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Sample records for breeding blanket concept

  1. Neutronic analyses of design issues affecting the tritium breeding performance in different DEMO blanket concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereslavtsev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pereslavtsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Realistic 3D MCNP model based on the CAD engineering model of DEMO. • Automated procedure for the generation and arrangement of the blanket modules for different DEMO concepts: HCPB, HCLL, WCLL, DCLL. • Several parameters affecting tritium breeding ratio (TBR) were investigated. • A set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts. - Abstract: Neutronic analyses were performed to assess systematically the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) variations in the DEMO for the different blanket concepts HCPB, HCLL, WCLL and DCLL DEMOs due to modifications of the blanket configurations. A dedicated automated procedure was developed to fill the breeding modules in the common generic model in correspondence to the different concepts. The TBR calculations were carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The following parameters affecting the global TBR were investigated: TBR poloidal distribution, radial breeder zone depth, {sup 6}Li enrichment, steel content in the breeder modules, poloidal segmentation of the breeder blanket volume, size of gaps between blankets, thickness of the first wall and of the tungsten armour. Based on the results a set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts with the goal to achieve the required tritium breeding performance in DEMO.

  2. Breeding blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proust, E. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRN/DMT/SERMA, CE, Saclay (France)); Anzidei, L. (ENEA/FUS, C.R.E., Frascati (Italy)); Casini, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Research Center, Ispara (Italy)); Dalle Donne, M. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)); Giancarli, L. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), DRN/DMT/SERMA, CE, Saclay (France)); Malang, S. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently being investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme. (orig.)

  3. Breeding blanket for Demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proust, E.; Giancarli, L. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie; Anzidei, L. [ENEA, Frascati (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia; Casini, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre; Dalle Donne, M.; Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents the main design features, their rationale, and the main critical issues for the development, of the four DEMO-relevant blanket concepts presently investigated within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme.

  4. Blanket concept with liquid Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ for tritium breeding in INTOR-NET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airola, J.; Biggio, M.; Casini, G.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Li Bassi, P.; Ponti, C.; Rieger, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Piana, C. (Milan Univ. (Italy))

    1984-04-01

    A blanket concept with eutectic Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as liquid breeder, suited for tritium production in an experimental Tokamak power reactor is outlined and discussed. This design has been developed to satisfy the INTOR-Phase-I specifications, in particular: (I) modular arrangement of the blanket units inside the vacuum vessel; (II) no use of the heat deposited for electricity production, (III) a net tritium breeding of a least 60%. In this article the main results of the neutronics and thermohydraulics analysis are reviewed and the problems identified. Methods to keep liquid in the breeder during operation are proposed and discussed. The consequences of a coolant tube rupture in a breeder unit appears to be the most serious problem.

  5. Progress on DCLL Blanket Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Clement; Abdou, M.; Katoh, Yutai; Kurtz, Richard J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Marriott, Edward P.; Merrill, Brad; Morley, Neil; Pint, Bruce A.; Sawan, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Williams, Brian; Willms, Scott; Youssef, M.

    2013-09-01

    Under the US Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Development program, we have selected the Dual Coolant Lead Lithium concept (DCLL) as a reference blanket, which has the potential to be a high performance DEMO blanket design with a projected thermal efficiency of >40%. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAF/M) steel is used as the structural material. The self-cooled breeder PbLi is circulated for power conversion and for tritium breeding. A SiC-based flow channel insert (FCI) is used as a means for magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop reduction from the circulating liquid PbLi and as a thermal insulator to separate the high-temperature PbLi (~700°C) from the helium-cooled RAF/M steel structure. We are making progress on related R&D needs to address critical Fusion Nuclear Science and Facility (FNSF) and DEMO blanket development issues. When performing the function as the Interface Coordinator for the DCLL blanket concept, we had been developing the mechanical design and performing neutronics, structural and thermal hydraulics analyses of the DCLL TBM module. We had estimated the necessary ancillary equipment that will be needed at the ITER site and a detailed safety impact report has been prepared. This provided additional understanding of the DCLL blanket concept in preparation for the FNSF and DEMO. This paper will be a summary report on the progress of the DCLL TBM design and R&Ds for the DCLL blanket concept.

  6. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  7. Detection of Breeding Blankets Using Antineutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Bernadette; Huber, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement between the United States and Russia makes arrangements for the disposal of 34 metric tons of excess weapon-grade plutonium. Under this agreement Russia plans to dispose of its excess stocks by processing the plutonium into fuel for fast breeder reactors. To meet the disposition requirements this fuel would be burned while the fast reactors are run as burners, i.e., without a natural uranium blanket that can be used to breed plutonium surrounding the core. This talk discusses the potential application of antineutrino monitoring to the verification of the presence or absence of a breeding blanket. It is found that a 36 kg antineutrino detector, exploiting coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering and made of silicon, could determine the presence of a breeding blanket at a liquid sodium cooled fast reactor at the 95% confidence level within 90 days. Such a detector would be a novel non-intrusive verification tool and could present a first application of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering to a real-world challenge.

  8. Neutronic performance issues of the breeding blanket options for the European DEMO fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion—Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SERMA, LPEC, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Moro, F. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Villari, R. [ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione e tecnologie per la Sicurezza Nucleare, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Breeder blanket concepts for DEMO—design features. • Neutronic characteristics of breeder blankets. • Evaluation of Tritium breeding potential. • Evaluation of shielding performance. - Abstract: This paper presents nuclear performance issues of the HCPB, HCLL, DCLL and WCLL breeder blankets, which are under development within the PPPT (Power Plant Physics and Technology) programme of EUROfusion, with the objective to assess the potential and suitability of the blankets for the application to DEMO. The assessment is based on the initial design versions of the blankets developed in 2014. The Tritium breeding potential is considered sufficient for all breeder blankets although the initial design versions of the HCPB, HCLL and DCLL blankets were shown to require further design improvements. Suitable measures have been proposed and proven to be sufficient to achieve the required Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) ≥ 1.10. The shielding performance was shown to be sufficient to protect the super-conducting toroidal field coil provided that efficient shielding material mixtures including WC or borated water are utilized. The WCLL blanket does not require the use of such shielding materials due to a very compact blanket support structure/manifold configuration which yet requires design verification. The vacuum vessel can be safely operated over the full anticipated DEMO lifetime of 6 full power years for all blanket concepts considered.

  9. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  10. Status on DEMO Helium Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket thermo-mechanical analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, G.; Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kiss, B. [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Morin, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. The DEMO HCLL breeding blanket design capitalizes on the experience acquired on the HCLL Test Blanket Module designed for ITER. Design improvements are being implemented to adapt the design to DEMO specifications and performance objectives. • Thermal and mechanical analyses have been carried out in order to justify the design of the HCLL breeding blanket showing promising results for tie rods modules’ attachments system and relatively good behavior of the box in case of LOCA when comparing to RCC-MRx criteria. • CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit have enabled the consolidation of the results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. - Abstract: The EUROfusion Consortium develops a design of a fusion power demonstrator (DEMO) in the framework of the European “Horizon 2020” innovation and research program. One of the key components in the fusion reactor is the breeding blanket surrounding the plasma, ensuring tritium self-sufficiency, heat removal for conversion into electricity, and neutron shielding. The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the concepts which is investigated for DEMO. It is made of a Eurofer structure and uses the eutectic liquid lithium–lead as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and helium gas as coolant. Within the EUROfusion organization, CEA with the support of Wigner-RCP and IPP-CR, is in charge of the design of the HCLL blanket for DEMO. This paper presents the status of the thermal and mechanical analyses carried out on the HCLL breeding blanket in order to justify the design. CFD thermal analyses on generic breeding unit including stiffening plates and cooling plates have been performed with ANSYS in order to consolidate results obtained with previous FEM design analyses. Moreover in order to expand the justification of the HCLL Breeding blanket design, the most loaded area of

  11. Neutronics Comparison Analysis of the Water Cooled Ceramics Breeding Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Xiaokang; Gao, Fangfang; Pu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like fusion engineering test reactor that is intended to fill the scientific and technical gaps between ITER and DEMO. One of the main missions of CFETR is to achieve a tritium breeding ratio that is no less than 1.2 to ensure tritium self-sufficiency. A concept design for a water cooled ceramics breeding blanket (WCCB) is presented based on a scheme with the breeder and the multiplier located in separate panels for CFETR. Based on this concept, a one-dimensional (1D) radial built breeding blanket was first designed, and then several three-dimensional models were developed with various neutron source definitions and breeding blanket module arrangements based on the 1D radial build. A set of nuclear analyses have been carried out to compare the differences in neutronics characteristics given by different calculation models, addressing neutron wall loading (NWL), tritium breeding ratio (TBR), fast neutron flux on inboard side and nuclear heating deposition on main in-vessel components. The impact of differences in modeling on the nuclear performance has been analyzed and summarized regarding the WCCB concept design. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  12. Design of the helium cooled lithium lead breeding blanket in CEA: from TBM to DEMO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, G.; Aubert, J.; Forest, L.; Jaboulay, J.-C.; Li Puma, A.; Boccaccini, L. V.

    2017-04-01

    The helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) blanket concept was originally developed in CEA at the beginning of 2000: it is one of the two European blanket concepts to be tested in ITER in the form of a test blanket module (TBM) and one of the four blanket concepts currently being considered for the DEMOnstration reactor that will follow ITER. The TBM is a highly optimized component for the ITER environment that will provide crucial information for the development of the DEMO blanket, but its design needs to be adapted to the DEMO reactor. With respect to the TBM design, reduction of the steel content in the breeding zone (BZ) is sought in order to maximize tritium breeding reactions. Different options are being studied, with the potential of reaching tritium breeding ratio (TBR) values up to 1.21. At the same time, the design of the back supporting structure (BSS), which is a DEMO specific component that has to support the blanket modules inside the vacuum vessel (VV), is ongoing with the aim of maximizing the shielding power and minimizing pumping power. This implies a re-engineering of the modules’ attachment system. Design changes however, will have an impact on the manufacturing and assembly sequences that are being developed for the HCLL-TBM. Due to the differences in joint configurations, thicknesses to be welded, heat dissipation and the various technical constraints related to the accessibility of the welding tools and implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE), the manufacturing procedure should be adapted and optimized for DEMO design. Laser welding instead of TIG could be an option to reduce distortions. The time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique is being investigated for NDE. Finally, essential information expected from the HCLL-TBM program that will be needed to finalize the DEMO design is discussed.

  13. Thermo-mechanical characterization of ceramic pebbles for breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo Frano, Rosa, E-mail: rosa.lofrano@ing.unipi.it; Aquaro, Donato; Scaletti, Luca

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experimental activities to characterize the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}. • Compression tests of pebbles. • Experimental evaluation of thermal conductivity of pebbles bed at different temperatures. • Experimental test with/without compression load. - Abstract: An open issue for fusion power reactor is to design a suitable breeding blanket capable to produce the necessary quantity of the tritium and to transfer the energy of the nuclear fusion reaction to the coolant. The envisaged solution called Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) breeding blanket foresees the use of lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) or lithium metatitanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) pebble beds. The thermal mechanical properties of the candidate pebble bed materials are presently extensively investigated because they are critical for the feasibility and performances of the numerous conceptual designs which use a solid breeder. This study is aimed at the investigation of mechanical properties of the lithium orthosilicate and at the characterization of the main chemical, physical and thermo-mechanical properties taking into account the production technology. In doing that at the Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering (DICI) of the University of Pisa adequate experiments were carried out. The obtained results may contribute to characterize the material of the pebbles and to optimize the design of the envisaged fusion breeding blankets.

  14. Analysis of Time-Dependent Tritium Breeding Capability of Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xiaokang; Pu, Yong; Zhu, Qingjun; Liu, Songlin

    2016-08-01

    Attaining tritium self-sufficiency is an important mission for the Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR) operating on a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) fuel cycle. It is necessary to study the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and breeding tritium inventory variation with operation time so as to provide an accurate data for dynamic modeling and analysis of the tritium fuel cycle. A water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) blanket is one candidate of blanket concepts for the CFETR. Based on the detailed 3D neutronics model of CFETR with the WCCB blanket, the time-dependent TBR and tritium surplus were evaluated by a coupling calculation of the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the fusion activation code FISPACT-2007. The results indicated that the TBR and tritium surplus of the WCCB blanket were a function of operation time and fusion power due to the Li consumption in breeder and material activation. In addition, by comparison with the results calculated by using the 3D neutronics model and employing the transfer factor constant from 1D to 3D, it is noted that 1D analysis leads to an over-estimation for the time-dependent tritium breeding capability when fusion power is larger than 1000 MW. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2015GB108002, and 2014GB119000), and by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  15. The MARINE experiment: Irradiation of sphere-pac fuel and pellets of UO{sub 2−x} for americium breeding blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Agata, E., E-mail: elio.dagata@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Hania, P.R. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Freis, D.; Somers, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bejaoui, S. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Charpin, F.F.; Baas, P.J.; Okel, R.A.F.; Til, S. van [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, P.O. Box 25, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Lapetite, J.-M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Delage, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, DEN/DEC, F-13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • MARINE is designed to check the behaviour of MABB sphere-pac concept. • MABB sphere-pac are compared with MABB pellet. • Swelling and helium release behaviour will be the main output of the experiment. • An experiment to check sphere-pac MADF fuel behaviour has been already performed. - Abstract: Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is therefore an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and heat production of waste packages to be stored in a repository. The MARINE irradiation experiment is the latest of a series of European experiments on americium transmutation (e.g. EFTTRA-T4, EFTTRA-T4bis, HELIOS, MARIOS, SPHERE) performed in the High Flux Reactor (HFR). The MARINE experiment is developed and carried out in the framework of the collaborative research project PELGRIMM of the EURATOM 7th Framework Programme (FP7). During the past years of experimental works in the field of transmutation and tests of innovative nuclear fuels, the release or trapping of helium as well as swelling have been shown to be the key issues for the design of such kind of fuel both as drivers and even more for Am-bearing blanket targets (due to the higher Am contents). The main objective of the MARINE experiment is to study the in-pile behaviour of uranium oxide fuel containing 13% of americium and to compare the behaviour of sphere-pac versus pellet fuel, in particular the role of microstructure and temperature on fission gas release and He on fuel swelling. The MARINE experiment will be irradiated in 2016 in the HFR in Petten (The Netherlands) and is expected to be completed in spring 2017. This paper discusses the rationale and objective of the MARINE experiment and provides a general description of its design for which some innovative features have been adopted.

  16. Liquid lithium self-cooled breeding blanket design for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Danilov, I.V.; Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering, 101100 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mattas, R.F.; Hua, T.Q.; Smith, D.L. [Fusion Power Program, Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL 60439 (United States); Gohard, Y. [ITER Garching Joint Work Site, Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    To meet the technical objectives of the ITER extended performance phase (EPP) an advanced tritium breeding lithium/vanadium (Li/V) blanket was developed by two home teams (US and RF). The design is based on the use of liquid Li as coolant and breeder and vanadium alloy (V-Cr-Ti) as structural material. The first wall is coated with a beryllium protection layer. Beryllium is also integrated in the blanket for neutron multiplication and improved shielding. The use of tungsten carbide in the primary shield and in vacuum vessel provides adequate protection for toroidal field coils. A self-healing electrical insulator in the form of CaO or AlN coating layer is utilized to reduce MHD pressure drop in the system. To have a self-consistent ITER design, liquid metal cooling of the divertor and vacuum vessel is considered as well. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Ternary Alloys for Fusion Breeding Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chiu, Ing L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Future fusion power plants based on the deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel cycle will be required to breed the T fuel via neutron reactions with lithium, which will be incorporated in a breeding blanket that surrounds the fusion source. Recent work by LLNL proposed the used of liquid Li as the breeder in an inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. Subsequently, an LDRD was initiated to develop alternatives ternary alloy liquid metal breeders that have reduced chemical reactivity with water and air compared to pure Li. Part of the work plan was to experimentally investigate the phase diagrams of ternary alloys. Of particular interest was measurement of the melt temperature, which must be low enough to be compatible with the temperature limits of the steel used in the construction of the chamber and heat transfer system.

  18. Evaluation of the breed/burn fast reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atefi, B.; Driscoll, M.J.; Lanning, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    A core design concept and fuel management strategy, designated breed/burn, has been evaluated for heterogeneous fast breeder reactors. In this concept internal blanket assemblies after fissile material is bred in over several incore cycles, are shuffled into a moderated radial blanket and/or central island. The most promising materials combination identified used thorium in the internal blankets (due to the superior performance of epithermal Th-U233 systems) and zirconium hydride (ZrH/sub 16/) as the moderator (because of the compact assembly and core designs it permitted).

  19. A water cooled, lithium lead breeding blanket for a DEMO fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rieger, M.; Biggio, M.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Tominetti, S.; Wu, J.; Zucchetti, M. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Labbe, P.; Baraer, L.; Gervaise, G.; Giancarli, L.; Roze, M.; Severi, Y.; Quintric-Bossy, J. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))

    1991-04-01

    The main features of a tritium breeding blanket for a Demonstration Power Reactor involving the eutectic Pb-17Li as liquid breeder and water as coolant are presented. The configuration of the blanket segments and breeder modules as well as their arrangement inside the reactor vacuum vessel are outlined. The main design aspects and the corresponding design limits are reviewed, namely those related to thermomechanics, neutronics, magneto-hydrodynamics, tritium permeation and recovery. First results of safety analysis, in particular those connected with the rupture of a coolant tube in the breeder module are presented and discussed. As a conclusion, the feasibility of the concept look attractive. A problem which requires further investigation is that of the tritium self-sufficiency. It is shown that a net tritium production near to one can be obtained if berylium tiles are placed in front of the plasma, provided that they are cooled by heavy water. (orig.).

  20. Improved structure and long-life blanket concepts for heliotron reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Mitarai, O.; Dolan, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kubota, Y.; Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Mizuguchi, N.; Muroga, T.; Noda, N.; Kaneko, O.; Yamada, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Uda, T.; Komori, A.; Sudo, S.; Motojima, O.

    2005-04-01

    New design approaches are proposed for the LHD-type heliotron D-T demo-reactor FFHR2 to solve the key engineering issues of blanket space limitation and replacement difficulty. A major radius of over 14 m is selected to permit a blanket-shield thickness of about 1 m and to reduce the neutron wall loading and toroidal field, while achieving an acceptable cost of electricity. Two sets of optimization are successfully carried out. One is to reduce the magnetic hoop force on the helical coil support structures by adjustment of the helical winding coil pitch parameter and the poloidal coils design, which facilitates expansion of the maintenance ports. The other is a long-life blanket concept using carbon armour tiles that soften the neutron energy spectrum incident on the self-cooled flibe-reduced activation ferritic steel blanket. In this adaptation of the spectral-shifter and tritium breeder blanket (STB) concept a local tritium breeding ratio over 1.2 is feasible by optimized arrangement of the neutron multiplier Be in the carbon tiles, and the radiation shielding of the superconducting magnet coils is also significantly improved. Using constant cross sections of a helically winding shape, the 'screw coaster' concept is proposed to replace in-vessel components such as the STB armour tiles. The key R&D issues for developing the STB concept, such as radiation effects on carbon and enhanced heat transfer of Flibe, are elucidated.

  1. Review: BNL graphite blanket design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    A review of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) minimum activity graphite blanket designs is made. Three designs are identified and discussed in the context of an experimental power reactor (EPR) and commercial power reactor. Basically, the three designs employ a thick graphite screen (typically 30 cm or greater, depending on type as well as application-experimental power reactor or commercial reactor). Bremsstrahlung energy is deposited on the graphite surface and re-radiated away as thermal radiation. Fast neutrons are slowed down in the graphite, depositing most of their energy. This energy is then either radiated to a secondary blanket with coolant tubes, as in types A and B, or is removed by intermittent direct gas cooling (type C). In types A and B, radiation damage to the structural material of the coolant tubes in the secondary blanket is reduced by one or two orders of magnitude by the graphite screen, while in type C, the blanket is only cooled when the reactor is shut down, so that coolant cannot quench the plasma, whatever the degree of radiation damage.

  2. First wall and blanket concepts for experimental fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Biggio, M.; Cardella, A.; Daenner, W.; Farfaletti-Casali, F.; Ponti, C.; Rieger, M.; Vieider, G.

    1985-07-01

    The paper describes the progress of the studies on first wall and liquid breeder blankets for tritium production in the Next European Torus (NET). Two concepts of first wall/blanket segments are described, using 17Li83Pb as breeder and water as coolant. In both concepts the first wall is integrated in a steel box enveloping the breeder units which are cylindrical vessels with an inside heat transfer system. The thermomechanical and neutronics features of the two concepts are evaluated. Finally, the questions related to tritium permeation into coolant and tritium recovery from breeder are discussed on the basis of the analysis in progress in Europe.

  3. Multiple Module Simulation of Water Cooled Breeding Blankets in K-DEMO Using Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Code MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A preliminary concept for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) has been studied by the National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) based on the National Fusion Roadmap of Korea. The feasibility studies have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the breeding blanket. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting thermal design, evaluation and validation of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of MARS-KS to the overall blanket system analysis which includes 736 blanket modules in total. The strategy for the multi-module blanket system analysis using MARS-KS is introduced and the analysis result of the 46 blanket modules of single sector was summarized. A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for a nuclear reactor safety, MARS-KS, was applied for thermal analysis of the conceptual design of the K-DEMO breeding blanket. Then, a methodology to simulate multiple blanket modules was proposed, which uses a supervisor program to handle each blanket module individually at first and then distribute the flow rate considering the pressure drop that occurs in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a sector, which are connected with each other through the common headers for the sector inlet and outlet, were simulated. The calculation results of flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures showed the validity of the calculation. Because of parallelization using the MPI system, the computational time could be reduced significantly. In future, this methodology will be extended to an efficient simulation of multiple sectors, and further validation for transient simulation will be carried out for more practical applications.

  4. Development of the breeding blanket and shield model for the fusion power reactors system SYCOMORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li-Puma, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lipuma@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: Jean-Charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, Brunella, E-mail: brunella.martin@gmail.com [Incka, 19-21 Rue du 8 mai 1945, F-94110 Arcueil (France)

    2014-10-15

    SYCOMORE, a fusion reactor system code based on a modular approach is under development at CEA. Within this framework, this paper describes the relevant sub-modules which have been implemented to model the main outputs of the breeding blanket and shield block of the system code: tritium breeding ratio, peak energy deposition in toroidal field coils, reactor layout and power deposition, blanket pressure drops and materials inventory. Blanket and shield requirements are calculated by several sub-modules: the blanket assembly and layout sub-module, the neutronic sub-module, the blanket design sub-module (thermal hydraulic and thermo-mechanic pre-design tool). A power flow module has also been developed which is directly linked to the blanket thermo-dynamic performances, which is not described in this paper. For the blanket assembly and layout and the blanket module design sub-modules, explicit analytic models have been developed and implemented; for the neutronic sub-module neural networks that replicate the results of appropriate simplified 1D and 2D neutronic simulations have been built. Presently, relevant model for the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead is available. Sub-modules have been built in a way that they can run separately or coupled into the breeding blanket and shield module in order to be integrated in SYCOMORE. In the paper, the objective and main input/output parameters of each sub-module are reported and relevant models discussed. The application to previous studied reactor models (PPCS model AB, DEMO-HCLL 2006–2007 studies) is also presented.

  5. Activation Characteristics of Fuel Breeding Blanket Module in Fusion Driven Subcritical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qun-Ying; LI Jian-Gang; CHEN Yi-Xue

    2004-01-01

    @@ Shortage of energy resources and production of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors are among the main problems which will be faced in the world in the near future. The conceptual design of a fusion driven subcritical system (FDS) is underway in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. There are alternative designs for multi-functional blanket modules of the FDS, such as fuel breeding blanket module (FBB)to produce fuels for fission reactors, tritium breeding blanket module to produce the fuel, i.e. tritium, for fusion reactor and waste transmutation blanket module to try to permanently dispose of long-lived radioactivity wastes from fission reactors, etc. Activation of the fuel breeding blanket of the fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-FBB) by D-T fusion neutrons from the plasma and fission neutrons from the hybrid blanket are calculated and analysed under the neutron wall loading 0.5 MW/m2 and neutron fluence 15 MW. yr/m2. The neutron spectrum is calculated with the worldwide-used transport code MCNP/4C and activation calculations are carried out with the well known European inventory code FISPACT/99 with the latest released IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL-2.0 and the ENDF/B-V uranium evaluated data. Induced radioactivities, dose rates and afterheats, etc, for different components of the FDS-FBB are compared and analysed.

  6. Effect of reactor size on the breeding economics of LMFBR blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagishi, A.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1975-02-01

    The effect of reactor size on the neutronic and economic performance of LMFBR blankets driven by radially-power-flattened cores has been investigated using both simple models and state-of-the-art computer methods. Reactor power ratings in the range 250 to 3000 MW(e) were considered. Correlations for economic breakeven and optimum irradiation times and blanket thicknesses have been developed for batch-irradiated blankets. It is shown that a given distance from the core-blanket interface the fissile buildup rate per unit volume remains very nearly constant in the radial blanket as (radially-power-flattened, constant-height) core size increases. As a consequence, annual revenue per blanket assembly, and breakeven and optimum irradiation times and optimum blanket dimensions, are the same for all reactor sizes. It is also shown that the peripheral core fissile enrichment, hence neutron leakage spectra, of the (radially-power-flattened, constant-height) cores remains essentially constant as core size increases. Coupled with the preceding observations, this insures that radial blanket breeding performance in demonstration-size LMFBR units will be a good measure of that in much larger commercial LMFBR's.

  7. Neutronics Optimization of Tritium Breeding Blan-ket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿; 黄群英

    2002-01-01

    Neutronics optimization calculations have been performed for thc tritium breeding blankets with solid ceramic breeder Li2O and liquid eutectie breeder Li17Pb83, respectively,based on a 2-D geometrical configuration using the Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4B. The effects of beryllium, 6Li enrichment and various structural materials on Tritium Breeding Ratio have been systematically analyzed.

  8. Thermal and structural design issues of breeding blankets for testing in the Next European Torus (NET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.

    1988-05-01

    A review of the breeding blankets under study in Europe for testing in the Next European Torus is presented. In many concepts, the breeder modules are enclosed in boxes whose side walls in front of the plasma act as the first wall of the machine. Various types of breeder modules are investigated, involving both liquid and solid breeders, namely: - Pb-17Li liquid breeder concepts, the coolant being either water or Pb-17Li itself; - solid (ceramic) breeder concepts, the coolant being in all cases helium. The various ceramic concepts differ in the breeder/coolant arrangement (breeder-out-of-tube and breeder-in-tube), the orientation of the coolant tubes (poloidal or toroidal) and the breeder geometry (rods, plates or pebble bed). For each of these concepts the main design features are shown and the thermomechanical problems are discussed. The problems related to a coolant tube rupture are in many cases the most severe from the structural design point of view. The first wall box enclosing the breeder modules appears to be a weak secondary containment barrier. The liquid breeder-water cooled concept looks manageable from the thermal and structural design of point view. In the case of the self-cooled liquid breeder concept, the main problems are related to the magnetohydrodynamic effects. Solutions are envisaged to overcome these difficulties. In the case of ceramic breeders, the use of plates implies small dimensions in order to limit the thermal stresses and a poor exploitation of the permitted temperature operation window. Solutions involving rods associated with a multipass cooling scheme or pebble bed enable achievement of better thermomechanical conditions and, therefore, are preferred in the current investigations. However, they lead to design complications and require experimental verification which is in progress at the European laboratories.

  9. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guanheng

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the 200 Displacements per Atom (DPA) radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to have an elongated seed (or “driver”) to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak into the su...

  10. RAMI analysis for DEMO HCPB blanket concept cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongiovanni, Danilo N., E-mail: danilo.dongiovanni@enea.it [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Pinna, Tonio [ENEA, Unità Tecnica Fusione, ENEA C. R. Frascati (Italy); Carloni, Dario [KIT, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) – KIT (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) preliminary assessment for HCPB blanket concept cooling system. • Reliability block diagram (RBD) modeling and analysis for HCPB primary heat transfer system (PHTS), coolant purification system (CPS), pressure control system (PCS), and secondary cooling system. • Sensitivity analysis on system availability performance. • Failure models and repair models estimated on the base of data from the ENEA fusion component failure rate database (FCFRDB). - Abstract: A preliminary RAMI (reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability) assessment for the HCPB (helium cooled pebble bed) blanket cooling system based on currently available design for DEMO fusion power plant is presented. The following sub-systems were considered in the analysis: blanket modules, primary cooling loop including pipework and steam generators lines, pressure control system (PCS), coolant purification system (CPS) and secondary cooling system. For PCS and CPS systems an extrapolation from ITER Test Blanket Module corresponding systems was used as reference design in the analysis. Helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) system reliability block diagrams (RBD) models were implemented taking into account: system reliability-wise configuration, operating schedule currently foreseen for DEMO, maintenance schedule and plant evolution schedule as well as failure and corrective maintenance models. A simulation of plant activity was then performed on implemented RBDs to estimate plant availability performance on a mission time of 30 calendar years. The resulting availability performance was finally compared to availability goals previously proposed for DEMO plant by a panel of experts. The study suggests that inherent availability goals proposed for DEMO PHTS system and Tokamak auxiliaries are potentially achievable for the primary loop of the HCPB concept cooling system, but not for the secondary loop. A

  11. Octalithium plumbate as breeding blanket ceramic: Neutronic performances, synthesis and partial characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colominas, S., E-mail: sergi.colominas@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Palermo, I., E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Abella, J., E-mail: jordi.abella@iqs.es [Universitat Ramon Llull, ETS Institut Quimic de Sarria, Electrochemical Methods Laboratory - Analytical Chemistry Department, Via Augusta, 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Gomez-Ros, J.M., E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J., E-mail: jsanz@ind.uned.es [UNED, Department of Nuclear Energy, c./Juan del Rosal 12, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sedano, L., E-mail: luis.sedano@ciemat.es [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of a suitable configuration for the Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} breeding blanket design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of the feasibility of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} as a breeding material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis optimization in the Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} by X-ray phase analysis is discussed. - Abstract: A neutronic assessment of the performances of a helium-cooled Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} breeding blanket (BB) for the conceptual design of a DEMO fusion reactor is given. Different BB configurations have been considered in order to minimize the amount of beryllium required for neutron multiplication, including the use of graphite as reflector material. The calculated neutronic responses: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), power deposition in TF coils and power amplification factor, indicate the feasibility of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} as breeding material. Furthermore, the synthesis and characterization of Li{sub 8}PbO{sub 6} by X-ray phase analysis are also discussed.

