; Staempfli, S; Sears, W; Gancz, A Y; Smith, D A; Bienzle, D

    2007-12-01

    Lead is a persistent contaminant in the environment, and waterfowl are susceptible to lead toxicity from ingestion of lead pellets and fishing weights. Lead affects numerous physiologic processes through inhibition of enzyme activity and protein function, but its effects on commonly assessed avian blood values are incompletely understood. Our aim was to evaluate hematologic and biochemical changes associated with blood lead concentrations in trumpeter swans and Canada geese. Data for CBCs, plasma biochemical profiles (total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, total bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT], aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, amylase, and lipase), and whole blood lead concentrations were retrospectively analyzed for 69 trumpeter swans and 52 Canada geese. Laboratory data obtained prospectively from an additional 20 trumpeter swans also were included. RBC morphology was semiquantitated in blood smears from 70 of the birds. Data were analyzed initially by ANOVA and covariance. A statistical model then was constructed to determine the relationship between each parameter and lead concentration. In both avian species, PCV, hemoglobin concentration, and MCHC decreased significantly (P < .05) with increasing blood lead concentration. Uric acid concentration and GGT activity were increased in trumpeter swans and phosphorus concentration was decreased in Canada geese in association with high blood lead concentration (P < .05). Lead toxicosis induced significant changes in the values of commonly measured hematologic parameters in waterfowl. These changes may be useful indicators of severe lead intoxication during routine laboratory assessment. Changes in clinical chemistry values, although statistically significant, were too inconsistent to serve as indicators of lead toxicosis.

  5. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  6. Pathogen Loading From Canada Geese Faeces in Freshwater: Potential Risks to Human Health Through Recreational Water Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, T J; Lee, J

    2016-05-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) faeces have been shown to contain pathogenic protozoa and bacteria in numerous studies over the past 15 years. Further, increases in both the Canada geese populations and their ideal habitat requirements in the United States (US) translate to a greater presence of these human pathogens in public areas, such as recreational freshwater beaches. Combining these factors, the potential health risk posed by Canada geese faeces at freshwater beaches presents an emerging public health issue that warrants further study. Here, literature concerning human pathogens in Canada geese faeces is reviewed and the potential impacts these pathogens may have on human health are discussed. Pathogens of potential concern include Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Helicobacter canadensis, Arcobacter spp., Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli pathogenic strains, Chlamydia psitacci, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia. Scenarios presenting potential exposure to pathogens eluted from faeces include bathers swimming in lakes, children playing with wet and dry sand impacted by geese droppings and other common recreational activities associated with public beaches. Recent recreational water-associated disease outbreaks in the US support the plausibility for some of these pathogens, including Cryptosporidium spp. and C. jejuni, to cause human illness in this setting. In view of these findings and the uncertainties associated with the real health risk posed by Canada geese faecal pathogens to users of freshwater lakes, it is recommended that beach managers use microbial source tracking and conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment to analyse the local impact of Canada geese on microbial water quality during their decision-making process in beach and watershed management. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Evidence of Territoriality and Species Interactions from Spatial Point-Pattern Analyses of Subarctic-Nesting Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Matthew E.; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of bird nests and nest fate provides insights into processes influencing a species’ distribution. At Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, recent declines in breeding Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese (Branta canadensis interior) has coincided with increasing populations of nesting lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross’s geese (Chen rossii). We conducted a spatial analysis of point patterns using Canada goose nest locations and nest fate, and lesser snow goose nest locations at two study areas in northern Manitoba with different densities and temporal durations of sympatric nesting Canada and lesser snow geese. Specifically, we assessed (1) whether Canada geese exhibited territoriality and at what scale and nest density; and (2) whether spatial patterns of Canada goose nest fate were associated with the density of nesting lesser snow geese as predicted by the protective-association hypothesis. Between 2001 and 2007, our data suggest that Canada geese were territorial at the scale of nearest neighbors, but were aggregated when considering overall density of conspecifics at slightly broader spatial scales. The spatial distribution of nest fates indicated that lesser snow goose nest proximity and density likely influence Canada goose nest fate. Our analyses of spatial point patterns suggested that continued changes in the distribution and abundance of breeding lesser snow geese on the Hudson Bay Lowlands may have impacts on the reproductive performance of Canada geese, and subsequently the spatial distribution of Canada goose nests. PMID:24312520

  8. Geographic variation in Bar-headed geese Anser indicus: connectivity of wintering and breeding grounds across a broad front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Heath, Shane R.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Javed, Sàlim; Newman, Scott H.; Suwal, Rajendra N.; Rahman, Asad R.; Choudhury, Binod C.; Prosser, Diann J.; Yan, Baoping; Hou, Yuansheng; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Bishop, Charles M.; Butler, Patrick J.; Frappell, Peter B.; Milsom, William K.; Scott, Graham R.; Hawkes, Lucy A.; Wikelski, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The connectivity and frequency of exchange between sub-populations of migratory birds is integral to understanding population dynamics over the entire species' range. True geese are highly philopatric and acquire lifetime mates during the winter, suggesting that the number of distinct sub-populations may be related to the number of distinct wintering areas. In the Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus, a species found exclusively in Central Asia, the connectivity between breeding and wintering areas is not well known. Their migration includes crossing a broad front of the Himalaya Cordillera, a significant barrier to migration for most birds. Many Bar-headed Geese fly to breeding areas on the Tibetan-Qinghai Plateau (TQP), the highest plateau in the world. From 2005-2008, 60 Bar-headed Geese were captured and marked with satellite transmitters in Nepal (n = 2), India (n = 6), China (n = 29), and Mongolia (n = 23) to examine their migration and distribution. Distinct differences were observed in their migration corridors and timing of movements, including an apparent leap-frog migration pattern for geese from Mongolia. Measurements of geese from Mongolia were larger than their counterparts from China, providing some evidence of morphological differences. Alteration of habitats in China, including the warming effects of climate change on glaciers increasing runoff to TQP wetlands, may be changing goose migration patterns and timing. With the exception of one individual, all geese from Qinghai Lake, China wintered in the southern TQP near Lhasa, and their increasing numbers in that region may be related to the effects of climate change and agricultural development. Thus, our findings document both morphological and geographical variation in sub-populations of Bar-headed Geese, but their resilience to environmental change may be lost if migratory short-stopping results in larger congregations restricted to a smaller number of wintering areas.

  9. Dark-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla forego breeding when Arctic Foxes Alopex lagopus are present during nest initiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, B.; Blijleven, H.J.; Popov, I.U.; Rykhlikova, M.E.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    1998-01-01

    In an area north of the Pyasina delta in Taimyr (Russia), nest distribution, nest initiation and breeding success of Brent Geese Branta bernicla bernicla were studied in six successive summer seasons from 1990-1995 in relation to lemming and Arctic Fox Alopex lagopus abundance. Lemming abundance

  10. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  11. Spatial organization of the gastrointestinal microbiota in urban Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V.; O'Mahoney, Michael; Ransome, Emma J.; Matterson, Kenan O.; Lim, Haw Chuan; Chesser, Terry; Graves, Gary R.

    2018-01-01

    Recent reviews identified the reliance on fecal or cloacal samples as a significant limitation hindering our understanding of the avian gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota and its function. We investigated the microbiota of the esophagus, duodenum, cecum, and colon of a wild urban population of Canada goose (Branta canadensis). From a population sample of 30 individuals, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S SSU rRNA on an Illumina MiSeq and obtained 8,628,751 sequences with a median of 76,529 per sample. These sequences were assigned to 420 bacterial OTUs and a single archaeon. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes accounted for 90% of all sequences. Microbiotas from the four gut regions differed significantly in their richness, composition, and variability among individuals. Microbial communities of the esophagus were the most distinctive whereas those of the colon were the least distinctive, reflecting the physical downstream mixing of regional microbiotas. The downstream mixing of regional microbiotas was also responsible for the majority of observed co-occurrence patterns among microbial families. Our results indicate that fecal and cloacal samples inadequately represent the complex patterns of richness, composition, and variability of the gut microbiota and obscure patterns of co-occurrence of microbial lineages.

  12. Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov., isolated from faeces of Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Amselle, Megan; Beck, Brian J; Popham, David L; Whittaker, Paul; Wang, Hua; Kerrigan, Elizabeth; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2012-09-01

    Three strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the faeces of apparently healthy wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis) in 2010 by cultivating faecal LAB on Rogosa SL agar under aerobic conditions. These three isolates were found to share 99.9 % gene sequence similarity of their 16S rRNA, their 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS), partial 23S rRNA, rpoB, rpoC, rpoA and pheS gene sequences. However, the three strains exhibited lower levels of sequence similarity of these genetic targets to all known LAB, and the phylogenetically closest species to the geese strains were Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus saniviri. In comparison to L. casei ATCC 393(T), L. paracasei ATCC 25302(T), L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469(T) and L. saniviri DSM 24301(T), the novel isolates reacted uniquely in tests for cellobiose, galactose, mannitol, citric acid, aesculin and dextrin, and gave negative results in tests for l-proline arylamidase and l-pyrrolydonyl-arylamidase, and in the Voges-Proskauer test. Biochemical tests for cellobiose, aesculin, galactose, gentiobiose, mannitol, melezitose, ribose, salicin, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, turanose, amygdalin and arbutin could be used for differentiation between L. saniviri and the novel strains. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, and phylogenetic data, the three isolates represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus brantae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL1108(T) (= ATCC BAA-2142(T) = LMG 26001(T) = DSM 23927(T)) and two additional strains are SL1170 and SL60106.

  13. Toxicity and hazard of vanadium to mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A.; McKernan, Moira A.; Eisenreich, Karen M.; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Hoffman, David J.; Knowles, K.A.; McGowan, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    A recent Canada goose (Branta canadensis) die-off at a petroleum refinery fly ash pond in Delaware was attributed to vanadium (V) toxicity. Because of the paucity of V toxicity data for wild birds, a series of studies was undertaken using the forms of V believed to have resulted in this incident. In 7-d single oral dose trials with mallard drakes (Anas platyrhynchos), the estimated median lethal dose (LD50) for vanadium pentoxide was 113 mg/kg body weight, while the LD50 for sodium metavanadate was 75.5 mg/kg. Sodium metavanadate was found to be even more potent (LD50 = 37.2 mg/kg) in male Canada geese. The most distinctive histopathological lesion of both forms of V was lympho-granulocytic enteritis with hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen. Vanadium accumulation in liver and kidney was proportional to the administered dose, and predictive analyses based on these data suggest that V concentrations of 10 μg/g dry weight (dw) in liver and 25 μg/g dw in kidney are associated with mortality (>90% confidence that exposure is >LD50) in mallards acutely exposed to sodium metavanadate. Chronic exposure to increasing dietary concentrations of sodium metavanadate (38.5 to 2651 ppm) over 67 d resulted in V accumulation in liver and kidney (25.2 and 13.6 μg/g dw, respectively), mild intestinal hemorrhage, blood chemistry changes, and evidence of hepatic oxidative stress in mallards, although some of these responses may have been confounded by food avoidance and weight loss. Dietary exposure of mallards to 250 ppm sodium metavanadate for 4 wk resulted in modest accumulation of V in liver and kidney (<5 μg/g dw) and mild intestinal hemorrhage. Based on these data and other observations, it is unlikely that chronic low-level dietary exposure to V poses a direct lethal hazard to wildlife. However, point sources, such as the V-laden fly ash pond encountered by geese at the petroleum refinery in Delaware, may pose a significant hazard to water birds.

  14. Population estimates and geographical distributions of swans and geese in East Asia based on counts during the non-breeding season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Qiang; Koyama, Kazuo; Choi, Chang-Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we estimated the population sizes of two swan species and four goose species from observations during the non-breeding period in East Asia. Based on combined counts from South Korea, Japan and China, we estimated the total abundance of these species as follows: 42,000–47,000 W......For the first time, we estimated the population sizes of two swan species and four goose species from observations during the non-breeding period in East Asia. Based on combined counts from South Korea, Japan and China, we estimated the total abundance of these species as follows: 42......,000–47,000 Whooper Swans Cygnus cygnus ; 99,000–141,000 Tundra Swans C. columbianus bewickii ; 56,000–98,000 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides ; 157,000–194,000 Bean Geese A. fabalis ; 231,000–283,000 Greater White-fronted Geese A. albifrons ; and 14,000–19,000 Lesser White-fronted Geese A. erythropus. While the count data...... from Korea and Japan provide a good reflection of numbers present, there remain gaps in the coverage in China, which particularly affect the precision of the estimates for Bean, Greater and Lesser White-fronted Geese as well as Tundra Swans. Lack of subspecies distinction of Bean Geese in China until...

  15. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Boer, de Fred

    2017-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over

  16. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, S. (Shenglai); D. Kleijn (David); Müskens, G.J.D.M. (Gerard J. D. M.); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); J.H. Verhagen (Josanne); Glazov, P.M. (Petr M.); Si, Y. (Yali); Prins, H.H.T. (Herbert H. T.); De Boer, W.F. (Willem Frederik)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus

  17. Toxoplasmosis in geese and detection of two new atypical Toxoplasma gondii strains from naturally infected Canada geese (Branta canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii infects virtually all warm-blooded animals, including birds, humans, livestock, and marine mammals. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with T. gondii is considered an important source of infection in humans. Canada goose (Branta canadensis), the most ...

  18. No evidence that migratory geese disperse avian influenza viruses from breeding to wintering ground

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Shenglai; Kleijn, David; M?skens, Gerard J. D. M.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Verhagen, Josanne H.; Glazov, Petr M.; Si, Yali; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, Willem Frederik

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLow pathogenic avian influenza virus can mutate to a highly pathogenic strain that causes severe clinical signs in birds and humans. Migratory waterfowl, especially ducks, are considered the main hosts of low pathogenic avian influenza virus, but the role of geese in dispersing the virus over long-distances is still unclear. We collected throat and cloaca samples from three goose species, Bean goose (Anser fabalis), Barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) and Greater white-fronted goose...

  19. The reliance on distant resources for egg formation in high Arctic breeding barnacle geese Branta leucopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Loonen, M.J.J.E.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Breeding in the high Arctic is time constrained and animals should therefore start with their annual reproduction as early as possible. To allow for such early reproduction in migratory birds, females arrive at the breeding grounds either with body stores or they try to rapidly develop their eggs

  20. The reliance on distant resources for egg formation in high Arctic breeding barnacle geese Branta leucopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Steffen; Loonen, Maarten J. J. E.; Klaassen, Marcel

    Breeding in the high Arctic is time constrained and animals should therefore start with their annual reproduction as early as possible. To allow for such early reproduction in migratory birds, females arrive at the breeding grounds either with body stores or they try to rapidly develop their eggs

  1. Pathology and diagnosis of avian bornavirus infection in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator) and mute swans (Cygnus olor) in Canada: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Ojkic, Davor; Delay, Josepha; Campbell, Doug; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2013-04-01

    Nine hundred and fifty-five pathology cases collected in Ontario between 1992 and 2011 from wild free-ranging Canada geese, trumpeter swans and mute swans were retrospectively evaluated for the pathology associated with avian bornavirus (ABV) infection. Cases were selected based on the presence of upper gastrointestinal impaction, central nervous system histopathology or clinical history suggestive of ABV infection. The proportion of birds meeting at least one of these criteria was significantly higher at the Toronto Zoo (30/132) than elsewhere in Ontario (21/823). Central, peripheral and autonomic nervous tissues were examined for the presence of lymphocytes and plasma cells on histopathology. The presence of virus was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on frozen brains and on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Among selected cases, 86.3% (44/51) were considered positive on histopathology, 56.8% (29/51) were positive by immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR was positive on 88.2% (15/17) of the frozen brains and 78.4% (40/51) of the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Histopathological lesions included gliosis and lymphoplasmacytic perivascular cuffing in brain (97.7%), spinal cord (50%), peripheral nerves (55.5%) and myenteric ganglia or nerves (62.8%), resembling lesions described in parrots affected with proventricular dilatation disease. Partial amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid gene from seven geese were 100% identical amongst themselves and 98.1 to 100% identical to the waterfowl sequences recently described in the USA. Although ABV has been identified in apparently healthy geese, our study confirmed that ABV can also be associated with significant disease in wild waterfowl species.

  2. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Eva; Ojkic, Davor; Crawshaw, Graham; Smith, Dale A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of in ovo infection with avian bornavirus (ABV) in wild Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 53 eggs were opportunistically collected at various stages of embryonic development from 16 free-ranging goose nests at a large urban zoo site where ABV infection is known to be present in this species. ABV RNA was detected in the yolk of one of three unembryonated eggs using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. ABV RNA was not identified in the brains from 23 newly hatched goslings or 19 embryos, nor from three early whole embryos. Antibodies against ABV were not detected in the plasma of any of the hatched goslings using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Possible reasons for the failure to detect ABV RNA in hatchlings or embryos include low sample size, eggs deriving from parents not actively infected with ABV, the testing of only brain tissue, and failure of the virus to replicate in Canada goose embryos. In conclusion, this preliminary investigation demonstrating the presence of ABV RNA in the yolk of a Canada goose egg provides the first evidence for the potential for vertical transmission of ABV in waterfowl.

  3. Mate loss affects survival but not breeding in black brant geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Christopher A.; Sedinger, James S.; Ward, David H.; Boyd, W. Sean

    2012-01-01

    For birds maintaining long-term monogamous relationships, mate loss might be expected to reduce fitness, either through reduced survival or reduced future reproductive investment. We used harvest of male brant during regular sport hunting seasons as an experimental removal to examine effects of mate loss on fitness of female black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans; hereafter brant). We used the Barker model in program MARK to examine effects of mate loss on annual survival, reporting rate, and permanent emigration. Survival rates decreased from 0.847 ± 0.004 for females who did not lose their mates to 0.690 ± 0.072 for birds who lost mates. Seber ring reporting rate for females that lost their mates were 2 times higher than those that did not lose mates, 0.12 ± 0.086 and 0.06 ± 0.006, respectively, indicating that mate loss increased vulnerability to harvest and possibly other forms of predation. We found little support for effects of mate loss on fidelity to breeding site and consequently on breeding. Our results indicate substantial fitness costs to females associated with mate loss, but that females who survived and were able to form new pair bonds may have been higher quality than the average female in the population.

  4. Non-breeding Cackling, Ross's and Snow Geese on Baffin Island show no loss of body mass during wing moult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Leafloor, James O.; Balsby, Thorsten Johannes Skovbjerg

    2016-01-01

    is consistent with the hypothesis that in other species of geese, accumulation of fat stores prior to, and depletion of such stores during, wing moult is adaptive and likely to be a feature of individual plasticity to meet particular needs, such as undertaking moult migration to remote sites where precise...

  5. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  6. Factors driving territory size and breeding success in a threatened migratory songbird, the Canada Warbler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Tyler Flockhart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Successful conservation of migratory birds demands we understand how habitat factors on the breeding grounds influences breeding success. Multiple factors are known to directly influence breeding success in territorial songbirds. For example, greater food availability and fewer predators can have direct effects on breeding success. However, many of these same habitat factors can also result in higher conspecific density that may ultimately reduce breeding success through density dependence. In this case, there is a negative indirect effect of habitat on breeding success through its effects on conspecific density and territory size. Therefore, a key uncertainty facing land managers is whether important habitat attributes directly influence breeding success or indirectly influence breeding success through territory size. We used radio-telemetry, point-counts, vegetation sampling, predator observations, and insect sampling over two years to provide data on habitat selection of a steeply declining songbird species, the Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis. These data were then applied in a hierarchical path modeling framework and an AIC model selection approach to determine the habitat attributes that best predict breeding success. Canada Warblers had smaller territories in areas with high shrub cover, in the presence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, at shoreline sites relative to forest-interior sites and as conspecific density increased. Breeding success was lower for birds with smaller territories, which suggests competition for limited food resources, but there was no direct evidence that food availability influenced territory size or breeding success. The negative relationship between shrub cover and territory size in our study may arise because these specific habitat conditions are spatially heterogeneous, whereby individuals pack into patches of preferred breeding habitat scattered throughout the landscape, resulting in reduced

  7. The Effect of Plants with Novel Traits (PNT) Regulation on Mutation Breeding in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1988) has within it a definition for biotechnology. This definition would have allowed the government department, Environment Canada, to regulate all genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Canada. In response to this, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), which reports to the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, developed the concept of a Plant with Novel Trait (PNT). Not only does this definition capture GMOs, it also includes induced mutations, natural mutations and exotic germplasm that have not previously been grown in Canada. It is a system that is product, not process based. However, apart from questions regarding the novelty of traits in new plant varieties, breeders are asked by CFIA to identify the process used to develop the trait or traits in question. Field trials involving breeding lines with a PNT may be subject to confined testing. This conference celebrated 80 years of unconfined development and testing of induced plant mutations. This regulation is time consuming, expensive and an innovation barrier for Canadian plant breeding. It can only be hoped that other nations, and particularly those that have successfully used induced mutations, will not emulate Canada's approach. (author)

  8. The dynamics of avian influenza in western Arctic snow geese: implications for annual and migratory infection patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael D.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Brown, Justin D.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Ip, Hon S.; Baranyuk, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Wild water birds are the natural reservoir for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIV). However, our ability to investigate the epizootiology of AIV in these migratory populations is challenging, and despite intensive worldwide surveillance, remains poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis in Pacific Flyway lesser snow geese Chen caerulescens to investigate AIV serology and infection patterns. We collected nearly 3,000 sera samples from snow geese at 2 breeding colonies in Russia and Canada during 1993-1996 and swab samples from > 4,000 birds at wintering and migration areas in the United States during 2006-2011. We found seroprevalence and annual seroconversion varied considerably among years. Seroconversion and infection rates also differed between snow goose breeding colonies and wintering areas, suggesting that AIV exposure in this gregarious waterfowl species is likely occurring during several phases (migration, wintering and potentially breeding areas) of the annual cycle. We estimated AIV antibody persistence was longer (14 months) in female geese compared to males (6 months). This relatively long period of AIV antibody persistence suggests that subtype-specific serology may be an effective tool for detection of exposure to subtypes associated with highly-pathogenic AIV. Our study provides further evidence of high seroprevalence in Arctic goose populations, and estimates of annual AIV seroconversion and antibody persistence for North American waterfowl. We suggest future AIV studies include serology to help elucidate the epizootiological dynamics of AIV in wild bird populations.

  9. Intercontinental gene flow among western arctic populations of Lesser Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Rainy I.; Scribner, Kim T.; Kanefsky, Jeannette; Samuel, Michael D.; Libants, Scot V.

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial genetic structure of highly vagile species of birds is important in predicting their degree of population demographic and genetic independence during changing environmental conditions, and in assessing their abundance and distribution. In the western Arctic, Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) provide an example useful for evaluating spatial population genetic structure and the relative contribution of male and female philopatry to breeding and wintering locales. We analyzed biparentally inherited microsatellite loci and maternally inherited mtDNA sequences from geese breeding at Wrangel Island (Russia) and Banks Island (Canada) to estimate gene flow among populations whose geographic overlap during breeding and winter differ. Significant differences in the frequencies of mtDNA haplotypes contrast with the homogeneity of allele frequencies for microsatellite loci. Coalescence simulations revealed high variability and asymmetry between males and females in rates and direction of gene flow between populations. Our results highlight the importance of wintering areas to demographic independence and spatial genetic structure of these populations. Male-mediated gene flow among the populations on northern Wrangel Island, southern Wrangel Island, and Banks Island has been substantial. A high rate of female-mediated gene flow from southern Wrangel Island to Banks Island suggests that population exchange can be achieved when populations winter in a common area. Conversely, when birds from different breeding populations do not share a common wintering area, the probability of population exchange is likely to be dramatically reduced.

  10. Survey of genetic structure of geese using novel microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Lai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to create a set of microsatellite markers with high polymorphism for the genetic monitoring and genetic structure analysis of local goose populations. Methods Novel microsatellite markers were isolated from the genomic DNA of white Roman geese using short tandem repeated probes. The DNA segments, including short tandem repeats, were tested for their variability among four populations of geese from the Changhua Animal Propagation Station (CAPS. The selected microsatellite markers could then be used to monitor genetic variability and study the genetic structures of geese from local geese farms. Results 14 novel microsatellite loci were isolated. In addition to seven known loci, two multiplex sets were constructed for the detection of genetic variations in geese populations. The average of allele number, the effective number of alleles, the observed heterozygosity, the expected heterozygosity, and the polymorphism information content were 11.09, 5.145, 0.499, 0.745, and 0.705, respectively. The results of analysis of molecular variance and principal component analysis indicated a contracting white Roman cluster and a spreading Chinese cluster. In white Roman populations, the CAPS populations were depleted to roughly two clusters when K was set equal to 6 in the Bayesian cluster analysis. The founders of private farm populations had a similar genetic structure. Among the Chinese geese populations, the CAPS populations and private populations represented different clads of the phylogenetic tree and individuals from the private populations had uneven genetic characteristics according to various analyses. Conclusion Based on this study’s analyses, we suggest that the CAPS should institute a proper breeding strategy for white Roman geese to avoid further clustering. In addition, for preservation and stable quality, the Chinese geese in the CAPS and the aforementioned proper breeding scheme should be introduced to

  11. Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Fox, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R.G.; Degtyarev, Andrei G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E.N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, Alexander V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A.V.; Litvin, K.E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J.H.; Oates, R.M.; Orthmeyer, D.L.; Sabano, Yutaka; Simpson, S.G.; Solovieva, D.V.; Spindler, Michael A.; Syroechkovsky, Y.V.; Takekawa, John Y.; Walsh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. 