  12. Inclusion and difusion studies of D in fusion breeding blanket candidate materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.

    2015-07-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) reaction is the most practical fusion reaction on the way to harness fusion energy. As tritium presents trace quantities on Earth [1], tritium fuel is essential to be generated simultaneously with the D-T reaction in a commerical fusion power plant. Tritium can be obtained in the lithium contained breeding blanket as a transmutation product of nuclear reaction 6Li (n, a)T. Li2T iO3 is considered to be one promising candidate solid tritium breeder material, due to its high lithium density, low activation, compatiblity with structure materials and high chemical stability. The tritium generated in Li2T iO3 breeding blanket needs to be collected and recycled back to the fusion reaction. Therefore, the study of the diffusion characteristic of breeder material Li2T iO3 is necessary to determine tritium mobility and tritium extraction efficiency. In order to study tritium release mechanism of Li2T iO3 breeding material in a fusion power plant environment, a fusion like neutron spectrum is essential while it is now not availble in any laboratory. One alternative is using ion accelerator or implantor to get energetic hydrogenic (H,D,T) ions impacting on breeding material, to simulate the tritium distribution situation. Because of the radioactive property of tritium which will complicate processing procedure, another isotope of hydrogen Deuterium is actually used to be studied. The defect structure in Li2T iO3, due to reactor exposure to fusion generated particles and ? ray irradiation, is achieved by energetic Ti ions. SRIM program is implemented to simulate the D ion or Ti ion distributions after bombarding, as well as the defects. X-ray diffraction technique helps to identify phase compositions. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used to observe the microstructures (Author)

  13. Development of Thermal-hydraulic Analysis Methodology for Multi-module Breeding Blankets in K-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun; Park, Goon-Cherl; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the purpose of the analyses is to extend the capability of MARS-KS to the entire blanket system which includes a few hundreds of single blanket modules. Afterwards, the plan for the whole blanket system analysis using MARS-KS is introduced and the result of the multiple blanket module analysis is summarized. A thermal-hydraulic analysis code for a nuclear reactor safety, MARS-KS, was applied for the conceptual design of the K-DEMO breeding blanket thermal analysis. Then, a methodology to simulate multiple blanket modules was proposed, which uses a supervisor program to handle each blanket module individually at first and then distribute the flow rate considering pressure drops arises in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 10 outboard blankets in a toroidal field sector were simulated, which are connected with each other through the inlet and outlet common headers. The calculation results of flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures showed the validity of the calculation and thanks to the parallelization using MPI, almost linear speed-up could be obtained.

  14. Fusion reactor blanket/shield design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Clemmer, R.G.; Harkness, S.D.

    1979-07-01

    A joint study of tokamak reactor first-wall/blanket/shield technology was conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC). The objectives of this program were the identification of key technological limitations for various tritium-breeding-blanket design concepts, establishment of a basis for assessment and comparison of the design features of each concept, and development of optimized blanket designs. The approach used involved a review of previously proposed blanket designs, analysis of critical technological problems and design features associated with each of the blanket concepts, and a detailed evaluation of the most tractable design concepts. Tritium-breeding-blanket concepts were evaluated according to the proposed coolant. The ANL effort concentrated on evaluation of lithium- and water-cooled blanket designs while the MDAC effort focused on helium- and molten salt-cooled designs. A joint effort was undertaken to provide a consistent set of materials property data used for analysis of all blanket concepts. Generalized nuclear analysis of the tritium breeding performance, an analysis of tritium breeding requirements, and a first-wall stress analysis were conducted as part of the study. The impact of coolant selection on the mechanical design of a tokamak reactor was evaluated. Reference blanket designs utilizing the four candidate coolants are presented.

  15. Advanced Burner Reactor with Breed-and-Burn Thorium Blankets for Improved Economics and Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, Ehud [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-04

    This study assesses the feasibility of designing Seed and Blanket (S&B) Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) to generate a significant fraction of the core power from radial thorium fueled blankets that operate on the Breed-and-Burn (B&B) mode without exceeding the radiation damage constraint of presently verified cladding materials. The S&B core is designed to maximize the fraction of neutrons that radially leak from the seed (or “driver”) into the subcritical blanket and reduce neutron loss via axial leakage. The blanket in the S&B core makes beneficial use of the leaking neutrons for improved economics and resource utilization. A specific objective of this study is to maximize the fraction of core power that can be generated by the blanket without violating the thermal hydraulic and material constraints. Since the blanket fuel requires no reprocessing along with remote fuel fabrication, a larger fraction of power from the blanket will result in a smaller fuel recycling capacity and lower fuel cycle cost per unit of electricity generated. A unique synergism is found between a low conversion ratio (CR) seed and a B&B blanket fueled by thorium. Among several benefits, this synergism enables the very low leakage S&B cores to have small positive coolant voiding reactivity coefficient and large enough negative Doppler coefficient even when using inert matrix fuel for the seed. The benefits of this synergism are maximized when using an annular seed surrounded by an inner and outer thorium blankets. Among the high-performance S&B cores designed to benefit from this unique synergism are: (1) the ultra-long cycle core that features a cycle length of ~7 years; (2) the high-transmutation rate core where the seed fuel features a TRU CR of 0.0. Its TRU transmutation rate is comparable to that of the reference Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) with CR of 0.5 and the thorium blanket can generate close to 60% of the core power; but requires only one sixth of the reprocessing and

  16. Conceptual design of a First Wall mock-up experiment in preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket technologies in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeile, C., E-mail: christian.zeile@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Abou-Sena, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B.E.; Kang, Q.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lamberti, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Maione, I.A.; Rey, J.; Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experiment in preparation for the qualification of Breeding Blanket technologies in HELOKA facility is proposed. • Experimental capabilities, instrumentation of the mock-up and experimental program are presented. • Design and manufacturing of the mock-up is described. • Design of modular attachment system to obtain different stress levels and distributions on the mock-up is discussed. - Abstract: An experimental program based on a First Wall mock-up is presented as preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket mock-ups at high heat flux in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility. Two objectives of the experimental program have been defined: testing of the experimental setup and a first validation of FE models. The design and manufacturing of mock-up representing about 1/3 of the heated zone of an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) First Wall is discussed. A modular attachment system concept has been developed for the fixation of the mock-up in order to be able to generate different stress distributions and levels on the plate, which is confirmed by thermo-mechanical analyses. The HELOKA facility is able to provide a TBM relevant helium cooling system and to generate the required surface heat flux by an electron beam gun. An installed IR camera can be used to measure the temperature distribution on the surface.

  17. Tritium management and anti-permeation strategies for three different breeding blanket options foreseen for the European Power Plant Physics and Technology Demonstration reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boccaccini, L.V.; Franza, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Santucci, A.; Tosti, S. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom sulla Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Wagner, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Herrmann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In DT fusion reactors like DEMO, the commonly accepted tritium (T) losses through the steam generator (SG) shall not exceed about 2 mg/d that are more than 5 orders of magnitude lower than the T production rate of about 360 g/d in the breeding blanket (BB). A very effective mitigation strategy is required balancing the size and efficiency of the processes in the breeding and cooling loops, and the availability and efficiency of anti-permeation barriers. A numerical study is presented using the T permeation code FUS-TPC that computes all T flows and inventories considering the design and operation of the BB, the SG, and the T systems. Many scenarios are numerically analyzed for three breeding blankets concepts – helium cooled pebbles bed (HCPB), helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL), and water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) – varying the T processes throughput and efficiency, and the permeation regimes through the BB and SG to be either surface-limited or diffusion-limited with possible permeation reduction factor. For each BB concept, we discuss workable operation scenarios and suggest specific anti-permeation strategies.

  18. ORNL fusion power demonstration study: the concept of the cassette blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R. W.

    1977-10-01

    The cassette blanket introduces four major improvements in fusion reactor blanket design. These are: (1) the cassette itself which by design furnishes the key unit for simplification of blanket replacement and maintenance and also isolates the lithium moderator from the plasma by enveloping it in the coolant; (2) the concept of blanket zoning, which uses to advantage the fact that radiation damage to structure decreases exponentially with distance. With the use of cassettes in series, only the front fraction of the blanket, the first cassette, need be changed due to damage over the life of the plant; (3) the rectangular blanket concept, which recognizes that blankets must envelop the plasma but need not conform to plasma shape. With this rectangular geometry, cassettes may be installed or removed by simple linear motion between magnet coils; (4) internal tritium recovery, which uses a favorable temperature gradient and ''MHD-frozen'' lithium to diffuse tritium out of the cassette. Supporting calculations and illustrative cases are provided for these four areas using two coolants: helium and HITEC, a eutectic mixture of inorganic salts (potassium nitrate, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite).

  19. Remote handling assessment of attachment concepts for DEMO blanket segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.iglesias@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Cooper, Dave; Crowe, Robert; Middleton-Gear, Dave [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sibois, Romain [VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Industrial Systems, ROViR, Tampere (Finland); Carloni, Dario [Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Vizvary, Zsolt; Crofts, Oliver [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit Garching, Boltzmannstaße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Loving, Antony [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Challenges are identified for the remote handling of blanket segments’ attachments. • Two attachment design approaches are assessed for remote handling (RH) feasibility. • An alternative is proposed, which potentially simplifies and speeds-up RH operations. • Up to three different assemblies are proposed for the remote handling of the attachments. • Proposed integrated design of upper port is compatible with the attachment systems. - Abstract: The replacement strategy of the massive Multi-Module Blanket Segments (MMS) is a key driver in the design of several DEMO systems. These include the blankets themselves, the vacuum vessel (VV) and its ports and the Remote Maintenance System (RMS). Common challenges to any blanket attachment system have been identified, such as the need for applying a preload to the MMS manifold, the effects of the decay heat and several uncertainties related to permanent deformations when removing the blanket segments after service. The WP12 kinematics of the MMS in-vessel transportation was adapted to the requirements of each of the supports during 2013 and 2014 design activities. The RM equipment envisaged for handling attachments and earth connections may be composed of up to three different assemblies. An In-Vessel Mover at the divertor level handles the lower support and earth bonding, and could stabilize the MMS during transportation. A Shield Plug crane with a 6 DoF manipulator operates the upper attachment and earth straps. And a Vertical Maintenance Crane is responsible for the in-vessel MMS transportation and can handle the removable upper support pins. A final proposal is presented which can potentially reduce the number of required systems, at the same time that speeds-up the RMS global operations.

  20. Tritium transport modeling for breeding blanket: State of the art and strategy for future development in the EU fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, Italo, E-mail: italo.ricapito@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, Luis [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The design of the Test Blanket Modules for ITER and the breeding blanket for DEMO requires robust and accurate modeling tools. Transport phenomena through the blanket tritium cycle are complex and involve a large number of physical properties and parameters, many of which have not been determined yet with a level of accuracy adequate for design optimization. Similarly, the use of simplified models with experimentally determined lumped coefficients allows satisfactory predictions only in very limited range of operative conditions, strongly reducing their potential to be relevant to the DEMO design. Within the European Union fusion program a road map to develop such modeling tools has been defined with the purpose of supporting the design of the ITER Tritium Blanket System and to exploit the TBM experimental testing for extrapolation to DEMO. The roadmap includes the development of the simulation tools as well as the supporting validation and verification experiments that must be carried out in parallel. This paper gives an overview of the state of the art of tritium modeling tools for blanket design, proposes a structure of the tritium modeling tools in order to facilitate their development and identifies a realistic work plan to achieve their final delivery.

  1. Preliminary Design of a Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR Based on the BIT Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuebin; Liu, Songlin; Li, Jia; Pu, Yong; Chen, Xiangcun

    2014-04-01

    CFETR is the “ITER-like” China fusion engineering test reactor. The design of the breeding blanket is one of the key issues in achieving the required tritium breeding radio for the self-sufficiency of tritium as a fuel. As one option, a BIT (breeder insider tube) type helium cooled ceramic breeder blanket (HCCB) was designed. This paper presents the design of the BIT—HCCB blanket configuration inside a reactor and its structure, along with neutronics, thermo-hydraulics and thermal stress analyses. Such preliminary performance analyses indicate that the design satisfies the requirements and the material allowable limits.

  2. Phase change of First Wall in Water-Cooled Breeding Blankets of K-DEMO for Vertical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon Woo; Lee, Jeong Hun; Cho, Hyoung Kyu; Park, Goon Cherl [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Im, Ki Hak [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to simulate thermal-hydraulic behavior of a single blanket module when plasma disruption occurs. Plasma disruptions, such as vertical displacement events (VDE), with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials and also burnout of coolant channels. The thermal design, evaluation and validation have been performed in order to establish the conceptual design guidelines of the water-cooled breeding blanket for the K-DEMO reactor. As a part of the NFRI research, Seoul National University (SNU) is conducting transient thermal-hydraulic analysis to confirm the integrity of blanket system for plasma disruption events. Vertical displacement events (VDE) with high heat flux can cause melting and vaporization of plasma facing materials (PFCs) and also burnout of coolant channels. In order to simulate melting of first wall in blanket module when VDE occurs, one-dimensional heat conduction equations were solved numerically with modification of the specific heat of the first wall materials using effective heat capacity method. Temperature profiles in first wall for VDE are shown in fig 7 - 9. At first, temperature of tungsten rapidly raised and even exceeded its melting temperature. When VDE just ended at 0.1 second, 0.83 mm thick of tungsten melted. But the other materials including vanadium and RAFM didn't exceed their melting temperatures after 500 seconds.

  3. Optimization of the breeder zone cooling tubes of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P.; Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Forte, R. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone cooling tubes. • Attention has been focused on the toroidal–radial breeder zone cooling tubes lay out. • A theoretical-computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) has been followed, adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. • Five different configurations have been investigated to optimize the breeder zone cooling tubes arrangement fulfilling all the rules prescribed by safety codes. - Abstract: The determination of an optimal configuration for the breeder zone (BZ) cooling tubes is one of the most important issues in the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) breeding blanket R&D activities, since BZ cooling tubes spatial distribution should ensure an efficient heat power removal from the breeder, avoiding hotspots occurrence in the thermal field. Within the framework of R&D activities supported by the HORIZON 2020 EUROfusion Consortium action on the DEMO WCLL breeding blanket design, a campaign of parametric analyses has been launched at the Department of Energy, Information Engineering and Mathematical Models of the University of Palermo (DEIM), in close cooperation with ENEA-Brasimone, in order to assess the potential influence of BZ cooling tubes number on the thermal performances of the DEMO WCLL outboard breeding blanket equatorial module under the nominal steady state operative conditions envisaged for it, optimizing their geometric configuration and taking also into account that a large number of cooling pipes can deteriorate the tritium breeding performances of the module. In particular, attention has been focused on the toroidal-radial option for the BZ tube bundles lay-out and a parametric study has been carried out taking into account different tube bundles arrangement within the module. The study has been carried out following a numerical approach, based on the finite element method (FEM), and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. Results

  4. Results of R and D for lithium/vanadium breeding blanket design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Reed, C.B.; Park, J.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kirillov, I.R. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Strebkov, Yu.S. [Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rusanov, A.E. [Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Votinov, S.N. [A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Non-Organic Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-04-01

    The self-cooled lithium/vanadium blanket concept has several attractive features for fusion power systems, including reduced activation, resistance to radiation damage, accommodation of high heat loads and operating to temperatures of 650--700 C. The primary issue associated with the lithium/vanadium concept is the potentially high MHD pressure drop experienced by the lithium as it flows through the high magnetic field of the tokamak. The solution to this issue is to apply a thin insulating coating to the inside of the vanadium alloy to prevent the generation of eddy currents within the structure that are responsible for the high MHD forces and pressure drop. This paper presents progress in the development of an insulator coating that is capable of operating in the severe fusion environment, progress in the fabrication development of vanadium alloys, and a summary of MHD testing. A large number of small scale tests of vanadium alloy specimens coated with CaO and AlN have been conducted in liquid lithium to determine the resistivity and stability of the coating. In-situ measurements in lithium have determined that CaO coatings, {approximately} 5 {micro}m thick, have resistivity times thickness values exceeding 10{sup 6} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. These results have been used to identify fabrication procedures for coating a large vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) test section that was tested in the ALEX (Argonne Liquid metal Experiment) facility. Similar test sections have been produced in both Russia and the US.

  5. Tritium management and safety issues in ITER and DEMO breeding blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornschein, B., E-mail: beate.bornschein@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany); Day, C.; Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pinna, T. [ENEA UTFUS-TEC, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Different aspects of tritium management in breeder blankets were reviewed. • Safe and reliable tritium management faces unique technological challenges. • Tritium recovery efficiency in tritium extraction system (TES) is a vital issue. • Tritium tracking accuracy needs to be demonstrated for the whole fuel cycle. • Improved or new processes for TES and CPS are needed in case of DEMO. -- Abstract: Safe, reliable and efficient tritium management in the breeder blanket faces unique technological challenges. Beside the tritium recovery efficiency in the tritium extraction and coolant purification systems, the tritium tracking accuracy between the inner and outer fuel cycle shall also be demonstrated. Furthermore, it is self-evident that safe handling and confinement of tritium need to be stringently assured to evolve fusion as a reliable technique. The present paper gives an overview of tritium management in breeder blankets. After a short introduction into the tritium fuel cycle and blanket basics, open tritium issues are discussed, thereby focusing on tritium extraction from blanket, coolant detritiation and tritium analytics and accountancy, necessary for accurate and reliable processing as well as for book-keeping.

  6. Objectives and status of EUROfusion DEMO blanket studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, L.V., E-mail: lorenzo.boccaccini@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Aiello, G.; Aubert, J. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, C. [EUROfusion, PPPT, Garching (Germany); Barrett, T. [CCFE, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Del Nevo, A. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Forest, L. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hernandez, F.; Norajitra, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Porempovic, G. [Fuziotech Engineering Ltd (Hungary); Rapisarda, D. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sardain, P. [CEA/IRFM, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Utili, M. [ENEA CR Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Vala, L. [Centrum výzkumu Řež, 250 68 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Short description of the new Breeding Blanket Project in the EUROfusion consortium for the design of the EU PPPT DEMO: objectives. • Presentation of the design approach used in the development of the Breeding Blanket design: requirements. • Breeding Blanket design; in particular the four blanket concepts included in the study are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. • Auxiliary systems and related R&D programme: in particular the work areas addressed in the Project (Tritium Technology, Pb-Li and Solid Breeders Technology, First Wall Design and R&D, Manufacturing) are presented, recent results highlighted and the status discussed. - Abstract: The design of a DEMO reactor requires the design of a blanket system suitable of reliable T production and heat extraction for electricity production. In the frame of the EUROfusion Consortium activities, the Breeding Blanket Project has been constituted in 2014 with the goal to develop concepts of Breeding Blankets for the EU PPPT DEMO; this includes an integrated design and R&D programme with the goal to select after 2020 concepts on fusion plants for the engineering phase. The design activities are presently focalized around a pool of solid and liquid breeder blanket with helium, water and PbLi cooling. Development of tritium extraction and control technology, as well manufacturing and development of solid and PbLi breeders are part of the programme.

  7. Preconceptual engineering design for the APT {sup 3}He target/blanket concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensink, D.L. [Babcock & Wilcox Co., Naval Nuclear Fuel Division, P.O. Box 785, Mt. Athos Rd., Lynchburg, Virginia 24505-0785 (United States); Rose, S.C. Jr. [Reactor Design and Analysis, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    1995-01-20

    A preconceptual engineering design has been developed for the {sup 3}He Target/Blanket (T/B) System for the Accelerator Production of Tritium Project. This concept uses an array of pressure tubes containing tungsten rods for the neutron spallation source and {sup 3}He gas contained in a metal tank and blanket tubes as the tritium production material. The engineering design is based on a physics model optimized for efficient tritium production. Principle engineering consideration were: provisions for cooling all materials including the {sup 3}He gas; containment of the gas and radionuclides; remote handling; material compatibility; minimization of {sup 3}He, D{sub 2}O, and activated waste; modularity; and manufacturability. The design provides a basis for estimating the cost to implement the system.

  8. The impact of new experimental data on the design of Pb-17Li/water breeding blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1989-04-01

    The Pb-17Li/water-cooled blanket is one of the concepts being developed in Europe for testing in NET (Next European Torus). JRC-Ispra is strongly involved in this development. This paper describes the impact of the latest experimental results on the blanket design. The points considered are: breeder operating temperature and thermomechanical design: experiments on corrosion with steel 316L and liquid metal embrittlement tests have provided upper and lower limits for the breeder operating temperature (280-400/sup 0/C); tritium recovery from the breeder and permeation rate to the coolant: Ispra measurements indicate that solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in Pb-17Li are lower as compared with the previous values used in blanket tritium analyses. The impact of these results on the design of the tritium recovery system is discussed; accident analyses: the experiments in progress at Ispra on the Pb-17Li/water interaction are reviewed and their application to a coolant pipe break accident is shown. (orig.).

  9. Low activity aluminum blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenati, R.; Tichler, P.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-03-01

    The basic design of the breeding blanket consists of cylindrical aluminium canisters filled with a ceramic bed of moderating, shielding, and breeding materials all suitably cooled. A technical analysis of the blanket for an EPR design is given. Activation studies are presented. The effect of pulsed magnetic fields on module structure is investigated. (MOW)

  10. Transient analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB blanket concept under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuming, E-mail: Yuming.chen@kit.edu; Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Jin, Xue Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents transient CFD analyses on the cooling channels of the DEMO HCPB FW for accidental scenarios LOCA and LOFA. • In both LOCA & LOFA, the wall temperature increases quickly to an unacceptable level within seconds. • If the coolant flow rate is maintained at a half of nominal value in case of LOFA (partial LOFA), the wall temperature rises much slower, but will still leads to a damage of structure within minutes. • The simulated heat transfer coefficients were compared with empirical correlations. - Abstract: Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket concept is one of the DEMO (Demonstration Power Plant) blanket concepts running for the final DEMO design selection. In this paper, transient analyses on the cooling channels of the FW are carried out by means of CFD simulations for the selected accidental scenarios loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and loss-of-flow-accident (LOFA). ANSYS-CFX is used for the simulations. The simulation results help to understand how fast the temperature of the FW can increase and what is the time window that is available until the temperature of the structural material reaches the design limit in order to be able to define a suitable protection strategy for the system. In view of later developments of the models, the heat transfer coefficients calculated with CFD are compared with the values predicted by two widely used correlations for turbulent pipe flows.

  11. Model and simulation of a vacuum sieve tray for T extraction from liquid PbLi breeding blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, M.A.J., E-mail: merlijn.mertens@ugent.be [Ghent University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center of Molecular Modeling, Technologiepark 903, B-9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Demange, D., E-mail: david.demange@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Frances, L., E-mail: laetitia.frances@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A simulation tool was developed to analyse, optimise and scale up VST set-ups. • This tool predicts that efficiencies higher than 90% can be reached. • Upscaling to DEMO breeding blanket flow rates results in feasibly sized designs. - Abstract: Tritium self-sufficiency within a nuclear fusion reactor is necessary to demonstrate nuclear fusion as a viable source of energy. Tritium can be produced within liquid eutectic PbLi but then has to be extracted to be refuelled to the plasma. The vacuum sieve tray (VST) method is based on the extraction of tritium from millimetre-scaled oscillating PbLi droplets falling inside a vacuum chamber. A simulation tool was developed describing the fluid dynamics occurring along the PbLi flow and was used to study the influence of the different geometrical and operational parameters on the VST performance. The simulation predicts that extraction efficiencies over 90% can be easily reached according to theory and previous experimental results. The size of the VST extraction unit for a fusion reactor is estimated based on the findings from our single-nozzle model and assuming no T reabsorption. It is found to be in the feasible range. Nevertheless, two approaches are discussed which may further reduce this size by up to 90%. The simulation tool proved to be an easy and powerful way to analyse and optimise VST set-ups at any scale.

  12. Tritium Breeding Blanket for a Commercial Fusion Power Plant - A System Engineering Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Wayne R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-14

    The goal of developing a new source of electric power based on fusion has been pursued for decades. If successful, future fusion power plants will help meet growing world-wide demand for electric power. A key feature and selling point for fusion is that its fuel supply is widely distributed globally and virtually inexhaustible. Current world-wide research on fusion energy is focused on the deuterium-tritium (DT for short) fusion reaction since it will be the easiest to achieve in terms of the conditions (e.g., temperature, density and confinement time of the DT fuel) required to produce net energy. Over the past decades countless studies have examined various concepts for TBBs for both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). At this time, the key organizations involved are government sponsored research organizations world-wide. The near-term focus of the MFE community is on the development of TBB mock-ups to be tested on the ITER tokamak currently under construction in Caderache France. TBB concepts for IFE tend to be different from MFE primarily due to significantly different operating conditions and constraints. This report focuses on longer-term commercial power plants where the key stakeholders include: electric utilities, plant owner and operator, manufacturer, regulators, utility customers, and in-plant subsystems including the heat transfer and conversion systems, fuel processing system, plant safety systems, and the monitoring control systems.

  13. Safety analysis of a loss-of-coolant accident in a breeding blanket for experimental fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocco, P.; Casini, G.; Djerassi, H.; Papa, L.; Pautasso, G.; Renda, V.; Rouyer, J.L.

    1985-07-01

    A LOCA in a blanket design proposed for NET (Next European Torus) is investigated. The structural analysis of a damaged breeder unit shows that this first containment barrier has a high probability of survival to this accident. The radioactive sources involved are evaluated and an assessment is made of all containment barriers and associated protection systems.

  14. Fusion Reactor and Fusion Reactor Materials:Concept Design of the ITER Test Blanket Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANGJinhua; LIZaixing; ZHUYukun; HUGang

    2003-01-01

    Performances required: prospect to be adopted in DEMO. Shielding for V.V. and TFC in ITER. Design principles: the peak temperature and stress should not exceed technical limits. The structure of test blanket modules (TBM) should be simple for easy fabrication, and TBM should be robust for reliability.

  15. Blanket comparison and selection study. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This volume contains extensive data for the following chapters: (1) solid breeder tritium recovery, (2) solid breeder blanket designs, (3) alternate blanket concept screening, and (4) safety analysis. The following appendices are also included: (1) blanket design guidelines, (2) power conversion systems, (3) helium-cooled, vanadium alloy structure blanket design, (4) high wall loading study, and (5) molten salt safety studies. (MOW)

  16. Design of a boiling water reactor core based on an integrated blanket-seed thorium-uranium concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Carrera, Alejandro [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Francois, Juan Luis [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jlfl@fi-b.unam.mx; Martin-del-Campo, Cecilia [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Laboratorio de Analisis en Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Mor. (Mexico); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de Ingenieria en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Avenida San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-04-15

    This paper is concerned with the design of a boiling water reactor (BWR) equilibrium core using thorium as a nuclear material in an integrated blanket-seed (BS) assembly. The integrated BS concept comes from the fact that the blanket and the seed rods are located in the same assembly, and are burned out in a once-through cycle. The idea behind the lattice design is to use the thorium conversion capability in a BWR spectrum, taking advantage of the {sup 233}U build-up. A core design was developed to achieve an equilibrium cycle of 365 effective full power days in a standard BWR with a reload of 104 fuel assemblies designed with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 7.5 w/o in the seed sub-lattice. The main operating parameters, like power, linear heat generation rate and void distributions were obtained as well as the shutdown margin. It was observed that the analyzed parameters behave like those obtained in a standard BWR. The shutdown margin design criterion was fulfilled by addition of a burnable poison region in the fuel assembly.

  17. Heat transfer problems in gas-cooled solid blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    In all fusion reactors using the deuterium-tritium fuel cycle, a large fraction approximately 80 percent of the fusion energy will be released as approximately 14 MeV neutrons which must be slowed down in a relatively thick blanket surrounding the plasma, thereby, converting their kinetic energy to high temperature heat which can be continuously removed by a coolant stream and converted in part to electricity in a conventional power turbine. Because of the primary goal of achieving minimum radioactivity, to date Brookhaven blanket concepts have been restricted to the use of some form of solid lithium, with inert gas-cooling and in some design cases, water-cooling of the shell structure. Aluminum and graphite have been identified as very promising structural materials for fusion blankets, and conceptual designs based on these materials have been made. Depending on the thermal loading on the ''first'' wall which surrounds the plasma as well as blanket design, heat transfer problems may be noticeably different in gas-cooled solid blankets. Approaches to solution of heat removal problems as well as explanation of: (a) the after-heat problems in blankets; (b) tritium breeding in solids; and (c) materials selection for radiation shields relative to the minimum activity blanket efforts at Brookhaven are discussed.