  12. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.; Hanson, Alan; Kerekes, Joseph; Paquet, Julie

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  13. Food intake, body reserves and reproductive success of barnacle geese Branta leucopsis staging in different habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Black, JM; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns the effect of habitat choice on the dynamics of deposition of body reserves in spring-staging barnacle geese Branta leucopsis. On their way to breeding areas in Spitsbergen, these geese reside for several weeks on islands off the coast of Helgeland, Norway. They use three

  14. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    During spring migration, Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus stop in mid Norway to refuel before their onward flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. In mid Norway, geese feed on pastures, stubble as well as newly sown grain fields. The aim of the paper is to describe diurnal variations...... in the behaviour of geese and to examine whether these variations are driven by digestibility of food geese feed on or also by external factors such as distance to the roost, disturbance and flock size. Based on diurnal flock scans of activity budgets (observations carried out between 05h00 and 22h00 hrs) in each...... habitat type, we fitted a model containing all predictors we believe may influence geese behaviour. The number of feeding and alert geese on fields displayed a strong diurnal trend, which varied among habitat types, frequent and sporadic disturbance, but not flock size. On roost sites, geese also showed...

  15. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  16. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  17. Forced copulation results in few extrapair fertilizations in Ross's and lesser snow geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, P.O.; Afton, A.D.; Gloutney, M.L.; Alisauskas, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extrapair paternity varies from 0 to over 70% of young among various populations of birds. Comparative studies have suggested that this variation is related to nesting density, breeding synchrony and the proportion of extrapair copulations. We used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting to examine levels of extrapair paternity in Ross's geese, Chen rossi, and lesser snow geese, C. caerulescens c. (hereafter snow geese) nesting in the largest known goose colony in the world. These geese have one of the highest known percentages of extrapair copulation (46-56% of all attempted copulations), and all of these appeared to be forced. Among all successful copulations, 33 and 38% were extrapair in Ross's and snow geese, respectively. Despite the high percentage of extrapair copulations, extrapair paternity was low in both Ross's and snow geese (2-5% of young). Extrapair paternity was not related to nest density in either species. However, in snow geese, extrapair paternity was more likely to occur in nests of females that nested asynchronously, either early or late in the season. This is one of a few reported examples of a negative relationship between extrapair paternity and breeding synchrony. Extrapair young also tended to come from eggs laid later in the clutch. Although forced extrapair copulations appear to be a relatively inefficient reproductive tactic for males, they may provide a reproductive advantage for some males.

  18. Leucocytozoon simondi in Emperor Geese from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.K.; Franson, J.C.; Creekmore, L.H.; Schmutz, J.A.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) in western Alaska for avian hematozoa. Blood smears were collected from 134 adults and goslings in late July 1996, on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta. One of 134 (0.7%) Emperor Geese harbored Leucocytozoon simondi, representing a new host record for this parasite. No other hematozoa were detected. This is one of few reports of avian blood parasites from the arctic tundra.

  19. Variation in foraging behavior and body mass in broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica): Evidence for interspecific density dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Laing, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    Broods of geese spend time feeding according to availability and quality of food plants, subject to inherent foraging and digestive constraints. We studied behavioral patterns of broods of Emperor Geese (Chen canagica) on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, and examined how feeding and alert behavior varied in relation to habitat and goose density. During 1994–1996, time spent feeding by Emperor Goose goslings and adult females was positively related to multispecies goose densities near observation blinds, and not to just Emperor Goose density. Similarly, body mass of Emperor Goose goslings was more strongly related (negatively) to multispecies goose densities than intraspecific densities. A grazing experiment in 1995 indicated that most above ground primary production by Carex subspathacea, a preferred food plant, was consumed by grazing geese. Those results demonstrate that interspecific competition for food occurred, with greatest support for goslings whose behavioral repertoire is limited primarily to feeding, digesting, and resting. Although the more abundant Cackling Canada Geese (Branta canadensis minima) differed from Emperor Geese in their preferred use of habitats during brooding rearing (Schmutz 2001), the two species occurred in equal abundance in habitats preferred by Emperor Goose broods. Thus, Cackling Canada Geese were a numerically significant competitor with Emperor Geese. Comparing these results to an earlier study, time spent feeding by goslings, adult females, and adult males were greater during 1993–1996 than during 1985–1986. During the interval between those studies, densities of Cackling Canada Geese increased two to three times whereas Emperor Goose numbers remained approximately stable, which implies that interspecific competition affected foraging behavior over a long time period. These density-dependent changes in foraging behavior and body mass indicate that interspecific competition affects nutrient acquisition and gosling

  20. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Letcher, Robert J.; Burgess, Neil M.; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E.; Hebert, Craig E.; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Chip Weseloh, D.V.; Wilson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  1. Herbivory by resident geese: The loss and recovery of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.

    2007-01-01

    Well known for a fall spectacle of maturing wild rice (Zizania aquatica) and migrant waterbirds, the tidal freshwater marshes of the Patuxent River, Maryland, USA, experienced a major decline in wild rice during the 1990s. We conducted experiments in 1999 and 2000 with fenced exclosures and discovered herbivory by resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Grazing by geese eliminated rice outside exclosures, whereas protected plants achieved greater size, density, and produced more panicles than rice occurring in natural stands. The observed loss of rice on the Patuxent River reflects both the sensitivity of this annual plant to herbivory and the destructive nature of an overabundance of resident geese on natural marsh vegetation. Recovery of rice followed 2 management actions: hunting removal of approximately 1,700 geese during a 4-year period and reestablishment of rice through a large-scale fencing and planting program.

  2. An isotopic assessment of protein from diet and endogenous stores: Effects on egg production and incubation behaviour of geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Little empirical information exists to assess to what degree geese use a capital versus income breeding strategy for investing nutrients into eggs. We used stable isotope methods to directly estimate the sources of protein deposited into egg yolks of Brent Branta bernicla and Emperor Geese Anser canagicus on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, USA. Approximately 59 and 45% of protein in egg yolks of Brent and Emperor Geese, respectively, was derived from exogenous sources (i.e. food plants on the local breeding area). Within clutches of Brent Goose eggs, first-laid eggs exhibited slightly higher contributions from endogenous reserves than last-laid eggs. This pattern was less clear for Emperor Geese, which may have been a consequence of possibly analyzing eggs that were laid by intraspecific nest parasites rather than by hosts. For both these species, individuals exhibited large variability in the percent contribution of exogenous versus endogenous stores to eggs, and future studies should identify ecological factors related to this variation. Those Emperor Geese in poor body condition incubated their nests less constantly, and based on δ13C values, they fed on terrestrial foods while off their nests. Although not a pure capital breeder, Emperor Geese used nutrients garnered on spring staging areas to fuel virtually all their own maintenance during incubation and to contribute half or more of the nutrients in eggs. These results highlight the ecological importance of these spring staging habitats to geese.

  3. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, Mark L.; Braune, Birgit M.; Robertson, Gregory J.; Gilchrist, H. Grant; Mallory, Conor D.; Forbes, Mark R.; Wells, Regina

    2014-01-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health

  4. Influence of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole region of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by a variety of factors at both small and large scales that range from the presence of suitable nesting habitat, predators, and food supplies to climate conditions and land-use patterns. We evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on wetland breeding birds in the Canada section of Bird Conservation Region 11 (CA-BCR11), the Prairie Potholes. We used bird abundance data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, land-use data from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and weather data from the National Climatic Data and Information Archive to model effects of regional environmental variables on bird abundance. Models were constructed a priori using information from published habitat associations in the literature, and fitting was performed with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both land-use and climate variables contributed to predicting bird abundance in CA-BCR11, although climate predictors contributed the most to improving model fit. Examination of regional effects of climate and land use on wetland birds in CA-BCR11 revealed relationships with environmental covariates that are often overlooked by small-scale habitat studies. Results from these studies can be used to improve conservation and management planning for regional populations of avifauna. ?? 2007 NRC.

  5. Factors influencing reporting and harvest probabilities in North American geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G.S.; Moser, T.J.; Kendall, W.L.; Doherty, P.F.; White, Gary C.; Caswell, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed variation in reporting probabilities of standard bands among species, populations, harvest locations, and size classes of North American geese to enable estimation of unbiased harvest probabilities. We included reward (US10,20,30,50, or100) and control (0) banded geese from 16 recognized goose populations of 4 species: Canada (Branta canadensis), cackling (B. hutchinsii), Ross's (Chen rossii), and snow geese (C. caerulescens). We incorporated spatially explicit direct recoveries and live recaptures into a multinomial model to estimate reporting, harvest, and band-retention probabilities. We compared various models for estimating harvest probabilities at country (United States vs. Canada), flyway (5 administrative regions), and harvest area (i.e., flyways divided into northern and southern sections) scales. Mean reporting probability of standard bands was 0.73 (95 CI 0.690.77). Point estimates of reporting probabilities for goose populations or spatial units varied from 0.52 to 0.93, but confidence intervals for individual estimates overlapped and model selection indicated that models with species, population, or spatial effects were less parsimonious than those without these effects. Our estimates were similar to recently reported estimates for mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We provide current harvest probability estimates for these populations using our direct measures of reporting probability, improving the accuracy of previous estimates obtained from recovery probabilities alone. Goose managers and researchers throughout North America can use our reporting probabilities to correct recovery probabilities estimated from standard banding operations for deriving spatially explicit harvest probabilities.

  6. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  7. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  8. Effects of predation risk on site selection of barnacle geese during brood-rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, J; Loonen, MJJE; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Barnacle geese Branta leucopsis breed on small islands in the Kongsfjorden area, Spitsbergen. Shortly after hatching, families approach feeding sites at the mainland coast in the close surroundings of the village Ny-Alesund. The goslings are subject to predation by arctic foxes Alopex lagopus

  9. Arctic geese : Herbivore-vegetation interaction, predators and human pressures - a symposium synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RH; Mehlum, F; Mehlum, F; Black, JM; Madsen, J

    1998-01-01

    A symposium on the Svalbard geese was hosted by the Norwegian Polar Institute in Oslo, Norway, 23-26 September 1997, to collaborate new information on the three goose populations that breed in Svalbard: the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis, the light-bellied brent goose Branta bernicla hrota and the

  10. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  11. Breeding Status and Population Trends of Golden Eagles in Northeastern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Morneau

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, it is hypothesized that the Golden Eagle's (Aquila chrysaetos eastern population declined during the period 1946-1973 because of organochlorine pesticides and other anthropogenic causes of mortality. Since 1970, upward trends for the species have been observed at most eastern hawkwatches. To determine whether such positive trends can be observed on breeding grounds, Golden Eagle counts were performed to monitor nesting territory occupancy between 1994 and 2007 in the Moisie and Sainte-Marguerite River valleys, northeastern Québec. Aerial surveys were conducted during seven of the 14 years. During this period, the number of known nesting territories in the study area increased from 10 to 20, while the number of pairs rose from six to 14. The increase is attributed mostly to investigators' improved experience in finding nests and to their greater familiarity with the study area, and possibly to the growth of the regional population. Occupancy of nesting territories by pairs was very stable over the years. Annual mean % of laying pairs (or laying rate was 48.0 (SD = 19.9, and productivity (mean number of fledglings per pair was 0.49 (SD = 0.35.

  12. Arctic foxes, lemmings, and canada goose nest survival at cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    We examined factors influencing Canada Goose (Branta canadensis interior) annual nest success, including the relative abundance of collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni), arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) den occupancy, nest density, and spring phenology using data collected during annual Canada Goose breeding area surveys at Cape Churchill, Manitoba. Nest density and arctic fox den occupancy strongly influenced Canada Goose nest success. High nest density resulted in higher nest success and high den occupancy reduced nest success. Nest success was not influenced by lemming abundance in the current or previous year as predicted by the "bird-lemming" hypothesis. Reducing arctic fox abundance through targeted management increased nest survival of Canada Geese; a result that further emphasizes the importance of arctic fox as nest predators in this system. The spatial distribution of nest predators, at least for dispersed-nesting geese, may be most important for nest survival, regardless of the abundance of small mammals in the local ecosystem. Further understanding of the factors influencing the magnitude and variance in arctic fox abundance in this region, and the spatial scale at which these factors are realized, is necessary to fully explain predator-prey-alternative prey dynamics in this system. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  13. Foraging behaviour of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) during spring migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa

    and their energetic consequences are therefore of great importance to these birds. In this thesis, I have aimed to address some aspects of the foraging decisions and behaviour of pink-footed geese during their spring migration to the Arctic breeding area. I combined field techniques with telemetry technology as well...... as modelling tools to address questions about how geese forage and fuel during their spring migration. The first three presented manuscripts focus on changes in goose foraging behaviour and energetics over the course of the day, a stopover season and the entire migration. They also focus on variety of factors...... the question: which foraging decision do geese make at the Mid-Norway stopover site....

  14. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  15. Heartworm of swans and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.

    1999-01-01

    Heartworm in swans and geese is caused by a filarial nematode or a roundworm of the superfamily Filarioidea which is transmitted to the bird by a biting louse. The nematode and the louse both are parasites. Sarconema eurycerca is the only one of several species of microfilaria or the first stage juvenile of the parasite found in the circulating blood of waterfowl that is known to be pathogenic or cause clinical disease.

  16. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  17. Genetic differentiation between sympatric and allopatric wintering populations of Snow Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.M.; Peters, J.L.; Jonsson, J.E.; Stone, R.; Afton, A.D.; Omland, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge on the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland, USA has been the wintering area of a small population of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; LSGO) since the 1930s. Snow Geese primarily pair in wintering areas and gene flow could be restricted between this and other LSGO wintering populations. Winter pair formation also could facilitate interbreeding with sympatric but morphologically differentiated Greater Snow Geese (C. c. atlantica; GSGO).We sequenced 658 bp of the mitochondrial DNA control region for 68 Snow Geese from East Coast and Louisiana wintering populations to examine the level of genetic differentiation among populations and subspecies. We found no evidence for genetic differentiation between LSGO populations but, consistent with morphological differences, LSGO and GSGO were significantly differentiated. We also found a lack of genetic differentiation between different LSGO morphotypes from Louisiana. We examined available banding data and found the breeding range of Delmarva LSGO overlaps extensively with LSGO that winter in Louisiana, and documented movements between wintering populations. Our results suggest the Delmarva population of LSGO is not a unique population unit apart from Mid-Continent Snow Geese. ?? 2009 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Effects of migratory geese on plant communities of an Alaskan salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacheis, Amy B.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ruess, Roger W.

    2001-01-01

    1. We studied the effects of lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on two salt marsh plant communities in Cook Inlet, Alaska, a stopover area used during spring migration. From 1995 to 1997 we compared plant species composition and biomass on plots where geese were excluded from feeding with paired plots where foraging could occur. 2. Foraging intensity was low (650-1930 goose-days km-2) compared to other goose-grazing systems. 3. Canada geese fed mainly on above-ground shoots of Triglochin maritimum, Puccinellia spp. and Carex ramenskii, whereas the majority of the snow goose diet consisted of below-ground tissues of Plantago maritima and Triglochin maritimum. 4. Plant communities responded differently to goose herbivory. In the sedge meadow community, where feeding was primarily on above-ground shoots, there was no effect of grazing on the dominant species Carex ramenskii and Triglochin maritimum. In the herb meadow community, where snow geese fed on Plantago maritima roots and other below-ground tissues, there was a difference in the relative abundance of plant species between treatments. Biomass of Plantago maritima and Potentilla egedii was lower on grazed plots compared with exclosed, whereas biomass of Carex ramenskii was greater on grazed plots. There was no effect of herbivory on total standing crop biomass in either community. The variable effect of herbivory on Carex ramenskii between communities suggests that plant neighbours and competitive interactions are important factors in a species' response to herbivory. In addition, the type of herbivory (above- or below-ground) was important in determining plant community response to herbivory. 5. Litter accumulation was reduced in grazed areas compared with exclosed in both communities. Trampling of the previous year's litter into the soil surface by geese incorporated more litter into soils in grazed areas. 6. This study illustrates that even light herbivore

  19. The Rocky Mountain population of the western Canada goose: its distribution, habitats, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, William B.; Bizeau, Elwood G.

    1980-01-01

    The western Canada goose (Branta canadensis moffitti) was divided into a Rocky Mountain population (RMP) and a Pacific population (PP) on the basis of band recovery patterns examined in this study and recovery data from other investigators. Habitat information obtained from nine cooperating wildlife agencies within the RMP's range provided a base line for evaluating future changes in nesting, molting, and wintering areas. The habitat inventory indicated that none of the seasonal habitats were currently limiting the size of the RMP. The RMP's range is divided into 15 reference areas and these are briefly described. Past studies of Canada geese in the Intermountain Region are reviewed. Topics covered in the discussion of breeding biology are nesting chronology, spring population composition, breeding age, clutch size, nesting success. artificial nesting structures, and gosling survival. Much of the mortality of Canada geese occurs before the birds are fledged. Man-made nesting structures reduce losses during incubation. but research is needed on the relations between brooding sites and gosling survival. Some western Canada geese, mainly prebreeders and unsuccessful nesters, make molt migrations to and from molting areas during and after the brood-rearing season. More than half of these molt-migrants are yearlings too young to nest; there are indications that even some successful nesters leave nesting areas to molt before the fledging of their offspring. Geese 2 years old or older may serve as guides to traditional molting areas for the first-time migrants (i.e., yearlings). Lack of disturbance appears to influence selection of specific molting areas within the nesting range of moffitti, whereas movements of molters out of the Intermountain Region may be related to the evolution of this subspecies. Apparently. molters of both the PP and RMP that leave the Region go to the Northwest Territories of Canada. Although the taxonomic status of moffitti as related to the

  20. Concentrations of selenium, mercury, and lead in blood of emperor geese in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Creekmore, L.H.; Fowler, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    We found up to 10 ppm wet weight of selenium in blood samples collected from emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon‐Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. Incubating adult females captured in late May through mid‐June 1997 had significantly higher concentrations of selenium in their blood (mean = 5.60 ppm) than adult females captured during wing molt in late July 1996 (mean = 2.78 ppm). Females that nested early or were in good body condition had higher concentrations of selenium in their blood than did other nesting females. Blood samples from 4 of 29 goslings had detectable levels of selenium (mean = 0.14 ppm). Our findings suggest that emperor geese are exposed to more selenium in the marine environment of their wintering and staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula than on the breeding grounds. The highest concentration of mercury found in the blood of emperor geese was 0.24 ppm. One bird had a blood lead concentration of 0.67 ppm, but 82% had no detectable lead in their blood, suggesting that lead exposure from the ingestion of lead shot poses little threat for emperor geese in western Alaska, contrary to findings reported for sympatric spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri).

  1. Variation in growth of young and adult size in barnacle geese Branta leucopsis : Evidence for density dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, MJJE; Oosterbeek, K; Drent, RH

    1997-01-01

    A colony of Svalbard Barnacle Geese Branta leucopsis was studied near Ny Alesund, Spitsbergen. Breeding started in 1980 and the colony size followed a sigmoidal curve with little increase in numbers in the period 1992-1995. Over the period 1991-1995 gosling growth declined, mortality during growth

  2. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  3. Species-environment associations and predicted distribution of Black Oystercatcher breeding pairs in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dalgarno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a species distribution model (SDM for prediction of Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani breeding pair occurrence in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia. Boosted regression trees, a machine learning algorithm, was used to fit the model. In total, 14 predictors were selected a priori through development of a conceptual model. Breeding pair occurrence data were compiled from two available surveys conducted in 2005 and 2010 (545 km of shoreline surveyed in total. All data were aggregated to common model units (vector polyline shoreline segments approximately 100 m in length, which approximate breeding territory size. The final model, which included eight predictors (distance to treeline, island area, wave exposure, shoreline type, intertidal area within 50 m, segment length, rat occurrence, and intertidal area within 1000 m, had excellent predictive ability assessed by 10-fold cross-validation (AUC = 0.89. Predictive ability was reduced when the model was trained and tested on spatially (AUC = 0.86 and temporally (AUC = 0.83 independent data. Distance to treeline and island area had greatest influence on the model (RI = 41.5% and RI = 36.7%, respectively; we hypothesized that these predictors are related to avoidance of predators. Partial dependence plots revealed that breeding pairs tended to occur: further from the treeline, on small islands, at high wave exposures, at moderate intertidal area, on bedrock or gravel shoreline types, and on islands without rats. However, breeding pairs tended not to occur on very small islands and at very high wave exposures, which we hypothesize to reflect avoidance of nest washout. Results may inform local conservation and management efforts, i.e., from predictive maps, and eventual development of a high-resolution (~100 m model for prediction of Black Oystercatcher breeding pairs at a regional scale. Further, methods and GIS data sets developed may be used to model distribution of other coastal species

  4. Increasing cadmium and zinc levels in wild common eiders breeding along Canada's remote northern coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallory, Mark L., E-mail: mark.mallory@acadiau.ca [Biology Department, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia B4P 2R6 (Canada); Braune, Birgit M. [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Robertson, Gregory J. [Environment Canada, Wildlife Research Division, 6 Bruce Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland and Labrador A1N 4T3 (Canada); Gilchrist, H. Grant [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mallory, Conor D. [Chemistry Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Forbes, Mark R. [Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, Regina [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 512 Lahr Boulevard, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador A0P 1C0 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    The common eider (Somateria mollissima) is an abundant sea duck breeding around the circumpolar Arctic, and is an important component of subsistence and sport harvest in some regions. We determined hepatic cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the livers of breeding females sampled during three time periods including 1992/3, 2001/2 and 2008 at three sites spanning 53.7°N–75.8°N in the eastern Canadian Arctic. At all sites, concentrations of both Cd and Zn increased ∼ 300% over this time period. The reasons for this rapid increase in concentrations are unclear. - Highlights: • Cd and Zn analyzed in common eider (Somateria mollissima) liver tissue in Canadian Arctic from sites spanning 3000 km. • ∼ 300% increase in concentrations observed over ∼ 20 years • Levels of both elements considered high and near levels thought to pose concerns for wildlife health.

  5. Assessing the disturbance potential of small unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS on gray seals (Halichoerus grypus at breeding colonies in Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Arona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of small unoccupied aircraft systems (UAS for ecological studies and wildlife population assessments is increasing. These methods can provide significant benefits in terms of costs and reductions in human risk, but little is known if UAS-based approaches cause disturbance of animals during operations. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a series of UAS flights at gray seal breeding colonies on Hay and Saddle Islands in Nova Scotia, Canada. Using a small fixed-wing UAS, we assessed both immediate and short-term effects of surveys using sequential image analysis and between-flight seal counts in ten, 50 m2 random quadrats at each colony. Counts of adult gray seals and young-of-the-year animals between first and second flights revealed no changes in abundance in quadrats (matched pair t-test p > 0.69 and slopes approaching 1 for linear regression comparisons (r2 > 0.80. Sequential image analysis revealed no changes in orientation or posture of imaged animals. We also assessed the acoustic properties of the small UAS in relation to low ambient noise conditions using sound equivalent level (Leq measurements with a calibrated U-MIK 1 and a 1/3 octave band soundscape approach. The results of Leq measurements indicate that small fixed-wing UAS are quiet, with most energy above 160 Hz, and that levels across 1/3 octave bands do not greatly exceed ambient acoustic measurements in a quiet field during operations at standard survey altitudes. As such, this platform is unlikely to acoustically disturb gray seals at breeding colonies during population surveys. The results of the present study indicate that the effects of small fixed-wing UAS on gray seals at breeding colonies are negligible, and that fixed-wing UAS-based approaches should be considered amongst best practices for assessing gray seal colonies.