  18. Organic plant breeding and propagation : concepts and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Key-words : crop ideotype, genetic diversity, integrity of plants, intrinsic value, isophenic line mixture varieties, organic plant breeding, organic farming, organic propagation, participatory plant breeding, variety characteristics, seed-b

  19. Synthesis and fabrication of lithium-titanate pebbles for ITER breeding blanket by solid state reaction and spherodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, D., E-mail: dmandal@barc.gov.i [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shenoi, M.R.K.; Ghosh, S.K. [Chemical Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2010-08-15

    {sup 6}Li produces tritium by (n, {alpha}) nuclear reaction, {sup 6}Li + {sup 1}n {yields} {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H. Lithium titanate (Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}) enriched with {sup 6}Li, is the most promising candidate for solid test blanket module (TBM) material for fusion reactors. Various processes are reported in literature for the fabrication of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles for its use as TBM material. A process has been developed based on the solid state reaction of lithium-carbonate and titanium-dioxide for the synthesis of lithium titanate and pebble fabrication by extrusion, spherodization and sintering. This paper discusses the sequence of steps followed in this process and the properties obtained. Analytical grade titanium-dioxide and lithium-carbonate were taken in stoichiometric ratio and were milled to ensure thorough intimate mixing and obtain fine particles less than 45 {mu}m before its calcination at 900 {sup o}C. Following calcination, the agglomerated product was again milled to fine particles of size less than 45 {mu}m. Aqueous solution of ploy-vinyl-alcohol was added as binder prior to its feeding in the extruder. The extruded strips were spherodized and spherical pebbles were dried and sintered at 900 {sup o}C for different duration. Pebbles of desired density and porosity were obtained by suitable combination of sintering temperature and duration of sintering. Properties of the prepared pebbles were also characterized for sphericity, pore size distribution, grain size, crushing load strength, etc. The values were found to be conforming to the desired properties for use as solid breeder. The attractive feature of this process is almost no waste generation.

  20. Conceptual design and analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hongli, E-mail: hlchen1@ustc.edu.cn; Li, Min; Lv, Zhongliang; Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Qianwen; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Jie; Ye, Minyou

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A helium cooled solid blanket was proposed as a candidate blanket concept for CFETR. • Material selection, basic structure and gas flow scheme of the blanket were introduced. • A series of performance analyses for the blanket were summarized. - Abstract: To bridge the gap between ITER and DEMO and to realize the fusion energy in China, a fusion device Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) was proposed and is being designed mainly to demonstrate 50–200 MW fusion power, 30–50% duty time factor, tritium self-sustained. Because of the high demand of tritium production and the realistic engineering consideration, the design of tritium breeding blanket for CFETR is a challenging work and getting special attention. As a blanket candidate, a helium cooled solid breeder blanket has been designed with the emphasis on conservative design and realistic blanket technology. This paper introduces the basic blanket scheme, including the material selection, structural design, cooling scheme and purge gas flow path. In addition, some results of neutronics, thermal-hydraulic and stress analysis are presented.

  1. Development of the water cooled lithium lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, J., E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aiello, G.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • Preliminary CAD design of the equatorial outboard module of the WCLL blanket has been developed for DEMO. • Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior in the straight part of the module. - Abstract: The water cooled lithium lead (WCLL) blanket, based on near-future technology requiring small extrapolation from present-day knowledge both on physical and technological aspect, is one of the breeding blanket concepts considered as possible candidates for the EU DEMOnstration power plant. In 2012, the EFDA agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the WCLL blanket design to those specifications. Relatively small modules with straight surfaces are attached to a common Back Supporting Structure housing feeding pipes. Each module features reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, liquid Lithium-Lead as breeder, neutron multiplier and carrier. Water at typical Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) conditions is chosen as coolant. A preliminary design of the equatorial outboard module has been achieved. Finite elements analyses have been carried out in order to assess the module thermal behavior. Two First Wall (FW) concepts have been proposed, one favoring the thermal efficiency, the other favoring the manufacturability. The Breeding Zone has been designed with C-shaped Double-Walled Tubes in order to minimize the Water/Pb-15.7Li interaction likelihood. The priorities for further development of the WCLL blanket concept are identified in the paper.

  2. Development of blanket remote maintenance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Taguchi, Kou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    ITER in-vessel components such as blankets are scheduled maintenance components, including complete shield blanket replacement for breeding blankets. In-vessel components are activated by 14 MeV neutrons, so blanket maintenance requires remote handling equipment and tools able to handle heavy payloads of about 4 tons within a positioning accuracy of 2 mm under intense gamma radiation. To facilitate remote maintenance, blankets are segmented into 730 modules and rail-mounted vehicle remote maintenance was developed. According to the ITER R and D program, critical technology related to blanket maintenance was developed extensively through joint efforts of the Japan, EU, and U.S. home teams. This paper summarizes current blanket maintenance technology conducted by the Japan Home Team, including development of full-scale remote handling equipment and tools for blanket maintenance. (author)

  3. Concepts and strategies of organic plant breeding in light of novel breeding techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, Edwin; Messmer, Monika M.; Lammerts van Bueren, Edith

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a set of guiding principles for the evaluation of breeding techniques by the organic sector over time. The worldwide standards of organic agriculture (OA) do not allow genetic engineering (GE) or any products derived from genetic engineering. The

  4. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for 233U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G.; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of 233U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  5. Concept of a demonstrational hybrid reactor—a tokamak with molten-salt blanket for {sup 233}U fuel production: 1. Concept of a stationary Tokamak as a neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizov, E. A.; Gladush, G. G., E-mail: gladush@triniti.ru; Dokuka, V. N.; Khayrutdinov, R. R. [State Research Center of the Russian Federation, Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    On the basis of current understanding of physical processes in tokamaks and taking into account engineering constraints, it is shown that a low-cost facility of a moderate size can be designed within the adopted concept. This facility makes it possible to achieve the power density of neutron flux which is of interest, in particular, for solving the problem of {sup 233}U fuel production from thorium. By using a molten-salt blanket, the important task of ensuring the safe operation of such a reactor in the case of possible coolant loss is accomplished. Moreover, in a hybrid reactor with the blanket based on liquid salts, the problem of periodic refueling that is difficult to perform in solid blankets can be solved.

  6. Preliminary Neutronics Design of Breed Blanket for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactor%聚变-裂变增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奉超; 栗再新

    2012-01-01

    基于国际热核实验堆ITER的堆芯参数和套管结构,对聚变-裂变增殖堆包层进行了初步中子学设计.基于国际热核实验堆的堆芯参数提出了采用套管结构,以天然金属铀为燃料和硅酸锂为氚增殖剂的快裂变-增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计方案.使用FENDL 2.1核数据库及MCNP程序自带的核数据库,用MCNP程序对套管结构快裂变-增殖堆包层进行一维的方案筛选及三维中子学的计算分析.计算分析包层内的一维功率密度分布、产氚率、钚增殖率分布,通过优化设计分析给出合理的包层设计方案,并计算氚增殖率TBR、能量放大倍数M、有效增值系数(Keff)、裂变增殖比等参数.%A preliminary neutronics design of breed blanket for fusion-fission hybrid reactor has been carried out based on the plasma parameters of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and casing structure. In the design of fast-fission breed blanket, the natural Uranium pebble bed is used as fuel and neutron multiplication and the Lithium silicate pebble bed is used as tritium breed material. By using FENDL2.1 nuclear database cross section library with native cross section library of MCNP nuclear database, the calculation and analysis are carried out with MCNP program. Through one-dimension calculation and analysis on different design proposals, a proper design proposal has been screened and then the three-dimension calculation and analysis have been implemented with the parameters of ITER. The calculation shows that the TBR of fusion-fission hybrid reactor is 1.13, it indicates that the design of breed blanket is able to meet self-sustaining of tritium and the calculation also indicates that the energy enlargement of fusion-ission hybrid reactor is 6.5 and Polonium breeding rate is 1.35, it means that the reactor is able to also product large quantities energy and Polonium and they could be used by light water reactor. Meanwhile, fission-breed

  7. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  8. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concept are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concepts are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  9. Blanket comparison and selection study. Final report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The study focused on: (1) Development of reference design guidelines, evaluation criteria, and a methodology for evaluating and ranking candidate blanket concepts. (2) Compilation of the required data base and development of a uniform systems analysis for comparison. (3) Development of conceptual designs for the comparative evaluation. (4) Evaluation of leading concepts for engineering feasibility, economic performance, and safety. (5) Identification and prioritization of R and D requirements for the leading blanket concepts. Sixteen concepts (nine TMR and seven tokamak) which were identified as leading candidates in the early phases of the study, were evaluated in detail. The overall evaluation concluded that the following concepts should provide the focus for the blanket R and D program: (Breeder/Coolant/Structure), Lithium/Lithium/Vanadium Alloy, Li/sub 2/O/Helium/Ferritic Steel, LiPb Alloy/LiPb Alloy/Vanadium Alloy, and Lithium/Helium/Ferritic Steel. The primary R and D issues for the Li/Li/V concept are the development of an advanced structural alloy, resolution of MHD and corrosion problems, provision for an inert atmosphere (e.g., N/sub 2/) in the reactor building, and the development of non-water cooled near-plasma components, particularly for the tokamak. The main issues for the LiPb/LiPb/V concepts are similar to the Li/Li/V blanket with the addition of resolving the tritium recovery issue. The R and D issues for Li/sub 2/O/He/FS concept include resolution of the tritium recovery/containment issue, achieving adequate tritium breeding and resolving other solid breeder issues such as swelling and fabrication concerns. Major concerns for the Li/He/FS concept are related to its rather poor economic performance. Improvement of its economic performance will be somewhat concept-dependent and will be more of a systems engineering issue.

  10. Tokamak blanket design study, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    A cylindrical module concept was developed, analyzed, and incorporated in a tokamak blanket system that includes piping systems, vacuum boundary sealing, and support structures. The design is based on the use of state-of-the-art structural materials (20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel), lithium as the breeding material, and pressurized helium as the coolant. The module design consists of nested concentric cylinders (with an outer diameter of 10 cm) and features direct wall cooling by helium flowing between the outer (first-wall) cylinder and the inner (lithium-containing) cylinder. Each cylinder can withstand full coolant pressure, thus enhancing reliability. Results show that stainless steel is a viable material for a first wall subjected to a neutron wall loading of 4 MW/m/sup 2/ and a particle heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. Lifetime analysis shows that the first-wall design meets the goal of operating at 20-min cycles with 95% duty for 100,000 cycles. To reduce system complexity, a larger 20-cm-diam module also was analyzed for incorporation in the blanket assembly. Reliability assessment indicates that it may be possible to double the module in size from 10 to 20 cm in diameter. With a modest increase in coolant pumping power, a blanket assembly comprising 20-cm-diam modules can still achieve 100,000 operating cycles - equivalent to a 3.6-year design lifetime - with only one or two helium coolant leaks into the plasma.

  11. Crucial issues on liquid metal blanket design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)); Leroy, P. (CEA, CEN Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Casini, G.P. (CEC, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (Italy)); Mattas, R.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Strebkov, Yu. (Research and Development Inst. of Power Engineering, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-12-01

    Typical design concepts of liquid metal breeder blankets for power reactors are explained and characterized. The major problems of these concepts are described for both water-cooled blankets and self-cooled blankets. Three crucial issues of liquid metal breeder blankets are investigated. They are in the fields of magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control and safety. The influence of the magnetic field on liquid metal flow is of special interest for self-cooled blankets. The main problems in this field and the status of the related R and D work are described. Tritium permeation losses to the cooling water is a crucial issue for water-cooled blankets. Methods for its reduction are discussed. An inherent problem of all liquid breeder blankets is the potential release of activated products in the case of chemical reactions between the breeder material and water or reactive gases. The most important issues in this field are described. (orig.).

  12. Analysis of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead breeding blanket module under normal operation steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Arena, P. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Aubert, J. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bongiovì, G. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Chiovaro, P., E-mail: pierluigi.chiovaro@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, R. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy); Li Puma, A. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Tincani, A. [ENEA – C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A DEMO WCLL blanket module thermo-mechanical behaviour has been investigated. • Two models of the WCLL blanket module have been set-up adopting a code based on FEM. • The water flow domain in the module has been considered. • A set of uncoupled steady state thermo-mechanical analyses has been carried out. • Critical temperature is not overcome. Safety verifications are generally satisfied. - Abstract: Within the framework of DEMO R&D activities, a research cooperation has been launched between ENEA, the University of Palermo and CEA to investigate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the outboard equatorial module of the DEMO1 Water-Cooled Lithium Lead (WCLL) blanket under normal operation steady state scenario. The research campaign has been carried out following a theoretical–computational approach based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and adopting a qualified commercial FEM code. In particular, two different 3D FEM models (Model 1 and Model 2), reproducing respectively the central and the lateral poloidal–radial slices of the WCLL blanket module, have been set up. A particular attention has been paid to the modelling of water flow domain, within both the segment box channels and the breeder zone tubes, to simulate realistically the coolant-box thermal coupling. Results obtained are herewith reported and critically discussed.

  13. Assessment of alkali metal coolants for the ITER blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Mattas, R. F.

    1994-06-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components of a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The blanket comparison and selection study, conducted earlier, described the overall comparative performance of different blanket concepts, including liquid metal, molten salt, water, and helium. This paper will discuss the ITER requirements for a self-cooled blanket concept with liquid lithium and for indirectly cooled concepts that use other alkali metals such as NaK. The paper addresses the thermodynamics of interactions between the liquid metals (e.g., lithium and NaK) and structural materials (e.g., V-base alloys), together with associated corrosion/compatibility issues. Available experimental data are used to assess the long-term performance of the first wall in a liquid metal environment. Other key issues include development of electrical insulator coatings on the first-wall structural material to MHD pressure drop, and tritium permeation/inventory in self-cooled and indirectly cooled concepts. Acceptable types of coatings (based on their chemical compatibility and physical properties) are identified, and surface-modification avenues to achieve these coatings on the first wall are discussed. The assessment examines the extent of our knowledge on structural materials performance in liquid metals and identifies needed research and development in several of the areas in order to establish performance envelopes for the first wall in a liquid-metal environment.

  14. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-22

    Lithium is often the preferred choice as breeder and coolant in fusion blankets as it offers excellent heat transfer and corrosion properties, and most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and exacerbates plant safety concerns. For this reason, over the years numerous blanket concepts have been proposed with the scope of reducing concerns associated with lithium. The European helium cooled pebble bed breeding blanket (HCPB) physically confines lithium within ceramic pebbles. The pebbles reside within a low activation martensitic ferritic steel structure and are cooled by helium. The blanket is composed of the tritium breeding lithium ceramic pebbles and neutron multiplying beryllium pebbles. Other blanket designs utilize lead to lower chemical reactivity; LiPb alone can serve as a breeder, coolant, neutron multiplier, and tritium carrier. Blankets employing LiPb coolants alongside silicon carbide structural components can achieve high plant efficiency, low afterheat, and low operation pressures. This alloy can also be used alongside of helium such as in the dual-coolant lead-lithium concept (DCLL); helium is utilized to cool the first wall and structural components made up of low-activation ferritic steel, whereas lithium-lead (LiPb) acts as a self-cooled breeder in the inner channels of the blanket. The helium-cooled steel and lead-lithium alloy are separated by flow channel inserts (usually made out of silicon carbide) which thermally insulate the self-cooled breeder region from the helium cooled steel walls. This creates a LiPb breeder with a much higher exit temperature than the steel which increases the power cycle efficiency and also lowers the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop [6]. Molten salt blankets with a mixture of lithium, beryllium, and fluorides (FLiBe) offer good tritium breeding

  15. A passively-safe fusion reactor blanket with helium coolant and steel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosswait, K.M.

    1994-04-01

    Helium is attractive for use as a fusion blanket coolant for a number of reasons. It is neutronically and chemically inert, nonmagnetic, and will not change phase during any off-normal or accident condition. A significant disadvantage of helium, however, is its low density and volumetric heat capacity. This disadvantage manifests itself most clearly during undercooling accident conditions such as a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) or a loss of flow accident (LOFA). This thesis describes a new helium-cooled tritium breeding blanket concept which performs significantly better during such accidents than current designs. The proposed blanket uses reduced-activation ferritic steel as a structural material and is designed for neutron wall loads exceeding 4 MW/m{sup 2}. The proposed geometry is based on the nested-shell concept developed by Wong, but some novel features are used to reduce the severity of the first wall temperature excursion. These features include the following: (1) A ``beryllium-joint`` concept is introduced, which allows solid beryllium slabs to be used as a thermal conduction path from the first wall to the cooler portions of the blanket. The joint concept allows for significant swelling of the beryllium (10 percent or more) without developing large stresses in the blanket structure. (2) Natural circulation of the coolant in the water-cooled shield is used to maintain shield temperatures below 100 degrees C, thus maintaining a heat sink close to the blanket during the accident. This ensures the long-term passive safety of the blanket.

  16. Numerical design of the Seed-Blanket Unit for the thorium nuclear fuel cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oettingen Mikołaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we present the Monte Carlo modelling by the means of the Monte Carlo Continuous Energy Burn-up Code of the 17x17 Pressurized Water Reactor fuel assembly designed according to the Radkowsky Thorium Fuel concept. The design incorporates the UO2 seed fuel located in the centre and (Th,UO2 blanket fuel located in the peripheries of fuel assembly. The high power seed region supplies neutrons for the low power blanket region and thus induces breeding of fissile 233U from fertile 232Th. The both regions are physically separated and thus this approach is also known as either the heterogonous approach or the Seed-Blanket Unit. In the numerical analysis we consider the time evolutions of infinite neutron multiplication factor, axial/radial power density profile, 233U, 235U and 232Th.

  17. Electrically insulating coatings for V-Li self-cooled blanket in a fusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C. B.; Uz, M.; Park, J. H.; Smith, D. L.

    2000-05-17

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. The primary functions of the blanket in a deuterium/tritium-fueled fusion reactor are to convert the fusion energy into sensible heat and to breed tritium for the fuel cycle. The liquid-metal blanket concept requires an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material to minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field. Based on the thermodynamics of interactions between the coating and the liquid lithium on one side and the structural V-base alloy on the other side, several coating candidates are being examined to perform the insulating function over a wide range of temperatures and lithium chemistries.

  18. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A., E-mail: albert.garcia.hp@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Dies, J. [Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-12-10

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is −0.349% for the HCPB blanket and −0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  19. Effect on the tritium breeding ratio for a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Fischer, U.; Dies, J.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports results of MCNP-5 calculations to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) when integrating a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna in the blanket of DEMO fusion power reactor. The calculations consider different parameters such as the ICRF covering ratio and the type of breeding blanket including the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) and the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) concepts. For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidally at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m, the reduction of the TBR is -0.349% for the HCPB blanket and -0.532% for the HCLL blanket. The distributed ICRF antenna is thus shown to have only a marginal effect on the TBR of the DEMO reactor.

  20. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-12-31

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  1. An assessment of the base blanket for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.

    1991-01-01

    Ideally, the ITER base blanket would provide the necessary tritium for the reactor to be self-sufficient during operation, while having minimal impact on the overall reactor cost, reliability and safety. A solid breeder blanket has been developed in CDA phase in an attempt to achieve such objectives. The reference solid breeder base blanket configurations at the end of the CDA phase has many attractive features such as a tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 0.8--0.9 and a reasonably low tritium inventory. However, some concerns regarding the risk, cost and benefit of the base blanket have been raised. These include uncertainties associated with the solid breeder thermal control and the potentially high cost of the amount of Be used to achieve high TBR and to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the high temperature solid breeder and low temperature coolant. This work addresses these concerns. The basis for the selection of a breeding blanket is first discussed in light of the incremental risk, cost and benefits relative to a non-breeding blanket. Key issues associated with the CDA breeding blanket configurations are then analyzed. Finally, alternative schemes that could enhance the attractiveness and flexibility of a breeding blanket are explored.

  2. The preliminary thermal–hydraulic analysis of a water cooled blanket concept design based on RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guanghuai; Peng, Changhong; Guo, Yun, E-mail: guoyun79@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The superheated steam and PWR schemes are analyzed by RELAP5 code. • The influence of non-uniform heating sources is include. • A supposed slow flow decrease case is discussed and the PWR scheme is better. - Abstract: Water cooled blanket (WCB) is very important in the conceptual design and energy transfer in future fusion power plant. One conceptual design of WCB is under computational testing. RELAP5 code, which is mature and often used in transient analysis in Pressurizer water reactor (PWR), is selected as the simulation tool. The complex inner flow channels and heat sources are simplified according to its thermal–hydraulic characteristics. Then the nodal model for REALP5 is built for approximating the conceptual design. Two typical operating plans, superheated steam scheme and PWR scheme, are analyzed. After some adjustments of the inlet flow resistance coefficients of some flow channels, the reasonable stable conditions of both operation plans can be obtained. The stable fluid and wall temperature distributions and pressure drops are studied. At last, a supposed slow flow decreasing is discussed under two operating conditions separately. According to present results, the superheated steam scheme still needs to be further optimized. The PWR scheme shows a very good safety feature.

  3. Normal and Accidental Scenarios Analyses with MELCOR 1.8.2 and MELCOR 2.1 for the DEMO Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed Blanket Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonfiotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As for Light Water Reactors (LWRs, one of the most challenging accidents for the future DEMOnstration power plant is the Loss of Coolant Accident, which can trigger the pressurization of the confinement structures and components. Hence, careful analyses have to be executed to demonstrate that the confinement barriers are able to withstand the pressure peak within design limits and the residual cooling capabilities of the Primary Heat Transfer System are sufficient to remove the decay heat. To do so, severe accident codes, as MELCOR, can be employed. In detail, the MELCOR code has been developed to cope also with fusion reactors, but unfortunately, these fusion versions are based on the old 1.8.x source code. On the contrary, for LWRs, the newest 2.1.x versions are continuously updated. Thanks to the new features introduced in these latest 2.1.x versions, the main phenomena occurring in the helium-cooled blanket concepts of DEMO can be simulated in a basic manner. For this purpose, several analyses during normal and accidental DEMO conditions have been executed. The aim of these analyses is to compare the results obtained with MELCOR 1.8.2 and MELCOR 2.1 in order to highlight the differences among the results of the main thermal-hydraulic parameters.

  4. ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield and blanket work package report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report summarizes nuclear-related work in support of the US effort for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Study. The purpose of this work was to prepare for the first international ITER workshop devoted to defining a basic ITER concept that will serve as a basis for an indepth conceptual design activity over the next 2-1/2 years. Primary tasks carried out during the past year included: design improvements of the inboard shield developed for the TIBER concept, scoping studies of a variety of tritium breeding blanket options, development of necessary design guidelines and evaluation criteria for the blanket options, further safety considerations related to nuclear components and issues regarding structural materials for an ITER device. 44 refs., 31 figs., 29 tabs.

  5. Beryllium in the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper consists of viewgraphs used in a presentation on the application of beryllium in breeding blankets for ITER and JET. The paper brings together data on the physical, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties of beryllium and beryllium oxide for this type of application, as well as issues of compatibility with construction materials, and irradiation experience. It includes the results from testing programs carried out to arrive at some of the information, including fabrication work, irradiation experiments, and sample tests performed both in and out of the irradiation piles.

  6. A breed and burn reshuffling scheme for an Astrid-like reactor concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, E. Y.; Francois L, J. L., E-mail: eliasgarcerv@hotmail.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The greenhouse emissions has a serious impact on environmental terms, reason why energy supply needs to be provided by low carbon emission technologies. Nuclear power is and environmentally friendly energy with future concepts and designs that ensure safety, and in this paper is taken as a solution to be considered in the energy supply mix. This study presents an extension on the operation of the Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial demonstration (Astrid) nuclear reactor through a breed and burn operation to extend the operation of the reactor. The Astrid nuclear reactor is a fourth generation sodium-cooled fast reactor of 1500 MWt h, and it considers an innovative design: the low void effect core (Cfv: Coeur a Faible effet de Vidange sodium) due to the reactor configuration and the radial and axial position of the fuel subassemblies. Previous research in the Astrid-like cores aimed the model validation of a conventional oxide-fueled core and its comparison with a proposed metallic-fueled core. Taking into account the amount of fissile material (mainly 239-Pu) after the first cycle, a reshuffling scheme was suggested, which consists in changing strategically the position of the nuclear fuel assemblies when the reactivity drops near to the critical state of the reactor. Two different reshuffling schemes were simulated in every developed model, having operation extensions of 805 days and 1775 days for the oxide and metallic designs respectively. The implementation of the reshuffling schemes in the developed models enhanced the fuel utilization and could save up to 2.20 and 5.96 tons of plutonium for oxide and metallic designs respectively, which has an economic impact. The breeding of 239-Pu achieved in the fertile zone of the metallic design reached half of the initial concentration of the 239-Pu in the fissile zone and for the oxide design, the breeding reached one third of the initial concentration of the 239-Pu in the fissile zone. (Author)

  7. Conceptual design of Blanket Remote Handling System for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jianghua, E-mail: weijh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Pei, Kun; Zhao, Wenlong; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Yong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept for the blanket maintenance is carried out, including three sub-systems. • The basic maintenance procedure for blanket between VV and hot cell is carried out. • The primary kinematics study is used to verify the feasibility of BRHS. • Virtual reality is adopted as another approach to verify the concept design. - Abstract: The China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor (CFETR), which is a new superconducting tokamak device being designed by China, has a mission to achieve a high duty time (0.3–0.5). To accomplish this great mission, the big modular blanket option has been adopted to achieve the high efficiency of the blanket maintenance. Considering this mission and the large and heavy blanket module, a novel conceptual blanket maintenance system for CFETR has been carried out by us over the past year. This paper presents the conceptual design of the Blanket Remote Handling System (BRHS), which mainly comprises the In-Vessel-Maintenance-System (IVMS), Lifting System and Blanket-Tool-Manipulator System (BTMS). The BRHS implements the extraction and replacement between in-vessel (the blanket module operation configuration location) and ex-vessel (inside of the vertical maintenance cask) by the collaboration of these three sub systems. What is more, this paper represents the blanket maintenance procedure between the docking station (between hot cell building and tokamak building) and inside the vacuum vessel, in tokamak building. Virtual reality technology is also used to verify and optimize our concept design.

  8. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  9. Hybrid-breeding of medicinally used valerian (Valeriana officinalis L. s.l.. A possible concept developing new varieties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzkofer, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop and verify a new concept for breeding new hybrid-varieties of valerian without a male sterility system. For this the cross-pollination rate and the performance of inbreeded plants must be determined.

  10. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  11. Pre-conceptual design study on K-DEMO ceramic breeder blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Sung, E-mail: jspark@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sungjin; Im, Kihak; Kim, Keeman [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Brown, Thomas; Neilson, George [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    A pre-conceptual design study has been carried out for the Korean fusion demonstration reactor (K-DEMO) tokamak featured by high magnetic field (B{sub T0} = 7.4 T), R = 6.8 m, a = 2.1 m, and a steady-state operation. The design concepts of the K-DEMO blanket system considering the cooling in-vessel components with pressurized water and a solid pebble breeder are described herein. The structure of the K-DEMO blanket is toroidally subdivided into 16 inboard and 32 outboard sectors, in order to allow the vertical maintenance. Each blanket module is composed of plasma-facing first wall, layers of breeding parts, shielding and manifolds. A ceramic breeder using Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles with Be{sub 12}Ti as neuron multiplier is employed for study. MCNP neutronic simulations and thermo-hydraulic analyses are interactively performed in order to satisfy two key aspects: achieving a global Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) >1.05 and operating within the maximum allowable temperature ranges of materials.

  12. Hybrid reactors: Nuclear breeding or energy production?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piera, Mireia [UNED, ETSII-Dp Ingenieria Energetica, c/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lafuente, Antonio; Abanades, Alberto; Martinez-Val, J.M. [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    After reviewing the long-standing tradition on hybrid research, an assessment model is presented in order to characterize the hybrid performance under different objectives. In hybrids, neutron multiplication in the subcritical blanket plays a major role, not only for energy production and nuclear breeding, but also for tritium breeding, which is fundamental requirement in fusion-fission hybrids. All three objectives are better achieved with high values of the neutron multiplication factor (k-eff) with the obvious and fundamental limitation that it cannot reach criticality under any event, particularly, in the case of a loss of coolant accident. This limitation will be very important in the selection of the coolant. Some general considerations will be proposed, as guidelines for assessing the hybrid potential in a given scenario. Those guidelines point out that hybrids can be of great interest for the future of nuclear energy in a framework of Sustainable Development, because they can contribute to the efficient exploitation of nuclear fuels, with very high safety features. Additionally, a proposal is presented on a blanket specially suited for fusion-fission hybrids, although this reactor concept is still under review, and new work is needed for identifying the most suitable blanket composition, which can vary depending on the main objective of the hybrid. (author)

  13. Lithium as a blanket coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recent re-assessment of tokamak reactors which move towards smaller size and lower required field strength (higher beta)/sup 2/ change the picture as regards the magnitude of MHD effects on flow resistance for lithium coolant. Perhaps the most important consequence of this as regards use of this coolant is that of clear acceptability of such effects when the flow is predominantly transverse to the magnetic field. This permits defining a blanket that consists entirely of round tubes containing the circulated lithium with voids between the tubes. Required thermal-hydraulic calculations are then on bases which are well established, especially in view of recent results dealing with perturbations of ducts and magnetic fields. Mitigation of MHD effects is feasible through tapering of tube wall thickness or use of insulated layers, but their use was not mandatory for the assumed conditions. Blanket configurations utilizing flowing lithium in round tubes immersed in static lithium may be suitable, but calculational methods do not now exist for this situation. Use of boiling potassium or cesium appears to be prohibitive in terms of vapor flow area when temperature levels are consistent with stainless steel. Liquid sodium, in addition to not being a breeding material, requires higher velocity than lithium for the same heat removal.