  6. Historic and contemporary mercury exposure and potential risk to yellow-billed loons (Gavia adamsii) breeding in Alaska and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David C.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Basu, Niladri; DeSorbo, Christopher R.; Fair, Jeff; Gray, Carrie E.; Paruk, James D.; Perkins, Marie; Regan, Kevin; Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Wright, Kenneth G.

    2014-01-01

    The Yellow-billed Loon (Gavia adamsii) is one of the rarest breeding birds in North America. Because of the small population size and patchy distribution, any stressor to its population is of concern. To determine risks posed by environmental mercury (Hg) loads, we captured 115 Yellow-billed Loons between 2002 and 2012 in the North American Arctic and sampled their blood and/or feather tissues and collected nine eggs. Museum samples from Yellow-billed Loons also were analyzed to examine potential changes in Hg exposure over time. An extensive database of published Hg concentrations and associated adverse effects in Common Loons (G. immer) is highly informative and representative for Yellow-billed Loons. Blood Hg concentrations reflect dietary uptake of methylmercury (MeHg) from breeding areas and are generally considered near background levels if less than 1.0 µg/g wet weight (ww). Feather (grown at wintering sites) and egg Hg concentrations can represent a mix of breeding and wintering dietary uptake of MeHg. Based on Common Loon studies, significant risk of reduced reproductive success generally occurs when adult Hg concentrations exceed 2.0 µg/g ww in blood, 20.0 µg/g fresh weight (fw) in flight feathers and 1.0 µg/g ww in eggs. Contemporary mercury concentrations for 176 total samples (across all study sites for 115 Yellow-billed Loons) ranged from 0.08 to 1.45 µg/g ww in blood, 3.0 to 24.9 µg/g fw in feathers and 0.21 to 1.23 µg/g ww in eggs. Mercury concentrations in blood, feather and egg tissues indicate that some individual Yellow-billed Loons in breeding populations across North America are at risk of lowered productivity resulting from Hg exposure. Most Yellow-billed Loons breeding in Alaska overwinter in marine waters of eastern Asia. Although blood Hg concentrations from most breeding loons in Alaska are within background levels, some individuals exhibit elevated feather and egg Hg concentrations, which likely indicate the uptake of Me

  7. Energetic consequences of a major change in habitat use: endangered Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota losing their main food source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Fælled, Casper Cæsar

    2012-01-01

    breeding population of Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota has experienced substantial changes in habitat use at this traditional autumn staging area. Declines in seagrasses have caused birds to depend increasingly on Sea Lettuce Ulva lactuca in recent years, and forced birds into terrestrial...

  8. The geese who flew home for Christmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H

    2013-01-01

    Gray geese of the bar-headed type (Anser indicus synonym: Eulabeia indica) perform trans-Himalayan migratory flight at extreme altitude. The physiological mechanisms include hyperventilation of cold air, increased lung diffusion capacity, proton gradients, high muscular temperature, amino acid...

  9. Blood parasites from California ducks and geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.

    1951-01-01

    Blood smears were procured from 1,011 geese and ducks of 19 species from various locations in California. Parasites were found in 28 individuals. The parasites observed included Haemoproteus hermani, Leucocytozoon simondi, microfilaria, Plasmodium relictum (=P. biziurae), and Plasmodium sp. with elongate gametocytes. This is the first report of a natural infection with a Plasmodium in North American wild ducks.

  10. Geese impact on the nitrogen cycle and especially on the fate of litter nitrogen in Artic wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Loonen, Maarten; Fivez, Lise; Meire, Patrick; Janssens, Ivan; Boeckx, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Due to land use changes and reduced hunting pressure in their wintering grounds, goose numbers increased dramatically over the past 50 years. To understand the consequences of these changes, studies on ecosystem processes of the breeding grounds in the Artic are indispensable. A key process affected by herbivores is decomposition, which in turn influences nutrient cycling and thus plant growth. Here, we investigated the influence of geese on the nitrogen cycle. In Spitsbergen (78° 55' N, 11° ...

  11. Effects of seismic lines on the abundance of breeding birds in the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashenhurst, A.R.; Hannon, S.J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    2008-06-15

    The effects of oil and gas exploration activities on bird abundance in the Arctic were investigated. The study examined the impacts of new and oil visible seismic lines within the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary on the abundance of breeding passerines, Lapland longspur, common redpoll, American tree sparrow, and red-necked phalarope in upland tundra region and sedge-willow habitats. Results of the study showed that the effects on abundance with newer seismic lines were not statistically significant for most groups of birds. However, more birds were seen on reference transects than on seismic lines. The seismic lines had a significant impact on passerines grouped in upland tundra, as well as for sparrows in sedge and willows. Along older seismic lines, passerine abundance was lower than on reference transects in upland tundra. The study demonstrated that seismic lines created between 10 and 30 years ago had persistent vegetative changes that have reduced bird abundance. It was concluded that although the birds were not avoiding lines, some birds appeared to have increased the size of their territories in order to compensate for vegetative changes. 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Changes in agriculture and abundance of snow geese affect carrying capacity of sandhill cranes in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, A.T.; Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Kinzel, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The central Platte River valley (CPRV) in Nebraska, USA, is a key spring-staging area for approximately 80 of the midcontinent population of sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes). Evidence that staging cranes acquired less lipid reserves during the 1990s compared to the late 1970s and increases in use of the CPRV by snow geese (Chen caerulescens) prompted us to investigate availability of waste corn and quantify spatial and temporal patterns of crane and waterfowl use of the region. We developed a predictive model to assess impacts of changes in availability of corn and snow goose abundance under past, present, and potential future conditions. Over a hypothetical 60-day staging period, predicted energy demand of cranes and waterfowl increased 87 between the late 1970s and 19982007, primarily because peak abundances of snow geese increased by 650,000 and cranes by 110,000. Compared to spring 1979, corn available when cranes arrived was 20 less in 1998 and 68 less in 1999; consequently, the area of cornfields required to meet crane needs increased from 14,464 ha in 1979 to 32,751 ha in 1998 and 90,559 ha in 1999. Using a pooled estimate of 88 kg/ha from springs 19981999 and 20052007, the area of cornfields needed to supply food requirements of cranes and waterfowl increased to 65,587 ha and was greatest in the eastern region of the CPRV, where an estimated 54 of cranes, 47 of Canada geese (Branta canadensis), 45 of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons), and 46 of snow geese occurred during ground surveys. We estimated that a future reduction of 25 in available corn or cornfields would increase daily foraging flight distances of cranes by 2738. Crane use and ability of cranes to store lipid reserves in the CPRV could be reduced substantially if flight distance required to locate adequate corn exceeded a physiological maximum distance cranes could fly in search of food. Options to increase carrying capacity for cranes include increasing

  13. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY... availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact... resident Canada geese. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan...

  14. Identification of Laying-Related SNP Markers in Geese Using RAD Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiGang Yu

    Full Text Available Laying performance is an important economical trait of goose production. As laying performance is of low heritability, it is of significance to develop a marker-assisted selection (MAS strategy for this trait. Definition of sequence variation related to the target trait is a prerequisite of quantitating MAS, but little is presently known about the goose genome, which greatly hinders the identification of genetic markers for the laying traits of geese. Recently developed restriction site-associated DNA (RAD sequencing is a possible approach for discerning large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and reducing the complexity of a genome without having reference genomic information available. In the present study, we developed a pooled RAD sequencing strategy for detecting geese laying-related SNP. Two DNA pools were constructed, each consisting of equal amounts of genomic DNA from 10 individuals with either high estimated breeding value (HEBV or low estimated breeding value (LEBV. A total of 139,013 SNP were obtained from 42,291,356 sequences, of which 18,771,943 were for LEBV and 23,519,413 were for HEBV cohorts. Fifty-five SNP which had different allelic frequencies in the two DNA pools were further validated by individual-based AS-PCR genotyping in the LEBV and HEBV cohorts. Ten out of 55 SNP exhibited distinct allele distributions in these two cohorts. These 10 SNP were further genotyped in a goose population of 492 geese to verify the association with egg numbers. The result showed that 8 of 10 SNP were associated with egg numbers. Additionally, liner regression analysis revealed that SNP Record-111407, 106975 and 112359 were involved in a multiplegene network affecting laying performance. We used IPCR to extend the unknown regions flanking the candidate RAD tags. The obtained sequences were subjected to BLAST to retrieve the orthologous genes in either ducks or chickens. Five novel genes were cloned for geese which harbored the

  15. ADOPTION OF YOUNG AND INTRASPECIFIC NEST PARASITISM IN BARNACLE GEESE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CHOUDHURY, S; JONES, CS; BLACK, JM; PROP, J

    Prior to use of genetic techniques, extra-pair copulations and intraspecific brood parasitism were rarely observed in long-term monogamous geese. DNA fingerprinting analysis of nine families of Barnacle Geese (Branta leucopsis) revealed one case of intraspecific nest parasitism with the offspring

  16. Shepherdesses Watching a Flight of Wild Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sheep graze along a plain in twilight quiet, Their earthward heads cropping dark clumps of grass, And near them, by a hedge where yellow leaves Grow golden in the evening’s mellowed air, Bent over yarn and needles knitting wool From these same sheep for mittens -- two young girls. Then suddenly one rises, shades her eyes And gestures to the other not to move, One arm crooked and one stretched out like the V’s Of geese intent on their archaic way Beyond the late fall cold toward Galilee. The o...

  17. Microbial infections are associated with embryo mortality in Arctic-nesting geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Cristina M.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Hueffer, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    To address the role of bacterial infection in hatching failure of wild geese, we monitored embryo development in a breeding population of Greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. During 2013, we observed mortality of normally developing embryos and collected 36 addled eggs for analysis. We also collected 17 infertile eggs for comparison. Using standard culture methods and gene sequencing to identify bacteria within collected eggs, we identified a potentially novel species of Neisseria in 33 eggs, Macrococcus caseolyticus in 6 eggs, and Streptococcus uberis and Rothia nasimurium in 4 eggs each. We detected seven other bacterial species at lower frequencies. Sequences of the 16S rRNA genes from the Neisseria isolates most closely matched sequences from N. animaloris and N. canis (96 to 97% identity), but phylogenetic analysis suggested substantial genetic differentiation between egg isolates and known Neisseria species. Although definitive sources of the bacteria remain unknown, we detected Neisseria DNA from swabs of eggshells, nest contents, and cloacae of nesting females. To assess the pathogenicity of bacteria identified in contents of addled eggs, we inoculated isolates of Neisseria, Macrococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia at various concentrations into developing chicken eggs. Seven-day mortality rates varied from 70 to 100%, depending on the bacterial species and inoculation dose. Our results suggest that bacterial infections are a source of embryo mortality in wild geese in the Arctic.    

  18. 50 CFR 21.26 - Special Canada goose permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... limitations on management and control activities? (i) Take of resident Canada geese as a management tool under... management tools to the extent they deem appropriate in an effort to minimize lethal take. (ii) Methods of... of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project 1018-0099, Washington, DC 20503. [64 FR 32774...

  19. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  20. Changes in abundance and spatial distribution of geese molting near Teshekpuk Lake, Alaska: Interspecific competition or ecological change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, P.L.; Mallek, E.J.; King, R.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Bollinger, K.S.; Derksen, D.V.

    2008-01-01

    Goose populations molting in the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area of the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska have changed in size and distribution over the past 30 years. Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) are relatively stable in numbers but are shifting from large, inland lakes to salt marshes. Concurrently, populations of greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) have increased seven fold. Populations of Canada geese (Branta canadensis and/or B. hutchinsii) are stable with little indication of distributional shifts. The lesser snow goose (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) population is proportionally small, but increasing rapidly. Coastline erosion of the Beaufort Sea has altered tundra habitats by allowing saltwater intrusion, which has resulted in shifts in composition of forage plant species. We propose two alternative hypotheses for the observed shift in black brant distribution. Ecological change may have altered optimal foraging habitats for molting birds, or alternatively, interspecific competition between black brant and greater white-fronted geese may be excluding black brant from preferred habitats. Regardless of the causative mechanism, the observed shifts in species distributions are an important consideration for future resource planning. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Body Mass Dynamics of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) During Stopover on Autumn Migration in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, Ove Martin; Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Body mass accumulation is a widely used measure of waterfowl condition and predictor of fitness. So far, however, post-breeding changes in body mass affecting autumn and winter condition have been largely unexplored. Here, changes in body mass of Pink-footed Geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) were...... adult body mass did not vary between years. During the stopover, juveniles of both sexes increased their body mass substantially (11.4 ± 2.8 g/day), while adult birds showed sex-specific differences. Adult males took on an average of 6.1 ± 2.4 g/day, whereas adult females showed no increase during...

  2. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter “Snow Geese”) and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese.

  4. Brent goose colonies near snowy owls: Internest distances in relation to breeding arctic fox densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kharitonov, S.P.; Ebbinge, B.S.; De Fouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    It was shown that in the years when the numbers of the Arctic foxes are high, even though the lemming numbers are high as well, Brent geese nest considerably closer to owls' nests than in the years with low Arctic fox numbers. At values of the Arctic fox densities greater than one breeding pair per

  5. Effects of neckbands on body condition of migratory geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    index (API) of marked geese and body mass of recaptured birds previously marked, this study investigated the effect of neckbands on body condition of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus at different temporal scales, and evaluated to what extent capture, handling and banding affected these birds......Ringing and marking are widely used techniques in avian ecology to assist studies of migration, survival and behaviour, and often used approaches to estimate population sizes. Only rarely however, are the effects of these markings on bird viability thoroughly tested. Using an abdominal profile...... on short, medium and longer terms. Our results indicated that body condition of geese were negatively affected in the days immediately succeeding capture, but that only a minor effect persisted on a seasonal scale. We found no support for a long term effect of neckbands on the body mass of individual birds...

  6. Observations of emperor geese feeding at Nelson Lagoon, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margaret R.

    1983-01-01

    Estuaries along the north side of the Alaska Peninsula provide essential habitat for most of the American population of Emperor Goose (Chen canagica) during migration (Petersen and Gill 1982). Most of the population passes through Nelson Lagoon in spring and fall, with over 40,000 birds recorded there (Gill et al 1981). Little is known about the feeding activity of Emperor Geese while they are in estuaries, and the importance of estuaries as staging areas during spring and fall migration is poorly understood. Here I report observations on the feeding activity of emperor Geese at one estuary (Nelson Lagoon).

  7. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE NATURAL EGG LAYING HABITS OF DOMESTIC GEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.

  8. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F.; Nielsen, Jesper B.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2015-01-01

    To investigate aquatic bird bornavirus 1 in Europe, we examined 333 brains from hunter-killed geese in Denmark in 2014. Seven samples were positive by reverse transcription PCR and were 98.2%-99.8% identical; they were also 97.4%-98.1% identical to reference strains of aquatic bird bornavirus 1...

  9. Silent Partners: Actor and Audience in Geese Theatre's "Journey Woman"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the performance context and aesthetics of "Journey Woman", a play devised to initiate a week-long rehabilitative groupwork programme for female prisoners. Although Geese Theatre UK are one of the country's longest-established companies specialising in drama work within the criminal justice sector, this 2006 piece is…

  10. The Canada Goose Project: A First Project with Children under 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    This project report describes how five children (an infant, three toddlers, and a preschooler) enrolled at a private day care home engaged in their first journey into project work through a study of Canada geese living on a nearby body of water. Prior to the experience described in this paper, the author had used the Project Approach only with…

  11. The effect of age, genotype and sex on carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes of geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Uhlířová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to compare carcass traits, meat quality and sensory attributes in two different genotypes of geese according to age and sex. Methods The experiment was carried out on 160 birds of two genotypes of geese: the Czech Goose (CG breed and a Eskildsen Schwer (ES hybrid. One-d-old goslings were divided into four groups according to genotype and sex. Two dates for slaughtering (at 8 and 16 wk of age of goslings were undertaken. Results The slaughter weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage were affected by all the studied factors, and significant interactions between age, genotype and sex were detected in the slaughter weight (p<0.001 and cold carcass weight (p = 0.004. The pH was not affected by any of studied factors, whereas in terms of meat colour parameters there were observed significant effects of age on L* and b* value and a significant effect of sex on a* value. The meat fat content was higher (p = 0.002 in ES. Higher score for overall acceptance of goose meat was recorded for ES at both ages compared to CG. Conclusion ES had higher dressing percentage and better sensory attributes, whereas CG exceled in the favourable nutritional value of the meat.

  12. Prioritizing refuge sites for migratory geese to alleviate conflicts with agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Anker; Wisz, Mary S.; Madsen, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    Expanding populations of geese feeding on farmland during winter and spring conflict with agricultural interests along their migratory flyway in north-western Europe. In Mid-Norway, farmers scare spring-staging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus off their land to protect crops, and this has had...... clear effects on goose distribution. To protect the geese, Norwegian authorities have implemented economic compensation to farmers to discourage scaring, but this has not been prioritised to accommodate the biological requirements and dispersal patterns of the geese, though such an approach is clearly...... prioritisation. Our approach has direct implications for alleviating similar goose-agriculture conflicts throughout Europe....

  13. Slave Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Sutch, Richard

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical work on slave breeding in the ante-bellum United States. Slave breeding consisted of interference in the sexual life of slaves by their owners with the intent and result of increasing the number of slave children born. The weight of evidence suggests that slave breeding occurred in sufficient force to raise the rate of growth of the American slave population despite evidence that only a minority of slave-owners engaged in such practices.

  14. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Nudds, Robert L.; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  15. Time budgets of Snow Geese Chen caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii in mixed flocks: Implications of body size, ambient temperature and family associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Body size affects foraging and forage intake rates directly via energetic processes and indirectly through interactions with social status and social behaviour. Ambient temperature has a relatively greater effect on the energetics of smaller species, which also generally are more vulnerable to predator attacks than are larger species. We examined variability in an index of intake rates and an index of alertness in Lesser Snow Geese Chen caerulescens caerulescens and Ross's Geese Chen rossii wintering in southwest Louisiana. Specifically we examined variation in these response variables that could be attributed to species, age, family size and ambient temperature. We hypothesized that the smaller Ross's Geese would spend relatively more time feeding, exhibit relatively higher peck rates, spend more time alert or raise their heads up from feeding more frequently, and would respond to declining temperatures by increasing their proportion of time spent feeding. As predicted, we found that Ross's Geese spent more time feeding than did Snow Geese and had slightly higher peck rates than Snow Geese in one of two winters. Ross's Geese spent more time alert than did Snow Geese in one winter, but alert rates differed by family size, independent of species, in contrast to our prediction. In one winter, time spent foraging and walking was inversely related to average daily temperature, but both varied independently of species. Effects of age and family size on time budgets were generally independent of species and in accordance with previous studies. We conclude that body size is a key variable influencing time spent feeding in Ross's Geese, which may require a high time spent feeding at the expense of other activities. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  16. The Social Life of Greylag Geese : Patterns, Mechanisms and Evolutionary Function in an Avian Model System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheiber, Isabella; Weiß, Brigitte M.; Hemetsberger, Josef; Kotrschal, Kurt

    The flock of greylag geese established by Konrad Lorenz in Austria in 1973 has become an influential model animal system and one of the few worldwide with complete life-history data spanning several decades. Based on the unique records of nearly 1000 free-living greylag geese, this is a synthesis of

  17. Habitat preference of geese is affected by livestock grazing : Seasonal variation in an experimental field evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandema, Freek S.; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Stahl, Julia; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.

    The number of staging geese in northwestern Europe has increased dramatically. Growing goose numbers put strong grazing pressure on agricultural pastures. Damage to agricultural land may be mitigated by managing nature reserves in order to optimally accommodate large numbers of grazing geese.

  18. Comparative spring-staging ecology of sympatric arctic-nesting geese in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The Rainwater Basin in Nebraska has been a historic staging area for midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) since the 1950s and, in the mid-1990s, millions of midcontinent lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) expanded their spring migration route to include this region. In response to speculation that snow geese may be in direct competition with white-fronted geese, we compared staging ecology by quantifying diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and time budgets during springs 1998–1999. Collected white-fronted geese (n  =  190) and snow geese (n  =  203) consumed primarily corn (Zea mays; 97–98% aggregate dry mass) while staging in Nebraska; thus, diet overlap was nearly complete. Both species used cornfields most frequently during the morning (54–55%) and wetlands more during the afternoon (51–65%). When found grouped together, snow goose abundance was greater than white-fronted goose abundance by an average of 57 times (se  =  11, n  =  131 groups) in crop fields and 28 times (se  =  9, n  =  84 groups) in wetlands. Snow geese and white-fronted geese flew similar distances between roosting and feeding sites, leaving and returning to wetland roost sties at similar times in mornings and afternoons. Overlap in habitat-specific time budgets was high; resting was the most common behavior on wetlands, and foraging was a common behavior in fields. We observed 111 interspecific agonistic interactions while observing white-fronted and snow geese. White-fronted geese initiated and dominated more interactions with other waterfowl species than did snow geese (32 vs. 14%). Certain aspects of spring-staging niches (i.e., diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and habitat-specific behavior) of white-fronted and snow geese overlapped greatly at this mid-latitude staging site, creating opportunity for potential food- and habitat-based competition between species. Snow geese did not consistently dominate

  19. Incidence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose as revealed by bone marrow culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    1. Techniques are described for the cultural isolation of trypanosomes from avian bone marrow obtained from living birds or at autopsy. A new medium SNB-9 (saline-neopeptone-blood) is described. In addition to being a good medium for growing avian trypanosomes, it is excellent for growing trypanosomes of amphibians and mammals. 2. Evidence is presented demonstrating the superiority of (a) cultures over stained smears for detecting the presence of trypanosomes in the Canada goose, and (b) bone marrow over heart blood of this species as a source of trypanosomes for culture. 3. In April 1952, from cultures of bone marrow collected at autopsy it was demonstrated that trypanosome infection occurred in 33 (40.2%) of 82 Canada geese from the Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge. On February 17, 1953, cultures of bone marrow obtained from living birds revealed presence of trypanosomes in 12 (20.7%) of 58 geese from the same refuge. On February 26, 1953, by employing the latter method, 9 (20.4%) of 44 geese from Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge were shown to harbor the parasites. In another survey ninety-two geese from seven national wildlife refuges subjected to the biopsy technique showed evidence of infection in 13 (14.1 %) birds and indicated that trypanosome infection is widely distributed in this host.

  20. Tissue distribution of metals in white-fronted geese and spot-billed ducks from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Oh, Jong-Min

    2013-07-01

    This study presents concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in livers, kidneys, muscles and bones of white-fronted geese Anser albifrons (geese) and spot-billed ducks Anas poecilorhyncha (ducks). Iron in livers, kidneys and muscles, Zn in muscles, Mn and Cd in every tissue, Cu in livers, muscles and bones and Pb in bones differed between species, and there were significant differences among tissues in both species. Essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were within the background levels. Lead concentrations in livers of 7 of 14 geese and 7 of 19 ducks and in bones of 4 of 19 ducks exceeded background concentrations for waterfowl (5 μg/g dw for the liver, 10 μg/g dw for the bone). Almost all samples of both species had the background Cd concentrations in the liver (33 of 33 geese and ducks) and kidney (14 geese and 18 ducks). Tissue concentrations of Cd were greater in geese than ducks. In contrast, tissue concentrations of Pb in bones were greater in ducks than in geese. These different trends for Cd and Pb reflect a short and/or long term difference in exposure and degree of accumulation of these metals.

  1. The paradox of extreme high-altitude migration in bar-headed geese Anser indicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L. A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P. J.; Chua, B.; Douglas, D. C.; Frappell, P. B.; Hou, Y.; Milsom, W. K.; Newman, S. H.; Prosser, D. J.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Scott, G. R.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Natsagdorj, T.; Wikelski, M.; Witt, M. J.; Yan, B.; Bishop, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Bar-headed geese are renowned for migratory flights at extremely high altitudes over the world's tallest mountains, the Himalayas, where partial pressure of oxygen is dramatically reduced while flight costs, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption, are greatly increased. Such a mismatch is paradoxical, and it is not clear why geese might fly higher than is absolutely necessary. In addition, direct empirical measurements of high-altitude flight are lacking. We test whether migrating bar-headed geese actually minimize flight altitude and make use of favourable winds to reduce flight costs. By tracking 91 geese, we show that these birds typically travel through the valleys of the Himalayas and not over the summits. We report maximum flight altitudes of 7290 m and 6540 m for southbound and northbound geese, respectively, but with 95 per cent of locations received from less than 5489 m. Geese travelled along a route that was 112 km longer than the great circle (shortest distance) route, with transit ground speeds suggesting that they rarely profited from tailwinds. Bar-headed geese from these eastern populations generally travel only as high as the terrain beneath them dictates and rarely in profitable winds. Nevertheless, their migration represents an enormous challenge in conditions where humans and other mammals are only able to operate at levels well below their sea-level maxima. PMID:23118436

  2. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  3. Chewing Lice of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides): New Host-Parasite Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...... of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius...