  14. Development of fusion blanket technology for the DEMO reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colling, B R; Monk, S D

    2012-07-01

    The viability of various materials and blanket designs for use in nuclear fusion reactors can be tested using computer simulations and as parts of the test blanket modules within the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) facility. The work presented here focuses on blanket model simulations using the Monte Carlo simulation package MCNPX (Computational Physics Division Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2010) and FISPACT (Forrest, 2007) to evaluate the tritium breeding capability of a number of solid and liquid breeding materials. The liquid/molten salt breeders are found to have the higher tritium breeding ratio (TBR) and are to be considered for further analysis of the self sufficiency timing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The requirements for processing tritium recovered from liquid lithium blankets: The blanket interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Greenwood, L.R.; Grimm, T.L.; Sze, D.K.; Bartlit, J.R.; Anderson, J.L.; Yoshida, H.; Naruse

    1988-03-01

    We have initiated a study to define a blanket processing mockup for Tritium Systems Test Assembly. Initial evaluation of the requirements of the blanket processing system have been started. The first step of the work is to define the condition of the gaseous tritium stream from the blanket tritium recovery system. This report summarizes this part of the work for one particular blanket concept, i.e., a self-cooled lithium blanket. The total gas throughput, the hydrogen to tritium ratio, the corrosive chemicals, and the radionuclides are defined. The key discoveries are: the throughput of the blanket gas stream (including the helium carrier gas) is about two orders of magnitude higher than the plasma exhaust stream;the protium to tritium ratio is about 1, the deuterium to tritium ratio is about 0.003;the corrosion chemicals are dominated by halides;the radionuclides are dominated by C-14, P-32, and S-35;their is high level of nitrogen contamination in the blanket stream. 77 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. U.S. technical report for the ITER blanket/shield: A. blanket: Topical report, July 1990--November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    Three solid-breeder water-cooled blanket concepts have been developed for ITER based on a multilayer configuration. The primary difference among the concepts is in the fabricated form of breeder and multiplier. All the concepts have beryllium for neutron multiplication and solid-breeder temperature control. The blanket design does not use helium gaps or insulator material to control the solid breeder temperature. Lithium oxide (Li{sub 2}O) and lithium zirconate (Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}) are the primary and the backup breeder materials, respectively. The lithium-6 enrichment is 95%. The use of high lithium-6 enrichment reduces the solid breeder volume required in the blanket and consequently the total tritium inventory in the solid breeder material. Also, it increases the blanket capability to accommodate power variation. The multilayer blanket configuration can accommodate up to a factor of two change in the neutron wall loading without violating the different design guidelines. The blanket material forms are sintered products and packed bed of small pebbles. The first concept has a sintered product material (blocks) for both the beryllium multiplier and the solid breeder. The second concept, the common ITER blanket, uses a packed bed breeder and beryllium blocks. The last concept is similar to the first except for the first and the last beryllium zones. Two small layers of beryllium pebbles are located behind the first wall and the back of the last beryllium zone to reduce the total inventory of the beryllium material and to improve the blanket performance. The design philosophy adopted for the blanket is to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Also, the reliability and the safety aspects of the blanket are enhanced by using low-pressure water coolant and the separation of the tritium purge flow from the coolant system by several barriers.

  17. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  18. High power density self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Majumdar, S.; Smith, D.

    1999-07-01

    A self-cooled lithium-vanadium blanket concept capable of operating with 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading has been developed. The blanket has liquid lithium as the tritium breeder and the coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because it can accommodate high heat loads. Also, it has good mechanical properties at high temperatures, high neutron fluence capability, low degradation under neutron irradiation, good compatibility with the blanket materials, low decay heat, low waste disposal rating, and adequate strength to accommodate the electromagnetic loads during plasma disruption events. Self-healing electrical insulator (CaO) is utilized to reduce the MHD pressure drop. A poloidal coolant flow with high velocity at the first wall is used to reduce the peak temperature of the vanadium structure and to accommodate high surface heat flux. The blanket has a simple blanket configuration and low coolant pressure to reduce the fabrication cost, to improve the blanket reliability, and to increase confidence in the blanket performance. Spectral shifter, moderator, and reflector are utilized to improve the blanket shielding capability and energy multiplication, and to reduce the radial blanket thickness. Natural lithium is used to avoid extra cost related to the lithium enrichment process.

  19. Flexible armored blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, E.S.

    1978-05-01

    An exploratory development contract was undertaken on December 23, 1977 which had as its purpose the development and demonstration of a flexible armored blanket design suitable for providing ballistic protection to nuclear weapons during shipment. Objectives were to design and fabricate a prototype blanket which will conform to the weapon shape, is troop-handleable in the field, and which, singly or in multiple layers, can defeat a range of kinetic energy armor piercing (AP) ammunition potentially capable of damaging the critical portion of the nuclear weapon. Following empirical testing, including the firing of threat ammunition under controlled laboratory and field test conditions, materials were selected and assembled into two blanket designs, each weighing approximately 54 kg/m{sup 2} (11 lbs/ft{sup 2}) and estimated to cost from $111 to $180 per ft{sup 2} in production. A firing demonstration to evidence blanket performance against terrorist/light infantry weapons, heavy infantry weapons, and aircraft cannon was conducted for representatives of the DOD and interested Sandia employees on April 12, 1978. The blankets performed better than anticipated defeating bullets up to 7.62 mm x 51 mm AP with one layer and projectiles up to 23 mm HEI with two layers. Based on these preliminary tests it is recommended that development work be continued with the following objectives: (1) the selection by the DOD of priority applications, (2) the specific design and fabrication of sufficient quantities of armored blankets for field testing, (3) the evaluation of the blankets by DOD operational units, with reports to Sandia Laboratories to enable final design.

  20. Optimization of the fission--fusion hybrid concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltmarsh, M.J.; Grimes, W.R.; Santoro, R.T.

    1979-04-01

    One of the potentially attractive applications of controlled thermonuclear fusion is the fission--fusion hybrid concept. In this report we examine the possible role of the hybrid as a fissile fuel producer. We parameterize the advantages of the concept in terms of the performance of the fusion device and the breeding blanket and discuss some of the more troublesome features of existing design studies. The analysis suggests that hybrids based on deuterium--tritium (D--T) fusion devices are unlikely to be economically attractive and that they present formidable blanket technology problems. We suggest an alternative approach based on a semicatalyzed deuterium--deuterium (D--D) fusion reactor and a molten salt blanket. This concept is shown to emphasize the desirable features of the hybrid, to have considerably greater economic potential, and to mitigate many of the disadvantages of D--T-based systems.

  1. Blanket selection for the Starlite project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Tillack, M.S. [Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; El-Guebaly, L.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Waganer, L.M. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Starlite team was asked to develop a power plant study for the US Demo. To define the mission of the Demo, a Utility Advisory Committee (UAC) was organized to establish the mission and requirement for the Demo power plant. Based on this input, the Starlite team outlined a set of top level requirements based on the advice provided by the UAC. With the mission and requirements thus established, the Starlite engineering team investigated various combinations of the structural material, breeding material and coolant for the blanket and shield. The reference design selected was with V-alloy as the structural material and Li as the coolant and breeder. The ability of this blanket to satisfy the top level requirements was also assessed. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. First-wall/blanket materials selection for STARFIRE tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.F.; Clemmer, R.G.; Davis, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the reference STARFIRE first-wall/blanket design involved numerous trade-offs in the materials selection process for the breeding material, coolant structure, neutron multiplier, and reflector. The major parameters and properties that impact materials selection and design criteria are reviewed.

  3. Resolution of proliferation issues for a SFR blanket with a specific application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauff, N.E. [31 rue baudelaire, voisins le bretonneux, 78960 (France); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Forget, B.; Driscoll, M.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The Sodium Fast Reactor is seen as the most realistic Gen-IV reactor to be built in the near future. France and the US are still developing their designs; these will require improved safety, competitive economics, and also proliferation resistance. To meet this last requirement, both French and American designers show some concerns with the use of breeding blankets. France and the USA won't need breeding blankets to produce plutonium because they already have large amounts of plutonium bred from their LWR fleet to start a new SFR fleet, thus breeding blankets are mainly of interest for minor actinide burning. On the contrary, India and China express great interest in blankets for their SFR designs, to reach a positive breeding gain. For example, the Indian PFBR, a 500 MWe oxide-fueled SFR has a breeding ratio of 1.05. Blankets are used in a Fast Reactor to increase the breeding ratio of the core, by breeding a significant amount of plutonium. The Plutonium bred within these blankets, if these are loaded with Uranium only, is generally of a very high quality, which makes it easily used in a nuclear explosive device. Our research has shown that the plutonium in breeding blankets can be made less attractive to make a nuclear explosive device than LWR-bred plutonium with a burnup of 50 MWd/Kg. Minor actinide doping and moderator addition were the two options studied, as they increase Pu{sup 238} and Pu{sup 240} production. In the work reported here, the methodology developed for securing a breeding blanket was successfully applied to the Indian PFBR. The full paper will describe a design of the PFBR breeding proliferation resistant plutonium within its blankets. The blankets were rendered secure by adding a zirconium hydride moderator and a small volume of MAs. It was demonstrated that reducing the attractiveness of the blanket plutonium would require no external MA dependency by choosing an adequate fuel cycle. The characteristics and performance of this design

  4. The Haida Button Blanket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vesta

    In the Haida nation, there are two phratries, Eagle and Raven, divided into a number of clans sharing one or more emblems. These emblems, inherited from the mother's line, adorn the button blankets which are the traditional ceremonial robes that serve to identify the family of the wearer. Written instructions and diagrams guide students in…

  5. Development of the Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket for DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, G., E-mail: giacomo.aiello@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Aubert, J.; Jonquères, N. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Li Puma, A. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LPEC, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Morin, A.; Rampal, G. [CEA-Saclay, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT/BCCR, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The HCLL blanket design has been modified to adapt it to the 2012 EFDA DEMO specifications. • The new design has been developed with the aim to capitalize on TBM experience in ITER. • A new attachment system for the modules has been proposed. - Abstract: The Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blanket is one of the candidate European blanket concepts selected for the DEMOnstration fusion power plant that should follow ITER. In a fusion power plant, the blanket is one of the key components because of its impact on the plant performance, availability, safety and economics. In 2012, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) agency issued new specifications for DEMO: this paper describes the work performed to adapt the previous 2007 HCLL-DEMO blanket design to those specifications. A new segmentation has been defined assuming straight surfaces for all blanket modules. Following the Multi Module Segment (MMS) option, all modules are attached to a common back supporting structure which also serves as manifold for Helium and PbLi distribution. A detailed CAD design of the central outboard module has been defined. Thermo-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical analyses on of the First Wall and Breeder Zone have been carried out. For the attachment of the modules to the common backplate, a new solution based on the use of Tie Rods, derived from the design of the corresponding HCLL Test Blanket Module for ITER, has been proposed. This paper also identifies the priorities for further development of the HCLL blanket design.

  6. Neutronic analyses of the preliminary design of a DCLL blanket for the EUROfusion DEMO power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es; Fernández, Iván; Rapisarda, David; Ibarra, Angel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We perform neutronic calculations for the preliminary DCLL Blanket design. • We study the tritium breeding capability of the reactor. • We determine the nuclear heating in the main components. • We verify if the shielding of the TF coil is maintained. - Abstract: In the frame of the newly established EUROfusion WPBB Project for the period 2014–2018, four breeding blanket options are being investigated to be used in the fusion power demonstration plant DEMO. CIEMAT is leading the development of the conceptual design of the Dual Coolant Lithium Lead, DCLL, breeding blanket. The primary role of the blanket is of energy extraction, tritium production, and radiation shielding. With this aim the DCLL uses LiPb as primary coolant, tritium breeder and neutron multiplier and Eurofer as structural material. Focusing on the achievement of the fundamental neutronic responses a preliminary blanket model has been designed. Thus detailed 3D neutronic models of the whole blanket modules have been generated, arranged in a specific DCLL segmentation and integrated in the generic DEMO model. The initial design has been studied to demonstrate its viability. Thus, the neutronic behaviour of the blanket and of the shield systems in terms of tritium breeding capabilities, power generation and shielding efficiency has been assessed in this paper. The results demonstrate that the primary nuclear performances are already satisfactory at this preliminary stage of the design, having obtained the tritium self-sufficiency and an adequate shielding.

  7. Nuclear Analyses of Indian LLCB Test Blanket System in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, H. L.; Shaw, A. K.; Danani, C.; Chaudhuri, Paritosh

    2017-04-01

    Heading towards the Nuclear Fusion Reactor Program, India is developing Lead Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) tritium breeding blanket for its future fusion Reactor. A mock-up of the LLCB blanket is proposed to be tested in ITER equatorial port no.2, to ensure the overall performance of blanket in reactor relevant nuclear fusion environment. Nuclear analyses play an important role in LLCB Test Blanket System design & development. It is required for tritium breeding estimation, thermal-hydraulic design, coolants process design, radioactive waste management, equipment maintenance & replacement strategies and nuclear safety. The nuclear behaviour of LLCB test blanket module in ITER is predicated in terms of nuclear responses such as tritium production, nuclear heating, neutron fluxes and radiation damages. Radiation shielding capability of LLCB TBS inside and outside bio-shield was also assessed to fulfill ITER shielding requirements. In order to supports the rad-waste and safety assessment, nuclear activation analyses were carried out and radioactivity data were generated for LLCB TBS components. Nuclear analyses of LLCB TBS are performed using ITER recommended nuclear analyses codes (i.e. MCNP, EASY), nuclear cross section data libraries (i.e. FENDL 2.1, EAF) and neutronic model (ITER C-lite v.l). The paper describes a comprehensive nuclear performance of LLCB TBS in ITER.

  8. Effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio due to a distributed ICRF antenna in a DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A., E-mail: albert.garcia.hp@gmail.com [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Noterdaeme, J.-M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching (Germany); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Dies, J. [Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    This thesis reports results of MCNP-5 calculations, with the nuclear data library FENDL-2.1, to assess the effect on the Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) due to a distributed Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) antenna integrated in the blanket of a DEMO fusion power reactor. A preliminary design of the antenna with a reference configuration of the DEMO reactor was used together with a parametric analysis for different parameters that strongly affect the TBR. These are the type of breeding blanket (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed, Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Water Cooled Lithium Lead), the covering ratio of the straps of the antenna (the ratio between the surface of all the straps and the projected surface of the antenna slot: 0.49, 0.72 and 0.94), the antenna radial thickness (20 cm and 40 cm), the thickness of the straps (2 cm, 4 cm and a double layer of 0.2 cm plus 2.5 cm with the composition of the First Wall), and finally the poloidal position of the antenna (0°, which is the equatorial port, 40° and 90°, which is the upper port). For an antenna with a full toroidal circumference of 360°, located poloidaly at 40° with a poloidal extension of 1 m and a total First Wall surface of 67 m{sup 2}, the reduction of the TBR is −0.35% for a HCPB blanket concept, −0.53% for a HCLL blanket concept and −0.51% for a WCLL blanket concept. In all cases covered by the parametric analysis, the loss of TBR remains below 0.61%. Such a distributed ICRF antenna has thus only a marginal effect on the TBR for a DEMO reactor.

  9. Development and trial manufacturing of 1/2-scale partial mock-up of blanket box structure for fusion experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Toshiyuki; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Sato, Satoshi

    1994-07-01

    Conceptual design of breeding blanket has been discussed during the CDA (Conceptual Design Activities) of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). Structural concept of breeding blanket is based on box structure integrated with first wall and shield, which consists of three coolant manifolds for first wall, breeding and shield regions. The first wall must have cooling channels to remove surface heat flux and nuclear heating. The box structure includes plates to form the manifolds and stiffening ribs to withstand enormous electromagnetic load, coolant pressure and blanket internal (purge gas) pressure. A 1/2-scale partial model of the blanket box structure for the outboard side module near midplane is manufactured to estimate the fabrication technology, i.e. diffusion bonding by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) and EBW (Electron Beam Welding) procedure. Fabrication accuracy is a key issue to manufacture first wall panel because bending deformation during HIP may not be small for a large size structure. Data on bending deformation during HIP was obtained by preliminary manufacturing of HIP elements. For the shield structure, it is necessary to reduce the welding strain and residual stress of the weldment to establish the fabrication procedure. Optimal shape of the parts forming the manifolds, welding locations and welding sequence have been investigated. In addition, preliminary EBW tests have been performed in order to select the EBW conditions, and fundamental data on built-up shield have been obtained. Especially, welding deformation by joining the first wall panel to the shield has been measured, and total deformation to build-up shield by EBW has been found to be smaller than 2 mm. Consequently, the feasibility of fabrication technologies has been successfully demonstrated for a 1m-scaled box structure including the first wall with cooling channels by means of HIP, EBW and TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas arc)-welding.

  10. Liquid immersion blanket design for use in a compact modular fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Hartwig, Zachary; Olynyk, Geoffrey; Sierchio, Jennifer; Whyte, Dennis

    2012-10-01

    Traditional tritium breeding blankets in fusion reactor designs include a large amount of structural material. This results in complex engineering requirements, complicated sector maintenance, and marginal tritium breeding ratios (TBR). We present a conceptual design of a fully liquid blanket. To maximize tritium breeding volume, the vacuum vessel is completely immersed in a continuously recycled FLiBe blanket, with the exception of small support posts. FLiBe has a wide liquid temperature window (459 C to 1430 C), low electrical conductivity to minimize MHD effects, similar thermal/fluid characteristics to water, and is chemically inert. While tritium breeding with FLiBe in traditional blankets is poor, we use MCNP neutronics analysis to show that the immersion blanket design coupled with a beryllium neutron multiplier results in TBR > 1. FLiBe is shown to be a sufficient radiation shield for the toroidal field magnets and can be used as a coolant for the vacuum vessel and divertor, allowing for a simplified single-phase, low-pressure, single-fluid cooling scheme. When coupled with a high-field compact reactor design, the immersion blanket eliminates the need for complex sector maintenance, allows the vacuum vessel to be a replaceable component, and reduces financial cost.

  11. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  12. Direct Lit Electrolysis In A Metallic Lithium Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Babineau, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Elvington, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Teprovich, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Vaquer, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-13

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium based breeding blankets was developed.  The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fission/fusion reactors is critical in order to maintained low concentrations.  This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket, extraction is complicated at the required low levels. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering the hydrogen and deuterium thru an electrolysis step at high temperatures. 

  13. Direct LiT Electrolysis in a Metallic Fusion Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    A process that simplifies the extraction of tritium from molten lithium-based breeding blankets was developed. The process is based on the direct electrolysis of lithium tritide using a ceramic Li ion conductor that replaces the molten salt extraction step. Extraction of tritium in the form of lithium tritide in the blankets/targets of fusion/fission reactors is critical in order to maintain low concentrations. This is needed to decrease the potential tritium permeation to the surroundings and large releases from unforeseen accident scenarios. Extraction is complicated due to required low tritium concentration limits and because of the high affinity of tritium for the blanket. This work identified, developed and tested the use of ceramic lithium ion conductors capable of recovering hydrogen and deuterium through an electrolysis step at high temperatures.

  14. Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation (TABI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1987-01-01

    Single layer and multilayer insulating blankets for high-temperature service fabricated without sewing. TABI woven fabric made of aluminoborosilicate. Triangular-cross-section flutes of core filled with silica batting. Flexible blanket formed into curved shapes, providing high-temperature and high-heat-flux insulation.

  15. Overview of design activities for Li/V blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sze, D.K.; Mattas, R.F.

    1997-12-31

    Recent fusion power plant design studies in the US have been conducted within the ARIES project. The most recent design of Li/V blankets was conducted as part of the ARIES-RS design. The ARIES-RS fusion power plant design study is based on reversed-shear (RS) physics with a Li/V (lithium breeder and vanadium structure) blanket. The reversed-shear discharge has been documented in many large tokamak experiments. The plasma in the RS mode has a high beta, low current, and low current drive requirement. Therefore, it is an attractive physics regime for a fusion power plant. The blanket system based on a Li/V has high temperature operating capability, good tritium breeding, excellent high heat flux removal capability, long structural life time, low activation, low after heat and good safety characteristics. For these reasons, the ARIES-RS reactor study selected Li/V as the reference blanket. The combination of attractive physics and attractive blanket engineering is expected to result in a superior power plant design.

  16. Conceptual design of a water cooled breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Pu, Yong; Cheng, Xiaoman [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Jia; Peng, ChangHong [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ma, Xuebing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a water cooled ceramic breeder blanket with superheated steam. • Superheated steam is generated at the first wall and the front part of breeder zone. • Superheated steam has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW and improves TBR. • The superheated steam at higher temperature can improve thermal efficiency. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is an ITER-like superconducting tokamak reactor. Its major radius is 5.7 m, minor radius is 1.6 m and elongation ratio is 1.8. Its mission is to achieve 50–200 MW of fusion power, 30–50% of duty time factor, and tritium breeding ratio not less than 1.2 to ensure the self-sufficiency. As one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR, a water cooled breeder blanket with superheated steam is proposed and its conceptual design is being carried out. In this design, sub-cooling water at 265 °C under the pressure of 7 MPa is fed into cooling plates in breeding zone and is heated up to 285 °C with saturated steam generated, and then this steam is pre-superheated up to 310 °C in first wall (FW), final, the pre-superheated steam coming from several blankets is fed into the other one blanket to superheat again up to 517 °C. Due to low density of superheated steam, it has negligible impact on neutron absorption by coolant in FW so that the high energy neutrons entering into breeder zone moderated by water in cooling plate help enhance tritium breeding by {sup 6}Li(n,α)T reaction. Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles and Be{sub 12}Ti pebbles are chosen as tritium breeder and neutron multiplier respectively, because Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Be{sub 12}Ti are expected to have better chemical stability and compatibility with water in high temperature. However, Be{sub 12}Ti may lead to a reduction in tritium breeding ratio (TBR). Furthermore, a spot of sintered Be plate is used to improve neutron multiplying capacity in a multi-layer structure. As one alternative option

  17. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  18. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  19. A fail–safe and cost effective fabrication route for blanket First Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commin, L., E-mail: lorelei.commin@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Rieth, M.; Dafferner, B.; Zimmermann, H.; Bolich, D.; Baumgärtner, S.; Ziegler, R. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-AWP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dichiser, S.; Fabry, T.; Fischer, S.; Hildebrand, W.; Palussek, O.; Ritz, H.; Sponda, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Technische Infrastruktur und Dienste (TID), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Helium Cooled Lithium Lead and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed concepts have been selected as European Test Blanket Modules (TBM) for ITER. The TBM fabrication will need the assembly of six Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic steel sub-components, namely First Wall, Caps, Stiffening Grid, Breeding Units, Back Plates/Manifolds, and Attachment system. The fabrication of the First Wall requires the production of cooling channels inside 30 mm thick bended plates. For this specific component, the main issues consist of the lack of accessibility of some areas to join, the process tolerances, the dimensional stability and the resulting assembly mechanical properties. Several fabrication routes have been already investigated, which involve diffusion welding and fusion welding (electron beam, laser beam, hybrid MIG/laser). In this study, an alternative processing method was developed, based on Hot Isostatic Pressing of inner pipes within two half-shells. This method presents some major advantages over the existing ones, in particular its inherent fail–safe design due to the application of the double containment principle, the solely use of cost effective standard fabrication processes and the resulting component dimensional stability. A four channel mock-up was fabricated and analyzed to validate the fabrication procedure. The joint quality was assessed using microstructural characterization and Charpy tests. The results confirm the predicted perfect weld lines as well as the preservation of the mechanical properties. Therefore, the presented fabrication procedure is very appropriate for the fabrication of First Walls for fusion reactor blankets.

  20. Updated conceptual design of helium cooling ceramic blanket for HCCB-DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Suhao [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Cao, Qixiang; Wu, Xinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Guoshu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Feng, Kaiming, E-mail: fengkm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An updated design of Helium Cooled Ceramic breeder Blanket (HCCB) for HCCB-DEMO is proposed in this paper. • The Breeder Unit is transformed to TBM-like sub-modules, with double “banana” shape tritium breeder. Each sub-module is inserted in space formed by Stiffen Grids (SGs). • The performance analysis is performed based on the R&D development of material, fabrication technology and safety assessment in CN ITER TBM program. • Hot spots will be located at the FW bend side. - Abstract: The basic definition of the HCCB-DEMO plant and preliminary blanket designed by Southwestern Institution of Physics was proposed in 2009. The DEMO fusion power is 2550 MW and electric power is 800 MW. Based on development of R&D in breeding blanket, a conceptual design of helium cooled blanket with ceramic breeder in HCCB-DEMO was presented. The main design features of the HCCB-DEMO blanket were: (1) CLF-1 structure materials, Be multiplier and Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} breeder; (2) neutronic wall load is 2.3 MW/m{sup 2} and surface heat flux is 0.43 MW/m{sup 2} (2) TBR ≈ 1.15; (3) geometry of breeding units is ITER TBM-like segmentation; (4)Pressure of helium is 8 MPa and inlet/outlet temperature is 300/500 °C. On the basis of these design, some important analytical results are presented in aspects of (i) neutronic behavior of the blanket; (ii) design of 3D structure and thermal-hydraulic lay-out for breeding blanket module; (iii) structural-mechanical behavior of the blanket under pressurization. All of these assessments proved current stucture fulfill the design requirements.

  1. Methodology for accident analyses of fusion breeder blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobromir Panayotov; Andrew Grief; Brad J. Merrill; Julian T. Murgatroyd; Paul Humrickhouse; Yves Poitevin; Simon Owen; Markus Iseli

    2015-06-01

    'Fusion for Energy' (F4E) develops designs and implements the European Test Blanket Systems (TBS) in ITER - Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an essential element for the integration of TBS in ITER and accident analyses are one of its critical segments. A systematic approach to the accident analyses had been acquired under the F4E contract on TBS safety analyses. F4E technical requirements and AMEC and INL efforts resulted in the development of a comprehensive methodology for fusion breeding blanket accident analyses. It addresses the specificity of the breeding blankets design, materials and phenomena and at the same time is consistent with the one already applied to ITER accident analyses. Methodology consists of several phases. At first the reference scenarios are selected on the base of FMEA studies. In the second place elaboration of the accident analyses specifications we use phenomena identification and ranking tables to identify the requirements to be met by the code(s) and TBS models. Thus the limitations of the codes are identified and possible solutions to be built into the models are proposed. These include among others the loose coupling of different codes or code versions in order to simulate multi-fluid flows and phenomena. The code selection and issue of the accident analyses specifications conclude this second step. Furthermore the breeding blanket and ancillary systems models are built on. In this work challenges met and solutions used in the development of both MELCOR and RELAP5 codes models of HCLL and HCPB TBSs will be shared. To continue the developed models are qualified by comparison with finite elements analyses, by code to code comparison and sensitivity studies. Finally, the qualified models are used for the execution of the accident analyses of specific scenario. When possible the methodology phases will be illustrated in the paper by limited number of tables and

  2. MHD pressure drop in ferritic pipes of fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, J.; Buehler, Leo E-mail: leo.buehler@iket.fzk.de; Messadek, K.; Stieglitz, R

    2003-09-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic flows in pipes of ferromagnetic material is an important issue for liquid metal blanket concepts using MANET as wall material. Fusion relevant magnetic fields of 4-8 T cause high pressure drop in the blanket header where a massive structure of ferromagnetic material exists. It is briefly outlined that in the blanket the reduction of pressure drop due to magnetic shielding is limited to about 10%. Remarkable reduction of pressure drop is possible by means of electrical insulation that prevents currents from short-circuiting through the very thick walls of the headers. Direct contact of the insulating material with the liquid metal is excluded by using metallic liners. Results are reported on the fabrication of such a test section and corresponding pressure drop measurements confirm the effective contribution of the electrical decoupling.

  3. Multiplier, moderator, and reflector materials for lithium-vanadium fusion blankets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Y.; Smith, D. L.

    1999-10-07

    The self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has several attractive operational and environmental features. In this concept, liquid lithium works as the tritium breeder and coolant to alleviate issues of coolant breeder compatibility and reactivity. Vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) is used as the structural material because of its superior performance relative to other alloys for this application. However, this concept has poor attenuation characteristics and energy multiplication for the DT neutrons. An advanced self-cooled lithium-vanadium fusion blanket concept has been developed to eliminate these drawbacks while maintaining all the attractive features of the conventional concept. An electrical insulator coating for the coolant channels, spectral shifter (multiplier, and moderator) and reflector were utilized in the blanket design to enhance the blanket performance. In addition, the blanket was designed to have the capability to operate at high loading conditions of 2 MW/m{sup 2} surface heat flux and 10 MW/m{sup 2} neutron wall loading. This paper assesses the spectral shifter and the reflector materials and it defines the technological requirements of this advanced blanket concept.