  4. Effects of spring conditions on breeding propensity of Greater Snow Goose females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed, E. T.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding propensity, defined as the probability that a sexually mature adult will breed in a given year, is an important determinant of annual productivity. It is also one of the least known demographic parameters in vertebrates. We studied the relationship between breeding propensity and conditions on spring staging areas (a spring conservation hunt and the breeding grounds (spring snow cover in Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica, a long distance migrant that breeds in the High Arctic. We combined information from mark–recapture, telemetry, and nest survey data to estimate breeding propensity over a 7– year period. True temporal variation in breeding propensity was considerable (mean: 0.574 [95% CI considering only process variation: 0.13 to 1.0]. Spring snow cover was negatively related to breeding propensity (bsnow=-2,05 ± 0,96 SE and tended to be reduced in years with a spring hunt (b = -0,78 ± 0,35. Nest densities on the breeding colony and fall ratios of young:adults were good indices of annual variation in breeding propensity, with nest densities being slightly more precise. These results suggest that conditions encountered during the pre-breeding period can have a significant impact on productivity of Arctic-nesting birds

  5. Maize stubble as foraging habitat for wintering geese and swans in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Nolet, Bart, A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this r......Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging...... in this region, little is known about the abundance and energetic value of this resource to foraging birds. In this study we quantify food availability, intake rates and energetic profitability of the maize stubble habitat, and describe the value of this increasingly cultivated crop to wintering geese and swans...... of geese and swans wintering in northern Europe....

  6. Recombinant Goose Circoviruses Circulating in Domesticated and Wild Geese in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stenzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Circoviruses are circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA viruses that infect a variety of animals, both domestic and wild. Circovirus infection in birds is associated with immunosuppression and this in turn predisposes the infected animals to secondary infections that can lead to mortality. Farmed geese (Anser anser in many parts of the world are infected with circoviruses. The majority of the current genomic information for goose circoviruses (GoCVs (n = 40 are from birds sampled in China and Taiwan, and only two genome sequences are available from Europe (Germany and Poland. In this study, we sampled 23 wild and 19 domestic geese from the Gopło Lake area in Poland. We determined the genomes of GoCV from 21 geese; 14 domestic Greylag geese (Anser anser, three wild Greylag geese (A. anser, three bean geese (A. fabalis, and one white fronted goose (A. albifrons. These genomes share 83–95% nucleotide pairwise identities with previously identified GoCV genomes, most are recombinants with exchanged fragment sizes up to 50% of the genome. Higher diversity levels can be seen within the genomes from domestic geese compared with those from wild geese. In the GoCV capsid protein (cp and replication associated protein (rep gene sequences we found that episodic positive selection appears to largely mirror those of beak and feather disease virus and pigeon circovirus. Analysis of the secondary structure of the ssDNA genome revealed a conserved stem-loop structure with the G-C rich stem having a high degree of negative selection on these nucleotides.

  7. Migratory geese foraging on grassland:Case study in the region of Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gils, Bert; De Vliegher, Alex; Huysentruyt, Frank; Casaer, Jim; Devos, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Every winter nearly 100 000 migratory geese visit Northwestern Flanders (Belgium), including several protected species such as the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus). The geese mainly forage on agricultural grassland, where they remove all the green parts and leave substantial amounts of droppings. In 2009 several farmers’ concerns about this phenomenon were thoroughly investigated. The main findings revealed that grass production on grazed parcels is reduced by 450 kg DM/ha on average ...

  8. Mutations of and Genes are Associated with Plumage Colour Phenotypes in Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphism of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and tyrosinase (TYR genes have been proposed to play a vital role in coat colour genesis in mammals, but their role remains ambiguous in geese at best. Here, we cloned and sequenced 1,397 bp coding region of MITF gene and a 588 bp fragment of TYR exon 1 for polymorphism analysis among 157 domestic geese showing three types of plumage colour. We detected a total of three SNPs (c.280T>C, c.345G>A, and c.369G>A in TYR and six haplotypes (H1–H6. Among them, haplotypes H1, H2, H3, and H5 were significantly associated with white plumage trait of Zhedong White Geese. However, only diplotype H1H1 and H3H5 were significantly associated with white plumage trait of Zhedong White Geese (pT for MITF gene and found that genotype CT and TT were significantly associated with white plumage trait of Zhedong White Geese. Briefly, our study suggested an association between polymorphisms of TYR and MITF genes and the plumage colour trait in domestic geese.

  9. The selected histological traits of the pectoral muscle and basic slaughter values in crossbred geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad WALASIK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine of basic values slaughter meat production and histological parameters of pectoral muscle in quadruple 24 weeks old crossbred geese. The hybrids produced using Graylag, White Kołuda and Slovakian geese. The geese were divided to 4 groups differing crosses scheme. The body weight before slaughter was in the range from 4,752 g to 4,921 g, weight of carcass with neck from 3,101 g to 3,175 g and weight of breast muscles from 649 g to 698 g. Histological analysis of pectoral muscle showed that diameters of white fibers (αW was in the range from 43 μm to 46 μm, red fibers (βR from 19.4 μm to 22.1 μm. The percentage share of αW muscle fibers was in the range from 25.3% to 28.9%, βR fibers from 71.1% to 74.7%. The number of muscle fibers per unit area was in the range from 256 to 316 and intramuscular fat content from 3.9% to 6.7%. The results of evaluation of microstructural traits of musculus pectoralis superficialis and meat production parameters suggest that the breast muscles of the crossbred geese are raw material of high quality. The quadruple crossbred geese with graylag geese it is an alternative for production of high-quality meat.

  10. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Xu, L; Zhang, J; Xing, H

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P density was increased to 6 birds/m2. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and triiodothyronine (P density increased. The serum thyroxine concentration of geese from the 6 birds/m2 group was lower than that of geese from the other groups (P density will adversely influence thyroid function and the developments of the body weight, body size, feathers, and small intestine. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese should be kept to 5 or fewer birds/m2 to avoid the negative effects of high stocking density on geese. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. [Book review] Ducks, geese and swans of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, Gary L.

    1983-01-01

    This is the 3rd edition of the classic work "The Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America," which was first published in December 1942.  The original edition was authored by Francis C. Kortright with color plates by T. M. Shortt. An authoritative reference on North American waterfowl for many years, the book had become outdated as a result of major advances in the field of waterfowl biology. The need to update the 1st edition culminated in the publication in 1976 of a 2nd edition authored by Frank Bellrose. Readers interested in comparing features of the 1976 edition with other major recent works on North American waterfowl by P. A. Johnsgard and R. S. Palmer should read Weller (1977, Auk 94: 173).

  12. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  13. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  14. Modelling the distribution of chickens, ducks, and geese in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Diann J.; Wu, Junxi; Ellis, Erie C.; Gale, Fred; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Wint, William; Robinson, Tim; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Global concerns over the emergence of zoonotic pandemics emphasize the need for high-resolution population distribution mapping and spatial modelling. Ongoing efforts to model disease risk in China have been hindered by a lack of available species level distribution maps for poultry. The goal of this study was to develop 1 km resolution population density models for China's chickens, ducks, and geese. We used an information theoretic approach to predict poultry densities based on statistical relationships between poultry census data and high-resolution agro-ecological predictor variables. Model predictions were validated by comparing goodness of fit measures (root mean square error and correlation coefficient) for observed and predicted values for 1/4 of the sample data which were not used for model training. Final output included mean and coefficient of variation maps for each species. We tested the quality of models produced using three predictor datasets and 4 regional stratification methods. For predictor variables, a combination of traditional predictors for livestock mapping and land use predictors produced the best goodness of fit scores. Comparison of regional stratifications indicated that for chickens and ducks, a stratification based on livestock production systems produced the best results; for geese, an agro-ecological stratification produced best results. However, for all species, each method of regional stratification produced significantly better goodness of fit scores than the global model. Here we provide descriptive methods, analytical comparisons, and model output for China's first high resolution, species level poultry distribution maps. Output will be made available to the scientific and public community for use in a wide range of applications from epidemiological studies to livestock policy and management initiatives.

  15. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  16. 50 CFR 21.61 - Population control of resident Canada geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New... means, aid, or use of a sinkbox or any other type of low-floating device, having a depression affording...

  17. 77 FR 26032 - Proposed Information Collection; Control and Management of Resident Canada Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., export, transport, sale, purchase, or bartering of migratory birds or their parts except as permitted... Airport Systems and have received Federal grant-in-aid assistance or be a military airfield under the...

  18. 50 CFR 21.49 - Control order for resident Canada geese at airports and military airfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER... National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems and have received Federal grant-in-aid assistance, or a..., their employees, and designated agents may not sell, offer for sale, barter, or ship for the purpose of...

  19. [Studies on usefullness of imidasol preparations for treatment of pulmonary and air sacks aspergillosis in geese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Balicka-Ramisz, A

    2001-01-01

    The studies were carried out in two geese farms with a total number of 11.143 - 4 weeks old birds. Two imidazol preparations--5 per cent Miconazole powder and 2 Clotrimazole solution were used in these studies. Miconazole was applied as feed additive for 200 with aspergillosis infected geese, in a dosis of 10 mg of active substance on one kg of body weight. Clotrimazole was administered in a form of inhalation in a dose of 1,5 1 of 2 per cent solution per geese house of 3000 m3. Spraying was performed using gas-pipes of steam ganerator joined to the air compressor of the type 3 JW - 60 (6hp). In this way 5 - 10 microm partiches were obtained. The preparation was sprayed twice ad 2 - 4 days intervals. After Miconazole administration the recovery of sick birds and inhibition of the disease in geese were observed. The Clotrimazole preparations may be also administered prophylactically in geese houses, were stationary aspergillosis has been observed.

  20. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica: Large-scale effects of interspecific densities and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, B.C.; Schmutz, J.A.; Lindberg, M.S.; Ely, Craig R.; Eldridge, W.D.; Broerman, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese Chen canagica at three locations across the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, during 1990-2004 to investigate whether large-scale variation in body mass was related to interspecific competition for food. From 1990 to 2004, densities of Cackling Geese Branta hutchinsii minima more than doubled and were c. 2-5?? greater than densities of Emperor Geese, which were relatively constant over time. Body mass of prefledging Emperor Geese was strongly related (negatively) to interspecific densities of geese (combined density of Cackling and Emperor Geese) and positively related to measures of food availability (grazing lawn extent and net above-ground primary productivity (NAPP)). Grazing by geese resulted in consumption of ??? 90% of the NAPP that occurred in grazing lawns during the brood-rearing period, suggesting that density-dependent interspecific competition was from exploitation of common food resources. Efforts to increase the population size of Emperor Geese would benefit from considering competitive interactions among goose species and with forage plants. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  1. Failure of orally administered attenuated goose parvovirus strain B to induce a humoral immune response in adult geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisary, J; Kelemen, M

    1981-01-01

    Two-month-old geese responded with the production of virus neutralising antibodies against virulent goose parvovirus strain B administered either per os or intramuscularly. They were shedding the virus within a short period after exposure. Humoral immune response in geese of the same age was induced by the attenuated goose parvovirus strain B only by intramuscular injection but not with per os administration.

  2. Juvenile greylag geese (Anser anser discriminate between individual siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella B R Scheiber

    Full Text Available Social species that maintain individualised relationships with certain others despite continuous changes in age, reproductive status and dominance rank between group members ought to be capable of individual recognition. Tests of "true" individual recognition, where an individual recognises unique features of another, are rare, however. Often kinship and/or familiarity suffice to explain dyadic interactions. The complex relationships within a greylag goose flock suggest that they should be able to recognise individuals irrespective of familiarity or kinship. We tested whether six-week-old hand-raised greylags can discriminate between two of their siblings. We developed a new experimental protocol, in which geese were trained to associate social siblings with geometrical symbols. Subsequently, focals were presented with two geometrical symbols in the presence of a sibling associated with one of the symbols. Significant choice of the geometrical symbol associated with the target present indicated that focals were able to distinguish between individual targets. Greylag goslings successfully learned this association-discrimination task, regardless of genetic relatedness or sex of the sibling targets. Social relationships within a goose flock thus may indeed be based on recognition of unique features of individual conspecifics.

  3. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  4. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  5. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  6. Helminth community structure in two species of arctic-breeding waterfowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Amundson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is occurring rapidly at high latitudes, and subsequent changes in parasite communities may have implications for hosts including wildlife and humans. Waterfowl, in particular, harbor numerous parasites and may facilitate parasite movement across broad geographic areas due to migratory movements. However, little is known about helminth community structure of waterfowl at northern latitudes. We investigated the helminth communities of two avian herbivores that breed at high latitudes, Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans, and greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, to examine effects of species, geographic area, age, and sex on helminth species richness, aggregation, prevalence, and intensity. We collected 83 and 58 black brant and white-fronted geese, respectively, from Arctic and Subarctic Alaska July–August 2014. We identified 10 known helminth species (Amidostomum anseris, Amidostomum spatulatum, Drepanidotaenia lanceolata, Epomidiostomum crami, Heterakis dispar, Notocotylus attenuatus, Tetrameres striata, Trichostrongylus tenuis, Tschertkovilepis setigera, and Wardoides nyrocae and 1 previously undescribed trematode. All geese sampled were infected with at least one helminth species. All helminth species identified were present in both age classes and species, providing evidence of transmission at high latitudes and suggesting broad host susceptibility. Also, all but one helminth species were present at both sites, suggesting conditions are suitable for transmission across a large latitudinal/environmental gradient. Our study provides important baseline information on avian parasites that can be used to evaluate the effects of a changing climate on host-parasite distributions.

  7. Strontium-90 in Canada goose eggshells: Nonfatal monitoring for contamination in wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    90 Sr was measured in eggshells from Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) that nested on Columbia River islands up- and downstream from deactivated plutonium production reactors on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. We also measured 90 Sr in wing bones of goose carcasses. Background levels of 90 Sr were based on eggshells collected on an island upstream of the reactors. A few eggshells collected from nests on a single island downstream of the reactors had slightly higher than background levels of 90 Sr. This may have resulted from geese eating shoreline plants or crops irrigated with Columbia River water that contained 90 Sr released into the river through groundwater seepage

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dec, M; Wernicki, A; Puchalski, A; Urban-Chmiel, R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 93 Lactobacillus strains isolated from domestic geese raised on Polish farms. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 13 antimicrobial substances was determined by the broth microdilution method. All strains were sensitive to the cell wall inhibitors ampicillin and amoxicillin (MIC ≤ 8 μg/ml). Resistance to inhibitors of protein synthesis and to fluoroquinolone inhibitors of replication was found in 44.1% and 60.2% of isolates, respectively; 26.9% strains were resistant to neomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 23.6% to tetracycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 15% to lincomycin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), 18.3% to doxycycline (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 9.7% to tylosin (MIC ≥ 32 μg/ml), 56% to flumequine (MIC ≥ 256 μg/ml) and 22.6% to enrofloxacin (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml). Bimodal distribution of MICs indicative of acquired resistance and unimodal distribution of the high MIC values indicative of intrinsic resistance were correlated with Lactobacillus species. Eleven (11.8%) strains displayed multiple resistance for at least three classes of antibiotics. Data derived from this study can be used as a basis for reviewing current microbiological breakpoints for categorisation of susceptible and resistant strains of Lactobacillus genus and help to assess the hazards associated with the occurrence of drug resistance among natural intestinal microflora.

  9. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  10. Oral Administration of Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing the Cellulase Gene Increases Digestibility of Fiber in Geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haizhu; Gao, Yunhang; Gao, Guang; Lou, Yujie

    2015-12-01

    Enhancing cellulose digestibility in animals is important for improving the utilization of forage, which can decrease the amount of food used in animal production. The aim of the present study was to achieve recombinant expression of the cellulase gene in Lactococcus lactis and evaluate the effects of oral administration of the recombinant L. lactis on fiber digestibility in geese. Cellulase (Cell) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes were cloned into a L. lactis expression vector (pNZ8149) to construct the recombinant expression plasmid (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell). Then, the recombinant expression plasmid was transformed into L. lactis (NZ3900) competent cells by electroporation to obtain recombinant L. lactis (pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900) in which protein expression was induced by Nisin. Expression of GFP and Cell by the recombinant L. lactis was confirmed using SDS-PAGE, fluorescence detection, and Congo red assays. A feeding experiment showed that oral administration of pNZ8149-GFP-Cell/NZ3900 significantly increased the digestibility of dietary fiber in geese fed either a maize stalk diet or a rice chaff diet. Therefore, oral administration of recombinant L. lactis cells expressing the cellulase gene increases fiber digestibility in geese, offering a way to increase the utilization of dietary fiber in geese.

  11. On facilitation between herbivores : How Brent Geese profit from brown hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, R; van Wijnen, H; van Wieren, S.E.; Beucher, O; Bos, D

    Brown hares (Lepus europaeus) are shown to facilitate grazing by Brent Geese (Branta bernicla) in a temperate salt marsh in the Netherlands by retarding vegetation succession for >25 yr. Winter grazing by hares prevented the shrub Atriplex portulacoides from spreading in younger parts nf thp salt

  12. On facilitation between herbivores : how brent geese profit from brown hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der R.; Wijnen, van H.; Wieren, van S.E.; Beucher, O.; Bos, D.

    2000-01-01

    Brown hares (Lepus europaeus) are shown to facilitate grazing by Brent Geese (Branta bernicla) in a temperate salt marsh in the Netherlands by retarding vegetation succession for >25 yr. Winter grazing by hares prevented the shrub Atriplex portulacoides from spreading in younger parts of the salt

  13. Chewing lice of swan geese (Anser cygnoides): New host-parasite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Fox, Anthony D.; Cao, Lei; Wang, Xin; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmayadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of its wild hosts. To better understand the lice species parasitizing swan geese that are endemic to East Asia, we collected chewing lice from 14 wild geese caught at 3 lakes in northeastern Mongolia. The lice were morphologically identified as 16 Trinoton anserinum (Fabricius, 1805), 11 Ornithobius domesticus Arnold, 2005, and 1 Anaticola anseris (Linnaeus, 1758). These species are known from other geese and swans, but all of them were new to the swan goose. This result also indicates no overlap in lice species between older records and our findings from wild birds. Thus, ectoparasites collected from domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.

  14. Real-time monitoring of Salmonella enterica in free-range geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Pedersen, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Free-range geese were sampled longitudinally and Salmonella isolates characterized to reveal highly diverging colonization dynamics. One flock was intermittently colonized with one strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis from 2 weeks of age, while in another, S. enterica serovar Mbandaka...

  15. Effects of Arctic Alaska oil development on Brant and snow geese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, J. C. [Truett Research, Glenwood, NM (United States); Miller, M. E. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geography; Kertell, K. [SWCA Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The potential impact of Arctic Alaskan oil development on black brant and lesser snow geese were investigated. Release of contaminants, alteration of tundra surfaces, creation of impoundments and human activities were considered as most likely to affect geese directly (e.g. through oil spills), or indirectly (e.g. by altering food supplies or predator populations). To date, no evidence of changes in the distribution, abundance or reproduction of these geese have been found that could be clearly attributed to development; indeed, the number and recruitment of geese in the oilfields responded, as elsewhere, to weather and predation. It is suggested, however, that three known predators -arctic foxes, glaucous gulls, and grizzly bears- may have increased in abundance as a result of development. The common raven has been observed to have recently established a small nesting population, apparently because of development, and birds from this population have preyed on goose eggs. Other than the action of these predators, the environmental impacts of development in Alaska oil fields are currently unknown. 55 refs., 2 figs.

  16. A study of moult-site fidelity in Egyptian geese, Alopochen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about moult and moult-site fidelity of African waterfowl. Satellite telemetry and uniquely engraved colour-rings were used to study moult-site fidelity of Egyptian geese marked at two sites in South Africa – Barberspan in the summer-rainfall region and Strandfontein in the winter-rainfall region. Twelve Egyptian ...

  17. Serology and genetics of Toxoplasma gondii in endangered Hawaiian (Nene) geese (Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is parasite transmitted by feral cats that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. A recent study revealed that this parasite accounts for ca. 4% of causes of mortality in native Hawaiian geese (nene-Branta sandvicensis). To know how widespread exposure to the...

  18. Maize stubble as foraging habitat to wintering geese and swans in northern Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, K.K.; Madsen, J.; Nolet, B.A.; Haugaard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this

  19. Evaluating indices of lipid and protein content in lesser snow and Ross's geese during spring migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Elisabeth B.; Fowler, Drew N.; Woodall, Brendan A.; Vrtiska, Mark P.

    2018-01-01

    Assessing nutrient stores in avian species is important for understanding the extent to which body condition influences success or failure in life‐history events. We evaluated predictive models using morphometric characteristics to estimate total body lipids (TBL) and total body protein (TBP), based on traditional proximate analyses, in spring migrating lesser snow geese (Anser caerulescens caerulescens) and Ross's geese (A. rossii). We also compared performance of our lipid model with a previously derived predictive equation for TBL developed for nesting lesser snow geese. We used external and internal measurements on 612 lesser snow and 125 Ross's geese collected during spring migration in 2015 and 2016 within the Central and Mississippi flyways to derive and evaluate predictive models. Using a validation data set, our best performing lipid model for snow geese better predicted TBL (root mean square error [RMSE] of 23.56) compared with a model derived from nesting individuals (RMSE = 48.60), suggesting the importance of season‐specific models for accurate lipid estimation. Models that included body mass and abdominal fat deposit best predicted TBL determined by proximate analysis in both species (lesser snow goose, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 23.56: Ross's geese, R2 = 0.89, RMSE = 13.75). Models incorporating a combination of external structural measurements in addition to internal muscle and body mass best predicted protein values (R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 19.39 and R2 = 0.85, RMSE = 7.65, lesser snow and Ross's geese, respectively), but protein models including only body mass and body size were also competitive and provided extended utility to our equations for field applications. Therefore, our models indicated the importance of specimen dissection and measurement of the abdominal fat pad to provide the most accurate lipid estimates and provide alternative dissection‐free methods for estimating protein.

  20. CURRENT STATE OF POULTRY BREEDING AND ITS FUTURE TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry production in eastern Croatia is developed by individual producers mainly in semi intensive way, and within the organized poultry systems where the process is organized in a modern, intensive way. There is a tradition of breeding hens and geese in this area. Poultry products - meat and eggs are important in supplying the population with animal protein, minerals and vitamins. Modern hybrid hens are used for egg production and for meat production in the intensive production. Today geese breeding in these areas are completely neglected. Croatia as a member of European Union, has possibility of the placement of autochthonous breeds of poultry such as Hrvatica hen, Zagorje turkey and Podravian goose. Financial supports at the national level are allocated for the first two autochthonous breeds of poultry because these breeds can, with good production traits, represent genetic resources and strategic reserves in the future development of domestic poultry genotypes. Poultry production is especial emphasis in accordance with the criteria of welfare and health of poultry. This paper discusses further development of poultry in terms of production of poultry meat and eggs as a functional food. The composition and content of nutricines in meat and eggs can be affected by feed composition. Desired nutricines are installed in muscular tissue of poultry by using feed and adding some components. Consumption of eggs and poultry meat enriched by selenium, lutein and omega-3 fatty acids affects the improvement of the quality of the human diet. The recent researches show that chicken can effectively be enriched in carnosine - ingredients that are now taught as “anti-aging” factor. Enrichment of poultry products with nutricines gives greater importance to these foods in the diet of the population than the former one, mainly based on the nutritional aspect. Greater selection of quality poultry products can be a significant factor in the development of

  1. Effects of spent mushroom compost meal on growth performance and meat characteristics of grower geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Chang Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spent mushroom compost (SMC meal on the growth performance and meat characteristics of geese. The SMC extracts contained 2.49±0.62 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight (DW and 1.08±0.15 mg quercetin equivalent/g DW of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. A total of 120 White Roman geese, aged five weeks, were randomly distributed among 12 pens and fed a grower diet ad libitum during the growing period, with each pen containing five males and five females in a completely randomized design. Each treatment comprised three pens (total of 30 geese, including control (corn-soybean meal; supplementation with 5% SMC meal (5% SMC; supplementation with 10% SMC (10% SMC; and supplementation with 15% SMC (15% SMC, for eight weeks. The results revealed that the body weight of the 15% SMC group was significantly lower than that of the control group at the age of 12 weeks. There were no significant effects among the groups on feed conversion ratio or intake. The malondialdehyde content of the serum in the 15% SMC group was lower than that of the control group at week 12. There were no significant effects among the groups for blood biochemical parameters in grower geese at week 12. The color values of meats in the SMC groups were higher than those obtained with control group. The flavor and acceptability score of meats in the 5% SMC group were significantly higher than for the 15% SMC and control group. Supplementation with SMC at 5% in the diet has no adverse effects on the growth performance of grower geese. However, SMC meal at 5% in the diet favorably affects sensory attributes (meat flavor and acceptability.

  2. Establishing Winter Origins of Migrating Lesser Snow Geese Using Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens populations and large-scale habitat changes in North America have contributed to the concentration of migratory waterfowl on fewer wetlands, reducing resource availability, and enhancing risks of disease transmission. Predicting wintering locations of migratory individuals is critical to guide wildlife population management and habitat restoration. We used stable carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, and hydrogen (δ2H isotope ratios in muscle tissue of wintering Snow Geese to discriminate four major wintering areas, the Playa Lake Region, Texas Gulf Coast, Louisiana Gulf Coast, and Arkansas, and infer the wintering locations of individuals collected later during the 2007 and 2008 spring migrations in the Rainwater Basin (RWB of Nebraska. We predicted the wintering ground derivation of migrating Snow Geese using a likelihood-based approach. Our three-isotope analysis provided an efficient discrimination of the four wintering areas. The assignment model predicted that 53% [95% CI: 37-69] of our sample of Snow Geese from the RWB in 2007 had most likely originated in Louisiana, 38% [23-54] had wintered on Texas Gulf Coast, and 9% [0-20] in Arkansas; the assessment suggested that 89% [73-100] of our 2008 sample had most likely come from Texas Gulf Coast, 9% [0-27] from Louisiana Gulf Coast, and 2% [0-9] from Arkansas. Further segregation of wintering grounds and additional sampling of spring migrating Snow Geese would refine overall assignment and help explain interannual variations in migratory connectivity. The ability to distinguish origins of northbound geese can support the development of spatially-adaptive management strategies for the midcontinent Snow Goose population. Establishing migratory connectivity using isotope assignment techniques can be extended to other waterfowl species to determine critical habitat, evaluate population energy requirements, and inform waterfowl conservation and management

  3. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  4. Organic breeding: New trend in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenji Janoš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic breeding is a new trend in plant breeding aimed at breeding of organic cultivars adapted to conditions and expectations of organic plant production. The best proof for the need of organic cultivars is the existence of interaction between the performances of genotypes with the kind of production (conventional or organic (graph. 1. The adaptation to low-input conditions of organic production by more eddicient uptake and utilization of plant nutrients is especially important for organic cultivars. One of the basic mechanism of weed control in organic production is the competition of organic cultivars and weeds i.e. the enhanced ability of organic cultivars to suppress the weeds. Resistance/tolerance to diseases and pests is among the most important expectations toward the organic cultivars. In comparison with the methods of conventional plant breeding, in case of organic plant breeding limitations exist in choice of methods for creation of variability and selection classified as permitted, conditionally permitted and banned. The use of genetically modified organisms and their derivated along with induced mutations is not permitted in organic production. The use of molecular markers in organic plant breeding is the only permitted modern method of biotechnology. It is not permitted to patent the breeding material of organic plant breeding or the organic cultivars. .

  5. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen; Li, Liang; Han, Chunchun; He, Hua; Xu, Hengyong

    2018-01-01

    Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT), chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1) and growth hormone (GH), expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS), heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA), and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese. PMID:29408859

  6. Transcriptome analysis revealed the possible regulatory pathways initiating female geese broodiness within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehe Liu

    Full Text Available Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese. Expression changes of hypocretin (HCRT and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC in the hypothalamus of nesting geese may cause appetite reduction, which is possibly the first step and a prerequisite to initiate broodiness. In addition to prolactin (PRL, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, genes including oxytocin-neurophysin (OXT, chordin-like protein 1 (CHRDL1 and growth hormone (GH, expressed in the pituitary gland, are new candidate molecules that may be involved in broodiness in geese. Heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 in the pituitary gland, the proto-oncogene c-Fos (FOS, heat shock protein 90-alpha (HSP90AA, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1 in the ovary that may consolidate and transduce signals regulating the HPGA during broodiness in geese.

  7. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of Pink-Footed Geese: 2014 progress summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Madsen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest-management strategy for maintaining the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese (Anser brachyrhynchus) near their agreed target level (60 thousand) by providing for sustainable harvests in Norway and Denmark.  Specifically, this report provides an assessment of the most recent monitoring information and its implications for the harvest management strategy.

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Gr?zner, D?nes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M.; R?nai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivn?k, Veronika; Turcs?nyi, Ibolya; J?nosi, Szil?rd; Gyuranecz, Mikl?s

    2016-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Euro...

  10. The Economic Impact of Globalization in Asia-Pacific - The Case of The Flying Geese

    OpenAIRE

    Christer Ljungwall; Örjan Sjöberg

    2005-01-01

    In Pacific Asia, globalization has resulted in rapidly growing international flows of goods, portfolio capital, and direct investments. At the same time, several countries shift from a command to market economy. Against this background, we analyze the perhaps most popular model used to depict the process of economic integration and development in Pacific Asia, the flying geese pattern of shifting comparative advantage. Our point of departure is that economic and other social processes are bes...

  11. Effects of lead poisoning on various plasma constituents in the Canada goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, G.L.; John, T.M.; McKeown, B.A.; Sileo, L.; George, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Plasma glucose, free fatty acid and uric acid levels were measured in lead-poisoned Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Although plasma glucose levels were only slightly elevated, uric acid was significantly higher and free fatty acids were significantly lower. Altered plasma levels were attributed to increased protein catabolism and renal dysfunction. Plasma level of growth hormone and prolactin was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Growth hormone remained unchanged while prolactin was unusually high. The increased prolactin levels may reflect an effort to stabilize free fatty acids. 30 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  12. The trans-Himalayan flights of bar-headed geese (Anser indicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, L.A.; Balachandran, S.; Batbayar, N.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B.; Milsom, W.K.; Tseveenmyadag, N.; Newman, S.H.; Scott, G.R.; Sathiyaselvam, P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wikelski, M.; Bishop, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Birds that fly over mountain barriers must be capable of meeting the increased energetic cost of climbing in low-density air, even though less oxygen may be available to support their metabolism. This challenge is magnified by the reduction in maximum sustained climbing rates in large birds. Bar-headed geese (Anser indicus) make one of the highest and most iconic transmountain migrations in the world. We show that those populations of geese that winter at sea level in India are capable of passing over the Himalayas in 1 d, typically climbing between 4,000 and 6,000min 7-8 h. Surprisingly, these birds do not rely on the assistance of upslope tailwinds that usually occur during the day and can support minimum climb rates of 0.8-2.2 km??h-1, even in the relative stillness of the night. They appear to strategically avoid higher speed winds during the afternoon, thus maximizing safety and control during flight. It would seem, therefore, that bar-headed geese are capable of sustained climbing flight over the passes of the Himalaya under their own aerobic power.

  13. Long-term memory of hierarchical relationships in free-living greylag geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Brigitte M; Scheiber, Isabella B R

    2013-01-01

    Animals may memorise spatial and social information for many months and even years. Here, we investigated long-term memory of hierarchically ordered relationships, where the position of a reward depended on the relationship of a stimulus relative to other stimuli in the hierarchy. Seventeen greylag geese (Anser anser) had been trained on discriminations between successive pairs of five or seven implicitly ordered colours, where the higher ranking colour in each pair was rewarded. Geese were re-tested on the task 2, 6 and 12 months after learning the dyadic colour relationships. They chose the correct colour above chance at all three points in time, whereby performance was better in colour pairs at the beginning or end of the colour series. Nonetheless, they also performed above chance on internal colour pairs, which is indicative of long-term memory for quantitative differences in associative strength and/or for relational information. There were no indications for a decline in performance over time, indicating that geese may remember dyadic relationships for at least 6 months and probably well over 1 year. Furthermore, performance in the memory task was unrelated to the individuals' sex and their performance while initially learning the dyadic colour relationships. We discuss possible functions of this long-term memory in the social domain.

  14. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jia Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day, whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05 the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.

  15. Lack of detection of host associated differences in Newcastle disease viruses of genotype VIId isolated from chickens and geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuyang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goose is usually considered to be resistant even to strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV that are markedly virulent for chickens. However, ND outbreaks have been frequently reported in goose flocks in China since the late 1990s with the concurrent emergence of genotype VIId NDV in chickens. Although the NDVs isolated from both chickens and geese in the past 15 years have been predominantly VIId viruses, published data comparing goose- and chicken-originated ND viruses are scarce and controversial. Results In this paper, we compared genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens genetically and pathologically. Ten entire genomic sequences and 329 complete coding sequences of individual genes from genotype VIId NDVs of both goose- and chicken-origin were analyzed. We then randomly selected two goose-originated and two chicken-originated VIId NDVs and compared their pathobiology in both geese and chickens in vivo and in vitro with genotype IV virus Herts/33 as a reference. The results showed that all the VIId NDVs either from geese or from chickens shared high sequence homology and characteristic amino acid substitutions and clustered together in phylogenetic trees. In addition, geese and chickens infected by goose or chicken VIId viruses manifested very similar pathological features distinct from those of birds infected with Herts/33. Conclusions There is no genetic or phenotypic difference between genotype VIId NDVs originated from geese and chickens. Therefore, no species-preference exists for either goose or chicken viruses and more attention should be paid to the trans-species transmission of VIId NDVs between geese and chickens for the control and eradication of ND.

  16. Environmental parameters linked to the last migratory stage of barnacle geese en route to their breeding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Najafabadi, M.S.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Exo, Klaus-Michael; Nolet, Bart A.; Griffin, Larry; Stahl, Julia; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Toxopeus, A.G.

    The migration timing of birds can be controlled by endogenous parameters. However, little is known about how environmental parameters influence the timing of migration and which have the greatest influence at different stages of migration. In this study we identified the main environmental

  17. Environmental parameters linked to the last migratory stage of barnacle geese en route to their breeding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shariati Najafabadi, Mitra; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, A.K.; Kölzsch, A.; Exo, K-M.; Nolet, B.A.; Griffin, L.; Stahl, J.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Toxopeus, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    The migration timing of birds can be controlled by endogenous parameters. However, little is known about how environmental parameters influence the timing of migration and which have the greatest influence at different stages of migration. In this study we identified the main environmental

  18. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  19. CASE STUDY: North Africa and Middle East — Breeding better ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research was funded by Canada's International Development Centre .... for minor crops neglected by both private and public plant-breeding programs. ... La réforme du droit de la famille changera la réalité des femmes dans onze pays.

  20. Preliminary studies on the reaction of growing geese (Anser anser f. domestica) to the proximity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, J; Borowski, S; Marć-Pieńkowska, J; Odrowaz-Sypniewska, G; Bernacki, Z; Siódmiak, J; Szterk, P

    2013-01-01

    Wind farms produce electricity without causing air pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, wind turbines are a source of infrasound, which may cause a number of physiological effects, such as an increase in cortisol and catecholamine secretion. The impact of infrasound noise, emitted by wind turbines, on the health of geese and other farm animals has not previously been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of noise, generated by wind turbines, on the stress parameters (cortisol) and the weight gain of geese kept in surrounding areas. The study consisted of 40 individuals of 5-week-old domestic geese Anser anser f domestica, divided into 2 equal groups. The first experimental gaggle (I) remained within 50 m from turbine and the second one (II) within 500 m. During the 12 weeks of the study, noise measurements were also taken. Weight gain and the concentration of cortisol in blood were assessed and significant differences in both cases were found. Geese from gaggle I gained less weight and had a higher concentration of cortisol in blood, compared to individuals from gaggle II. Lower activity and some disturbing changes in behavior of animals from group I were noted. Results of the study suggest a negative effect of the immediate vicinity of a wind turbine on the stress parameters of geese and their productivity.

  1. Tritium breeding in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Key technological problems that influence tritium breeding in fusion blankets are reviewed. The breeding potential of candidate materials is evaluated and compared to the tritium breeding requirements. The sensitivity of tritium breeding to design and nuclear data parameters is reviewed. A framework for an integrated approach to improve tritium breeding prediction is discussed with emphasis on nuclear data requirements

  2. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems - II: slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarıca, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigates the slaughter, carcass and meat quality traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range production systems. 2. The study was conducted with 114 naturally hatched and 102 artificially hatched geese. From each replicate of the intensive and free-range systems, one female and one male goose were slaughtered at the ages of 14, 16 and 18 weeks (a total of 32 geese per slaughter week). 3. Artificially hatched geese had higher slaughter weights (5280 vs. 4404 g), carcass weights (3520 vs. 2863), dressing percentages (66.6-65.2% vs. 65.0-63.6%) and carcass part, feather and edible inner organ weights. The ratio of both edible inner organs and abdominal fat was higher in naturally hatched geese. Breast meat L*, a* and pH values and thigh meat dry matter values were higher in artificially hatched geese, whereas thigh meat b* and pH values were higher in naturally hatched geese. 4. Intensively reared geese had higher slaughter weights (4900 vs. 4783 g), carcass weights (3253 vs. 3130 g) and abdominal fat weights (280 vs. 250 g), as well as higher dressing percentages (66.3-64.9% vs. 65.3-63.9%). Breast meat b* and thigh meat L* values were higher in the intensive system, while breast and thigh pH values, dripping loss and cooking loss were higher in the free-range system. Water-holding capacity was higher in the intensive system. 5. In conclusion, artificially hatched, intensively reared geese had the highest slaughter weights; however, both artificially and naturally hatched geese raised in a free-range system reached acceptable slaughter weights and can thus be recommended for use with this type of production system.

  3. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.

    1984-03-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  4. Tritium breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Johnson, C.E.; Abdou, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tritium breeding materials are essential to the operation of D-T fusion facilities. Both of the present options - solid ceramic breeding materials and liquid metal materials are reviewed with emphasis not only on their attractive features but also on critical materials issues which must be resolved

  5. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  6. Tritium breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.; Billone, M.; Gohar, Y.; Baker, C.; Mori, S.; Kuroda, T.; Maki, K.; Takatsu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Raffray, A.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Simbolotti, G.; Shatalov, G.

    1991-01-01

    The terms of reference for ITER provide for incorporation of a tritium breeding blanket with a breeding ratio as close to unity as practical. A breeding blanket is required to assure an adequate supply of tritium to meet the program objectives. Based on specified design criteria, a ceramic breeder concept with water coolant and an austenitic steel structure has been selected as the first option and lithium-lead blanket concept has been chosen as an alternate option. The first wall, blanket, and shield are integrated into a single unit with separate cooling systems. The design makes extensive use of beryllium to enhance the tritium breeding ratio. The design goals with a tritium breeding ratio of 0.8--0.9 have been achieved and the R ampersand D requirements to qualify the design have been identified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Production traits of artificially and naturally hatched geese in intensive and free-range systems: I. Growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, M A; Sarica, M; Yamak, U S

    2017-04-01

    1. This study investigated the effect of incubation type and production system on geese growth traits. 2. A total of 216 geese were either naturally (114) or artificially (102) hatched and reared in intensive or free-range production systems (4 replicates each) until 18 weeks of age. 3. Weights of naturally hatched goslings (NHG) were significantly higher than artificially hatched goslings (AHG) at 2 weeks (644 vs. 536 g); however, weights of AHG were significantly higher than NHG at both 6 weeks (3245 vs. 3010 g) and 18 weeks (5212 vs. 4353 g). 4. AHG had better feed conversion ratios (FCRs) than NHG (6.21 vs. 6.46 at 18 weeks). Feed consumption of naturally hatched geese was found higher in first 4 weeks when compared to artificially hatched geese and artificially hatched geese consumed more feed than naturally hatched geese after 8 weeks. 5. Production system had insignificant effects on feed consumption, FCRs, viability and mutilation rates. 6. Slipped wings were more frequent in NHG than AHG (8.32% vs. 1.68% at 6 weeks; 23.84% vs. 5.12% between 7 and 18 weeks) and in free-range production when compared to intensive production (17.88% vs. 11.08% over the course of the production period). 7. The study results indicate that both artificially and NHG can be reared in free-range production systems without any loss in performance and in deference to animal welfare.

  8. OAZ1 knockdown enhances viability and inhibits ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kang

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies suggest that ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1 (OAZ1, which is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene, regulates follicular development, ovulation, and steroidogenesis. The granulosa cells in the ovary play a critical role in these ovarian functions. However, the action of OAZ1 mediating physiological functions of granulosa cells is obscure. OAZ1 knockdown in granulosa cells of geese was carried out in the current study. The effect of OAZ1 knockdown on polyamine metabolism, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and hormone receptor transcription of primary granulosa cells in geese was measured. The viability of granulosa cells transfected with the shRNA OAZ1 at 48 h was significantly higher than the control (p<0.05. The level of putrescine and spermidine in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 was 7.04- and 2.11- fold higher compared with the control, respectively (p<0.05. The CCND1, SMAD1, and BCL-2 mRNA expression levels in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 were each significantly higher than the control, respectively (p<0.05, whereas the PCNA and CASPASE 3 expression levels were significantly lower than the control (p<0.05. The estradiol concentration, ER and LHR mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in granulosa cells down-regulating OAZ1 compared with the control (p<0.05. Taken together, our results indicated that OAZ1 knockdown elevated the putrescine and spermidine contents and enhanced granulosa cell viability and inhibited ER and LHR transcriptions of granulosa cells in geese.

  9. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  10. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual

  11. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  12. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmberg, Johan; Berg, Charlotte; Lerner, Henrik; Waldenström, Jonas; Hessel, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    There are more herbivorous waterfowl (swans and geese) close to humans, livestock and poultry than ever before. This creates widespread conflict with agriculture and other human interests, but also debate about the role of swans and geese as potential vectors of disease of relevance for human and animal health. Using a One Health perspective, we provide the first comprehensive review of the scientific literature about the most relevant viral, bacterial, and unicellular pathogens occurring in wild geese and swans. Research thus far suggests that these birds may play a role in transmission of avian influenza virus, Salmonella, Campylobacter , and antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, at present there is no evidence that geese and swans play a role in transmission of Newcastle disease, duck plague, West Nile virus, Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium, Chlamydophila , and Borrelia . Finally, based on present knowledge it is not possible to say if geese and swans play a role in transmission of Escherichia coli, Pasteurella, Helicobacter, Brachyspira, Cryptosporidium, Giardia , and Microsporidia. This is largely due to changes in classification and taxonomy, rapid development of identification methods and lack of knowledge about host specificity. Previous research tends to overrate the role of geese and swans as disease vectors; we do not find any evidence that they are significant transmitters to humans or livestock of any of the pathogens considered in this review. Nevertheless, it is wise to keep poultry and livestock separated from small volume waters used by many wild waterfowl, but there is no need to discourage livestock grazing in nature reserves or pastures where geese and swans are present. Under some circumstances it is warranted to discourage swans and geese from using wastewater ponds, drinking water reservoirs, and public beaches. Intensified screening of swans and geese for AIV, West Nile virus and anatid herpesvirus is warranted.

  13. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  14. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  15. Behavioral correlates of heart rates of free-living Greater White-fronted Geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Ward, D.H.; Bollinger, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    We simultaneously monitored the heart rate and behavior of nine free-living Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons) on their wintering grounds in northern California. Heart rates of wild geese were monitored via abdominally-implanted radio transmitters with electrodes that received electrical impulses of the heart and emitted a radio signal with each ventricular contraction. Post-operative birds appeared to behave normally, readily rejoining flocks and flying up to 15 km daily from night-time roost sites to feed in surrounding agricultural fields. Heart rates varied significantly among individuals and among behaviors, and ranged from less than 100 beats per minute (BPM) during resting, to over 400 BPM during flight. Heart rates varied from 80 to 140 BPM during non-strenuous activities such as walking, feeding, and maintenance activities, to about 180 BPM when birds became alert, and over 400 BPM when birds were startled, even if they did not take flight. Postflight heart rate recovery time averaged postures, as heart rates were context-dependent, and were highest in initial encounters among individuals. Instantaneous measures of physiological parameters, such as heart rate, are often better indicators of the degree of response to external stimuli than visual observations and can be used to improve estimates of energy expenditure based solely on activity data.

  16. Prevalence, transmission, and genetic diversity of blood parasites infecting tundra-nesting geese in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reed, John A.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Fondell, Tom F.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Terenzi, John; Ely, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 842 blood samples collected from five species of tundra-nesting geese in Alaska was screened for haemosporidian parasites using molecular techniques. Parasites of the generaLeucocytozoon Danilewsky, 1890, Haemoproteus Kruse, 1890, and Plasmodium Marchiafava and Celli, 1885 were detected in 169 (20%), 3 (parasites and assess variation relative to species, age, sex, geographic area, year, and decade. Species, age, and decade were identified as important in explaining differences in prevalence of Leucocytozoonparasites. Leucocytozoon parasites were detected in goslings sampled along the Arctic Coastal Plain using both historic and contemporary samples, which provided support for transmission in the North American Arctic. In contrast, lack of detection of Haemoproteus and Plasmodiumparasites in goslings (n = 238) provided evidence to suggest that the transmission of parasites of these genera may not occur among waterfowl using tundra habitats in Alaska, or alternatively, may only occur at low levels. Five haemosporidian genetic lineages shared among different species of geese sampled from two geographic areas were indicative of interspecies parasite transmission and supported broad parasite or vector distributions. However, identicalLeucocytozoon and Haemoproteus lineages on public databases were limited to waterfowl hosts suggesting constraints in the range of parasite hosts.

  17. The relative importance of food biomass and quality for patch and habitat choice in Brent Geese Branta bernicla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, D; Drent, RH; Rubinigg, M; Stahl, J

    2005-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of food biomass and food quality for habitat preference in Brent Geese Branta bernicla by expefimentally manipulating forage parameters. Levels of biomass and ford quality (nitrogen content) were independently enhanced in plots of 2 x 6 m by temporary exclusion

  18. Analysis of population development and effectiveness of mnagement in resident greylag geese Anser anser in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, T.C.; Turnhout, van C.; Willems, F.; Voslamber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The resident Greylag goose population in the Netherlands has strongly increased in number which led to conflict with agricultural interests, public concern on goose hunting and legal debate on the need to regulate geese. Such a debate can be facilitated by insight in population development and the

  19. Constrained by available raptor hosts and islands : density-dependent reproductive success in red-breasted geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prop, J; Quinn, JL

    In this paper we aim to explain the distribution of red-breasted geese Branta ruficollis over different nesting habitats. To be safe from land predators red-breasted goose colonies were restricted to i) islands on rivers, ii) cliffs with peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus, and iii) the close

  20. Patterns of ovarian and luteal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry V. Fanson; Nadja C. Wielebnowski; Tanya M. Shenk; Jennifer H. Vashon; John R. Squires; Jeffrey R. Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Canada lynx face some unique breeding restrictions, which may have implications for population viability and captive management. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of basic reproductive physiology in Canada lynx. Using fecal hormone metabolite analysis, we established normative patterns of fecal estrogen (fE) and progestagen (fP)...

  1. Environmental conditions during breeding modify the strength of mass-dependent carry-over effects in a migratory bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier A Harrison

    Full Text Available In many animals, processes occurring in one season carry over to influence reproductive success and survival in future seasons. The strength of such carry-over effects is unlikely to be uniform across years, yet our understanding of the processes that are capable of modifying their strength remains limited. Here we show that female light-bellied Brent geese with higher body mass prior to spring migration successfully reared more offspring during breeding, but only in years where environmental conditions during breeding were favourable. In years of bad weather during breeding, all birds suffered reduced reproductive output irrespective of pre-migration mass. Our results suggest that the magnitude of reproductive benefits gained by maximising body stores to fuel breeding fluctuates markedly among years in concert with conditions during the breeding season, as does the degree to which carry-over effects are capable of driving variance in reproductive success among individuals. Therefore while carry-over effects have considerable power to drive fitness asymmetries among individuals, our ability to interpret these effects in terms of their implications for population dynamics is dependent on knowledge of fitness determinants occurring in subsequent seasons. 