  4. Development of thermal-hydraulic analysis methodology for multiple modules of water-cooled breeder blanket in fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Jeong-Hun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu, E-mail: chohk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Kihak [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A methodology to simulate the K-DEMO blanket system was proposed. • The results were compared with the CFD, to verify the prediction capability of MARS. • 46 Blankets in a single sector in K-DEMO were simulated using MARS-KS. • Supervisor program was devised to handle each blanket module individually. • The calculation results showed the flow rates, pressure drops, and temperatures. - Abstract: According to the conceptual design of the fusion DEMO reactor proposed by the National Fusion Research Institute of Korea, the water-cooled breeding blanket system incorporates a total of 736 blanket modules. The heat flux and neutron wall loading to each blanket module vary along their poloidal direction, and hence, thermal analysis for at least one blanket sector is required to confirm that the temperature limitations of the materials are satisfied in all the blanket modules. The present paper proposes a methodology of thermal analysis for multiple modules of the blanket system using a nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis code, MARS-KS. In order to overcome the limitations of the code, caused by the restriction on the number of computational nodes, a supervisor program was devised, which handles each blanket module separately at first, and then corrects the flow rate, considering pressure drops that occur in each module. For a feasibility test of the proposed methodology, 46 blankets in a single sector were simulated; the calculation results of the parameters, such as mass flow, pressure drops, and temperature distribution in the multiple blanket modules showed that the multi-module analysis method can be used for efficient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  5. 47 CFR 22.353 - Blanketing interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are not required to resolve blanketing interference to mobile receivers or non-RF devices or... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanketing interference. 22.353 Section 22.353... Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.353 Blanketing interference. Licensees of...

  6. Ovulation and conception rates according intravaginal progesterone device and hCG or GnRH to induce ovulation in buffalo during the off breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Baruselli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravaginal progesterone device (P4; first or second use of different ovulatory inductors on ovulation and conception rates in buffaloes during the off breeding season. Two hundred and forty two buffaloes were allocated in four groups and received P4 device of first or second use plus estradiol benzoate on Day 0 (D0. The P4 device was removed and a dose of PGF2α and eCG was administered on D9. On D11, buffaloes received hCG or GnRH and 16hs after the animals were inseminated. The ultrasound examination was performed on D0 to verify the ovarian status, from D9 to D14 to establish the moment of ovulation and on D40 for pregnancy diagnosis. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Chi-square test. There was no effect of interaction. The ovulation and conception rate were similar for P4 device of first and second use, for hCG and GnRH. Results indicate that the use of P4 device for two times and the use of GnRH instead of hCG provide satisfactory ovulation and conception rate in buffalo during the off breeding season and might reduce the cost of the protocol for artificial insemination.

  7. Effect of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk of dairy cows under natural service and artificial insemination breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L-K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to examine the effect of heat stress on natural service and artificial insemination (AI) breeding methods. We investigated the influence of short- and long-term heat stress on the conception risk (CR) of dairy cows bred by natural service or by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen. In addition, the relationship between breeding method and parity was determined. Cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed semen exposed to long-term heat stress (mean temperature-humidity index ≥73 in the period 21d before breeding) were 63% less likely to get pregnant compared with cows not exposed to heat stress. Cows bred by AI with fresh semen were 80% less likely to get pregnant during periods of short-term heat stress than during periods without heat stress. Furthermore, multiparous cows bred by AI with frozen-thawed or fresh semen were 22 and 67% less likely to get pregnant, respectively, than primiparous cows. No influence of heat stress or parity was noted on the CR of cows bred by natural service. The present study indicates that the likelihood of dairy cows becoming pregnant is reduced by short- and long-term heat stress depending on the type of semen employed. In particular, CR of cows inseminated with fresh semen is negatively affected by short-term heat stress and CR of cows inseminated with frozen-thawed semen is negatively affected by long-term heat stress.

  8. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  9. First wall and blanket module safety enhancement by material selection and design decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermal/mechanical study has been performed which illustrates the behavior of a fusion reactor first wall and blanket module during a loss of coolant flow event. The relative safety advantages of various material and design options were determined. A generalized first wall-blanket concept was developed to provide the flexibility to vary the structural material (stainless steel vs titanium), coolant (helium vs water), and breeder material (liquid lithium vs solid lithium aluminate). In addition, independent vs common first wall-blanket cooling and coupled adjacent module cooling design options were included in the study. The comparative analyses were performed using a modified thermal analysis code to handle phase change problems.

  10. Fusion Blanket Coolant Section Criteria, Methodology, and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMuth, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frantoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reyes, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-02

    The focus of this LDRD was to explore potential Li alloys that would meet the tritium breeding and blanket cooling requirements but with reduced chemical reactivity, while maintaining the other attractive features of pure Li breeder/coolant. In other fusion approaches (magnetic fusion energy or MFE), 17Li- 83Pb alloy is used leveraging Pb’s ability to maintain high TBR while lowering the levels of lithium in the system. Unfortunately this alloy has a number of potential draw-backs. Due to the high Pb content, this alloy suffers from very high average density, low tritium solubility, low system energy, and produces undesirable activation products in particular polonium. The criteria considered in the selection of a tritium breeding alloy are described in the following section.

  11. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  12. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  13. Neutronics Analysis of Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qingjun; Li, Jia; Liu, Songlin

    2016-07-01

    In order to investigate the nuclear response to the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket models for CFETR, a detailed 3D neutronics model with 22.5° torus sector was developed based on the integrated geometry of CFETR, including heterogeneous WCCB blanket models, shield, divertor, vacuum vessel, toroidal and poloidal magnets, and ports. Using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code MCNP5 and IAEA Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library FENDL2.1, the neutronics analyses were performed. The neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, the nuclear heating, neutron-induced atomic displacement damage, and gas production were determined. The results indicate that the global TBR of no less than 1.2 will be a big challenge for the water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket for CFETR. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000, and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  14. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A.; Utili, M. [ENEA, Camugnano (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  15. Design and analysis of ITER shield blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Junji; Hatano, Toshihisa; Ezato, Kouichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-12-01

    This report includes electromagnetic analyses for ITER shielding blanket modules, fabrication methods for the blanket modules and the back plate, the design and the fabrication methods for port limiter have been investigated. Studies on the runaway electron impact for Be armor have been also performed. (J.P.N.)

  16. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  17. Classification Using Markov Blanket for Feature Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Luo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Selecting relevant features is in demand when a large data set is of interest in a classification task. It produces a tractable number of features that are sufficient and possibly improve the classification performance. This paper studies a statistical method of Markov blanket induction algorithm...... induction as a feature selection method. In addition, we point out an important assumption behind the Markov blanket induction algorithm and show its effect on the classification performance....... for filtering features and then applies a classifier using the Markov blanket predictors. The Markov blanket contains a minimal subset of relevant features that yields optimal classification performance. We experimentally demonstrate the improved performance of several classifiers using a Markov blanket...

  18. Design of a high-temperature first wall/blanket for a d-d compact Reversed-Field-Pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Glancy, J.E.

    1983-05-01

    A high-temperature first wall/blanket which would take full advantage of the absence of tritium breeding in a d-d reactor was designed. This design which produces steam at p = 7 MPa and T = 538/sup 0/C at the blanket exit eliminates the requirement for a separate steam generator. A steam cycle with steam-to-steam reheat yielding about 37.5 percent efficiency is compatible with this design.

  19. Parametric fits to 1-D neutron transport calculations for lithium-vanadium fusion power plant blankets in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Perkins, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    The authors performed 1-D coupled, neutron-gamma transport calculations for lithium-vanadium blankets and lithium-sodium cauldron pot blankets in cylindrical and spherical geometries. Parametric fits to the data are supplied for subsequent use in systems code models. Scaling relationships are given for various neutronics parameters of interest, including: tritium breeding ratio, neutron energy multiplication, magnet dose rates, magnet heating rates, and integrated magnet fluence.

  20. Uranium self-shielding in fast reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiroglu, O.K.; Driscoll, M.J.

    1976-03-01

    The effects of heterogeneity on resonance self-shielding are examined with particular emphasis on the blanket region of the fast breeder reactor and on its dominant reaction--capture in /sup 238/U. The results, however, apply equally well to scattering resonances, to other isotopes (fertile, fissile and structural species) and to other environments, so long as the underlying assumptions of narrow resonance theory apply. The heterogeneous resonance integral is first cast into a modified homogeneous form involving the ratio of coolant-to-fuel fluxes. A generalized correlation (useful in its own right in many other applications) is developed for this ratio, using both integral transport and collision probability theory to infer the form of correlation, and then relying upon Monte Carlo calculations to establish absolute values of the correlation coefficients. It is shown that a simple linear prescription can be developed for the flux ratio as a function of only fuel optical thickness and the fraction of the slowing-down source generated by the coolant. This in turn permitted derivation of a new equivalence theorem relating the heterogeneous self-shielding factor to the homogeneous self-shielding factor at a modified value of the background scattering cross section per absorber nucleus. A simple version of this relation is developed and used to show that heterogeneity has a negligible effect on the calculated blanket breeding ratio in fast reactors.

  1. Multifractal Framework Based on Blanket Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskaš, Milorad P.; Reljin, Irini S.; Reljin, Branimir D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes two local multifractal measures motivated by blanket method for calculation of fractal dimension. They cover both fractal approaches familiar in image processing. The first two measures (proposed Methods 1 and 3) support model of image with embedded dimension three, while the other supports model of image embedded in space of dimension three (proposed Method 2). While the classical blanket method provides only one value for an image (fractal dimension) multifractal spectrum obtained by any of the proposed measures gives a whole range of dimensional values. This means that proposed multifractal blanket model generalizes classical (monofractal) blanket method and other versions of this monofractal approach implemented locally. Proposed measures are validated on Brodatz image database through texture classification. All proposed methods give similar classification results, while average computation time of Method 3 is substantially longer. PMID:24578664

  2. Preliminary three-dimensional neutronics design and analysis of helium-cooled blanket for a multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor%多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆FDS-MFX氦冷包层三维中子学初步设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金超; FDS团队; 金鸣; 王明煌; 蒋洁琼; 王国忠; 邱岳峰; 宋婧; 邹俊; 吴宜灿

    2011-01-01

    FDS-MFX(Multi-Functional eXperimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor)是一个基于现实可行技术的多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆概念,分3个阶段相继开展实验研究,分别采用纯氚增殖包层、铀燃料包层和乏燃料包层.本文重点对其中铀燃料包层后期阶段中高浓缩铀模块的摆放方式和尺寸进行优化,给出一个区平均最大功率密度约为100 MW/m3,235U装料量约为1 t,氚增殖率为1.05的三维初步中子学方案.%A multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept named FDS-MFX , which is based on viable fusion and fission technologies, has been proposed. Three-stage tests will be carried out successively, in which the tritium breeding blanket, uranium-fueled blanket and spent-fuel-fueled blanket will be utilized respectively. In this paper,the design optimization for the layout and the size of high enriched uranium modules inlater stage of uranium-fueled blanket has been performed.Finally,proposing a preliminarythree-dimension neutronies design with maximum average Power Density(Pdmax)100 MW/m3,loaded mass of the 235U 1 000 kg and TBR(Tritium Breeding Ratio)1.05.

  3. Exploratory Study of Blanket Liquid Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGang; HUANGJinhua; FENGKaiming

    2003-01-01

    Blankets and other in-vessel components are easily damaged owing to their circumstance of high radiation and high heat. To protect them, first wall design should be considered. Owing to its high heat removal nd self-refreshing capability, liquid metal first wall has been seen as a potential first wall for a fusion reactor in the future. Blanketliquid curtain is actually a special liquid metal wall to protect blanket.

  4. Key achievements in elementary R&D on water-cooled solid breeder blanket for ITER test blanket module in JAERI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Hatano, T.; Hirose, T.; Hayashi, K.; Tanigawa, H.; Ochiai, K.; Nishitani, T.; Tobita, K.; Akiba, M.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the significant progress made in the research and development (R&D) of key technologies on the water-cooled solid breeder blanket for the ITER test blanket modules in JAERI. Development of module fabrication technology, bonding technology of armours, measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of pebble beds, neutronics studies on a blanket module mockup and tritium release behaviour from a Li2TiO3 pebble bed under neutron-pulsed operation conditions are summarized. With the improvement of the heat treatment process for blanket module fabrication, a fine-grained microstructure of F82H can be obtained by homogenizing it at 1150 °C followed by normalizing it at 930 °C after the hot isostatic pressing process. Moreover, a promising bonding process for a tungsten armour and an F82H structural material was developed using a solid-state bonding method based on uniaxial hot compression without any artificial compliant layer. As a result of high heat flux tests of F82H first wall mockups, it has been confirmed that a fatigue lifetime correlation, which was developed for the ITER divertor, can be made applicable for the F82H first wall mockup. As for R&D on the breeder material, Li2TiO3, the effect of compression loads on effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds has been clarified for the Li2TiO3 pebble bed. The tritium breeding ratio of a simulated multi-layer blanket structure has successfully been measured using 14 MeV neutrons with an accuracy of 10%. The tritium release rate from the Li2TiO3 pebble has also been successfully measured with pulsed neutron irradiation, which simulates ITER operation.

  5. Thermal Hydraulic Design and Analysis of a Water-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Blanket with Superheated Steam for CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoman; Ma, Xuebin; Jiang, Kecheng; Chen, Lei; Huang, Kai; Liu, Songlin

    2015-09-01

    The water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket (WCCB) is one of the blanket candidates for China fusion engineering test reactor (CFETR). In order to improve power generation efficiency and tritium breeding ratio, WCCB with superheated steam is under development. The thermal-hydraulic design is the key to achieve the purpose of safe heat removal and efficient power generation under normal and partial loading operation conditions. In this paper, the coolant flow scheme was designed and one self-developed analytical program was developed, based on a theoretical heat transfer model and empirical correlations. Employing this program, the design and analysis of related thermal-hydraulic parameters were performed under different fusion power conditions. The results indicated that the superheated steam water-cooled blanket is feasible. supported by the National Special Project for Magnetic Confined Nuclear Fusion Energy of China (Nos. 2013GB108004, 2014GB122000 and 2014GB119000), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207)

  6. Options and methods for instrumentation of Test Blanket Systems for experiment control and scientific mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, Pattrick, E-mail: pcalderoni@gmail.com; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan; Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Leichtle, Dieter; Poitevin, Yves

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • This work defined options and methods to instrument ITER TBSs based on functional categories: safety, interlock and control and scientific exploitation based on the ITER research program. • Presented the general architecture of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket System Instrumentation and Control. • Defined safety and interlock sensors count and technology selection based on preliminary safety analysis. • Discussed the development status of scientific instrumentation, with focus on integration with design and fulfillment of TBM research program. - Abstract: Europe is currently developing two reference breeder blankets concepts for DEMO reactor specifications that will be tested in ITER under the form of Test Blanket Modules (TBMs): the Helium-Cooled Lithium-Lead (HCLL) concept which uses the eutectic Pb-16Li as both breeder and neutron multiplier; the Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) concept which features lithiated ceramic pebbles as breeder and beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier. Each TBM is associated with several sub-systems required for their operation; together they form the Test Blanket System (TBS). This paper presents the state of HCLL and HCPB TBS instrumentation design. The discussion is based on the systems functional analysis, from which three main categories of instrumentation are defined: those relevant to safety functions; those relevant to interlock functions; those designed for the control and scientific exploitation of the devices based on the TBM program objectives.

  7. Dosimetric impact evaluation of primary coolant chemistry of the internal tritium breeding cycle of a fusion reactor DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM), ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid UPM, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Sedano, L. A. [Asociacion Euratom-Ciematpara Fusion, Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, J. M. [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM), ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid UPM, J. Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    Tritium will be responsible for a large fraction of the environmental impact of the first generation of DT fusion reactors. Today, the efforts of conceptual development of the tritium cycle for DEMO are mainly centred in the so called Inner Breeding Tritium Cycle, conceived as guarantee of reactor fuel self-sufficiency. The EU Fusion Programme develops for the short term of fusion power technology two breeding blanket conceptual designs both helium cooled. One uses Li-ceramic material (HCPB, Helium-Cooled Pebble Bed) and the other a liquid metal eutectic alloy (Pb15.7Li) (HCLL, Helium-Cooled Lithium Lead). Both are Li-6 enriched materials. At a proper scale designs will be tested as Test Blanket Modules in ITER. The tritium cycles linked to both blanket concepts are similar, with some different characteristics. The tritium is recovered from the He purge gas in the case of HCPB, and directly from the breeding alloy through a carrier gas in HCLL. For a 3 GWth self-sufficient fusion reactor the tritium breeding need is few hundred grams of tritium per day. Safety and environmental impact are today the top priority design criteria. Dose impact limits should determine the key margins and parameters in its conception. Today, transfer from the cycle to the environment is conservatively assumed to be operating in a 1-enclosure scheme through the tritium plant power conversion system (intermediate heat exchangers and helium blowers). Tritium loss is caused by HT and T{sub 2} permeation and simultaneous primary coolant leakage through steam generators. Primary coolant chemistry appears to be the most natural way to control tritium permeation from the breeder into primary coolant and from primary coolant through SG by H{sub 2} tritium flux isotopic swamping or steel (EUROFER/INCOLOY) oxidation. A primary coolant chemistry optimization is proposed. Dynamic flow process diagrams of tritium fluxes are developed ad-hoc and coupled with tritiated effluents dose impact evaluations

  8. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, G.; Ragona, R.

    2015-12-01

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  9. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G., E-mail: gbosia@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Turin (Italy); Ragona, R. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-LPP-ERM/KMS, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  10. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF). Annual report, January 31, 1976--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, K.O. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The work performed in the reporting period was primarily concerned with the construction of the Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF), acquisition of experimental equipment, outlining the experimental program, preanalysis of the initial loading configuration and investigation of the safety of the initial loading and advanced loadings. The detailed physical description of the FBBF, operational procedures and controls, radiation shielding and experimental equipment are presented. The ability of the FBBF to simulate the blanket spectrum of a large fast breeder reactor is illustrated by comparison of spectra. The source axial distribution, reaction rate comparisons, breeding of plutonium and gamma-ray energy deposition rates are also discussed. Some of the safety aspects of the initial loading and advanced loadings are described. Experimental capabilities of the facility are outlined.

  11. Two-dimensional TBR calculations for conceptual compact reversed-field pinch reactor blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. W.; Battat, M. E.; Dudziak, D. J.

    A detailed two-dimensional nucleonic analysis was performed for a conceptual first wall, blanket, and shield design for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor. The design includes significant two-dimensional aspects presented by the limiter, vacuum ducts, and coolant manifolds; these aspects seriously degrade the tritium-breeding reaction (TBR) predicted by one-dimensional calculations. A range of design change to increase the TBR were investigated within the two-dimensional analysis. The results of this investigation indicated that an adequate TBR could be achieved with a thinning copper first wall, a (6)Li enrichment near 90%, the proper selection of reflector, and a small addition to the blanket thickness, determined by the one-dimensional analysis.

  12. Lightweight IMM PV Flexible Blanket Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) photovoltaic (PV) integrated modular blanket assembly (IMBA) that can be rolled or z-folded. This IMM PV IMBA technology enables a revolutionary flexible PV blanket assembly that provides high specific power, exceptional stowed packaging efficiency, and high-voltage operation capability. DSS's technology also accommodates standard third-generation triple junction (ZTJ) PV device technologies to provide significantly improved performance over the current state of the art. This SBIR project demonstrated prototype, flight-like IMM PV IMBA panel assemblies specifically developed, designed, and optimized for NASA's high-voltage solar array missions.

  13. 48 CFR 613.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 613.303 Section 613.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE....303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  14. 48 CFR 1313.303 - Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs). 1313.303 Section 1313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....303 Blanket Purchase Agreements (BPAs)....

  15. 48 CFR 13.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 13.303 Section 13.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Methods 13.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  16. 48 CFR 313.303 - Blanket purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements. 313.303 Section 313.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....303 Blanket purchase agreements....

  17. Impact of heat stress on conception rate of dairy cows in the moderate climate considering different temperature-humidity index thresholds, periods relative to breeding, and heat load indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, L K; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this retrospective study were to investigate the relationship between temperature-humidity index (THI) and conception rate (CR) of lactating dairy cows, to estimate a threshold for this relationship, and to identify periods of exposure to heat stress relative to breeding in an area of moderate climate. In addition, we compared three different heat load indices related to CR: mean THI, maximum THI, and number of hours above the mean THI threshold. The THI threshold for the influence of heat stress on CR was 73. It was statistically chosen based on the observed relationship between the mean THI at the day of breeding and the resulting CR. Negative effects of heat stress, however, were already apparent at lower levels of THI, and 1 hour of mean THI of 73 or more decreased the CR significantly. The CR of lactating dairy cows was negatively affected by heat stress both before and after the day of breeding. The greatest negative impact of heat stress on CR was observed 21 to 1 day before breeding. When the mean THI was 73 or more in this period, CR decreased from 31% to 12%. Compared with the average maximum THI and the total number of hours above a threshold of more than or 9 hours, the mean THI was the most sensitive heat load index relating to CR. These results indicate that the CR of dairy cows raised in the moderate climates is highly affected by heat stress.

  18. Progress in the integration of Test Blanket Systems in ITER equatorial port cells and in the interfaces definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascal, R., E-mail: romain.pascal@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Beloglazov, S.; Bonagiri, S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Commin, L. [CEA, IRFM, Cadarache (France); Cortes, P.; Giancarli, L.M.; Gliss, C.; Iseli, M.; Lanza, R.; Levesy, B.; Martins, J.-P. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Neviere, J.-C. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Comex-Nucleaire, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Patisson, L.; Plutino, D.; Shu, W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Swami, H.L. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The design integration of two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is addressed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Definition of interfaces of TBSs with building and other ITER systems is done. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designs of pipe forest, bioshield plug and ancillary equipment unit are described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maintenance of the two test blanket systems in ITER port cell is considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The management of the heat and tritium releases in the TBM port cell is described. - Abstract: In the framework of the TBM Program, three ITER vacuum vessel equatorial ports (no. 16, no. 18 and no. 02) have been allocated for the testing of up to six mock-ups of six different DEMO tritium breeding blankets. Each one is called a Test Blanket System (TBS). A TBS consists mainly of the Test Blanket Module (TBM), the in-vessel component facing the plasma, and several ancillary systems, in particular the cooling system and the tritium extraction system. Each port accommodates two TBMs and therefore the two TBSs have to share the corresponding port cell. This paper deals with the design integration aspects of the two TBSs in each port cell performed at ITER Organization (IO) with the corresponding definition of interfaces with other ITER systems. The performed activities have raised several issues that are discussed in the paper and for which design solutions are proposed.

  19. Comparison of lithium and the eutectic lead lithium alloy, two candidate liquid metal breeder materials for self-cooled blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Mattas, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Liquid metals are attractive candidates for both near-term and long-term fusion applications. The subjects of this comparison are the differences between the two candidate liquid metal breeder materials Li and LiPb for use in breeding blankets in the areas of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, tritium control, compatibility with structural materials, heat extraction system, safety, and required R&D program. Both candidates appear to be promising for use in self-cooled breeding blankets which have inherent simplicity with the liquid metal serving as both breeders and coolant. The remaining feasibility question for both breeder materials is the electrical insulation between liquid metal and duct walls. Different ceramic coatings are required for the two breeders, and their crucial issues, namely self-healing of insulator cracks and radiation induced electrical degradation are not yet demonstrated. Each liquid metal breeder has advantages and concerns associated with it, and further development is needed to resolve these concerns.

  20. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R.S.J. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Valdes, Paul J. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to investigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change. (orig.)

  1. Fidget Blankets: A Sensory Stimulation Outreach Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroustos, Kelly Reilly; Trautwein, Heidi; Kerns, Rachel; Sobota, Kristen Finley

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) include behaviors such as aberrant motor behavior, agitation, anxiety, apathy, delusions, depression, disinhibition, elation, hallucinations, irritability, and sleep or appetite changes. A student-led project to provide sensory stimulation in the form of "fidget blankets" developed into a community outreach program. The goal was to decrease the use of antipsychotics used for BPSD.

  2. A blanket design, apparatus, and fabrication techniques for the mass production of multilayer insulation blankets for the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.; Otavka, J.G.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1989-09-01

    The multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film fabricated in the form of blankets and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 MLI blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket is nearly 17 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. This paper reports the blanket design, an apparatus, and the fabrication method used to mass produce pre-fabricated MLI blankets. Incorporated in the blanket design are techniques which automate quality control during installation of the MLI blankets in the SSC cryostat. The apparatus and blanket fabrication method insure consistency in the mass produced blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the thermal performance of the MLI blanket. By virtue of the fabrication process, the MLI blankets have inherent features of dimensional stability three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Technologies for Blanket Jamming Localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ju; WU Si-liang; ZENG Tao

    2005-01-01

    The localization of the blanket jamming is studied and a new method of solving the localization ambiguity is proposed. Radars only can acquire angle information without range information when encountering the blanket jamming. Netted radars could get position information of the blanket jamming by make use of radars' relative position and the angle information, when there is one blanket jamming. In the presence of error, the localization method and the accuracy analysis of one blanket jamming are given. However, if there are more than one blanket jamming, and the two blanket jamming and two radars are coplanar, the localization of jamming could be error due to localization ambiguity. To solve this confusion, the Kalman filter model is established for all intersections, and through the initiation and association algorithm of multi-target, the false intersection can be eliminated. Simulations show that the presented method is valid.

  4. A Precambrian proximal ejecta blanket from Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Kenneth; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Porcelli, Don; Thackrey, Scott; Parnell, John

    2008-04-01

    Ejecta blankets around impact craters are rarely preserved onEarth. Although impact craters are ubiquitous on solid bodiesthroughout the solar system, on Earth they are rapidly effaced,and few records exist of the processes that occur during emplacementof ejecta. The Stac Fada Member of the Precambrian Stoer Groupin Scotland has previously been described as volcanic in origin.However, shocked quartz and biotite provide evidence for high-pressureshock metamorphism, while chromium isotope values and elevatedabundances of platinum group metals and siderophile elementsindicate addition of meteoritic material. Thus, the unit isreinterpreted here as having an impact origin. The ejecta blanketreaches >20 m in thickness and contains abundant dark green,vesicular, devitrified glass fragments. Field observations suggestthat the deposit was emplaced as a single fluidized flow thatformed as a result of an impact into water-saturated sedimentarystrata. The continental geological setting and presence of groundwatermake this deposit an analogue for Martian fluidized ejecta blankets.

  5. Stellar model atmospheres with magnetic line blanketing

    CERN Document Server

    Kochukhov, O; Shulyak, D

    2004-01-01

    Model atmospheres of A and B stars are computed taking into account magnetic line blanketing. These calculations are based on the new stellar model atmosphere code LLModels which implements direct treatment of the opacities due to the bound-bound transitions and ensures an accurate and detailed description of the line absorption. The anomalous Zeeman effect was calculated for the field strengths between 1 and 40 kG and a field vector perpendicular to the line of sight. The model structure, high-resolution energy distribution, photometric colors, metallic line spectra and the hydrogen Balmer line profiles are computed for magnetic stars with different metallicities and are discussed with respect to those of non-magnetic reference models. The magnetically enhanced line blanketing changes the atmospheric structure and leads to a redistribution of energy in the stellar spectrum. The most noticeable feature in the optical region is the appearance of the 5200 A depression. However, this effect is prominent only in ...

  6. Comparison over the nuclear analysis of the HCLL blanket for the European DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaboulay, Jean-Charles, E-mail: jean-charles.jaboulay@cea.fr [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo; Aubert, Julien [CEA-Saclay, DEN, DM2S, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Villari, Rosaria [ENEA, UTFUS-TECN, Via E. Fermi 4, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A complete nuclear analysis of the DEMO HCLL has been carried out at CEA with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code. • The DEMO tokamak model was generated by the CAD import tool McCad. • The HCLL blankets were implemented using a previous MCNP model developed at ENEA. • A good agreement is observed between the results obtained at CEA with TRIPOLI-4 and JEFF-3.1.1 and whose obtained at ENEA with MCNP and FENDL-2.1. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison over the nuclear analysis of the European DEMO with HCLL blanket carried out with the TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library and with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the FENDL-2.1 nuclear data library. The MCNP5 analysis was conducted firstly by ENEA with a detailed 3D model describing all the HCLL blanket internal structures. This MCNP5 model was converted into TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} representation for performing the nuclear analysis at CEA with the objective to demonstrate consistency between both analyses. A very good agreement was obtained for all of the relevant nuclear responses (neutron wall loading, tritium breeding ratio, nuclear heating, neutron flux distribution, etc.), validating CEA’s nuclear analysis approach, based on TRIPOLI-4{sup ®} Monte Carlo code and JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library, for the European DEMO.

  7. First wall fabrication of 1/3 scale china dual functional lithium lead blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Bo, E-mail: bo.huang@fds.org.cn [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhai, Yutao [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhang, Junyu [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Li, Chunjing; Wu, Qingsheng [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, Qunying [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • RAFM rectangular tubes were fabricated by cold drawing, and the dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties of rectangular tubes were tested. • Rectangular tubes were bent by rotary bending, and milled plates were curved by molding. Its accuracy meets the requirement for TBM assembly. • FW were pre-sealed by electron beam welding, and assembled by hot isostatic pressing–diffusion bonding. • The as-HIPed FW mock-up was tested by optical observation and X-ray detection, it revealed obviously that the tubes and plates were bonded well. - Abstract: The dual functional lithium lead blanket is chosen as one of the candidate blankets for China fusion reactor, for its advantages of tritium breeding and good heat exchange performance. As one of the most important components of the blanket, the first wall (FW) is assembled with China low activation martensitic (CLAM) rectangular tubes and plates by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)–diffusion bonding (DB). In this work, the rectangular tube fabrication and FW assembly were carried out in order to verify the feasibility of the FW fabrication scheme. The mechanical property and dimensional accuracy of CLAM rectangular tubes were tested, the microstructure observation and non-destructive detection revealed the sound of the FW mock-up, and the reliability of the FW mock-ups is under evaluation.