  2. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  3. Hepatic microsomal metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 by lesser snow geese and Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lisa K; Szeitz, András; Bandiera, Stelvio M

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the oxidative biotransformation of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) by liver microsomes from wild lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Formation of hydroxy-metabolites was analyzed using an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method. Incubation of BDE-47 with avian liver microsomes produced sixteen hydroxy-metabolites, eight of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by liver microsomes from individual lesser snow geese were 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-42), 3-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (3-OH-BDE-47), and 4'-hydroxy-2,2',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (4'-OH-BDE-49). By comparison, 4-OH-BDE-42 and 4'-OH-BDE-49, but not 3-OH-BDE-47, were major metabolites of Japanese quail liver microsomes. Unidentified metabolites included monohydroxy- and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Incubation of BDE-99 with avian liver microsomes produced seventeen hydroxy-metabolites, twelve of which were identified using authentic standards. The major metabolites formed by lesser snow goose liver microsomes were 2,4,5-tribromophenol, 3-OH-BDE-47, 4'-OH-BDE-49, 4-hydroxy-2,2',3,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (4-OH-BDE-90), and 5'-hydroxy-2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (5'-OH-BDE-99). By comparison, the major metabolites produced by liver microsomes from Japanese quail included 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE-47) and 2-hydroxy-2',3,4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (2-OH-BDE-123), but not 3-OH-BDE-47. Unidentified metabolites consisted of monohydroxy-pentabromodiphenyl ethers, monohydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers and dihydroxy-tetrabromodiphenyl ethers. Another difference between the two species was that formation rates of BDE-47 and BDE-99 metabolites were greater with liver

  4. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  5. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    However, to solve the simultaneous equations the ... The aggregate breeding value represents a fundamental concept, the breeding objective, which is ..... Two properties characterise a linear programming problem. The first is additivity, ...

  6. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  7. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  8. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great

  9. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental chang...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  10. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  11. Mutation breeding in mangosteen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khalid Mohd Zain

    2002-01-01

    Mangosteen the queen of the tropical fruits is apomitic and only a cultivar is reported and it reproduces asexually. Conventional breeding is not possible and the other methods to create variabilities are through genetic engineering and mutation breeding. The former technique is still in the infantry stage in mangosteen research while the latter has been an established tool in breeding to improve cultivars. In this mutation breeding seeds of mangosteen were irradiated using gamma rays and the LD 50 for mangosteen was determined and noted to be very low at 10 Gy. After sowing in the seedbed, the seedlings were transplanted in polybags and observed in the nursery bed for about one year before planted in the field under old oil palm trees in Station MARDI, Kluang. After evaluation and screening, about 120 mutant mangosteen plants were selected and planted in Kluang. The plants were observed and some growth data taken. There were some mutant plants that have good growth vigour and more vigorous that the control plants. The trial are now in the fourth year and the plants are still in the juvenile stage. (Author)

  12. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  14. Experimental infection of swans and geese with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) of Asian lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin D; Stallknecht, David E; Swayne, David E

    2008-01-01

    The role of wild birds in the epidemiology of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus subtype H5N1 epizootic and their contribution to the spread of the responsible viruses in Eurasia and Africa are unclear. To better understand the potential role of swans and geese in the epidemiology of this virus, we infected 4 species of swans and 2 species of geese with an HPAI virus of Asian lineage recovered from a whooper swan in Mongolia in 2005, A/whooper swan/Mongolia/244/2005 (H5N1). The highest mortality rates were observed in swans, and species-related differences in clinical illness and viral shedding were evident. These results suggest that the potential for HPAI (H5N1) viral shedding and the movement of infected birds may be species-dependent and can help explain observed deaths associated with HPAI (H5N1) infection in anseriforms in Eurasia.

  15. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  16. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  17. Toxoplasma gondii antibody prevalence and two new genotypes of the parasite in endangered Hawaiian Geese (nene: Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Verma, Shiv K.; Su, Chunlei; Medeiros, John; Kaiakapu, Thomas; Kwok, Oliver C.; Dubey, Jitender P.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite transmitted by domestic cats (Felis catus) that has historically caused mortality in native Hawaiian birds. To estimate how widespread exposure to the parasite is in nene (Hawaiian Geese, Branta sandvicensis), we did a serologic survey for T. gondii antibody and genetically characterized parasite DNA from the tissues of dead birds that had confirmed infections by immunohistochemistry. Of 94 geese sampled, prevalence on the island of Kauai, Maui, and Molokai was 21% (n=42), 23% (n=31), and 48% (n=21), respectively. Two new T. gondii genotypes were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism from four geese, and these appeared segregated geographically. Exposure to T. gondii in wild nene is widespread and, while the parasite is not a major cause of death, it could have sublethal or behavioral effects. How to translate such information to implement effective ways to manage feral cats in Hawaii poses challenges.

  18. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  19. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  20. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as Primary Blanket Materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and Secondary Blanket Materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified

  1. Materials for breeding blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    There are several candidate concepts for tritium breeding blankets that make use of a number of special materials. These materials can be classified as primary blanket materials, which have the greatest influence in determining the overall design and performance, and secondary blanket materials, which have key functions in the operation of the blanket but are less important in establishing the overall design and performance. The issues associated with the blanket materials are specified and several examples of materials performance are given. Critical data needs are identified. (orig.)

  2. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. The influence of coyotes on an urban Canada goose population in the Chicago metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Justin L.; /Ohio State U.

    2007-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have become common in many urban areas, often creating nuisance problems for human residents. The presence of urban geese has raised concerns about the spread of disease, increased erosion, excessive noise, eutrophication of waterways, and general nuisance problems. Goose populations have grown due to an increase in urbanization resulting in an abundance of high quality food (urban grass) and suitable nesting sites, as well as a decrease in some predators. I monitored nest predation in the Chicago suburbs during the 2004 and 2005 nesting seasons using 3 nest monitoring techniques to identify predators: video cameras, plasticine eggs, and sign from nest using a classification tree analysis. Of 58 nests monitored in 2004 and 286 in 2005, only raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) were identified as nest predators. Raccoons were responsible for 22-25% of depredated nests, but were rarely capable of depredating nests that were actively defended by a goose. Coyotes were responsible for 75-78% of all Canada goose nest depredation and were documented killing one adult goose and feeding on several others. The coyote is a top-level predator that had increased in many metropolitan areas in recent years. To determine if coyotes were actively hunting geese or eggs during the nesting season, I analyzed coyote habitat selection between nesting and pre-nesting or post-nesting seasons. Coyote home ranges (95% Minimum Convex Polygon) were calculated for 19 coyotes to examine third order habitat selection related to goose nest abundance. A 100 m buffer (buffer habitat) was created and centered on each waterway edge and contained 90% of all nests. Coyotes showed selection for habitats during all seasons. Buffer habitat was the top ranked habitat in both pre-nesting and nesting seasons, but dropped to third ranked in post-nesting season. Habitat selection across seasons was compared using a repeated measures MANOVA. Habitat selection

  4. Radiation mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected

  5. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  6. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blasco

    2008-01-01

    Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries) and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selec...

  7. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  8. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  9. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  10. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  11. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  12. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter includes articles dealing with radiation induced mutation based plant breeding research findings aimed at improving productivity, disease resistance and tolerance of stress conditions

  14. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  15. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  16. Textbook animal breeding : animal breeding andgenetics for BSc students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, Kor; Waaij, van der Liesbeth

    2014-01-01

    This textbook contains teaching material on animal breeding and genetics for BSc students. The text book started as an initiative of the Dutch Universities for Applied (Agricultural) Sciences. The textbook is made available by the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre (ABGC) of Wageningen UR

  17. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Over-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Greenhouse Effect has fuzzy parameters, as do the consequences of acid rain, accidental nuclear fallout, deforestation, even the depletion of oil and natural gas reserves, and other threatening calamities. But the consequences of human over-breeding do not fall within fuzzy parameters. Reliable demographic studies predict a world population by the year 2020 of twice the present four billion or so living human beings. Some of us will see that year. But the population will again have doubled by the year 2090: sixteen billion people. The author suggests in this paper some morally permissible steps that might be taken to circumvent what otherwise is most assuredly an impending world tragedy. We have an ethical obligation to future generations. They have the moral right to a qualitatively fulfilling life, not just on allotted number of years. Some of my suggestions will not be palatable to some readers. But I urge those readers seriously to consider and if possible, hopefully, to propose alternatives

  19. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  20. Using body mass dynamics to examine long-term habitat shifts of arctic-molting geese: Evidence for ecological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyler L.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Taylor, Eric J.; Bollinger, Karen S.

    2011-01-01

    From 1976 onward, molting brant geese (Branta bernicla) within the Teshekpuk Lake Special Area, Alaska, shifted from inland, freshwater lakes toward coastal wetlands. Two hypotheses explained this redistribution: (1) ecological change: redistribution of molting brant reflects improvements in coastal foraging habitats, which have undergone a succession toward salt-tolerant plants due to increased coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion as induced by climate change or (2) interspecific competition: greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) populations increased 12-fold at inland lakes, limiting food availability and forcing brant into coastal habitats. Both hypotheses presume that brant redistributions were driven by food availability; thus, body mass dynamics may provide insight into the relevance of these hypotheses. We compared body mass dynamics of molting brant across decades (1978, 1987–1992, 2005–2007) and, during 2005–2007, across habitats (coastal vs. inland). Brant lost body mass during molt in all three decades. At inland habitats, rates of mass loss progressively decreased by decade despite the increased number of greater white-fronted geese. These results do not support an interspecific competition hypothesis, instead suggesting that ecological change enhanced foraging habitats for brant. During 2005–2007, rates of mass loss did not vary by habitat. Thus, while habitats have improved from earlier decades, our results cannot distinguish between ecological changes at inland versus coastal habitats. However, we speculate that coastal forage quality has improved beyond that of inland habitats and that the body mass benefits of these higher quality foods are offset by the disproportionate number of brant now molting coastally.

  1. ROOT VEGETABLES, BREEDING TRENDS, RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of root vegetables is their unique specificity and high economic importance. The benefits and medicinal properties of root vegetables being highly demanded by the market requirements to the commodity are highlighted in the article. The main directions of breeding program for root vegetable crops, including species of Apiaceae family with carrot, parsnips; Chenopodioideae family with red beet; Brassicaceae family with radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga. Initial breeding accessions of carrot, red beet, radish, Daikon, Raphanus sativus L. var. lobo Sazonova & Stank, turnip and rutabaga have been selected out to be used for breeding program for heterosis. The mf and ms breeding lines were developed, and with the use of them the new gene pool was created. Variety supporting breeding program and methods were also proposed. 

  2. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  3. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  4. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  5. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  7. Estimates of Avian Mortality Attributed to Vehicle Collisions in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. Bishop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although mortality of birds from collisions with vehicles is estimated to be in the millions in the USA, Europe, and the UK, to date, no estimates exist for Canada. To address this, we calculated an estimate of annual avian mortality attributed to vehicular collisions during the breeding and fledging season, in Canadian ecozones, by applying North American literature values for avian mortality to Canadian road networks. Because owls are particularly susceptible to collisions with vehicles, we also estimated the number of roadkilled Barn owls (Tyto alba in its last remaining range within Canada. (This species is on the IUCN red list and is also listed federally as threatened; Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada 2010, International Union for the Conservation of Nature 2012. Through seven Canadian studies in existence, 80 species and 2,834 specimens have been found dead on roads representing species from 14 orders of birds. On Canadian 1 and 2-lane paved roads outside of major urban centers, the unadjusted number of bird mortalities/yr during an estimated 4-mo (122-d breeding and fledging season for most birds in Canada was 4,650,137 on roads traversing through deciduous, coniferous, cropland, wetlands and nonagricultural landscapes with less than 10% treed area. On average, this represents 1,167 birds killed/100 km in Canada. Adjusted for scavenging, this estimate was 13,810,906 (3,462 dead birds/100 km. For barn owls, the unadjusted number of birds killed annually on 4-lane roads during the breeding and fledging season, within the species geographic range in southern British Columbia, was estimated as 244 owls and, when adjusted for scavenging and observer bias (3.6 factor, the total was 851 owls.

  8. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchesne, J.-F.; Levesque, B.; Gauvin, Denis; Braune, Birgit; Gingras, Suzanne; Dewailly, E.

    2004-01-01

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  9. Development of an adaptive harvest management program for Taiga bean geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Alhainen, Mikko; Fox, Anthony D.; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    This report describes recent progress in specifying the elements of an adaptive harvest program for taiga bean goose. It describes harvest levels appropriate for first rebuilding the population of the Central Management Unit and then maintaining it near the goal specified in the AEWA International Single Species Action Plan (ISSAP). This report also provides estimates of the length of time it would take under ideal conditions (no density dependence and no harvest) to rebuild depleted populations in the Western and Eastern Management Units. We emphasize that our estimates are a first approximation because detailed demographic information is lacking for taiga bean geese. Using allometric relationships, we estimated parameters of a thetalogistic matrix population model. The mean intrinsic rate of growth was estimated as r = 0.150 (90% credible interval: 0.120 – 0.182). We estimated the mean form of density dependence as   2.361 (90% credible interval: 0.473 – 11.778), suggesting the strongest density dependence occurs when the population is near its carrying capacity. Based on expert opinion, carrying capacity (i.e., population size expected in the absence of hunting) for the Central Management Unit was estimated as K  87,900 (90% credible interval: 82,000 – 94,100). The ISSAP specifies a population goal for the Central Management Unit of 60,000 – 80,000 individuals in winter; thus, we specified a preliminary objective function as one which would minimize the difference between this goal and population size. Using the concept of stochastic dominance to explicitly account for uncertainty in demography, we determined that optimal harvest rates for 5, 10, 15, and 20-year time horizons were h = 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, and 0.06, respectively. These optima represent a tradeoff between the harvest rate and the time required to achieve and maintain a population size within desired bounds. We recognize, however, that regulation of absolute harvest rather than

  10. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  11. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  12. Relative effects of survival and reproduction on the population dynamics of emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Rockwell, Robert F.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    1997-01-01

    Populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska declined sometime between the mid-1960s and the mid-1980s and have increased little since. To promote recovery of this species to former levels, managers need to know how much their perturbations of survival and/or reproduction would affect population growth rate (λ). We constructed an individual-based population model to evaluate the relative effect of altering mean values of various survival and reproductive parameters on λ and fall age structure (AS, defined as the proportion of juv), assuming additive rather than compensatory relations among parameters. Altering survival of adults had markedly greater relative effects on λ than did equally proportionate changes in either juvenile survival or reproductive parameters. We found the opposite pattern for relative effects on AS. Due to concerns about bias in the initial parameter estimates used in our model, we used 5 additional sets of parameter estimates with this model structure. We found that estimates of survival based on aerial survey data gathered each fall resulted in models that corresponded more closely to independent estimates of λ than did models that used mark-recapture estimates of survival. This disparity suggests that mark-recapture estimates of survival are biased low. To further explore how parameter estimates affected estimates of λ, we used values of survival and reproduction found in other goose species, and we examined the effect of an hypothesized correlation between an individual's clutch size and the subsequent survival of her young. The rank order of parameters in their relative effects on λ was consistent for all 6 parameter sets we examined. The observed variation in relative effects on λ among the 6 parameter sets is indicative of how relative effects on λ may vary among goose populations. With this knowledge of the relative effects of survival and reproductive parameters on λ, managers can make more informed decisions about

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Mycoplasma sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grózner, Dénes; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Sulyok, Kinga M; Rónai, Zsuzsanna; Hrivnák, Veronika; Turcsányi, Ibolya; Jánosi, Szilárd; Gyuranecz, Miklós

    2016-08-19

    Mycoplasma sp. 1220 can induce inflammation primarily in the genital and respiratory tracts of waterfowl, leading to serious economic losses. Adequate housing and appropriate antibiotic treatment are promoted in the control of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to thirteen different antibiotics and an antibiotic combination of thirty-eight M. sp. 1220 strains isolated from geese and a duck in several parts of Hungary, Central Europe between 2011 and 2015. High MIC50 values were observed in the cases of tilmicosin (>64 μg/ml), oxytetracycline (64 μg/ml), norfloxacin (>10 μg/ml) and difloxacin (10 μg/ml). The examined strains yielded the same MIC50 values with spectinomycin, tylosin and florfenicol (8 μg/ml), while enrofloxacin (MIC50 5 μg/ml), doxycycline (MIC50 5 μg/ml), lincomycin (MIC50 4 μg/ml) and lincomycin-spectinomycin (1:2) combination (MIC50 4 μg/ml) inhibited the growth of the bacteria with lower concentrations. Tylvalosin (MIC50 0.5 μg/ml) and two pleuromutilins (tiamulin MIC50 0.625 μg/ml; valnemulin MIC50 ≤ 0.039 μg/ml) were found to be the most effective drugs against M. sp. 1220. However, strains with elevated MIC values were detected for all applied antibiotics. Valnemulin, tiamulin and tylvalosin were found to be the most effective antibiotics in the study. Increasing resistance was observed in the cases of several antibiotics. The results highlight the importance of testing Mycoplasma species for antibiotic susceptibility before therapy.

  14. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. The most widely known characteristic of chickpea is that it is an important vegetable protein source used in human and animal nutrition. However, the dry grains of chickpea, has 2-3 times more protein than our traditional food of wheat. In addition, cheakpea is also energy source because of its high carbohydrate content. It is very rich in some vitamin and mineral basis. In the plant breeding, mutation induction has become an effective way of supplementing existing germplasm and improving cultivars. Many successful examples of mutation induction have proved that mutation breeding is an effective and important approach to food legume improvement. The induced mutation technique in chickpea has proved successful and good results have been attained. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parents varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 (9 % seed moisture content and germination percentage 98 %) in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 500 ve 600 Gy for greenhouse experiments and 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 ve 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. One thousand seeds for per treatment were sown in the field for the M 1 . At maturity, 3500 single plants were harvested and 20 seeds were taken from each M 1 plant and planted in the following season. During plant growth

  15. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  16. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  17. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  18. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  19. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  20. Mutation breeding in jute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshua, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Mutagenic studies in jute in general dealt with the morphological abnormalities of the M 1 generation in great detail. Of late, induction of a wide spectrum of viable mutations have been reported in different varieties of both the species. Mutations affecting several traits of agronomic importance such as, plant height, time of flowering, fibre yield and quality, resistance to pests and diseases are also available. Cytological analysis of a large collection of induced mutants resulted in the isolation of seven trisomics in an olitorius variety. Several anatomical parameters which are the components of fibre yield, have also received attention. Some mutants with completely altered morphology were used for interpreting the evolution of leaf shape in Tiliaceas and related families. A capsularis variety developed using mutation breeding technique has been released for cultivation. Several others, including derivatives of inter-mutant hybridization have been found to perform well at different locations in the All India Coordinated Trials. Presently, chemical mutagenesis and induction of mutants of physiological significance are receiving considerable attention. The induced variability is being used in genetic and linkage studies. (author)

  1. Mutation breeding in chickpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, Z.; Tutluer, M. I.; Peskircioglu, H.; Kantoglu, Y.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume in Turkey. Turkey is one of the most important gene centers in the world for legumes. Realizing the potential of induced mutations, a mutation breeding programme was initiated at the Nuclear Agriculture Section of the Saraykoy Nuclear Research and Training Center in 1994. The purpose of the study was to obtain high yielding chickpea mutants with large seeds, good cooking quality and high protein content. Beside this some characters such as higher adaptation ability, tolerant to cold and drought, increased machinery harvest type, higher yield, resistant to diseases especially to antracnose and pest were investigated too. Parent varieties were ILC-482, AK-7114 and AKCIN-91 had been used in these experiments. The irradiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy for field experiments, respectively. As a result of these experiments, two promising mutant lines were chosen and given to the Seed Registration and Certification Center for official registration These two promising mutants were tested at five different locations of Turkey, in 2004 and 2005 years. After 2 years of registration experiments one of outstanding mutants was officially released as mutant chickpea variety under the name TAEK-SAGEL, in 2006. Some basic characteristics of this mutant are; earliness (95-100 day), high yield capacity (180-220 kg/da), high seed protein (22-25 %), first pot height (20-25 cm), 100 seeds weight (42-48 g), cooking time (35-40 min) and resistance to Ascochyta blight.

  2. Immunopotentiators Improve the Efficacy of Oil-Emulsion-Inactivated Avian Influenza Vaccine in Chickens, Ducks and Geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihu Lu

    Full Text Available Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.

  3. Philopatry in a changing world: Response of Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus to the loss of a key autumn staging area due to restoration of Filsø Lake, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin; Madsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to the sudden loss of a major autumn staging area along their migration corridor, Filsø in Denmark, which followed the re-establishment of a former lake on open arable land serving as foraging site to tens of thousands of geese. Comparisons of goose usage before and after the restoration event revealed that 1...... philopatric to the Filsø area was unaffected by these changes, suggesting that geese quickly moved to other areas and responded well to the sudden decline in available food at their formerly preferred staging site. These findings indicate that at least for Pink-footed Geese the cognitive plasticity necessary...

  4. Adoption as a gosling strategy to obtain better parental care? Experimental evidence for gosling choice and age-dependency of adoption in greylag geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, E; van der Aa, P; Komdeur, J

    2005-01-01

    Adoptions of unrelated young by successful breeders are a form of alloparental care which has been observed in many species of geese. Depending on costs and benefits to the parents, adoptions might represent an inter-generational conflict ora mutually beneficial strategy. Although most studies of

  5. Site use by dark-bellied brent geese Branta bernicla bernicla on the Russian tundra as recorded by satellite telemetry: implications for East Atlantic flyway conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M.; Alerstam, T.; Clausen, P.; Drent, R.; Ebbinge, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, seven dark-bellied brent geese Branta bemicla bemicla were followed during spring migration from western Europe to Arctic Russia using satellite telemetry. For six of the birds we were also able to monitor their summer stay at the Taimyr Peninsula, and for five birds part of their autumn

  6. Abundance of migratory and wintering geese in relation to vegetation succession in man-made wetlands : the effects of grazing regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vulink, J. Theo; van Eerden, Mennobart R.; Drent, Rudi H.

    2010-01-01

    The man-made wetlands in young polders in The Netherlands are important stopover and wintering sites for geese. We studied trends in vegetation composition and goose density in two study areas. One was located in a nature reserve situated in a polder reclaimed from an estuary, the other in a reserve

  7. Site use by dark-bellied brent geese Branta bernicla bernicla on the Russian tundra as recorded by satellite telemetry : implications for East Atlantic Flyway conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, M; Alerstam, T; Clausen, P; Drent, R; Ebbinge, BS

    In 1999, seven dark-bellied brent geese Branta bemicla bemicla were followed during spring migration from western Europe to Arctic Russia using satellite telemetry. For six of the birds we were also able to monitor their summer stay at the Taymyr Peninsula, and for five birds part of their autumn

  8. Foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances of East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota in their spring staging areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Clausen, Preben; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2013-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite telemetry was used to determine the foraging range, habitat use and minimum flight distances for individual East Atlantic Light-bellied Brent Geese Branta bernicla hrota at two spring staging areas in Denmark. Foraging ranges (mean ± s.d. = 53.0 ± 23.4 km...

  9. Habitat use of barnacle geese at a subarctic salt marsh in the Kolokolkova Bay, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, AJ; Lavrinenko, OV; Elsakov, [No Value; van Eerden, MR; Stahl, J

    2004-01-01

    Along the east Atlantic migratory flyway, goose and swan species rely on the availability of suitable coastal habitats as staging sites during migration and for breeding. Especially for the Russian part of the flyway, detailed descriptions of these habitats in relation to use by herbivores are

  10. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation Breeding Newsletter. No. 37

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter contains a brief account of FAO/IAEA meetings held in 1990 on plant breeding involving the use of induced mutations. It also features a list of commercially available plant cultivars produced by such techniques. Refs and tabs

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-05-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  6. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-08-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents abstracts and short communications of research results on radiation and chemical induced mutation breeding projects. Positive traits such as disease resistance and increased productivity are highlighted

  14. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  4. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  5. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  6. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  7. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  8. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  9. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  10. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-10-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  11. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  12. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  13. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and research abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  14. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  15. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants.

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents reports and rea search abstracts on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  18. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  19. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  20. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    This issue of the Newsletter presents new reports on mutation breeding programs using radiation or chemical mutagenesis to improve productivity, introduce disease resistance or induce morphological changes in crop plants

  2. Mutation breeding in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A T; Menten, J O.M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil); Ando, A

    1980-03-01

    How mutation induction is used for plant breeding in Brazil is reported. For upland rice, the combined treatment with gamma-ray and mutagens (ethylene imine or ethylmethane sulfonate) has been used on the variety, Dourado Precoce, and some mutants with shortculm length and/or earliness without altering the productivity have been obtained. A project on the quantitative and qualitative protein improvement in upland rice was also started in 1979. In corn, the effect of gamma-irradiation on heterosis has been analyzed, and it was found that the single hybrids from two parental lines derived from irradiated seeds had increased ear productivity. For beans (Phaseolus yulgaris), gamma-irradiation and chemical mutagens have been used to induce the mutants with different seed color, disease resistance to golden mosaic virus and Xanthomonas phaseoli, earliness, high productivity and high protein content. Some mutants with partly improved characters have been obtained in these experiments. Two varieties of wheat tolerant to aluminum toxicity have been obtained, but the one showed high lodging due to its unfavorable plant height, and the other was highly susceptible to culm rust. Therefore, irradiation experiments have been started to improve these characters. The projects involving the use of gamma-irradiation have been tested to obtain the mutant lines insensitive to photoperiod and resistant to bud-blight in soybean, the mutant lines resistant to mosaic virus in papaya, the photoperiod-insensitive mutants in sorghum, the mosaic virus resistant and non-flowering mutants in sugar cane, and the Fusarium and nematode-resistant mutants in black pepper.

  3. Foraging Habitat and Chick Diets of Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii, Breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. Rock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding seabirds are threatened by human activities that affect nesting and foraging habitat. In Canada, one of the seabirds most at risk of extirpation is the Roseate Tern, Sterna dougallii. Although critical nesting habitat has been identified for the Roseate Tern in Canada, its foraging locations and the diet of its chicks are unknown. Therefore, our goal was to determine the foraging locations and diet of chicks of Roseate Tern breeding on Country Island, Nova Scotia, which is one of Canada's two main breeding colonies. In 2003 and 2004, we radio-tracked the Roseate Tern by plane to locate foraging areas and conducted feeding watches to determine the diet of chicks. Roseate Tern foraged approximately 7 km from the breeding colony over shallow water < 5 m deep. In both years, sand lance, Ammodytes spp., was the most common prey item delivered to chicks, followed by hake, Urophycis spp. Our results are consistent with previous work at colonies in the northeastern United States, suggesting that throughout its range, this species may be restricted in both habitat use and prey selection. The reliance on a specific habitat type and narrow range of prey species makes the Roseate Tern generally susceptible to habitat perturbations and reductions in the availability of prey.

  4. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga B, P.

    1984-01-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented. (Author)

  5. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  6. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  7. Efficient Breeding by Genomic Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Deniz; Sánchez, Julio I

    2016-01-01

    Selection in breeding programs can be done by using phenotypes (phenotypic selection), pedigree relationship (breeding value selection) or molecular markers (marker assisted selection or genomic selection). All these methods are based on truncation selection, focusing on the best performance of parents before mating. In this article we proposed an approach to breeding, named genomic mating, which focuses on mating instead of truncation selection. Genomic mating uses information in a similar fashion to genomic selection but includes information on complementation of parents to be mated. Following the efficiency frontier surface, genomic mating uses concepts of estimated breeding values, risk (usefulness) and coefficient of ancestry to optimize mating between parents. We used a genetic algorithm to find solutions to this optimization problem and the results from our simulations comparing genomic selection, phenotypic selection and the mating approach indicate that current approach for breeding complex traits is more favorable than phenotypic and genomic selection. Genomic mating is similar to genomic selection in terms of estimating marker effects, but in genomic mating the genetic information and the estimated marker effects are used to decide which genotypes should be crossed to obtain the next breeding population.

  8. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  9. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  10. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The most important event related to the activity of the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme in the past six months was the 2nd FAO/IAEA Interregional Training Course on 'Mutant Germplasm Characterization using Molecular Markers' which was held at Seibersdorf, 4-29 November 2002. In addition to basic molecular and marker techniques, which were also a subject of the first training course last year, fluorescence in situ hybridisation methods were included in the teaching and demonstration programme. As we informed you in the last edition of this Newsletter, a laboratory manual was published with detailed protocols on molecular markers techniques entitled 'Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A Manual'. (IAEA Training Course Series No. 19). (available for free distribution under conditions provided on page 11 of this Newsletter). We have also finished editing a book on 'Doubled haploid production in crop plants. A Manual.' This book was prepared in close collaboration with EU COST 851 activities. Ken Kasha (Canada), Brian Forster (UK) and lwona Szarejko (Poland) helped to edit more than 40 protocols for doubled haploid production in at least 23 crop species. The preparation of this manual reflects our our interest in the development and application of this technology for crop improvement. Two CRPs and numerous Technical Co-operation projects greatly contributed to the development of doubled haploid methods and also to implementation of this technology in crop improvement programmes of many countries. Numerous other important activities have been undertaken by the Plant Breeding and Genetics sub-programme during the last 6 months. A consultants meeting on 'Low cost technology in plant tissue culture' was held in Vienna and its results will be summarized in the form of an IAEA-TECDOC which is now in the final stage of preparation. In addition to the implementation of five Co-ordinated Research Projects, nine workshops and national or regional

  11. Breeding phenology of African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The timing of the start and duration of breeding and the effect of these on breeding productivity were analysed for African Black Oystercatchers Haematopus moquini on Robben Island, South Africa, over three breeding seasons from 2001 to 2004. African Black Oystercatchers have a long breeding season, from November ...

  12. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  13. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  14. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  15. Fusion Canada issue 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig

  16. Fusion Canada issue 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a technical update on Tokamak de Varennes, a report on the Beatrix II Breeding Materials Test Program, the Tritium glovebox system for UPM, Saudi Arabia, a broad update of the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project is also included. 1 fig.

  17. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  18. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  19. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  20. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  1. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  2. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  3. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  4. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  5. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  7. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  8. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  9. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  10. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  11. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  12. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  13. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  14. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  15. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  16. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  17. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  18. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  19. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  20. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  1. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  2. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  3. Genetic resources in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Violeta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, wheat and rice are the most important cereals grown in the world. It is predicted that by 2025 maize is likely to become the crop with the greatest production globally. Conservation of maize germplasm provides the main resources for increased food and feed production. Conservation in gene banks (ex-situ is dominant strategy for maize conservation. More than 130 000 maize accessions, e.g. about 40% of total number, are stored in ten largest gene banks worldwide and Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje (MRIZP gene bank, with about 6000 accessions, is among them. Organized collecting missions started in 1961. in the former Yugoslavian territory, and up today, more than 2000 local maize landraces were stored. Pre-breeding activities that refer to identification of desirable traits from unadapted germplasm within genebank, result in materials expected to be included in breeding programs. Successful examples are LAMP, GEM and GENRES projects. At the end of XX century, at MRIZP genebank two pre-breeding activities were undertaken: eco-core and elite-core collections were created and landraces fulfilled particular criteria were chosen. In the last decade, MRIZP genebank collection was used for identification of sources for drought tolerance and improved grain quality. According to agronomic traits and general combining ability, two mini-core collections were created and included in commercial breeding programs.

  4. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  5. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-01-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting the situation like this, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic, and the case of applying mutation breeding seems to be many. The present status of the mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation were compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. As the results obtained in Japan, burdocks as an example of gamma ray irradiation to seeds, tomatoes as an example of inducing the compound resistance against disease injury and lettuces as an example of internal beta irradiation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  6. Induced mutations in sesame breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of induced mutations in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) breeding is reviewed. So far in Egypt, India, Iraq, Rep. of Korea, and Sri Lanka, 14 officially released varieties have been developed through induced mutations: 12 directly and 2 through cross breeding (one using the 'dt45' induced mutant from Israel). For another variety released in China there are no details. The induced mutations approach was adopted primarily in order to obtain genetic variability that was not available in the germplasm collection. The mutagens commonly applied have been gamma rays, EMS and sodium azide. Sesame seeds can withstand high mutagen doses, and there are genotypic differences in sensitivity between varieties. The mutants induced in the above named countries and others include better yield, improved seed retention, determinate habit, modified plant architecture and size, more uniform and shorter maturation period, earliness, resistance to diseases, genic male sterility, seed coat color, higher oil content and modified fatty acids composition. Some of the induced mutants have already given rise to improved varieties, the breeding value of other mutants is now being assessed and still others can serve as useful markers in genetic studies and breeding programmes. (author)

  7. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  8. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  9. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  10. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  11. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  12. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  13. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  14. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  16. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  17. Constraints on productivity of wild Nene or Hawaiian geese Branta sandvicensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    I investigated constraints on the productivity of wild Nene on Hawaii and Maui during 1978-81. These populations were composed largely of captive-reared birds. Recruitment of young was low. Of 140 breeding attempts, 36% resulted in successful nests and 7% produced fledglings. Annual productivity was limited because: 1) relatively few available pairs attempted to breed (58% on Hawaii; 46% on Maui), 2) average rate of nest success was low (44%), and 3) gosling survival was low nesting suggests that many females could not accumulate sufficient body reserves for egg-laying and incubation due to poor foraging conditions or poorly developed foraging skills. Nest failure was high due to predation on eggs and incubating females by the introduced mongoose. Gosling mortality was high because of poor foraging conditions near many nests, forcing broods to travel over rugged, volcanic terrain to distant rearing areas. In addition, some goslings were killed by predators. Nene populations would benefit most from improved foraging opportunities for adult females and goslings and from reduced predator populations.

  18. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  19. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  20. Pedigree analysis of an ostrich breeding flock

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    among dairy cattle breeds in the US was reported to be 161, 61, 65, 39 and 30 for the Ayrshire, Brown ... Knowledge of these parameters could help the industry when formulating breeding programmes. ..... In 'Ratites in a competitive world.

  1. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  2. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  3. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F.; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the pl...

  4. Effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment-controlled house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shen-Chang; Chiang, Hsin-I; Lin, Min-Jung; Jea, Yu-Shine; Chen, Lih-Ren; Fan, Yang-Kwang; Lee, Tzu-Tai

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of short light regimes and lower dietary protein content on the reproductive performance of White Roman geese in an environment- controlled house. Thirty-two ganders and 80 geese during the third laying period were allotted into 16 pens, randomly assigned into a split-plot design with two different lighting regimes: (1) short light regimes (SL) with 6.5h of light and 17.5h of dark (6.5L:17.5D), and (2) long light regimes (LL) with 19L:5D during the 6-wk prelaying period, followed by two different levels of protein diets (Low CP: 15% vs. High CP: 18%) for the laying period. The results showed that birds treated with the SL light regime had a heavier body weight compared to those treated with LL at the arrival of the peak period of egg production (6.19 vs. 5.87kg, Pvs. 175day, Pvs. 12.6%, Plight regime during the prelaying period and on the low CP diet during the laying period found conditions sufficient to sustain their regular reproduction performance, which would benefit geese farmers in the perspectives of energy saving and prolonged laying period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. 75 FR 52873 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Final Frameworks for Early-Season Migratory Bird Hunting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... would be to summarize historical analyses and dialogue regarding the issue of early-season teal harvest.... Definitions Dark geese: Canada geese, white-fronted geese, brant (except in Alaska, California, Oregon...

  6. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  7. Breeding in a den of thieves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, de Jimmy; Bom, Roeland A.; Klaassen, Raymond H.G.; Müskens, Gerard J.D.M.; Vries, de Peter P.; Popov, Igor Yu; Kokorev, Yakov I.; Ebbinge, Bart; Nolet, Bart A.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding success of many Arctic-breeding bird populations varies with lemming cycles due to prey switching behavior of generalist predators. Several bird species breed on islands to escape from generalist predators like Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus, but little is known about how these species

  8. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  9. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  10. Genetic analysis of superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, C; Koeck, A; Sargolzaei, M; Malchiodi, F; Price, C A; Schenkel, F S; Miglior, F

    2016-05-01

    Superovulation of dairy cattle is frequently used in Canada. The cost of this protocol is high, and so is the variability of the outcome. Knowing the superovulatory potential of a donor cow could influence the breeder's decision to superovulate it or not. The main objective of this study was to perform a genetic analysis for superovulatory response of Holstein cows in Canada using data recorded by Holstein Canada, and to investigate if these data could be used for genetic evaluation. Data contained the total number of embryos and the number of viable embryos from every successful flushing performed across Canada. After editing, 137,446 records of superovulation performed between 1992 and 2014 were analyzed. A univariate repeatability animal model analysis was performed for both total number of embryos and number of viable embryos. Because both data and residuals did not follow a normal distribution, records were subject to either logarithmic or Anscombe transformation. Using logarithmic transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.15 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. Using Anscombe transformation, heritability estimates (SE) of 0.17 (0.01) and 0.14 (0.01) were found for total number of embryos and number of viable embryos, respectively. The genetic correlation between the 2 traits was estimated at 0.97 using logarithmic transformation and 0.95 using Anscombe transformation. Breeding values were estimated for 54,463 cows, and 3,513 sires. Only estimated breeding values of sires having a reliability higher than 40% were considered for estimated breeding values correlations with other routinely evaluated traits. The results showed that selection for a higher response to superovulation would lead to a slight decrease in milk production, but an improvement for functional traits, including all reproduction traits. In all cases, the estimated correlations are either low or modest. We conclude that

  11. Current trends in plant breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalani, B.S.; Rajanaidu, N.

    2000-01-01

    The current world population is 6 billion and it is likely to reach 7 billion in 2010 and 8 billion 2025. Sufficient food must be produced for the ever increasing human population. The available suitable land for intensive agriculture is limited. We have to produce more food from less land, pesticide, labour and water resources. Hence, increase in crop productivity are essential to feed the world in the next century. Plant breeding provides the avenue to increase the food production to feed the growing world population. Development of a cultivar involves (I) Construction of a genetic model (II) creating a gene pool (III) selection among plants and (IV) testing the selected genotypes for adaptation to the biotic and abiotic environments (Frey, 1999). This paper discusses the trends in plant breeding using the oil palm as a model. It covers (i) genetic resources (ii) physiological traits (III) exploitation of genotype x environment interaction (IV) oil palm clones, and (v) biotechnology application. (Author)

  12. Integrated crop and goat breeding in Tanzania

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the Government of Canada provided through ...

  13. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  15. To breed or not to breed: a seabird's response to extreme climatic events

    OpenAIRE

    Cubaynes, Sarah; Doherty, Paul F.; Schreiber, E. A.; Gimenez, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent breeding is an important life-history strategy that has rarely been quantified in the wild and for which drivers remain unclear. It may be the result of a trade-off between survival and reproduction, with individuals skipping breeding when breeding conditions are below a certain threshold. Heterogeneity in individual quality can also lead to heterogeneity in intermittent breeding. We modelled survival, recruitment and breeding probability of the red-footed booby (Sula sula), usin...

  16. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This issue contains a number of contributions from readers describing experiments in plant breeding (the individual items are indexed separately) and a report on the 30th Gamma-Field Symposium held in Tsukuba, Japan in July 1991. Also included is a list of officially released mutant varieties of seed-propagated crops taken from the FAO/IAEA database of mutant varieties. It is planned to organize a database on available crop plant mutant variety germplasm collections. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This newsletter contains short descriptions of research methods for the use of radiation to induce mutations and facilitate plant breeding. This method is used to develop species of plants that can survive in harsh climates and thus provide a food supply for humans and animals. Some of the mutants discussed include a salt tolerant barley, a disease resistant shrub, a cold tolerant chickpea, a highly productive Canavalia virosa and productive tomato. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Does hatching failure breed infidelity?

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Ihle; Bart Kempenaers; Wolfgang Forstmeier

    2013-01-01

    In socially monogamous species, the reasons for female infidelity are still controversial. It has been suggested that females could seek extra-pair copulations as an insurance against hatching failure caused by male infertility or incompatibility. In species where couples breed repeatedly, females could use previous hatching success as a cue to assess their partner’s infertility (or incompatibility). Hence, it has been predicted that females should increase their infidelity after experiencing...

  19. Genomic selection in plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mark A; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a method to predict the genetic value of selection candidates based on the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) predicted from high-density markers positioned throughout the genome. Unlike marker-assisted selection, the GEBV is based on all markers including both minor and major marker effects. Thus, the GEBV may capture more of the genetic variation for the particular trait under selection.

  20. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  1. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  2. Mutation breeding in vegetable crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takashi

    1984-03-01

    Vegetables breed by seeds and vegetative organs. In main vegetables, the differentiation of clopping types, the adoption of monoculture and year-round production and shipment are carried out, adapting to various socio-economic and cultivation conditions. Protected agriculture has advanced mainly for fruit vegetables, and the seeds for sale have become almost hybrid varieties. Reflecting this situation, the demand for breeding is diversified and characteristic. The present status of mutation breeding of vegetables is not yet well under way, but reports of about 40 raised varieties have been published in the world. The characters introduced by induced mutation and irradiation are compact form, harvesting aptitude, the forms and properties of stems and leaves, anti-lodging property, the size, form and uniformity of fruits, male sterility and so on. The radiation sources used were mostly gamma ray or X-ray, but sometimes, combined irradiation was used. Results obtained in Japan include: burdocks as an example to gamma ray irradiation of seeds; tomatoes as an example of inducing compound resistance against disease injury; and lettuce as an example of internal beta irradiation. (Kako, I.).

  3. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  4. Identification and differential expression of microRNAs in ovaries of laying and Broody geese (Anser cygnoides by Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent functional studies have demonstrated that the microRNAs (miRNAs play critical roles in ovarian gonadal development, steroidogenesis, apoptosis, and ovulation in mammals. However, little is known about the involvement of miRNAs in the ovarian function of fowl. The goose (Anas cygnoides is a commercially important food that is cultivated widely in China but the goose industry has been hampered by high broodiness and poor egg laying performance, which are influenced by ovarian function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, the miRNA transcriptomes of ovaries from laying and broody geese were profiled using Solexa deep sequencing and bioinformatics was used to determine differential expression of the miRNAs. As a result, 11,350,396 and 9,890,887 clean reads were obtained in laying and broodiness goose, respectively, and 1,328 conserved known miRNAs and 22 novel potential miRNA candidates were identified. A total of 353 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between laying and broody ovaries. Compared with miRNA expression in the laying ovary, 127 miRNAs were up-regulated and 126 miRNAs were down-regulated in the ovary of broody birds. A subset of the differentially expressed miRNAs (G-miR-320, G-miR-202, G-miR-146, and G-miR-143* were validated using real-time quantitative PCR. In addition, 130,458 annotated mRNA transcripts were identified as putative target genes. Gene ontology annotation and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that the differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in ovarian function, including hormone secretion, reproduction processes and so on. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first global miRNA transcriptome data in A. cygnoides and identifies novel and known miRNAs that are differentially expressed between the ovaries of laying and broody geese. These findings contribute to our understanding of the functional involvement of mi

  5. Comparative regulatory approaches for groups of new plant breeding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusser, Maria; Davies, Howard V

    2013-06-25

    This manuscript provides insights into ongoing debates on the regulatory issues surrounding groups of biotechnology-driven 'New Plant Breeding Techniques' (NPBTs). It presents the outcomes of preliminary discussions and in some cases the initial decisions taken by regulators in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, EU, Japan, South Africa and USA. In the light of these discussions we suggest in this manuscript a structured approach to make the evaluation more consistent and efficient. The issue appears to be complex as these groups of new technologies vary widely in both the technologies deployed and their impact on heritable changes in the plant genome. An added complication is that the legislation, definitions and regulatory approaches for biotechnology-derived crops differ significantly between these countries. There are therefore concerns that this situation will lead to non-harmonised regulatory approaches and asynchronous development and marketing of such crops resulting in trade disruptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  7. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  8. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  10. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  11. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  12. Breeds in danger of extintion and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blasco

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Some arguments currently used to support breed conservation are examined. The central point is that we cannot conserve all breeds because we do not have financial resources enough to keep everything (mainly in developing countries and in many cases we do not have special reasons to conserve breeds. A breed is a human product and it should not be confused with specie. A breed can be generated or transformed. We can create synthetic breeds with the best characteristics of several breeds. Selection is not exhausting genetic variability (there are several experiments showing that, and genetic variability within breeds is large. We need reasons to keep breeds in danger in extinction. A breed is a tool, and we can decide to keep it when it is useful because it is specially adapted to some environments (although in this case it should not be in danger of extinction, it can be useful in crossbreeding to shorten the way of obtaining response to selection, or it has some extreme values for traits that may be useful in the future (in this case we have to define clearly which traits and how we expect the future to be. We can add cultural reasons when we have money enough to spend in culture.

  13. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  14. Effect of Dietary Selenium and Vitamin E on Slaughter Yield and Carcass Composition of Commercial White Koluda Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Łukaszewicz*, A Jerysz and A Kowalczyk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the role of selenium and vitamin E in metabolic processes of living organisms, the effect of these oxidants on slaughter value and carcass quality of commercial goose was investigated. The experiment was carried out on 200 one-day-old White Koluda geese that were randomly divided into two groups: 50 males and 50 females each. From first day until 13th wk of age the control group was maintained on commercial basic feeds, the experimental group received feed enriched with organic selenium (0.3 mg kg-1 and vitamin E (100 mg kg-1. Later on, for three wks all birds were feed with oat grain and cereals ground. At 112 day of live all birds were weighted individually and from each group 20 birds (10 males and 10 females were chosen randomly, slaughtered and after 24 hours chilling at +4°C the following parameter were evaluated (in grams, exact to 0.1 g and % in relation to live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck: eviscerated carcass with neck, neck without skin, wings with skin, breast and leg muscles, edible giblets (heart, liver, gizzard, skin with subcutaneous fat, abdomen fat and remainder of carcass. Feed supplementation with tested antioxidants had non-significant (P≥0.05 effect on evaluated female traits, but significantly increased (P≤0.05 the male live body weight and eviscerated carcass with neck. Irrespective of feeding group, significant sex differences were stated in majority of evaluated carcass elements.

  15. Comparative morphology among northern populations of breeding Cooper's Hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. From 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types.

  16. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  17. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  18. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  19. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  20. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  1. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  2. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Pajić Zorica; Radosavljević Milica; Filipović Milomir; Todorović Goran; Srdić Jelena; Pavlov Milovan

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  3. Use of induced mutations in soybean breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakri, A.H.; Jalani, B.S.; Ng, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    Artificial induction of mutation in plants is carried out using #betta#-irradiation and ethyl metanesulphonate (EMS) to expand the genetic variability of locally-grown soybean. This aspect of mutation breeding complements of conventional breeding approach undertaken by the Joint Malaysia Soybean Breeding Project group. Recovery of agronomically-important mutants such as earliness, lateness, bigger seed size and improved plant architecture were recorded. The significance of these findings is discussed. (author)

  4. Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajbir, S. Sangwan

    2017-01-01

    Chromosomes contain genes responsible of different traits of any organism. Induced mutation using chemical mutagens and radiation to modify molecular structure of plants played a major role in the development of high genetic variability and help develop new superior crop varieties. The Mutation Breeding is applicable to all plants and has generated lot of agronomically interesting mutants, both in vegetatively and seed propagated plants. The technique is easy but long and challenging to detect, isolate and characterize the mutant and gene. A specific dose of irradiation has to be used to obtain desired mutants. However, with modern molecular technique, the gene responsible for mutation can be identified. The CRISPR-Cas9 allows the removal of a specific gene which is responsible of unwanted trait and replacing it with a gene which induces a desired trait. There have been more than 2700 officially released mutant varieties from 170 different plant species in more than 60 countries throughout the world and A more participatory approach, involving all stakeholders in plant breeding, is needed to ensure that it is demand/farmers driven.