  8. Chicxulub Ejecta Blanket Deposits From Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Chicxulub impact into a thick sequence of carbonates and sulfates released over a trillion tons of volatiles. The importance of the explosive release of such a large mass of volatiles has been greatly underestimated in studies of ejecta depositional processes. Proximal Chicxulub ejecta blanket deposits recent discovered on Albion Island in Belize provide a key to understanding the role of volatile-rich target material during large impact events.

  9. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thicknessdirection. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimizing the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  10. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaraman Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thickness direction. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimising the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.

  11. Optimization of the first wall for the DEMO water cooled lithium lead blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, Julien, E-mail: julien.aubert@cea.fr [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Aiello, Giacomo [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Bachmann, Christian [EFDA, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Di Maio, Pietro Alessandro [Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Giammusso, Rosario [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Li Puma, Antonella; Morin, Alexandre [CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Tincani, Amelia [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents the optimization of the first wall of the water cooled lithium lead DEMO blanket with pressurized water reactor condition and circular channels in order to find the best geometry that can allow the maximum heat flux considering design criteria since an estimate of the engineering limit of the first wall heat load capacity is an essential input for the decision to implement limiters in DEMO. • An optimization study was carried out for the flat first wall design of the DEMO Water-Cooled Lithium Lead considering thermal and mechanical constraint functions, assuming T{sub inlet}/T{sub outlet} equal to 285 °C/325 °C, based on geometric design parameters. • It became clear that through the optimization the advantages of a waved First Wall are diminished. • The analysis shows that the maximum heat load could achieve 2.53 MW m{sup −2}, but considering assumptions such as a coolant velocity ≤8 m/s, pipe diameter ≥5 mm and a total first wall thickness ≤22 mm, heat flux is limited to 1.57 MW m{sup −2}. - Abstract: The maximum heat load capacity of a DEMO First Wall (FW) of reasonable cost may impact the decision of the implementation of limiters in DEMO. An estimate of the engineering limit of the FW heat load capacity is an essential input for this decision. This paper describes the work performed to optimize the FW of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket concept for DEMO fusion reactor in order to increase its maximum heat load capacity. The optimization is based on the use of water at typical Pressurised Water Reactors conditions as coolant. The present WCLL FW with a waved plasma-faced surface and with circular channels was studied and the heat load limit has been predicted with FEM analysis equal to 1.0 MW m{sup −2} with respect to the Eurofer temperature limit. An optimization study was then carried out for a flat FW design considering thermal and mechanical constraints assuming inlet and outlet

  12. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  13. Numerical analysis of heat transfer in the first wall of CFETR WCSB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: phzhao@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Deng, Weiping; Ge, Zhihao; Li, Yuanjie

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Detailed numerical analysis of heat transfer in a water-cooling first wall was carried out based on the conceptual design of CFETR WCSB blanket. • Investigation of the influences of buoyancy effect and surface roughness on heat transfer in the water-cooling first wall was presented. • Analysis of the effect of the front wall thickness on temperature was carried out for the water-cooling first wall design. • Simulation results of two 1D CFD methods were evaluated by the 3D CFD data. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the first fusion reactor experiment project planned in China, is now being investigated in detail. Recently, a conceptual structural design of the Water-Cooled-Solid-Breeder (WCSB) blanket was proposed as one of the breeding blanket candidates for CFETR. In this research, based on the present design of the CFETR WCSB blanket, the heat transfer performance in the first wall (FW) under the pressurized water cooling condition was analyzed. The 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results show that the maximal temperature of the FW will not exceed the limited temperature under normal or even higher heat flux condition. In addition, the effect of buoyancy on heat transfer is negligible under both conditions. The influence of roughness becomes increasingly important when the roughness height lies in the fully turbulent regime. The maximal temperature increases approximately linearly as the thickness of the front wall increases. It is also found that the heat flux and the local heat transfer coefficient are extremely non-uniform in the circumferential direction. Two 1D CFD methods are also evaluated by 3D CFD data, with the conclusion that both 1D results have some differences with the 3D data. The improved 1D method is more accurate than the former one. However, we ascertain that 1D methods should be used with caution for the water-cooling FW design.

  14. Analysis of tritium behaviour and recovery from a water-cooled Pb17Li blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Institute Regional des Materiaux Avances, Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering and Informatics Institute, JRC Ispra, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy); Viola, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    The question of the tritium recovery in water-cooled Pb17Li blankets has been under investigation for several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analysed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging or vacuum degassing in a suited process apparatus. A computerized model of the tritium behaviour in the blanket units and in the extraction system was developed. It includes four submodels: (1) tritium permeation process from the breeder to the cooling water as a function of the local operative conditions (tritium concentration in Pb17Li, breeder temperature and flow rate); (2) tritium mass balance in each breeding unit; (3) tritium desorption from the breeder material to the gas phase of the extraction system; (4) tritium extraction efficiency as a function of the design parameters of the recovery apparatus. In the present paper, on the basis of this model, a parametric study of the tritium permeation rate in the cooling water and of the tritium inventory in the blanket is carried out. Results are reported and discussed in terms of dimensionless groups which describe the relative effects of the overall resistance on tritium transfer to the cooling water (with and without permeation barriers), circulating Pb17Li flow rate and extraction efficiency of the tritium recovery unit. The parametric study is extended to the recovery unit in the case of tritium extraction by helium purge or vacuum degassing in a droplet spray unit. (orig.).

  15. Parametric Weight Comparison of Advanced Metallic, Ceramic Tile, and Ceramic Blanket Thermal Protection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.; Martin, Carl J.; Blosser, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    A parametric weight assessment of advanced metallic panel, ceramic blanket, and ceramic tile thermal protection systems (TPS) was conducted using an implicit, one-dimensional (I-D) finite element sizing code. This sizing code contained models to account for coatings fasteners, adhesives, and strain isolation pads. Atmospheric entry heating profiles for two vehicles, the Access to Space (ATS) vehicle and a proposed Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), were used to ensure that the trends were not unique to a certain trajectory. Ten TPS concepts were compared for a range of applied heat loads and substructural heat capacities to identify general trends. This study found the blanket TPS concepts have the lightest weights over the majority of their applicable ranges, and current technology ceramic tiles and metallic TPS concepts have similar weights. A proposed, state-of-the-art metallic system which uses a higher temperature alloy and efficient multilayer insulation was predicted to be significantly lighter than the ceramic tile stems and approaches blanket TPS weights for higher integrated heat loads.

  16. Numerical modelling of dynamic sludge blanket behaviour in secondary clarifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, M; Krebs, P; Rodi, W

    2001-01-01

    New developments in numerical modelling of turbulent and density-affected flow in secondary clarifiers are reported. The sludge blanket is included in the computation domain which allows us to account for sedimentation and resuspension of sludge as well as the growth and diminution of the sludge blanket and at the same time respecting mass conservation. It is shown how strongly the prediction of the sludge-blanket height depends on the approaches to describe the settling behaviour of the sludge and the rheological properties within the sludge blanket. Further, an example of dynamic simulation is presented and discussed. This demonstrates how the sludge blanket behaves during load variation and that instabilities may occur at the interface of sludge blanket and supernatant, potentially resulting in sludge wash-off during transient phases, which is not only during load increase but also during load decrease.

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of K-DEMO Single Blanket Module for Preliminary Accident Analysis using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sung Bo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To develop the Korean fusion commercial reactor, preliminary design concept for K-DEMO (Korean fusion demonstration reactor) has been announced by NFRI (National Fusion Research Institute). This pre-conceptual study of K-DEMO has been introduced to identify technical details of a fusion power plant for the future commercialization of fusion reactor in Korea. Before this consideration, to build the K-DEMO, accident analysis is essential. Since the Fukushima accident, which is severe accident from unexpected disaster, safety analysis of nuclear power plant has become important. The safety analysis of both fission and fusion reactors is deemed crucial in demonstrating the low radiological effect of these reactors on the environment, during severe accidents. A risk analysis of K-DEMO should be performed, as a prerequisite for the construction of a fusion reactor. In this research, thermal-hydraulic analysis of single blanket module of K-DEMO is conducted for preliminary accident analysis for K-DEMO. Further study about effect of flow distributer is conducted. The normal K-DEMO operation condition is applied to the boundary condition and simulated to verify the material temperature limit using MELCOR. MELCOR is fully integrated, relatively fast-running code developed by Sandia National Laboratories. MELCOR had been used for Light Water Reactors and fusion reactor version of MELCOR was developed for ITER accident analysis. This study shows the result of thermal-hydraulic simulation of single blanket module with MELCOR which is severe accident code for nuclear fusion safety analysis. The difference of mass flow rate for each coolant channel with or without flow distributer is presented. With flow distributer, advantage of broadening temperature gradient in the K-DEMO blanket module and increase mass flow toward first wall is obtained. This can enhance the safety of K-DEMO blanket module. Most 13 .deg. C temperature difference in blanket module is obtained.

  18. EU contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetto, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Lorenzetto@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Banetta, Stefano; Bellin, Boris [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boireau, Bruno [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Bucci, Philippe [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Cicero, Tindaro [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Conchon, Denis [Atmostat, rue René Hamon 31, 94815 Villejuif Cedex (France); Dellopoulos, Georges [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Hardaker, Stephen [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Paul [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Nogué, Patrice [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, 71200 Le Creusot (France); Pérez, Marcos [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Gutierrez, Leticia Ruiz [Iberdrola Ingeniería y Construcción S.A.U., Avenida Manoteras 20, 28050 Madrid (Spain); Samaniego, Fernando [Leading Enterprises SL, Pasaje de La Agüera, 39409 San Felices de Buelna (Spain); Sherlock, Paul [Amec Foster Wheeler plc, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Zacchia, Francesco [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Carrer Josep Plà 2, B-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the blanket first wall design concept to be procured by Europe. • Presentation of the main outcome of the R&D programme with the resulting FW fabrication route. • Presentation of the ITER first wall pre-qualification programme with the results achieved so far. • Presentation of the on-going irradiation experiments. • Presentation of the EU procurement strategy. - Abstract: Fusion for Energy (F4E), the European Union’s Domestic Agency for ITER, is responsible for the procurement of about 50% of the ITER blanket first wall (FW), called normal heat flux FW. A procurement strategy has been implemented by the In-Vessel Project Team at F4E aimed at mitigating technical and commercial risks for the procurement of ITER blanket FW panels, promoting as far as possible competition among industrial partners. This procurement strategy has been supported by an extensive Research and Development (R&D) programme, implemented over more than 15 years in Europe, to develop various fabrication technologies. It includes in particular the manufacture and testing of small-scale, medium-scale mock-ups and full-scale prototypes of blanket FW panels. In this R&D programme, significant efforts have been devoted to the development of a reliable materials joining technique. Hot Isostatic Pressing was selected for the manufacture of the FW panels made from beryllium, copper–chromium–zirconium alloy and 316L(N)-IG austenitic stainless steel. This paper presents the main outcome of the on-going R&D programme, the latest results of the FW qualification programme together with the procurement strategy implemented by F4E for the supply of the European contribution to the procurement of the ITER blanket FW.

  19. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dienst, W. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Material- und Festkoerperforschung; Flament, T. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Commissariat A L`Energie Atomique; Lorenzetto, P. [NET Team, Garching (Germany); Noda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takai, Ibaraki, (Japan); Roux, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes et de Recherches Les Materiaux (France). Commissariat a L`Energie Atomique

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li{sub 2},O, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} and LiAlO{sub 2}) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized.

  20. Activation, decay heat, and waste classification studies of the European DEMO concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Eade, T.; Bachmann, C.; Fischer, U.; Taylor, N. P.

    2017-04-01

    Inventory calculations have a key role to play in designing future fusion power plants because, for a given irradiation field and material, they can predict the time evolution in chemical composition, activation, decay heat, gamma-dose, gas production, and even damage (dpa) dose. For conceptual designs of the European DEMO fusion reactor such calculations provide information about the neutron shielding requirements, maintenance schedules, and waste disposal prospects; thereby guiding future development. Extensive neutron-transport and inventory calculations have been performed for a reference DEMO reactor model with four different tritium-breeding blanket concepts. The results have been used to chart the post-operation variation in activity and decay heat from different vessel components, demonstrating that the shielding performance of the different blanket concepts—for a given blanket thickness—varies significantly. Detailed analyses of the simulated nuclide inventories for the vacuum vessel (VV) and divertor highlight the most dominant radionuclides, potentially suggesting how changes in material composition could help to reduce activity. Minor impurities in the raw composition of W used in divertor tiles, for example, are shown to produce undesirable long-lived radionuclides. Finally, waste classifications, based on UK regulations, and a recycling potential limit, have been applied to estimate the time-evolution in waste masses for both the entire vessel (including blanket modules, VV, divertor, and some ex-vessel components) and individual components, and also to suggest when a particular component might be suitable for recycling. The results indicate that the large mass of the VV will not be classifiable as low level waste on the 100 year timescale, but the majority of the divertor will be, and that both components will be potentially recyclable within that time.

  1. Safety analysis of the US dual coolant liquid lead lithium ITER test blanket module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Brad; Reyes, Susana; Sawan, Mohamed; Wong, Clement

    2007-07-01

    The US is proposing a prototype of a dual coolant liquid lead-lithium DEMO blanket concept for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as an ITER test blanket module (TBM). Because safety considerations are an integral part of the design process to ensure that this TBM does not adversely impact the safety of ITER, a safety assessment has been conducted for this TBM and its ancillary systems as requested by the ITER project. Four events were selected by the ITER international team (IT) to address specific reactor safety concerns, such as vaccum vessel (VV) pressurization, confinement building pressure build-up, TBM decay heat removal capability, tritium and activation products release from the TBM system and hydrogen and heat production from chemical reactions. This paper summarizes the results of this safety assessment conducted with the MELCOR computer code.

  2. 75 FR 51482 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11557). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... United States is materially injured by reason of imports from China of woven electric blankets,...

  3. 48 CFR 213.303 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). 213.303 Section 213.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.303 Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs)....

  4. 48 CFR 8.405-3 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket purchase... Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs). (a)(1) Establishment. Ordering activities may establish BPAs under any..., before placing an order exceeding the micro-purchase threshold, the ordering activity shall— (i)...

  5. Simulation of sludge blanket height in clarifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhen; WU Zhi-chao; WANG Zhi-wei; GU Guo-wei

    2009-01-01

    Sludge blanket height (SBH) is an important parameter in the clarifier design,operation and control.Based on an overview and classification of SBH algorithms,a modifed SBH algorithm is proposed by incorporating a threshold concentration limit into a relative concentration sharp change algorithm to eliminate the disturbance of compression interfaces on the correct simulation of SBH.Pilot-scale test data are adopted to compare reliability of three SBH algorithms reported in literature and the modified SBH algorithm developed in this paper.Calculated results demonstrate that the three SBH algorithms give results with large deviation (>50%) from measured SBH,especially under low solid flux conditions.The modified algorithm is computationally efficient and reliable in matching the measured data.It is incorporated into a onedimensional clarifier model for stable simulation of pilot-scale experimental clarifier data and into dynamic simulation of a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) clarifier data.

  6. Functional materials for breeding blankets—status and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, S.; Enoeda, M.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T.; Ying, A.; Sharafat, S.; Smolentsev, S.

    2017-09-01

    The development of tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and flow channel insert materials for the breeding blanket of the DEMO reactor is reviewed. Present emphasis is on the ITER test blanket module (TBM); lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) and lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) pebbles have been developed by leading TBM parties. Beryllium pebbles have been selected as the neutron multiplier. Good progress has been made in their fabrication; however, verification of the design by experiments is in the planning stage. Irradiation data are also limited, but the decrease in thermal conductivity of beryllium due to irradiation followed by swelling is a concern. Tests at ITER are regarded as a major milestone. For the DEMO reactor, improvement of the breeder has been attempted to obtain a higher lithium content, and Be12Ti and other beryllide intermetallic compounds that have superior chemical stability have been studied. LiPb eutectic has been considered as a DEMO blanket in the liquid breeder option and is used as a coolant to achieve a higher outlet temperature; a SiC flow channel insert is used to prevent magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop and corrosion. A significant technical gap between ITER TBM and DEMO is recognized, and the world fusion community is working on ITER TBM and DEMO blanket development in parallel.

  7. Electromagnetic analysis of the Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector test blanket module set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngmin, E-mail: ymlee@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Duck Young [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Mu-Young; Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Korean helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) test blanket module set (TBM-set) will be installed at equatorial port #18 of Vacuum Vessel in ITER in order to test the breeding blanket performance for forthcoming fusion power plant. Since ITER tokamak has a set of electromagnetic coils (Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field and Toroidal Field coil set) around Vacuum Vessel, the HCCR TBM-set, the TBM and associated shield, is greatly influenced by magnetic field generated by these coils. In the case of fast transient electromagnetic events such as major disruption, vertical displacement event or magnet fast discharge, magnetic field and induced eddy current results in huge electromagnetic load, known as Lorentz load, on the HCCR TBM-set. In addition, the TBM-set experiences electromagnetic load due to magnetization of the structural material not only during the fast transient events but also during normal operation since the HCCR TBM adopts Reduced Activation Ferritic Martensitic (RAFM) steel as a structural material. This is known as Maxwell load which includes Lorentz load as well as load due to magnetization of structure material. This paper presents electromagnetic analysis results for the HCCR TBM-set. For analysis, a 20° sector finite model was constructed considering ITER configuration such as Vacuum Vessel, ITER shield blankets, Central Solenoid, Poloidal Field, Toroidal Field coil set as well as the HCCR TBM-set. Three major disruptions (operational event, likely event and highly unlikely event) were selected for analysis based on the load specifications. ANSYS-EMAG was used as a calculation tool. The results of EM analysis will be used as input data for the structural analysis.

  8. Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) blanket design study, December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This work represents only the second iteration of the conceptual design of a DTHR blanket; consequently, a number of issues important to a detailed blanket design have not yet been evaluated. The most critical issues identified are those of two-phase flow maldistribution, flow instabilities, flow stratification for horizontal radial inflow of boiling water, fuel rod vibrations, corrosion of clad and structural materials by high quality steam, fretting and cyclic loads. Approaches to minimizing these problems are discussed and experimental testing with flow mock-ups is recommended. These implications on a commercial blanket design are discussed and critical data needs are identified.

  9. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  10. Summary report for ITER task - T68: MHD facility preparation for Li/V blanket option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.B.; Haglund, R.C.; Miller, M.E. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A key feasibility issue for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium breeding blanket is the question of insulator coatings. Design calculations show that an electrically insulating layer is necessary to maintain an acceptably low MHD pressure drop. To enable experimental investigations of the MHD performance of candidate insulator materials and the technology for putting them in place, the room-temperature ALEX (Argonne`s Liquid Metal EXperiment) NaK facility was upgraded to a 300{degrees}C lithium system. The objective of this upgrade was to modify the existing facility to the minimum extent necessary, consistent with providing a safe, flexible, and easy to operate MHD test facility which uses lithium at ITER-relevant temperatures, Hartmann numbers, and interaction parameters. The facility was designed to produce MHD pressure drop data, test section voltage distributions, and heat transfer data for mid-scale test sections and blanket mockups. The system design description for this lithium upgrade of the ALEX facility is given in this document.

  11. Neutronics Evaluation of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloys in IFE Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fratoni, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Pre-conceptual fusion blanket designs require research and development to reflect important proposed changes in the design of essential systems, and the new challenges they impose on related fuel cycle systems. One attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. If the chemical reactivity of lithium could be overcome, the result would have a profound impact on fusion energy and associated safety basis. The overriding goal of this project is to develop a lithium-based alloy that maintains beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) while reducing overall flammability concerns. To minimize the number of alloy combinations that must be explored, only those alloys that meet certain nuclear performance metrics will be considered for subsequent thermodynamic study. The specific scope of this study is to evaluate the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) engine. The results of this study will inform the development of lithium alloys that would guarantee acceptable neutronics performance while mitigating the chemical reactivity issues of pure lithium.

  12. Improvement of Core Performance by Introduction of Moderators in a Blanket Region of Fast Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Wakabayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of deuteride moderator for fast reactor cores is proposed for power flattening that can mitigate thermal spikes and alleviate the decrease in breeding ratio, which sometimes occurs when hydrogen moderator is applied as a moderator. Zirconium deuteride is employed in a form of pin arrays at the inner most rows of radial blanket fuel assemblies, which works as a reflector in order to flatten the radial power distribution in the outer core region of MONJU. The power flattening can be utilized to increase core average burn-up by increasing operational time. The core characteristics have been evaluated with a continuous-energy model Monte Carlo code MVP and the JENDL-3.3 cross-section library. The result indicates that the discharged fuel burn-up can be increased by about 7% relative to that of no moderator in the blanket region due to the power flattening when the number of deuteride moderator pins is 61. The core characteristics and core safety such as void reactivity, Doppler coefficient, and reactivity insertion that occurred at dissolution of deuteron were evaluated. It was clear that the serious drawback did not appear from the viewpoints of the core characteristics and core safety.

  13. Tokamak fusion reactors with less than full tritium breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Gilligan, J.G.; Jung, J.

    1983-05-01

    A study of commercial, tokamak fusion reactors with tritium concentrations and tritium breeding ratios ranging from full deuterium-tritium operation to operation with no tritium breeding is presented. The design basis for these reactors is similar to those of STARFIRE and WILDCAT. Optimum operating temperatures, sizes, toroidal field strengths, and blanket/shield configurations are determined for a sequence of reactor designs spanning the range of tritium breeding, each having the same values of beta, thermal power, and first-wall heat load. Additional reactor parameters, tritium inventories and throughputs, and detailed costs are calculated for each reactor design. The disadvantages, advantages, implications, and ramifications of tritium-depleted operation are presented and discussed.

  14. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed Phase II research effort is to develop heterogeneous (HG) blankets for improved sound reduction in aircraft structures. Phase I...

  15. Lightweight IMM Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Flexible Blanket Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's recently completed successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 program has established a TRL 3/4 classification for an innovative IMM PV Integrated Modular Blanket Assembly...

  16. Advanced Acoustic Blankets for Improved Aircraft Interior Noise Reduction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this project advanced acoustic blankets for improved low frequency interior noise control in aircraft will be developed and demonstrated. The improved performance...

  17. 18 CFR 284.402 - Blanket marketing certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effective for an affiliated marketer with respect to transactions involving affiliated pipelines when an affiliated pipeline receives its blanket certificate pursuant to § 284.284. (2) Should a marketer...

  18. Performance of uncoated AFRSI blankets during multiple Space Shuttle flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawko, Paul M.; Goldstein, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    Uncoated Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blankets were successfully flown on seven consecutive flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter OV-099 (Challenger). In six of the eight locations monitored (forward windshield, forward canopy, mid-fuselage, upper wing, rudder/speed brake, and vertical tail) the AFRSI blankets performed well during the ascent and reentry exposure to the thermal and aeroacoustic environments. Several of the uncoated AFRSI blankets that sustained minor damage, such as fraying or broken threads, could be repaired by sewing or by patching with a surface coating called C-9. The chief reasons for replacing or completely coating a blanket were fabric embrittlement and fabric abrasion caused by wind erosion. This occurred in the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pod sidewall and the forward mid-fuselage locations.

  19. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite fermentation and distillation wastewater. ... treatment, biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol.

  20. Expression of estrus before fixed-time AI affects conception rates and factors that impact expression of estrus and the repeatability of expression of estrus in sequential breeding seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brittany N; Hill, Scott L; Stevenson, Jeffery S; Djira, Gemechis D; Perry, George A

    2016-03-01

    Expression of estrus after PG and before fixed-time AI has been reported to change the uterine environment, increase accessory sperm numbers, fertilization rates, and overall embryo survival. Thus, expression of estrus can strongly impact overall pregnancy success. Because of variation in percentage of beef females detected in estrus and number of animals per study, it can be difficult to detect a significant effect of estrus on pregnancy success. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted using data from 10,116 beef females in 22 studies that utilized variations of the 5 most common fixed-time AI protocols (CO-Synch, 7-day CO-Synch+CIDR, 5-day CIDR, PG 6-day CIDR, and the 14-day CIDR protocols) to examine the effect of detection in standing estrus on subsequent fixed-time AI pregnancy success. A random-effects model was used to combine the studies/herds. The overall model indicated a positive effect of estrus on conception rates with cows detected in estrus before fixed-time AI having a 27% greater (Prate compared with those not detected in estrus. Next we determined factors that influenced expression of estrus. Data were available on 547 cows synchronized with a CIDR based fixed-time AI protocols and observed for estrus before AI during 2-4 breeding seasons. Analysis of these cows indicated that days postpartum (P=0.22) did not impact estrous expression. In contrast, BCS influenced estrous expression (P=0.04) with cows in a BCS of ≤4 (51±5%) having decreased expression of estrus compared to cows with a BCS>4 (≥70±4%). Initiation of estrous cycles before the breeding season also influenced estrous expression (P=0.03), with anestrous cows having greater expression of estrus compared with estrus-cycling cows (78±5% vs. 70±5%, respectively). In conclusion, among all currently recommended fixed-time AI protocols, cows detected in estrus before fixed-time AI had improved conception rates, with BCS and estrus-cycling status having the greatest influence on expression

  1. Axial blanket for 16NGF Angra 1 fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadde, Luciano Martins; Faria, Eduardo Fernandes [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: sadde@inb.gov.br; faria@inb.gov.br; Sang-Keun You [Korea Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd. (KNFC), Taejon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: skyou@knfc.co.kr

    2007-07-01

    Angra-1, Kori-2 and Krsko are nuclear power plants with the same design. However, the fuel assemblies have some differences in design due to the countries strategies and the differences in the fabrication process. The 16NGF (16x16 Next Generation Fuel) was developed by INB, KNFC and Westinghouse in order to be used in these three nuclear power plants and the 'Axial Blanket' is one of the new features for the 16NGF design. The main purpose of the Axial Blanket Optimization study is to determine which axial blanket enrichment and length would provide the better fuel cycle cost benefit. All of the calculations were performed using Gadolinium as Burnable Absorber and solid pellets type for Axial Blanket. The results indicate 1.8 w/o U235 enrichment and 8 inches length as the best option of Axial Blanket from the fuel cycle cost benefit standpoint. The economy is about 1.8%. The difference in the reload cost in the range between 1.5 and 2.6 w/o U235 enrichment and for the 6 and 8 inches length is not so significant. Due that, from the Fq limit standpoint and also for longer cycle length requirements, a higher axial blanket enrichment (2.6 w/o) and shorter length (6 inches) is recommended. (author)

  2. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Helium-Gas Accident Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Helium Supply Rupture into Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The model results are used to determine if beam power shutdown is necessary (or not) as a result of the LOHGA accident to maintain the blanket system well below any of the thermal-hydraulic constraints imposed on the design. The results also provide boundary conditions to the detailed bin model to study the detailed temperature response of the hot blanket module structure. The results for these two cases are documented in the report.

  3. Neutronics and activation analysis of lithium-based ternary alloys in IFE blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra, E-mail: aleja311@berkeley.edu [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States); Kramer, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA (United States); Meier, Wayne; DeMuth, James; Reyes, Susana [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA 98005 (United States); Fratoni, Massimiliano [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94706 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Monte Carlo calculations were performed on numerous lithium ternary alloys. • Elements with high neutron multiplication performed well with low absorbers. • Enriching lithium decreases minimum lithium concentration of alloys by 60% or more. • Alloys that performed well neutronically were selected for activation calculations. • Alloys activated, except LiBaBi, do not pose major environmental or safety concerns. - Abstract: An attractive feature of using liquid lithium as the breeder and coolant in fusion blankets is that it has very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is carrying an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that maintains the beneficial properties of lithium (e.g. high tritium breeding and solubility) and at the same time reduces overall flammability concerns. This study evaluates the neutronics performance of lithium-based alloys in the blanket of an inertial fusion energy chamber in order to inform such development. 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and the fusion energy multiplication factor (EMF). It was found that elements that exhibit low absorption cross sections and higher q-values such as Pb, Sn, and Sr, perform well with those that have high neutron multiplication such as Pb and Bi. These elements meet TBR constrains ranging from 1.02 to 1.1. However, most alloys do not reach EMFs greater than 1.15. Additionally, it was found that enriching lithium with {sup 6}Li significantly increases the TBR and decreases the minimum lithium concentration by more than 60%. The amount of enrichment depends on how much total lithium is in the alloy to begin with. Alloys that performed well in the TBR

  4. Optimization process for the design of the DCLL blanket for the European DEMOnstration fusion reactor according to its nuclear performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Iole; Rapisarda, David; Fernández-Berceruelo, Iván; Ibarra, Angel

    2017-07-01

    The research study focuses on the neutronic design analysis and optimization of one of the options for a fusion reactor designed as DCLL (dual coolant lithium-lead). The main objective has been to develop an efficient and technologically viable modular DCLL breeding blanket (BB) using the DEMO generic design specifications established within the EUROfusion Programme. The final neutronic design has to satisfy the requirements of: tritium self-sufficiency; BB thermal efficiency; preservation of plasma confinement; temperature limits imposed by materials; and radiation limits to guarantee the largest operational life for all the components. Therefore, a 3D fully heterogeneous DCLL neutronic model has been developed for the DEMO baseline 2014 determining its behaviour under the real operational conditions of the DEMO reactor. Consequent actions have been adopted to improve its performances. Neutronic assessments have specially addressed tritium breeding ratio, multiplication energy factor, power density distributions, damage and shielding responses. The model has then been adapted to the subsequent DEMO baseline 2015 (with a more powerful and bigger plasma, smaller divertor and bigger blanket segments), implying new design choices to improve the reactor nuclear performances.

  5. The influence of external source intensity in accelerator/target/blanket system on conversion ratio and fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurov, Boris P.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of neutron balance relation for a subcritical system with external source shows that a high ratio of neutron utilization (conversion ratio, breeding ratio) much exceeding similar values for nuclear reactors (both thermal or fast spectrum) is reachable in accelerator/target/blanket system with high external neutron source intensity. An accelerator/target/blanket systems with thermal power in blanket about 1850 Mwt and operating during 30 years have been investigated. Continual feed up by plutonium (fissile material) and Tc-99 (transmuted material) was assumed. Accelerator beam intensity differed 6.3 times (16 mA-Case 1, and 100 mA-Case 2). Conversion ratio (CR) was defined as the ratio of Tc-99 nuclei transmuted to the number of Pu nuclei consumed. The results for two cases are as follows: Case 1Case 2CR 0.77 1.66N(LWR) 8.6 19.1Power MWt(el) 512 225 where N(LWR)-number of LWRs(3000 MWt(th)) from which yearly discharge of Tc-99 is transmuted during 30 years. High value of conversion ratio considerably exceeding 1 (CR=1.66) was obtained in the system with high source intensity as compared with low source system (CR=0.77). Net output of electric power of high source intensity system is about twice lower due to consumption of electric power for accelerator feed up. The loss of energy for Tc-99 transmutation is estimated as 40 Mev(el)/nuclei. Yet high conversion ratio (or breeding ratio) achievable in electronuclear installations with high intensity of external source can effectively be used to close fuel cycle (including incineration of wastes) or to develop growing nuclear power production system.

  6. Power Flattening and Rejuvenation of PWR Spent Fuel Blanket for Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor%功率展平的压水堆乏燃料发电包层中子学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 王继亮; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of breeding of the nuclear fuel and transmutation of the long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety. Meanwhile, the engineering and technological demand of hybrid reactor is significantly reduced comparing with that of pure fusion reactor. A generating electricity blanket concept using the PWR spent fuel directly was proposed, which was based on ITER parameter level achieved. Different volume fractions of the fuel in blanket enabled to realize a power flattening in the fissile zone. The results show that the peak-to-average power factor becomes less than no power flattening, and the output power of the fuel zone raises more than 21. 7%. At the end of the operation, the maximum fuel enrichment is 5. 23%. The blanket is feasible from the neutronics viewpoint.%聚变裂变混合堆在增殖核燃料、嬗变长寿命核废料及固有安全性等方面具有较大优势,同时,它比纯聚变堆在工程及技术方面要求低,因此较聚变堆更易实现.本工作基于目前国际聚变实验堆(ITER)所能达到的技术水平,提出一种直接利用乏燃料进行发电的聚变裂变混合堆包层概念,利用在不同位置放置不同乏燃料体积分数的方法对燃料增殖区实现了功率展平.计算结果表明:功率展平后的包层功率不均匀系数更小,且包层中燃料区的能量输出要比不展平情况下的能量输出高约21.7%.燃料富集度到运行末期最大可达5.23%.从中子学角度初步论证了该包层的可行性.

  7. Nuclear reactor for breeding U.sup.233

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanan, Charles S.; Jones, David H.; Raab, Jr., Harry F.; Radkowsky, Alvin

    1976-01-01

    A light-water-cooled nuclear reactor capable of breeding U.sup.233 for use in a light-water breeder reactor includes physically separated regions containing U.sup.235 fissile material and U.sup.238 fertile material and Th.sup.232 fertile material and Pu.sup.239 fissile material, if available. Preferably the U.sup.235 fissile material and U.sup.238 fertile material are contained in longitudinally movable seed regions and the Pu.sup.239 fissile material and Th.sup.232 fertile material are contained in blanket regions surrounding the seed regions.

  8. 75 FR 38459 - Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Antidumping Investigations involving Non-Market Economy Countries,'' which states: \\23\\ See Certain Woven... International Trade Administration Certain Woven Electric Blankets From the People's Republic of China: Final... Department'') has determined that certain woven electric blankets (``woven electric blankets'') from...

  9. Radar scattering mechanisms within the meteor crater ejecta blanket: Geologic implications and relevance to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.; Campbell, B. A.; Zisk, S. H.; Schaber, Gerald G.; Evans, C.

    1989-01-01

    Simple impact craters are known to occur on all of the terrestrial planets and the morphologic expression of their ejecta blankets is a reliable indicator of their relative ages on the Moon, Mars, Mercury, and most recently for Venus. It will be crucial for the interpretation of the geology of Venus to develop a reliable means of distinguishing smaller impact landforms from volcanic collapse and explosion craters, and further to use the observed SAR characteristics of crater ejecta blankets (CEB) as a means of relative age estimation. With these concepts in mind, a study was initiated of the quantitative SAR textural characteristics of the ejecta blanket preserved at Meteor Crater, Arizona, the well studied 1.2 km diameter simple crater that formed approx. 49,000 years ago from the impact of an octahedrite bolide. While Meteor Crater was formed as the result of an impact into wind and water lain sediments and has undergone recognizable water and wind related erosion, it nonetheless represents the only well studied simple impact crater on Earth with a reasonably preserved CEB. Whether the scattering behavior of the CEB can provide an independent perspective on its preservation state and style of erosion is explored. Finally, airborne laser altimeter profiles of the microtopography of the Meteor Crater CEB were used to further quantify the subradar pizel scale topographic slopes and RMS height variations for comparisons with the scattering mechanisms computed from SAR polarimetry. A preliminary assessment was summarized of the L-band radar scattering mechanisms within the Meteor Crater CEB as derived from a NASA/JPL DC-8 SAR Polarimetry dataset acquired in 1988, and the dominant scattering behavior was compared with microtopographic data (laser altimeter profiles and 1:10,000 scale topographic maps).

  10. Blanket-relevant liquid metal MHD channel flows: Data base and optimization simulation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evtushenko, I.A.; Kirillov, I.R.; Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electrophysical Apparatus, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The problems of generalization and integration of test, theoretical and design data relevant to liquid metal (LM) blanket are discussed in present work. First results on MHD data base and LM blanket optimization codes are presented.

  11. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  12. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  13. Transport and Burnup Numerical Simulation on the Liquid Blanket Burnup of In-Zinerater%In-Zinerater液态包层输运燃耗数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师学明; 杨俊云; 刘成安

    2014-01-01

    Z-Pinch惯性约束聚变是未来一种有竞争力的能源候选方案。Z-Pinch驱动的聚变裂变混合堆可高效地嬗变反应堆乏燃料中分离出的超铀元素。对美国Sandia国家实验室提出的In-Zinerater混合堆概念进行了中子学分析和数值模拟。在三维输运燃耗耦合程序MCORGS中增加了处理在线添加燃料与去除裂变产物的功能,实现了对液态燃料燃耗过程的模拟。增加6Li丰度和燃料初装量保持寿期初反应性不变,可以减缓寿期内反应性下降趋势。逐步增加包层内超铀元素装量,可以控制整个寿期内反应性基本恒定。聚变功率取20 MW,通过反应性控制,5年内包层能量放大倍数在160∼180之间,氚增殖比在1.5∼1.7之间,优于In-Zinerater基准设计方案。%Z-Pinch Inertial confinement fusion is a competitive candidate for future energy solution. A fusion-fission hybrid driven by Z-Pinch can be used to transmute transuranic elements from spent fuels of reactors efficiently. Analysis and numerical simulation of blanket neutronics of In-Zinerater, which is a fusion-fission hybrid concept design in Sandia National Laboratories, is given in this paper. Modification to the three dimension transport and burnup code MCORGS are done, so as to simulate continuous feeding and continuous chemical processing of the liquid fuel. Different combination of initial enrichment of 6Li and fuels loading in the blanket are selected to keep the same reactivity at begin of core. By this way, the decreasing trend of reactivity at life of the core can be lowered. The reactivity can be maintained constant by increasing the fuel loading in the core gradually as the burnup deepens. Given a 20 MW fusion power, by reactivity control, the blanket energy multiplication is around 160∼180 and tritium breed ratio 1.5∼1.7 in 5 years, which is a better result than Sandia’s original design.

  14. A helium-cooled blanket design of the low aspect ratio reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Cerbone, R.; Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    An aggressive low aspect ratio scoping fusion reactor design indicated that a 2 GW(e) reactor can have a major radius as small as 2.9 m resulting in a device with competitive cost of electricity at 49 mill/kWh. One of the technology requirements of this design is a high performance high power density first wall and blanket system. A 15 MPa helium-cooled, V-alloy and stagnant LiPb breeder first wall and blanket design was utilized. Due to the low solubility of tritium in LiPb, there is the concern of tritium migration and the formation of V-hydride. To address these issues, a lithium breeder system with high solubility of tritium has been evaluated. Due to the reduction of blanket energy multiplication to 1.2, to maintain a plant Q of > 4, the major radius of the reactor has to be increased to 3.05 m. The inlet helium coolant temperature is raised to 436 C in order to meet the minimum V-alloy temperature limit everywhere in the first wall and blanket system. To enhance the first wall heat transfer, a swirl tape coolant channel design is used. The corresponding increase in friction factor is also taken into consideration. To reduce the coolant system pressure drop, the helium pressure is increased from 15 to 18 MPa. Thermal structural analysis is performed for a simple tube design. With an inside tube diameter of 1 cm and a wall thickness of 1.5 mm, the lithium breeder can remove an average heat flux and neutron wall loading of 2 and 8 MW/m(2), respectively. This reference design can meet all the temperature and material structural design limits, as well as the coolant velocity limits. Maintaining an outlet coolant temperature of 650 C, one can expect a gross closed cycle gas turbine thermal efficiency of 45%. This study further supports the use of helium coolant for high power density reactor design. When used with the low aspect ratio reactor concept a competitive fusion reactor can be projected at 51.9 mill/kWh.

  15. Technical issues for beryllium use in fusion blanket applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarville, T.J.; Berwald, D.H.; Wolfer, W.; Fulton, F.J.; Lee, J.D.; Maninger, R.C.; Moir, R.W.; Beeston, J.M.; Miller, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Beryllium is an excellent non-fissioning neutron multiplier for fusion breeder and fusion electric blanket applications. This report is a compilation of information related to the use of beryllium with primary emphasis on the fusion breeder application. Beryllium resources, production, fabrication, properties, radiation damage and activation are discussed. A new theoretical model for beryllium swelling is presented.

  16. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  17. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  18. Implementation in breeding programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, M.P.; McParland, S.; Bastin, C.; Wall, E.; Berry, D.P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic improvement is easy when selecting for one heritable and well-recorded trait at a time. Many industrialised national dairy herds have overall breeding indices that incorporate a range of traits balanced by their known or estimated economic value. Future breeding goals will contain more non-p

  19. Breeding without breeding: is a complete pedigree necessary for efficient breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousry A El-Kassaby

    Full Text Available Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called "Breeding without Breeding" (BwB that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS and incomplete (half-sib: HS analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors, growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP or complete (FS pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB.

  20. HIP experiments on the first wall and cooling plate specimens for the EU HCPB blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norajitra, P. E-mail: prachai.norajitra@imf.fzk.de; Reimann, G.; Ruprecht, R.; Schaefer, L

    2002-12-01

    First wall and cooling plates are considered the most important structural parts of the EU HCPB blanket concept which is based on the use of ferritic-martensitic steel as structural material, Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles as breeder material, beryllium pebbles as neutron multiplier, and 8 MPa helium as coolant. Both the first wall and cooling plates contain complex arrays of internal He coolant channels. The favourite manufacturing technology is diffusion welding of two halves of plates applying the hot isostatic pressure (HIP) welding method that allows uniform distribution of the pressure acting on the outer surfaces of the welding objects. The HIP experiment was started with small MANET specimens with internal coolant channels. The objective of this work is to investigate the appropriate HIP technique, boundary conditions, and parameters in order to achieve good mechanical properties of the welding joints as well as to achieve a transition to test specimens of larger dimensions.

  1. 增殖比可调快堆堆芯方案设计%Core Design of Fast Reactor With Flexible Breeding Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖云龙; 吴宏春; 郑友琦

    2013-01-01

    增殖比可调快堆是指在不对堆芯设计进行重大改动的条件下实现增殖比可调的快中子反应堆。这一思想使快堆设计可先于工业发展需求,实现对核能形势的动态响应。为实现更大的增殖比,选择了增殖性能更为优异的金属燃料,堆芯采取非均匀布置,轴向和径向布置有使用压水堆乏燃料的增殖区。利用SRAC/COREBN软件包和自行编写的换料耦合脚本为工具,提出了具有不同增殖比的钠冷快堆堆芯方案设计。在同一个堆中,使用相同的燃料,仅通过改变组件数量及堆芯布置,便可实现增殖比在1.0~1.4范围内的可调。计算结果表明,各增殖比方案下的空泡反应性和最大线功率等参数均满足快堆设计要求。%Fast reactor with flexible breeding ratio can achieve variable breeding ratios without significant changes of core design . This concept enables fast reactor to effectively respond to the industrial needs .In order to obtain larger breeding ratio ,the metal fuel with better performance was selected . Assemblies were heterogeneously arranged .Blankets of PWR spent nuclear fuels were axially and radially arranged . Various sodium cooled fast reactor core schemes with different breeding ratios were proposed .SRAC/COREBN package was used for neutronic calculation and perl scripts was used for shuffling and data exchange .Different breeding ratios were achieved by changing the number of assemblies and their loading pattern . The achieved breeding ratios varied from 1.0 to 1.4 .Numerical results show that concerning parameters ,such as void worth and maximum linear power ,of all schemes satisfy the criteria of fast reactor designs .

  2. APT {sup 3}He target/blanket. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 3}He target/blanket (T/B) preconceptual design for the 3/8-Goal facility is based on a 1000-MeV, 200-mA accelerator to produce a high-intensity proton beam that is expanded and then strikes one of two T/B modules. Each module consists of a centralized neutron source made of tungsten and lead, a proton beam backstop region made of zirconium and lead, and a moderator made of D{sub 2}O. Helium-3 gas is circulated through the neutron source region and the blanket to create tritium through neutron capture. The gas is continually processed to extract the tritium with an online separation process.

  3. Progress in studies of Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as liquid breeder for fusion reactor blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.

    1983-09-01

    A review of the experimental and conceptual design work in progress at JRC-Ispra to investigate the feasibility of the eutectic Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/ as a liquid breeder for experimental power reactors is presented. Results of recent measurements to implement the data base of this material are given in the following areas: physical parameters, hydrogen solubility and recovery, chemical reactivity with air and water, compatibility with steel. The studies carried out on blanket concepts for the INTOR (International Tokamak Reactor)/NET (Next European Torus) projects are outlined and discussed.

  4. Light water reactor fuel element suitable for thorium employment in a discrete seed and blanket configuration with the aim to attain conversion ratios above the range of one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrovat, M.F.; Grosse, K.H.; Seemann, R. [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The thorium resources in the world are relatively large. According to the IAEA-NEA-publication ''Red Book'' they amount to 4.5 10E6 metric tons and are about 4 times greater than the resources of Uranium. The fuel element described in this paper could be used in light water reactor (LWR) preferably in pressurized water reactor (PWR). The seed (feed) rods contain uranium 235 as fissionable material and the blanket (breed) rods contain thorium and uranium. The thorium in the blanket rods is converted to fissionable U-233 by irradiation with thermal neutrons. The U-233 produced is a valuable fissionable material and is characterized by high revalues, where t is defined as the number of fission neutrons per absorption in fissile materials. By optimized configuration and loading of the seed- and blanket rods the thorium is converted to U-233 and the U-238 is converted to fissionable Plutonium isotopes. Consequently more fissionable material is generated than is used. The fuel cycle is also flexible. Thus U-235, Pu-239 or weapons-grade Plutonium can be used.Based on knowledge obtained in the development of fuel elements for material test reactors (MTR), high temperature reactors (HTR) and light water reactors (LWR), a new design of fuel element suitable for thorium employment in PWR is described.

  5. Evaluation of US demo helium-cooled blanket options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C.P.C.; McQuillan, B.W.; Schleicher, R.W. [and others

    1995-10-01

    A He-V-Li blanket design was developed as a candidate for the U.S. fusion demonstration power plant. This paper presents an 18 MPa helium-cooled, lithium breeder, V-alloy design that can be coupled to the Brayton cycle with a gross efficiency of 46%. The critical issue of designing to high gas pressure and the compatibility between helium impurities and V-alloy are addressed.

  6. MFTF-B Upgrade for blanket-technology testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K.I.; Doggett, J.N.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-10-22

    Based on preliminary studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), we believe the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) could be upgraded for operation in a hot-ion Kelley mode in a portion of the central cell to provide fusion nuclear engineering data, particularly blanket technology information, by the end of the decade. Cost of this mode of operation would be modest compared with that of the other fusion devices considered in the last few years for such purposes.

  7. Laboratory experiments on drought and runoff in blanket peat

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Burt, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Britain. We have therefore studied in laboratory experiments the impact of drought on peat from the North Pennines of the UK. Runoff was dominated by surface and near-surface flow; flow decreased rapidly with depth and differed from one type of cover to another. Infiltration depended on the intensity of rain, and runoff responded rapidly to rain, with around 50% of rainwater emerging as overland flow. Drought changed the str...

  8. Heat Loads Due to Small Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation Blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Heckle, K. W.; Fesmire, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    The main penetrations (supports and piping) through multilayer insulation systems for cryogenic tanks have been previously addressed by heat flow measurements. Smaller penetrations due to fasteners and attachments are now experimentally investigated. The use of small pins or plastic garment tag fasteners to each the handling and construction of multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets goes back many years. While it has long been understood that penetrations and other discontinuities degrade the performance of the MLI blanket, quantification of this degradation has generally been lumped into gross performance multipliers (often called degradation factors or scale factors). Small penetrations contribute both solid conduction and radiation heat transfer paths through the blanket. The conduction is down the stem of the structural element itself while the radiation is through the hole formed during installation of the pin or fastener. Analytical models were developed in conjunction with MLI perforation theory and Fouriers Law. Results of the analytical models are compared to experimental testing performed on a 10 layer MLI blanket with approximately 50 small plastic pins penetrating the test specimen. The pins were installed at 76-mm spacing inches in both directions to minimize the compounding of thermal effects due to localized compression or lateral heat transfer. The testing was performed using a liquid nitrogen boil-off calorimeter (Cryostat-100) with the standard boundary temperatures of 293 K and 78 K. Results show that the added radiation through the holes is much more significant than the conduction down the fastener. The results are shown to be in agreement with radiation theory for perforated films.

  9. Model problem of MHD flow in a lithium blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepanov, V.Y.

    1978-01-01

    A model problem is considered for a feasibility study concerning controlled MHD flow in the blanket of a Tokamak nuclear reactor. The fundamental equations for the steady flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a uniform transverse magnetic field are solved in rectangular coordinates, in the zero-induction approximation and with negligible induced currents. A numerical solution obtained for a set of appropriate boundary constraints establishes the conditions under which no stagnation zones will be formed.

  10. Development of insulating coatings for liquid metal blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malang, S.; Borgstedt, H.U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Farnum, E.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Vitkovski, I.V. [Efremov Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). MHD-Machines Lab.

    1994-07-01

    It is shown that self-cooled liquid metal blankets are feasible only with electrically insulating coatings at the duct walls. The requirements on the insulation properties are estimated by simple analytical models. Candidate insulator materials are selected based on insulating properties and thermodynamic consideration. Different fabrication technologies for insulating coatings are described. The status of the knowledge on the most crucial feasibility issue, the degradation of the resisivity under irradiation, is reviewed.

  11. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  12. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2011 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  13. Waterfowl breeding population survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Waterfowl breeding population surveys have been completed annually on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska since 1986. Methods for the 2010 Arctic Coastal Plain...

  14. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  15. APT Blanket Safety Analysis: Preliminary Analyses of Downflow Through a Lateral Row 1 Blanket Model Under Near RHR Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    To address a concern about a potential maldistribution of coolant flow through an APT blanket module under low flow near RHR conditions, a scoping study of downflow mixed convection in parallel channels was conducted. Buoyancy will adversely effect the flow distribution in module bins with downflow and non-uniform power distributions. This study consists of two parts: a simple analytical model of flow in a two channel network, and a lumped eleven channel FLOWTRAN-TF model of a front lateral Row-1 blanket module bin. Results from both models indicate that the concern about coolant flow in a vertical model being diverted away from high power regions by buoyancy is warranted. The FLOWTRAN-TF model predicted upflow (i.e., a flow reversal) through several of the high power channels, under some low flow conditions. The transition from the regime with downflow in all channels to a regime with upflow in some channels was abrupt.

  16. Continuous fine pattern formation by screen-offset printing using a silicone blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Ken-ichi; Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Nagase, Kazuro; Ikedo, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Seiya; Nakajima, Shin-ichiro; Iwata, Shiro

    2014-09-01

    Screen-offset printing combines screen-printing on a silicone blanket with transference of the print from the blanket to a substrate. The blanket absorbs organic solvents in the ink, and therefore, the ink does not disperse through the material. This prevents blurring and allows fine patterns with widths of a few tens of micrometres to be produced. However, continuous printing deteriorates the pattern’s shape, which may be a result of decay in the absorption abilities of the blanket. Thus, we have developed a new technique for refreshing the blanket by substituting high-boiling-point solvents present on the blanket surface with low-boiling-point solvents. We analyse the efficacy of this technique, and demonstrate continuous fine pattern formation for 100 screen-offset printing processes.

  17. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  18. Multi-flow-field heat transfer parameters optimization on first wall of dual-cooled lithium lead blanket for FDS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weihua; Liu Songlin; Bai Yunqing; Chen Hongli; Wu Yican [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics

    2007-07-01

    The dual-cooled lithium lead (DLL) blanket, which is one of the most important parts of the fusion power reactor FDS-II, has been designed. Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (e.g. China low activate martensitic CLAM) steel is selected as structural material and helium gas is used to cool the main structure and the self-cooled eutectic LiPb alloy serves both as breeder material and coolant. To decrease magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop and increase output temperature of lithium lead, insulating coating and flow channel inserts have been selected and assessed. The first wall (FW) as the key component of the DLL blanket must withstand and remove the heat flux from the plasma chamber and high power density LiPb Breeding zone. Consequently, the unique design of the blanket (e.g. multi-flow field and dual coolant) results in the complicated thermal-hydraulic characteristics like the coupling of multi-field. Under the limit of temperature 550 C and stress 3Sm of the CLAM steel structural material, Multiflow- field Heat transfer parameters of FW are studied by the computational fluid dynamics FLUENT code and finite element ANSYS code. Heat flux distribution, temperature field, heat transfer coefficients between liquid LiPb and RAFM steel are obtained and optimized accordingly while considering the helium gas flow velocity 20 m/s{proportional_to}120 m/s, heat flux 0.1MW/m{sup 2}{proportional_to}0.7MW/m{sup 2} from the plasma and LiPb Breeding zone. The results can benefit the thermal-hydraulic parameters selection and optimization of the FW. (orig.)

  19. Design and safety analysis of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket for CFETR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Guangming; Lv, Zhongliang; Jin, Cheng; Chen, Hongli [University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-05-15

    This paper reports the design and safety analysis results of the helium cooled solid breeder blanket of the Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR). Materials selection and basic structure of the blanket have been presented. Performance analysis including neutronics analysis and thermo-mechanical analysis has shown good results. And the safety analysis of the blanket under Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions has been described. Results showed the current design can deal well with the selected accident scenarios.

  20. Prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy in a male orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivichayakul, C; Pojjaroen-anant, C; Wisetsing, P; Lalitphiphat, A; Chanthavanich, P; Kabkaew, K

    2000-03-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted in a male orphanage to find out the prevalence of enterobiasis and its incidence after blanket chemotherapy using mebendazole. We found that the prevalence of enterobiasis was 28.9%. The incidence density of enterobiasis after blanket chemotherapy was 379.82 per 1,000 person-years which was quite high. We suggest that blanket chemotherapy should be repeated at every 6 months interval to control enterobiasis in orphanages.

  1. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  2. Breeding without Breeding: Is a Complete Pedigree Necessary for Efficient Breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Cappa, Eduardo P.; Liewlaksaneeyanawin, Cherdsak; Klápště, Jaroslav; Lstibůrek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Complete pedigree information is a prerequisite for modern breeding and the ranking of parents and offspring for selection and deployment decisions. DNA fingerprinting and pedigree reconstruction can substitute for artificial matings, by allowing parentage delineation of naturally produced offspring. Here, we report on the efficacy of a breeding concept called “Breeding without Breeding” (BwB) that circumvents artificial matings, focusing instead on a subset of randomly sampled, maternally known but paternally unknown offspring to delineate their paternal parentage. We then generate the information needed to rank those offspring and their paternal parents, using a combination of complete (full-sib: FS) and incomplete (half-sib: HS) analyses of the constructed pedigrees. Using a random sample of wind-pollinated offspring from 15 females (seed donors), growing in a 41-parent western larch population, BwB is evaluated and compared to two commonly used testing methods that rely on either incomplete (maternal half-sib, open-pollinated: OP) or complete (FS) pedigree designs. BwB produced results superior to those from the incomplete design and virtually identical to those from the complete pedigree methods. The combined use of complete and incomplete pedigree information permitted evaluating all parents, both maternal and paternal, as well as all offspring, a result that could not have been accomplished with either the OP or FS methods alone. We also discuss the optimum experimental setting, in terms of the proportion of fingerprinted offspring, the size of the assembled maternal and paternal half-sib families, the role of external gene flow, and selfing, as well as the number of parents that could be realistically tested with BwB. PMID:21991342

  3. TOKOPS: Tokamak Reactor Operations Study: The influence of reactor operations on the design and performance of tokamaks with solid-breeder blankets: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, R.W.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Firestone, M.A. (eds.)

    1986-09-01

    Reactor system operation and procedures have a profound impact on the conception and design of power plants. These issues are studied here using a model tokamak system employing a solid-breeder blanket. The model blanket is one which has evolved from the STARFIRE and BCSS studies. The reactor parameters are similar to those characterizing near-term fusion engineering reactors such as INTOR or NET (Next European Tokamak). Plasma startup, burn analysis, and methods for operation at various levels of output power are studied. A critical, and complicating, element is found to be the self-consistent electromagnetic response of the system, including the presence of the blanket and the resulting forces and loadings. Fractional power operation, and the strategy for burn control, is found to vary depending on the scaling law for energy confinement, and an extensive study is reported. Full-power reactor operation is at a neutron wall loading pf 5 MW/m/sup 2/ and a surface heat flux of 1 MW/m/sup 2/. The blanket is a pressurized steel module with bare beryllium rods and low-activation HT-9-(9-C-) clad LiAlO/sub 2/ rods. The helium coolant pressure is 5 MPa, entering the module at 297/sup 0/C and exiting at 550/sup 0/C. The system power output is rated at 1000 MW(e). In this report, we present our findings on various operational scenarios and their impact on system design. We first start with the salient aspects of operational physics. Time-dependent analyses of the blanket and balance of plant are then presented. Separate abstracts are included for each chapter.

  4. Codevelopment of conceptual understanding and critical attitude: toward a systemic analysis of the survival blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viennot, Laurence; Décamp, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    One key objective of physics teaching is the promotion of conceptual understanding. Additionally, the critical faculty is universally seen as a central quality to be developed in students. In recent years, however, teaching objectives have placed stronger emphasis on skills than on concepts, and there is a risk that conceptual structuring may be disregarded. The question therefore arises as to whether it is possible for students to develop a critical stance without a conceptual basis, leading in turn to the issue of possible links between the development of conceptual understanding and critical attitude. In an in-depth study to address these questions, the participants were seven prospective physics and chemistry teachers. The methodology included a ‘teaching interview’, designed to observe participants’ responses to limited explanations of a given phenomenon and their ensuing intellectual satisfaction or frustration. The explanatory task related to the physics of how a survival blanket works, requiring a full and appropriate system analysis of the blanket. The analysis identified five recurrent lines of reasoning and linked these to judgments of adequacy of explanation, based on metacognitive/affective (MCA) factors, intellectual (dis)satisfaction and critical stance. Recurrent themes and MCA factors were used to map the intellectual dynamics that emerged during the interview process. Participants’ critical attitude was observed to develop in strong interaction with their comprehension of the topic. The results suggest that most students need to reach a certain level of conceptual mastery before they can begin to question an oversimplified explanation, although one student’s replies show that a different intellectual dynamics is also possible. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these findings for future research and for decisions concerning teaching objectives and the design of learning environments.

  5. 76 FR 44903 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...-000] Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 30, 2011 Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC (KMIGT), Post...

  6. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  7. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  8. Studies on use of reflector material and its position within FBR core for reducing U{sup 232} content of U produced in ThO{sub 2} radial blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Sujoy, E-mail: sujoy@igcar.gov.in [Core Design Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India); Prasad, Rajeev Ranjan; Bagchi, Subhrojit [Core Design Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India); Mohanakrishnan, P. [MCNS, Manipal University, Manipal (India); Arul, A. John; Puthiyavinayagam, P. [Core Design Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear data processing for multigroup neutron transport calculation. • Discrete ordinate and Monte Carlo neutron transport. • Breeding of Thorium in Fast Reactor. • Minimization of U{sup 232} in U{sup 233}. • Fuel burn up using Neutron Diffusion. - Abstract: Presence of U{sup 232} in U{sup 233} bred in thorium blanket of fast reactor is a major concern in fuel reprocessing. The former's daughter products being hard gamma emitter and the isotope itself having substantial half life, its presence beyond 10 ppm makes fuel recycle complicated and expensive. In this study possibility of decreasing U{sup 232} production in a typical FBR blanket by means of spectrum modification is examined. SS, depleted B{sub 4}C, SiC, Mo and W regions were introduced between core and radial blanket and evolution of isotopes were studied to arrive at an optimal configuration that satisfies requirements of breeding U{sup 233} and lowering U{sup 232}concentration. SS, B{sub 4}C, SiC, Mo and W are known to be high temperature material with appropriate stability in harsh fast reactor environment. Study has shown that introducing two SS reflector rows can achieve the required low value of U{sup 232}concentration without greatly compromising the U{sup 233}production.

  9. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER outboard blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Tim, E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Davis, Andrew; Sawan, Mohamed; Marriott, Edward; Wilson, Paul [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, Michael; Bullock, James [Formerly, Fusion Technology, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis was performed on detailed CAD models placed in a 40 degree model of ITER. • The regions examined include BM09, the upper ELM coil region (BM11–13), the neutral beam (NB) region (BM13–16), and BM18. • The results show that VV nuclear heating exceeds limits in the NB and upper ELM coil regions. • The results also show that the level of He production in parts of BM18 exceeds limits. • These calculations are being used to modify the design of the ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: In the ITER design, the blanket modules (BM) provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40 degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM09, BM16 near the heating neutral beam injection (HNB) region, BM11–13 near the upper ELM coil region, and BM18. For the BM16 HNB region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by up to 80%. For the BM11–13 region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 45%. For BM18, the results show that He production does not meet the limit necessary for re-welding. The results presented in this work are being used by the ITER Organization Blanket and Tokamak Integration groups to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  10. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  11. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  12. Plant breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  13. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  14. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  15. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  16. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Taguchi, Kou; Takiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  17. Elevator mode convection in liquid metal blankets for fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikanov, Oleg; Liu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The work is motivated by the design of liquid-metal blankets for nuclear fusion reactors. Mixed convection in a downward flow in a vertical duct with strong contant-rate heating of one wall (the Grashof number up to 1012) and strong transverse magnetic field (the Hartmann number up to 104) is considered. It is found that in an infinitely long duct the flow is dominated by exponentially growing elevator modes having the form of a combination of ascending and descending jets. An analytical solution approximating the growth rate of the modes is derived. Analogous flows in finite-length pipes and ducts are analyzed using the high-resolution numerical simulations. The results of the recent experiments are reproduced and explained. It is found that the flow evolves in cycles consisting of periods of exponential growth and breakdowns of the jets. The resulting high-amplitude fluctuations of temperature is a feature potentially dangerous for operation of a reactor blanket. Financial support was provided by the US NSF (Grant CBET 1232851).

  18. Inhibition of Frying Oil Oxidation by Carbon Dioxide Blanketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totani, Nagao; Inoue, Ryota; Yawata, Miho

    2016-06-01

    The oxidation of oil starts, in general, from the penetration of atmospheric oxygen into oil. Inhibition of the vigorous oxidation of oil at deep-frying temperature under carbon dioxide flow, by disrupting the contact between oil and air, was first demonstrated using oil in a round bottom flask. Next, the minimum carbon dioxide flow rate necessary to blanket 4 L of frying oil in an electric fryer (surface area 690 cm(2)) installed with nonwoven fabric cover, was found to be 40 L/h. Then deep-frying of potato was done accordingly; immediately after deep-frying, an aluminum cover was placed on top of the nonwoven fabric cover to prevent the loss of carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide flow was shut off. In conclusion, the oxidation of oil both at deep-frying temperature and during standing was remarkably inhibited by carbon dioxide blanketing at a practical flow rate and volume. Under the deep-frying conditions employed in this study, the increase in polar compound content was reduced to half of that of the control.

  19. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  20. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of 250 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year...

  1. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  2. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  3. 75 FR 38092 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of... The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG... equivalent of 390 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot market basis. The LNG...

  4. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  5. 77 FR 31004 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...] Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 9, 2012, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209, filed... Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Southern's blanket certificate issued in...

  6. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... and order (Order No. 2923) that granted Eni USA Gas Marketing authority to export a cumulative total... Application, Eni USA Gas Marketing requests blanket authorization to export LNG from the Cameron Terminal...

  7. An Inertial-Fusion Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; DEGROOT,J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,P.; PETERSON,R.R.; SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; ZAMORA,ANTONIO J.

    2000-12-15

    With the promising new results of fast z-pinch technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories, we are investigating using z-pinch driven high-yield Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) as a fusion power plant energy source. These investigations have led to a novel fusion system concept based on an attempt to separate many of the difficult fusion engineering issues and a strict reliance on existing technology, or a reasonable extrapolation of existing technology, wherever possible. In this paper, we describe the main components of such a system with a focus on the fusion chamber dynamics. The concept works with all of the electrically-coupled ICF proposed fusion designs. It is proposed that a z-pinch driven ICF power system can be feasibly operated at high yields (1 to 30 GJ) with a relatively low pulse rate (0.01-0.1 Hz). To deliver the required current from the rep-rated pulse power driver to the z-pinch diode, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) and the integrated target hardware are fabricated, vacuum pumped, and aligned prior to loading for each power pulse. In this z-pinch driven system, no laser or ion beams propagate in the chamber such that the portion of the chamber outside the RTL does not need to be under vacuum. Additionally, by utilizing a graded-density solid lithium or fluorine/lithium/beryllium eutectic (FLiBe) blanket between the source and the first-wall the system can breed its own fuel absorb a large majority of the fusion energy released from each capsule and shield the first-wall from a damaging neutron flux. This neutron shielding significantly reduces the neutron energy fluence at the first-wall such that radiation damage should be minimal and will not limit the first-wall lifetime. Assuming a 4 m radius, 8 m tall cylindrical chamber design with an 80 cm thick spherical FLiBe blanket, our calculations suggest that a 20 cm thick 6061-T6 Al chamber wall will reach the equivalent uranium ore radioactivity level within 100 years after a 30

  8. An Inertial-Fusion Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; DEGROOT,J.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; PETERSON,P.; PETERSON,R.R.; SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.; ZAMORA,ANTONIO J.

    2000-12-15

    With the promising new results of fast z-pinch technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories, we are investigating using z-pinch driven high-yield Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) as a fusion power plant energy source. These investigations have led to a novel fusion system concept based on an attempt to separate many of the difficult fusion engineering issues and a strict reliance on existing technology, or a reasonable extrapolation of existing technology, wherever possible. In this paper, we describe the main components of such a system with a focus on the fusion chamber dynamics. The concept works with all of the electrically-coupled ICF proposed fusion designs. It is proposed that a z-pinch driven ICF power system can be feasibly operated at high yields (1 to 30 GJ) with a relatively low pulse rate (0.01-0.1 Hz). To deliver the required current from the rep-rated pulse power driver to the z-pinch diode, a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) and the integrated target hardware are fabricated, vacuum pumped, and aligned prior to loading for each power pulse. In this z-pinch driven system, no laser or ion beams propagate in the chamber such that the portion of the chamber outside the RTL does not need to be under vacuum. Additionally, by utilizing a graded-density solid lithium or fluorine/lithium/beryllium eutectic (FLiBe) blanket between the source and the first-wall the system can breed its own fuel absorb a large majority of the fusion energy released from each capsule and shield the first-wall from a damaging neutron flux. This neutron shielding significantly reduces the neutron energy fluence at the first-wall such that radiation damage should be minimal and will not limit the first-wall lifetime. Assuming a 4 m radius, 8 m tall cylindrical chamber design with an 80 cm thick spherical FLiBe blanket, our calculations suggest that a 20 cm thick 6061-T6 Al chamber wall will reach the equivalent uranium ore radioactivity level within 100 years after a 30

  9. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  10. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lukwa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up to 20 washes, declining to 90% after 25 washes. Untreated AU blankets did not cause any mortality on mosquitoes. However, mosquito repellence was 96%, 94%, 97.9%, 87%, 85% and 80.7% for treated AU blankets washed 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 times, respectively. Mosquito repellence was consistently above 80% from 0-25 washes. In conclusion, AU blankets washed 25 times were effective in repelling and killing An. gambiae sl mosquitoes under laboratory conditions.

  11. Development of a virtual reality simulator for the ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Nobukazu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: takeda.nobukazu@jaea.go.jp; Kakudate, Satoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tesini, Alessandro [ITER International Fusion Energy Organization, 13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2008-12-15

    The authors developed a simulator for the remote maintenance system of the ITER blanket using a general 3D robotic simulation software, ENVISION. The simulator is connected to the control system of the manipulator, which was developed as part of the blanket maintenance system during the Engineering Design Activity (EDA), and can reconstruct the positions of the manipulator and blanket module using position data transmitted from motors through a LAN. In addition, it can provide virtual visual information (e.g., about the interface structures behind the blanket module) by making the module transparent on the screen. It can also be used for confirming a maintenance sequence before the actual operation. The simulator will be modified further, with addition of other necessary functions, and will finally serve as a prototype of the actual simulator for the blanket remote handling system, which will be procured as part of an in-kind contribution.

  12. Thorium utilization in a small long-life HTR. Part II: Seed-and-blanket fuel blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ming, E-mail: dingming@hrbeu.edu.cn [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Street 145, 150001 Harbin (China); Kloosterman, Jan Leen [Delft University of Technology, Reactor Institute Delft, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel blocks are proposed for a small block-type HTR. • S and B fuel blocks consist of a seed region (UO{sub 2}) and a blanket region (ThO{sub 2}). • The neutronic performance of S and B fuel blocks are analyzed using SCALE 6. • Three S and B fuel blocks with a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk are recommended. • S and B fuel blocks are compared with thorium MOX fuel blocks. - Abstract: In order to utilize thorium in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTRs), the concept of seed-and-blanket (S and B) fuel block is introduced into the U-Battery, which is a long-life block-type HTR with a thermal power of 20 MWth. A S and B fuel block consists of a seed region with uranium in the center, and a blanket region with thorium. The neutronic performance, such as the multiplication factor, conversion ratio and reactivity swing, of a typical S and B fuel block was investigated by SCALE 6.0 by parametric analysis of the composition parameters and geometric parameters of the fuel block for the U-Battery application. Since the purpose of U-235 in the S and B fuel block is to ignite the fission reactions in the fuel block, 20% enriched uranium is recommended for the S and B fuel block. When the ratio of the number of carbon to heavy metal atoms changes with the geometric parameters of the fuel block in the range of 200–250, the reactivity swing reaches very small values. Furthermore, for a reactivity swing of 0.1 Δk during 10 effective full power years, three configurations with 36, 54 and 78 UO{sub 2} fuel rods are recommended for the application of the U-Battery. The comparison analysis of the S and B fuel block with the Th/U MOX fuel block shows that the former has a longer lifetime and a lower reactivity swing.

  13. Comparison of In-Vessel Shielding Design Concepts between Sodium-cooled Fast Burner Reactor and the Sodium-cooled Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sunghwan; Kim, Sang Ji [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, quantities of in-vessel shields were derived and compared each other based on the replaceable shield assembly concept for both of the breeder and burner SFRs. Korean Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR) like SFR was used as the reference reactor and calculation method reported in the reference was used for shielding analysis. In this paper, characteristics of in-vessel shielding design were studied for the burner SFR and breeder SFR based on the replaceable shield assembly concept. An in-vessel shield to prevent secondary sodium activation (SSA) in the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) is one of the most important structures for the pool type Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). In our previous work, two in-vessel shielding design concepts were compared each other for the burner SFR. However, a number of SFRs have been designed and operated with the breeder concept, in which axial and radial blankets were loaded for fuel breeding, during the past several decades. Since axial and radial blanket plays a role of neutron shield, comparison of required in-vessel shield amount between the breeder and burner SFRs may be an interesting work for SFR designer. Due to the blanket, the breeder SFR showed better performance in axial neutron shielding. Hence, 10.1 m diameter reactor vessel satisfied the design limit of SSA at the IHXs. In case of the burner SFR, due to more significant axial fast neutron leakage, 10.6 m diameter reactor vessel was required to satisfy the design limit of SSA at the IHXs. Although more efficient axial shied such as a mixture of ZrH{sub 2} and B{sub 4}C can improve shielding performance of the burner SFR, additional fabrication difficulty may mitigate the advantage of improved shielding performance. Therefore, it can be concluded that the breeder SFR has better characteristic in invessel shielding design to prevent SSA at the IHXs than the burner SFR in the pool-type reactor.

  14. Movement of tritiated water injected into blanket peat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Clymo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1966, tritiated water was injected at five sites at depths between 25 and 100 cm into blanket bog at Moor House National Nature Reserve. The distribution of tritium activity on a logarithmically spaced grid around these sites was sampled in 1990, 24 years after placement. The proportions of tritium accounted for ranged from 80 % for the injection at 100 cm deep, to 20 % for the injection at 25 cm deep. Both 80 and 20 should be considered as ± 10 %. Results imply that diffusion close to the injection may have played a part in movement of tritium; evapotranspiration is not inconsistent with the losses inversely proportional to depth of placement; but the main process of movement is probably bulk (mass flow of water through the peat.

  15. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puyol, D.; Monsalvo, V.M.; Mohedano, A.F. [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J.L. [Departamento de Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rodriguez, J.J., E-mail: juanjo.rodriguez@uam.es [Seccion de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2 g TCOD L{sup -1} day{sup -1}). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Fibre Reinforced Silica Aerogel Blankets for Thermal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as the source of silica, fibre reinforced silica aerogels were synthesized via fast ambient pressure drying using methanol (MeOH, trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS, ammonium fluoride (NH4F, and hexane. The molar ratio of TEOS/MeOH/(COOH2/NH4F was kept constant at 1 : 38 : 3.73 × 10−5 : 0.023 and the gel was allowed to form inside the highly porous meta-aramid fibrous batting. The wet gel surface was chemically modified (silylation process using various concentrations of TMCS in hexane in the range of 1 to 20% by volume. The fibre reinforced silica aerogel blanket was obtained subsequently through atmospheric pressure drying. The aerogel blanket samples were characterized by density, thermal conductivity, hydrophobicity (contact angle, and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The radiant heat resistance of the aerogel blankets was examined and compared with nonaerogel blankets. It has been observed that, compared to the ordinary nonaerogel blankets, the aerogel blankets showed a 58% increase in the estimated burn injury time and thus ensure a much better protection from heat and fire hazards. The effect of varying the concentration of TMCS on the estimated protection time has been examined. The improved thermal stability and the superior thermal insulation of the flexible aerogel blankets lead to applications being used for occupations that involve exposure to hazards of thermal radiation.

  17. Analysis and optimization of minor actinides transmutation blankets with regards to neutron and gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooyman Timothée

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous loading of minor actinides in radial blankets is a potential solution to implement minor actinides transmutation in fast reactors. However, to compensate for the lower flux level experienced by the blankets, the fraction of minor actinides to be loaded in the blankets must be increased to maintain acceptable performances. This severely increases the decay heat and neutron source of the blanket assemblies, both before and after irradiation, by more than an order of magnitude in the case of neutron source for instance. We propose here to implement an optimization methodology of the blankets design with regards to various parameters such as the local spectrum or the mass to be loaded, with the objective of minimizing the final neutron source of the spent assembly while maximizing the transmutation performances of the blankets. In a first stage, an analysis of the various contributors to long- and short-term neutron and gamma source is carried out whereas in a second stage, relevant estimators are designed for use in the effective optimization process, which is done in the last step. A comparison with core calculations is finally done for completeness and validation purposes. It is found that the use of a moderated spectrum in the blankets can be beneficial in terms of final neutron and gamma source without impacting minor actinides transmutation performances compared to more energetic spectrum that could be achieved using metallic fuel for instance. It is also confirmed that, if possible, the use of hydrides as moderating material in the blankets is a promising option to limit the total minor actinides inventory in the fuel cycle. If not, it appears that focus should be put upon an increased residence time for the blankets rather than an increase in the acceptable neutron source for handling and reprocessing.

  18. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the CFETR blanket first wall%CFTER包层第一壁热工水力分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏川子; 宋云涛; 雷明准

    2016-01-01

    简要描述了CFETR氦冷固态增殖包层的结构设计,介绍了包层第一壁的冷却结构。用ANSYS CFX程序对 CFETR 包层第一壁进行了热工水力分析。研究了如何获得第一壁的最佳出口温度,并保证第一壁结构材料的热负荷承受能力。讨论了通过改变冷却管道粗糙度和优化冷却管道布置两种方法对第一壁结构进行优化。结果表明,优化的冷却回路既满足了材料的许用温度要求,又满足了氦气的出口温度要求。%This article describes the overall design of CFETR helium cooling solid breeding blanket and the cooling structure of the blanket first wall. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the CFETR blanket first wall was carried out using ANSYS CFX code. Research on how to get the best outlet temperature and satisfy the limit of the first wall material allowable temperature was done. One way is to promote the tube roughness and another way is to optimize the cooling circulation. The results show that the optimization of the cooling loops can satisfy the requirements of the material allowable temperature and the outlet temperature.

  19. Marcadores SNP: conceitos básicos, aplicações no manejo e no melhoramento animal e perspectivas para o futuro SNP markers: basic concepts, applications in animal breeding and management and perspectives for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigues Caetano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os primeiros estudos de identificação, caracterização e utilização de marcadores moleculares para a caracterização de recursos genéticos e geração de ferramentas para o melhoramento animal datam do final da década de 80. Nos últimos 20 anos as tecnologias para geração de dados moleculares passaram por vários ciclos de renovação. A última onda de inovações tecnológicas representa uma verdadeira revolução e trouxe metodologias para identificar e genotipar marcadores SNP (do inglês Single Nucleotide Polimorphism de maneira massal. Chips de DNA de alta densidade foram criados para genotipar de dezenas de milhares até centenas de milhares de marcadores SNP em um único ensaio. Além disso, outras tecnologias de média densidade permitem também a genotipagem de dezenas a centenas de marcadores, em números elevados de amostras, com altíssima velocidade e automação. Essas novas tecnologias permitiram a geração de novas aplicações, como as metodologias para avaliação genética e seleção com base no Valor Genômico (Genomic Estimated Breeding Value- GEBV. Os métodos estatísticos para avaliação e seleção genômica estão em pleno desenvolvimento, mas a tecnologia já se tornou uma realidade com o lançamento do primeiro sumário de touros para a raça Holandesa com GEBVs para características de produção e qualidade do leite em janeiro de 2009. Além disso, essas tecnologias também trouxeram novas opções para desenvolvimento de testes diagnósticos para confirmação de paternidade, identificação individual, rastreabilidade, etc. Além dessas inovações, as novas tecnologias de genotipagem de marcadores SNP facilitaram também o desenvolvimento de serviços terceirizados de geração de dados, permitindo que qualquer grupo realize pesquisas avançadas, sempre com as tecnologias mais avançadas, sem a necessidade de investimentos em equipamentos.The first studies to identify, characterize and use

  20. Finalization of the conceptual design of the auxiliary circuits for the European test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, A., E-mail: antonio.aiello@enea.it [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Ghidersa, B.E. [Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) – Institut für Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik (INR), D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Utili, M. [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, I-40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Vala, L. [Sustainable Energy (SUSEN), Technological Experimental Circuits, Centrum vyzkumu Rez s.r.o. (CV Rez), Hlavni c.p. 130, CZ-250 68 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Ilkei, T. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Di Gironimo, G.; Mozzillo, R.; Tarallo, A. [CREATE/University of Naples Federico II, Department of Industrial Engineering, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples (Italy); Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P. [TBM& MD Project, Fusion for Energy, EU Commission, Carrer J. Pla, 2, Building B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    In view of the ITER conceptual design review, the design of the ancillary systems of the European test blanket systems presented in [1] has been updated and made consistent with the ITER requirements for the present design phase. Europe is developing two concepts of TBM, the helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and the helium cooled pebble bed (HCPB) one, having in common the cooling media, pressurized helium at 8 MPa [2]. TBS, namely helium cooling system (HCS), coolant purification system (CPS), lead lithium loop and tritium extraction/removal system (TES–TRS) have the purpose to cool down the TBM and to remove tritium to be driven to TEP from breeder and coolant. These systems are placed in port cell 16 (PC#16), chemical and volume control system (CVCS) area and tritium building. Starting from the pre-conceptual design developed in the past, more mature technical interfaces with the ITER facility have been consolidated and iterative design activities were performed to comply with design requirements/specifications requested by IO to conclude the conceptual design phase. In this paper the present status of design of the TBS is presented together with the preliminary integration in ITER areas.

  1. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...... and provide important information for conservation management of migratory birds....

  2. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Liquid Metal MHD Pressure Drop in the Blanket for the FDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红艳; 吴宜灿; 何晓雄

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary analysis and calculation of liquid metal Li17Pb83 magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop in the blanket for the FDS have been presented to evaluate the significance of MHD effects on the thermal-hydraulic design of the blanket. To decrease the liquid metal MHD pressure drop, Al2O3 is applied as an electronically insulated coating onto the inner surface of the ducts. The requirement for the insulated coating to reduce the additional leakage pressure drop caused by coating imperfections has been analyzed. Finally, the total liquid metal MHD pressure drop and magnetic pump power in the FDS blanket have been given.

  4. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding.

  5. Composition Optimization of Lithium-Based Ternary Alloy Blankets for Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolodosky, Alejandra

    The goal of this dissertation is to examine the neutronic properties of a novel type of fusion reactor blanket material in the form of lithium-based ternary alloys. Pure liquid lithium, first proposed as a blanket for fusion reactors, is utilized as both a tritium breeder and a coolant. It has many attractive features such as high heat transfer and low corrosion properties, but most importantly, it has a very high tritium solubility and results in very low levels of tritium permeation throughout the facility infrastructure. However, lithium metal vigorously reacts with air and water and presents plant safety concerns including degradation of the concrete containment structure. The work of this thesis began as a collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in an effort to develop a lithium-based ternary alloy that can maintain the beneficial properties of lithium while reducing the reactivity concerns. The first studies down-selected alloys based on the analysis and performance of both neutronic and activation characteristics. First, 3-D Monte Carlo calculations were performed to evaluate two main neutronics performance parameters for the blanket: tritium breeding ratio (TBR), and energy multiplication factor (EMF). Alloys with adequate results based on TBR and EMF calculations were considered for activation analysis. Activation simulations were executed with 50 years of irradiation and 300 years of cooling. It was discovered that bismuth is a poor choice due to achieving the highest decay heat, contact dose rates, and accident doses. In addition, it does not meet the waste disposal ratings (WDR). The straightforward approach to obtain Monte Carlo TBR and EMF results required 231 simulations per alloy and became computationally expensive, time consuming, and inefficient. Consequently, alternate methods were pursued. A collision history-based methodology recently developed for the Monte Carlo code Serpent, calculates perturbation effects on practically

  6. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  7. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Griscom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The discovery nearly two decades ago of a 90 km-diameter impact crater below the lower Chesapeake Bay has gone unnoted by the general public because to date all published literature on the subject has described it as "buried". To the contrary, evidence is presented here that the so-called "upland deposits" that blanket ∼5000 km2 of the U.S. Middle-Atlantic Coastal Plain (M-ACP display morphologic, lithologic, and stratigraphic features consistent with their being ejecta from the 35.4 Ma Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure (CBIS and absolutely inconsistent with the prevailing belief that they are of fluvial origin. Specifically supporting impact origin are the facts that (i a 95 %-pure iron ore endemic to the upland deposits of southern Maryland, eastern Virginia, and the District of Columbia has previously been proven to be impactoclastic in origin, (ii this iron ore welds together a small percentage of well-rounded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the upland deposits into brittle sheets interpretable as "spall plates" created in the interference-zone of the CBIS impact, (iii the predominantly non-welded upland gravels have long ago been shown to be size sorted with an extreme crater-centric gradient far too large to have been the work of rivers, but well explained as atmospheric size-sorted interference-zone ejecta, (iv new evidence is provided here that ~60 % of the non-welded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the (lower lying gravel member of the upland deposits display planar fractures attributable to interference-zone tensile waves, (v the (overlying loam member of the upland deposits is attributable to base-surge-type deposition, (vi several exotic clasts found in a debris flow topographically below the upland deposits can only be explained as jetting-phase crater ejecta, and (vii an allogenic granite boulder found among the upland deposits is deduced to have been launched into space and sculpted by hypervelocity air friction

  8. Development of ITER shielding blanket prototype mockup by HIP bonding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Takatsu, Hideyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Office of ITER Project Promotion, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A prototype ({approx}900{sup H} x 1700{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) of the ITER shielding blanket module has been fabricated following the previous successful fabrication of a small-scale ({approx}500{sup H} x 400{sup W} x 150{sup T} mm) and mid-scale ({approx}800{sup H} x 500{sup W} x 350{sup T} mm) mock-ups. This prototype incorporates most of key design features essential to the fabrication of the ITER shielding blanket module such as 1) the first wall heat sink made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersion strengthened Cu (DSCu) with built-in SS316L coolant tubes bonded to a massive SS316LN shield block, 2) toroidally curved first wall with a radius of 5106 mm while straight in poloidal direction, 3) coolant channels oriented in poloidal direction in the first wall and in toroidal direction in the shield block, 4) the first wall coolant channel routing to avoid the interference with the front access holes, 5) coolant channels drilled through the forged SS316LN-IG shield block, and 6) four front access holes of 30 mm in diameter penetrated through the first wall and the shield block. For the joining method, especially for the first wall/side wall parts and the shield block, the solid HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) process was applied. It is difficult to apply conventional joining methods such as field welding, brazing, explosion bonding and mechanical one-axial diffusion bonding to a wide area bonding because sufficient mechanical strengths can not be obtained and excessive deformations occurs. In order to solve these fabrication issues, HIP bonding was applied. The first wall stainless steel (SS) coolant tubes of 10 mm in inner diameter and l mm in thickness were sandwiched by semi-circular grooved DSCu plates at the first wall and the front region of the side wall, and by semi-circular grooved SS plates at the back region of the side wall. After assembling of these first wall/side wall parts with the shield block, they were simultaneously bonded by single step HIP in order to

  9. Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Bannasch

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.

  10. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: Absorption Versus Transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Doutres, Olivier; 10.1121/1.3458845

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound ...

  11. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  12. Normal Operation (NO) of APT Blanket System and its Components Based on Initial Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report is one of a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) for the APT.

  13. Facilities, testing program and modeling needs for studying liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in fusion blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bühler, L., E-mail: leo.buehler@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mistrangelo, C.; Konys, J. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bhattacharyay, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Huang, Q. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology (INEST), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) (China); Obukhov, D. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (NIIEFA) (Russian Federation); Smolentsev, S. [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) (United States); Utili, M. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, Camugnano 40032 (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    Since many years, liquid metal flows for applications in fusion blankets have been investigated worldwide. A review is given about modeling requirements and existing experimental facilities for investigations of liquid metal related issues in blankets with the focus on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Most of the performed theoretical and experimental works were dedicated to fundamental aspects of MHD flows under very strong magnetic fields as they may occur in generic elements of fusion blankets like pipes, ducts, bends, expansions and contractions. Those experiments are required to progressively validate numerical tools with the purpose of obtaining codes capable to predict MHD flows at fusion relevant parameters in complex blanket geometries, taking into account electrical and thermal coupling between fluid and structural materials. Scaled mock-up experiments support the theoretical activities and help deriving engineering correlations for cases which cannot be calculated with required accuracy up to now.

  14. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.

    2016-08-01

    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  15. Climate-driven expansion of blanket bogs in Britain during the Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gallego-Sala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blanket bog occupies approximately 6 % of the area of the UK today. The Holocene expansion of this hyperoceanic biome has previously been explained as a consequence of Neolithic forest clearance. However, the present distribution of blanket bog in Great Britain can be predicted accurately with a simple model (PeatStash based on summer temperature and moisture index thresholds, and the same model correctly predicts the highly disjunct distribution of blanket bog worldwide. This finding suggests that climate, rather than land-use history, controls blanket-bog distribution in the UK and everywhere else. We set out to test this hypothesis for blanket bogs in the UK using bioclimate envelope modelling compared with a database of peat initiation age estimates. We used both pollen-based reconstructions and climate model simulations of climate changes between the mid-Holocene (6000 yr BP, 6 ka and modern climate to drive PeatStash and predict areas of blanket bog. We compiled data on the timing of blanket-bog initiation, based on 228 age determinations at sites where peat directly overlies mineral soil. The model predicts large areas of northern Britain would have had blanket bog by 6000 yr BP, and the area suitable for peat growth extended to the south after this time. A similar pattern is shown by the basal peat ages and new blanket bog appeared over a larger area during the late Holocene, the greatest expansion being in Ireland, Wales and southwest England, as the model predicts. The expansion was driven by a summer cooling of about 2 °C, shown by both pollen-based reconstructions and climate models. The data show early Holocene (pre-Neolithic blanket-bog initiation at over half of the sites in the core areas of Scotland, and northern England. The temporal patterns and concurrence of the bioclimate model predictions and initiation data suggest that climate change provides a parsimonious explanation for the