  5. The occurrence of Campylobacter in river water and waterfowl within a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, M I; Morton, V K; McLellan, N L; Huck, P M

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative PCR and a culture method were used to investigate Campylobacter occurrence over 3 years in a watershed located in southern Ontario, Canada that is used as a source of drinking water. Direct DNA extraction from river water followed by quantitative PCR analysis detected thermophilic campylobacters at low concentrations (seagulls, ducks and geese) were detected at a similar rate using PCR (32%) and culture-based (29%) methods, and although Campylobacter jejuni was isolated most frequently, C. lari ssp. concheus was also detected. Campylobacter were frequently detected at low concentrations in the watershed. Higher prevalence rates using quantitative PCR was likely because of the formation of viable but nonculturable cells and low recovery of the culture method. In addition to animal and human waste, waterfowl can be an important contributor of Campylobacter in the environment. Results of this study show that Campylobacter in surface water can be an important vector for human disease transmission and that method selection is important in determining pathogen occurrence in a water environment. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. The Great Basin Canada goose in southcentral Washington: A 40-year nesting history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Rickard, W.H.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1991-04-01

    Overall, the nesting population of Great Basin Canada geese (Branta canadensis moffitti) on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State is doing well and appears to be increasing. The average annual total nests for the period 1981 through 1990 was 215 nests, which is slightly above the average reported for the period 1950 through 1970. The nesting population has shifted its nucleus from upriver islands (1--10) to the lower river islands (11--20) with over 70% of the present-day nesting occurring on Islands 17, 18, 19, 20. The annual percent-successful nests from 1981 through 1990 was 80%. This is above the 71% reported for 1950 to 1970, but is below the 82% reported for 1971 to 1980. Average annual clutch size for 1981 to 1990 was 6.05, which is above the 1971-to-1980 average of 5.6 and the 1950-to-70 average of 5.5. Next desertions for 1981 to 1990 averaged 8%. This rate is well below the 14% reported for 1950 to 1970. Predators were responsible for an annual predation rate of 9% from 1981 to 1990. This is below the 1950-to-1970 annual average predation rate of 14%. Flooding losses to nests were low during the 1980s, except for 1989 and 1990 when 6% and 9% of the total nests, respectively, were destroyed by flooding. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  7. The palaeobiology of high latitude birds from the early Eocene greenhouse of Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham, Thomas A; Eberle, Jaelyn J

    2016-02-12

    Fossils attributable to the extinct waterfowl clade Presbyornithidae and the large flightless Gastornithidae from the early Eocene (~52-53 Ma) of Ellesmere Island, in northernmost Canada are the oldest Cenozoic avian fossils from the Arctic. Except for its slightly larger size, the Arctic presbyornithid humerus is not distinguishable from fossils of Presbyornis pervetus from the western United States, and the Gastornis phalanx is within the known size range of mid-latitude individuals. The occurrence of Presbyornis above the Arctic Circle in the Eocene could be the result of annual migration like that of its living duck and geese relatives, or it may have been a year-round resident similar to some Eocene mammals on Ellesmere and some extant species of sea ducks. Gastornis, along with some of the mammalian and reptilian members of the Eocene Arctic fauna, likely over-wintered in the Arctic. Despite the milder (above freezing) Eocene climate on Ellesmere Island, prolonged periods of darkness occurred during the winter. Presence of these extinct birds at both mid and high latitudes on the northern continents provides evidence that future increases in climatic warming (closer to Eocene levels) could lead to the establishment of new migratory or resident populations within the Arctic Circle.

  8. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  9. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  10. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  11. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer

  12. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  13. Seasonal and Annual Survival of East-Atlantic Pale-Bellied Brent Geese Branta hrota Assessed by Capture-Recapture Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.; Frederiksen, M.; Percival, S. M.

    2001-01-01

    areas by intensive field studies. In this paper we use standard capture-recapture analysis to investigate seasonal and annual survival rates of the population. We divided the year into three periods with different spatial distribution of the geese, autumn (September-December), winter (Jan...... spring to autumn (0.982 MSR), -resulting in an overall annual survival rate of 0.870. We discuss the variation in seasonal and annual mortality rates in relation to constraints faced by the birds such as seasonal changes in availability of food resources, severe winters, long-distance migration...

  14. Organic No-Till Systems in Eastern Canada: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Halde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade, studies have aimed to adapt the agronomy of organic no-till systems for the environmental conditions of Eastern Canada. Most research on organic no-till practices in Eastern Canada has been conducted in the province of Québec, where 4% of farms are certified organic, and results from these trials have been published in technical reports available in French. The objective of this review was to revisit previous research work on organic farming in Eastern Canada—the majority of which has been published as technical reports in the French language—in order to highlight important findings and to identify information gaps. Cover crop-based rotational no-till systems for organic grain and horticultural cropping systems will be the main focus of this review. Overall, a few trials have demonstrated that organic rotational no-till can be successful and profitable in warmer and more productive regions of Eastern Canada, but its success can vary over years. The variability in the success of organic rotational no-till systems is the reason for the slow adoption of the system by organic farmers. On-going research focuses on breeding early-maturing fall rye, and terminating cover crops and weeds with the use of bioherbicides.

  15. Wellons Canada energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Wellons Canada is a British Columbia-based company that specializes in the manufacture and installation of lumber drying and energy conversion equipment. This brochure provided details of the Wellons energy system designed for oriented strand board (OSB) plants. The brochure outlined the system's scope of supply, and provided illustrations of system procedures from the initial wet fuel bin through to the electric precipitator used for air clean-up. During the process, fuel was conveyed from the bin to metering bins into combustors and through a cyclo-blast cell. Forced draft fan systems were then used to provide primary and secondary combustion air. Radiant heaters were then used. A drop-out chamber was supplied to allow for complete combustion of fuel particles and to provide a drop-out of ash. A fan was then used to deliver diluent air to maintain the set point temperature in the hot gas stream. Refractory lined hot gas ducts were used to deliver heat to the dryers. Hot gas was then drawn through a multi-cyclone collector for ash removal. Electrostatic precipitators were used to clean up emissions on a continuous operating basis. An automatic system was used to collect ash from the combustion system grates and other areas. Details of installation services provided by the company were also included. 42 figs.

  16. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  17. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  18. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  19. The nuclear industry in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Broughton, W.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Canada comprises three identifiable groups: (1) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), (2) electrical utilities that use nuclear power plants, (3) private engineering and manufacturing companies. At the end of World War II, AECL was charged with investigating and developing peaceful uses of atomic power. Included in the results is the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, a peculiarly Canadian design. The AECL maintains research capability and operates as the prime nuclear steam supply system supplier. Utilities in three Canadian provinces operate nuclear power plants, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario, with the majority in Ontario. From the beginning of the nuclear program in Canada, private industry has been an important partner to AECL and the utilities, filling roles as manufacturing subcontractors and as component designers. The prime objective of this paper is to illuminate the role of private industry in developing and maintaining a competitive world-class nuclear industry

  20. Canada-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl; Fergusson, Ian F; Nunez-Neto, Blas; Clarke, Stephen F; Abel, Amy; Becker, Geoffrey S; Buck, Eugene H; Corn, M. L; Gelb, Bernard A; Gorte, Ross W

    2006-01-01

    .... The early 1990s brought new governments to Ottawa and Washington, and although Canada's Liberal Party emphasized its determination to act independently of the United States when necessary, relations...

  1. Canada-U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    reaffirmed this timetable and added goat meat, chicken, ginseng, pecans , and macadamia nuts as covered commodities. A final rule was issued on...major countries gather to discuss and coordinate international policies. The G-8 is a group of advanced countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy ...Financial Crisis Since the mid-1970s, leaders from the G-7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy , Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), a small group

  2. A staff shortage in Canada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, P.

    1995-01-01

    Attrition of experienced staff, falling student enrolments and closure of university courses are symptoms of the contraction of the Canadian nuclear industry over the last two decades. It is not alone. A study carried out by Human Resources Development Canada, a government department, to forecast the demand for qualified nuclear staff in Canada over the next 15 years has reached similar conclusions to an OECD/NEA study of its members' future personnel requirements. (author)

  3. Population models for Greater Snow Geese: a comparison of different approaches to assess potential impacts of harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier, G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Demographic models, which are a natural extension of capture-recapture (CR methodology, are a powerful tool to guide decisions when managing wildlife populations. We compare three different modelling approaches to evaluate the effect of increased harvest on the population growth of Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica. Our first approach is a traditional matrix model where survival was reduced to simulate increased harvest. We included environmental stochasticity in the matrix projection model by simulating good, average, and bad years to account for the large inter-annual variation in fecundity and first-year survival, a common feature of birds nesting in the Arctic. Our second approach is based on the elasticity (or relative sensitivity of population growth rate (lambda to changes in survival as simple functions of generation time. Generation time was obtained from the mean transition matrix based on the observed proportion of good, average and bad years between 1985 and 1998. If we assume that hunting mortality is additive to natural mortality, then a simple formula predicts changes in lambda as a function of changes in harvest rate. This second approach can be viewed as a simplification of the matrix model because it uses formal sensitivity results derived from population projection. Our third, and potentially more powerful approach, uses the Kalman Filter to combine information on demographic parameters, i.e. the population mechanisms summarized in a transition matrix model, and the census information (i.e. annual survey within an overall Gaussian likelihood. The advantage of this approach is that it minimizes process and measured uncertainties associated with both the census and demographic parameters based on the variance of each estimate. This third approach, in contrast to the second, can be viewed as an extension of the matrix model, by combining its results with the independent census information.

  4. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance.

  5. POPULATION AND BREEDING OF THE GENTOO PENGUIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numbers of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua breeding at subantarctic Marion Island fell by 40% from 1994/95 to 2002/03, from 1 352 pairs to 806 pairs. Apart from a slight increase in 1998/99, there was a steady decrease in numbers breeding between 1995/96 and 2000/01, when the population stabilized. There is ...

  6. Genomic analyses of modern dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Heidi G

    2012-02-01

    A rose may be a rose by any other name, but when you call a dog a poodle it becomes a very different animal than if you call it a bulldog. Both the poodle and the bulldog are examples of dog breeds of which there are >400 recognized worldwide. Breed creation has played a significant role in shaping the modern dog from the length of his leg to the cadence of his bark. The selection and line-breeding required to maintain a breed has also reshaped the genome of the dog, resulting in a unique genetic pattern for each breed. The breed-based population structure combined with extensive morphologic variation and shared human environments have made the dog a popular model for mapping both simple and complex traits and diseases. In order to obtain the most benefit from the dog as a genetic system, it is necessary to understand the effect structured breeding has had on the genome of the species. That is best achieved by looking at genomic analyses of the breeds, their histories, and their relationships to each other.

  7. USE OF GROWTH CHAMBERS FOR CABBAGE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the growth chambers for cabbage breeding allows the reducing of certain stages of the breeding process and the growing biennial varieties of cabbage in a one-year cycle. In these growth chambers, the nutritional conditions, temperature, and lighting of plants are under control; the open pollination is eliminated.

  8. Studies on mutation techniques in rice breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    Synthetical techniques for improving rice mutation breeding efficiency were studied. The techniques consist of corresponding relationship between radiosensitivity and mutation frequency, choosing appropriate materials, combination of physical and chemical mutagens, mutagenic effects of the new mutagenic agents as proton, ions, synchronous irradiation and space mutation. These techniques and methods for inducing mutations are very valuable to increase inducing mutation efficiency and breeding level

  9. Filling the toolbox of precision breeding methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Lotz, L.A.P.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant breeding has
    resulted in numerous
    high-quality crop
    varieties being
    cultivated nowadays.
    Breeding based on
    crossing and selection
    remains an important
    and ongoing activity for
    crop improvement, but
    needs innovation to be
    able to address

  10. Horse breed discrimination using machine learning methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burócziová, Monika; Riha, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2009), s. 375-377 ISSN 1234-1983 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Breed discrimination * Genetics diversity * Horse breeds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2009

  11. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  12. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  13. Progress in a Crambe cross breeding programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastebroek, H.D.; Lange, W.

    1997-01-01

    Crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex Fries) is an annual cruciferous oilseed crop with a high content of erucic acid (55-60%) in the seed oil. Since 1990, a breeding programme in crambe has been carried out at the DLO-Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research. Three accessions, two early

  14. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  15. Managing meiotic recombination in plant breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, T.G.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Crossover recombination is a crucial process in plant breeding because it allows plant breeders to create novel allele combnations on chromosomes that can be used for breeding superior F1 hybrids. Gaining control over this process, in terms of increasing crossover incidence, altering crossover

  16. The ecology of avian influenza viruses in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Papp

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus (AIV occurrence and transmission remain important wildlife and human health issues in much of the world, including in North America. Through Canada's Inter-Agency Wild Bird Influenza Survey, close to 20,000 apparently healthy, wild dabbling ducks (of seven species were tested for AIV between 2005 and 2011. We used these data to identify and evaluate ecological and demographic correlates of infection with low pathogenic AIVs in wild dabbling ducks (Anas spp. across Canada. Generalized linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that risk of AIV infection was higher in hatch-year birds compared to adults, and was positively associated with a high proportion of hatch-year birds in the population. Males were more likely to be infected than females in British Columbia and in Eastern Provinces of Canada, but more complex relationships among age and sex cohorts were found in the Prairie Provinces. A species effect was apparent in Eastern Canada and British Columbia, where teal (A. discors and/or A. carolinensis were less likely to be infected than mallards (A. platyrhynchos. Risk of AIV infection increased with the density of the breeding population, in both Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces, and lower temperatures preceding sampling were associated with a higher probability of AIV infection in Eastern Canada. Our results provide new insights into the ecological and demographic factors associated with AIV infection in waterfowl.

  17. Seasonal patterns in reproductive success of temperate-breeding birds: Experimental tests of the date and quality hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Vanessa B; Dawson, Russell D; Bortolotti, Lauren E; Clark, Robert G

    2017-04-01

    For organisms in seasonal environments, individuals that breed earlier in the season regularly attain higher fitness than their late-breeding counterparts. Two primary hypotheses have been proposed to explain these patterns: The quality hypothesis contends that early breeders are of better phenotypic quality or breed on higher quality territories, whereas the date hypothesis predicts that seasonally declining reproductive success is a response to a seasonal deterioration in environmental quality. In birds, food availability is thought to drive deteriorating environmental conditions, but few experimental studies have demonstrated its importance while also controlling for parental quality. We tested predictions of the date hypothesis in tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor ) over two breeding seasons and in two locations within their breeding range in Canada. Nests were paired by clutch initiation date to control for parental quality, and we delayed the hatching date of one nest within each pair. Subsequently, brood sizes were manipulated to mimic changes in per capita food abundance, and we examined the effects of manipulations, as well as indices of environmental and parental quality, on nestling quality, fledging success, and return rates. Reduced reproductive success of late-breeding individuals was causally related to a seasonal decline in environmental quality. Declining insect biomass and enlarged brood sizes resulted in nestlings that were lighter, in poorer body condition, structurally smaller, had shorter and slower growing flight feathers and were less likely to survive to fledge. Our results provide evidence for the importance of food resources in mediating seasonal declines in offspring quality and survival.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Canada-Europe Accords: 5 year R and D collaboration for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) AECL is designated to arrange and implement the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) and the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) while EUROTAM is responsible for operating Europe's Fusion R and D programs plus MOU and EDA. The MOU includes tokamaks, plasma physics, fusion technology, fusion fuels and other approaches to fusion energy (as alternatives to tokamaks). STOR-M Tokamak was restarted at the University of Saskatchewan following upgrades to the plasma chamber to accommodate the Compact Toroid (CT) injector. The CT injector has a flexible attachment thus allowing for injection angle adjustments. Real-time video images of a single plasma discharge on TdeV showing that as the plasma density increases, in a linear ramp divertor, the plasma contact with the horizontal plate decreases while contact increases with the oblique plate. Damage-resistant diffractive optical elements (DOE) have been developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research by Gentac Inc. and the National Optics Institute, laser beam homogeniser and laser harmonic separator DOE can also be made using the same technology. Studies using TdeV indicate that a divertor will be able to pump helium from the tokamak with a detached-plasma divertor but helium extraction performance must first be improved, presently the deuterium:helium retention radio-indicates that in order to pump enough helium through a fusion reactor, too much deuterium-tritium fuel would be pumped out. 2 fig

  19. SCWR Concept in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    AECL is designing the Canadian SCWR concept, which has evolved from the well-established pressuretube type CANDU® reactor. The Canadian SCWR is designed to produce electrical energy as the main product, plus process heat, hydrogen, industrial isotopes, and drinking water (through the desalination process) as supplementary products, all within a more compact reactor building. Another potential application of the available co-generated process heat is the extraction and refining of oil sands, which is presently achieved using co-generation with natural gas turbines and process heat. The extraction and upgrading process requires: thermal power to lower the viscosity and extract the oil; electric power for separation and refining equipment; and hydrogen gas for upgrading the oil product prior to transport. A National Program has been established in Canada to support R&D studies for the Canadian SCWR design. It covers key areas of interest (such as thermal hydraulics, safety, materials, and chemistry) to participants in the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) SCWR designs. Results generated from the program are contributed to the GIF SCWR project management boards (PMBs). For example, heat transfer correlations have been derived using experimental data primarily obtained from fossil-plant related studies (which were started as early as 1930s. Materials and chemistry studies have evolved from operating experience of fossil-fired power plants to a) develop, and perform targeted testing of, materials for key components, in particular in-core reactor components that will be exposed to conditions not encountered in a fossil-fired boiler (such as irradiation and water radiolysis), and b) develop a suitable water chemistry to minimize corrosion and corrosion product transport.

  20. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  1. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and Ross's geese as carriers of avian cholera in the Playa Lakes region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, Diana R.; Johnson, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000a??01 and 2001a??02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Rossa??s geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection.

  2. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  3. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  4. Geese impact on the nitrogen cycle and especially on the fate of litter nitrogen in Artic wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, Maarten; Fivez, Lise; Meire, Patrick; Janssens, Ivan; Boeckx, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Due to land use changes and reduced hunting pressure in their wintering grounds, goose numbers increased dramatically over the past 50 years. To understand the consequences of these changes, studies on ecosystem processes of the breeding grounds in the Artic are indispensable. A key process affected

  5. A computational approach to animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Wolf, Tanya Y; Moore, Cristopher; Saia, Jared

    2007-02-07

    We propose a computational model of mating strategies for controlled animal breeding programs. A mating strategy in a controlled breeding program is a heuristic with some optimization criteria as a goal. Thus, it is appropriate to use the computational tools available for analysis of optimization heuristics. In this paper, we propose the first discrete model of the controlled animal breeding problem and analyse heuristics for two possible objectives: (1) breeding for maximum diversity and (2) breeding a target individual. These two goals are representative of conservation biology and agricultural livestock management, respectively. We evaluate several mating strategies and provide upper and lower bounds for the expected number of matings. While the population parameters may vary and can change the actual number of matings for a particular strategy, the order of magnitude of the number of expected matings and the relative competitiveness of the mating heuristics remains the same. Thus, our simple discrete model of the animal breeding problem provides a novel viable and robust approach to designing and comparing breeding strategies in captive populations.

  6. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  7. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  8. The first 50 years of the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John; Ziolkowski, David; Pardieck, Keith L.; Smith, Adam C.; Hudson, Marie-Anne R.; Rodriguez, Vicente; Berlanga, Humberto; Niven, Daniel; Link, William

    2017-01-01

    The vision of Chandler (Chan) S. Robbins for a continental-scale omnibus survey of breeding birds led to the development of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). Chan was uniquely suited to develop the BBS. His position as a government scientist had given him experience with designing and implementing continental-scale surveys, his research background made him an effective advocate of the need for a survey to monitor pesticide effects on birds, and his prominence in the birding community gave him connections to infrastructure—a network of qualified volunteer birders who could conduct roadside surveys with standardized point counts. Having started in the eastern United States and the Atlantic provinces of Canada in 1966, the BBS now provides population change information for ∼546 species in the continental United States and Canada, and recently initiated routes in Mexico promise to greatly expand the areas and species covered by the survey. Although survey protocols have remained unchanged for 50 years, the BBS remains relevant in a changing world. Several papers that follow in this Special Section of The Condor: Ornithological Advances review how the BBS has been applied to conservation assessments, especially in combination with other large-scale survey data. A critical feature of the BBS program is an active research program into field and analytical methods to enhance the quality of the count data and to control for factors that influence detectability. Papers in the Special Section also present advances in BBS analyses that improve the utility of this expanding and sometimes controversial survey. In this Perspective, we introduce the Special Section by reviewing the history of the BBS, describing current analyses, and providing summary trend results for all species, highlighting 3 groups of conservation concern: grassland-breeding birds, aridland-breeding birds, and aerial insectivorous birds.

  9. II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  10. Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding system and pollination biology of the semidomesticated fruit tree, Tamarindus indica L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae ): Implications for fruit production, selective breeding, and conservation of genetic resources.

  11. Genetic analysis of three South African horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Cothran

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability at 7 blood-group and 10 biochemical genetic loci was examined in 3 South African horse breeds, the Nooitgedacht, Boerperd and Basuto Pony. Observed heterozygosity for these breeds was intermediate for domestic horses, with the highest heterozygosity in the Boerperd and the lowest in the Basuto Pony. The 3 breeds show greater genetic similarity to each other than to other domestic horse breeds. Compared to other breeds, the South African breeds show greater genetic similarity to breeds such as the Thoroughbred, Holstein, Trakehner and Hanovarian and also to North American breeds such as the Saddlebred, Standardbred and Morgan Horse.

  12. Potential Sensitivity of Québec's Breeding Birds to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc DesGranges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between climatic factors and the distribution of breeding birds in southern Québec, Canada to identify the species whose distribution renders them potentially sensitive to climate change in the study area. We determined the degree of association between the distribution of 65 breeding bird species (601 presence-absence squares of the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Québec and climate variables (212 climatological stations in operation for at least 20 years over the period 1953-1984 by statistically correcting for the effects of several factors that are correlated with bird distribution. Factors considered were the nature and scale of land cover patterns that included vegetation types and landscape characterization, geographical coordinates, and elevation. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to investigate the effect of climatic variables on breeding bird distribution. Independent variables accounted for a total of 29.1% of the variation in the species matrix. A very large portion of the variance explained by climate variables was shared with spatial variables, reflecting the relationships among latitude, longitude, elevation, and climate. After correcting for the effect of land cover variables, climatic variables still explained 11.4% of the variation in the species matrix, with temperature, i.e., warmer summers and milder winters, having a greater influence than precipitation, i.e., wetter summers. Of the 65 species, 14 appeared to be particularly climate-sensitive. Eight are insectivorous neotropical migrants and six species are at the northern limit of their range in the study area. The opposite is largely true for the eight others; they are practically absent from the southern part of the study area, except for the Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis, which is widespread there. The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis is the only resident species that seemed responsive to climatic variables, i

  13. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-01-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by γ-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. 1) The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. 2) Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. 3) These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-γ-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author)

  14. Breeding Practices in Sheep Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Shejal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The sheep is an important economic livestock species, contributing greatly to the Indian economy, especially in arid, semi arid and mountain areas. The current population in world is 1110.78 millions, around 44.85 millions (1987 sheeps in India (ICAR., 2002. Sheeps are mostly reared for meat and wool. The average annual wool production per sheep is between 3.5 to 5.5 kg of fine quality wool in Australia, New Zealand and U.S.S.R., where as in India except Magra sheep which annually yield more than 2 kg wool having staple length 5.8 cm, the average of rest of the wool produced is less than 1.0 kg per sheep of inferior quality (Banerjee G.C., 1998. Therefore many farmers in southern India adapted sheep rearing for meat production than for wool production. For yielding more production from sheep farming one should have sound knowledge of general information related to the reproduction and different breeding practices. [Vet. World 2009; 2(1.000: 43-44

  15. Morphological Indices in Mangalitsa Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nistor

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Observations were made in several Mangalitsa farm from Hungary and Romania on Red, Blonde and Swallowbelliedvarieties. Body measurements were performed on a total of 175 individuals of Mangalitsa and Mangalitsa xDuroc hybrids. There are differences in physical development among Mangalitsa varieties: blond variety has the bestbody development followed by red and swallow-bellied varieties. The average body weight for Mangalitsa pigs was109.031.4 kg and the thoracic perimeter 115.180.95 cm. Results obtained indicate that body development ofMangalitsa pigs from Hungary area, are close to the breed standard. In average height at withers was 65.872.09 cm,while height at back was 72.591.2 cm. Low coefficient of variation for both measurements (CV%=1.83 for withersheigh and 1.52% for back height indicate that pigs populations in which measurements were made are veryhomogeneous.

  16. Canada's isotope crisis : what next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nathwani, J.; Wallace, D.

    2010-01-01

    Canada urgently requires a rigorous debate on the strategic options for ensuring a robust, reliable, and affordable supply of radioactive isotopes. Should the debate be confined to how Canada can best develop the necessary technologies solely for our own use or should Canada abandon the idea of producing its own isotope supply and any future aspirations to serve the global market? Canada's Isotope Crisis focuses on the central policy question: do we dare to try to shape the future or do we retreat into silence because we are not prepared to make the necessary investments for the future well-being of Canadians? This volume showcases pointed essays and analysis from members of the academy and individuals who have made contributions to the development of medical isotopes and pioneered their use in medical practice. It also includes commentary from those involved in the production, manufacturing, processing, and distribution of isotopes. Canada's Isotope Crisis is a multi-disciplinary effort that addresses the global dimension of isotope supply and combines expert opinions on the present and past with knowledge of the relevant government agencies and the basis for their decisions at critical junctures.

  17. In vitro technology for mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The ultimate aim of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on In Vitro Technology for Mutation Breeding is to provide new effective tools for plant breeders to construct new cultivars, thus increasing agricultural production of food, feed and industrial raw material, particularly in developing countries. The participants of the research co-ordination meetings considered the potential of new advances of agricultural biotechnology, especially the use of in vitro techniques for mutation breeding. They discussed and co-ordinated plans in conjunction with the impact on plant breeding of novel technologies, such as use of somaclonal variation, cell hybridization and molecular genetics

  18. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  19. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs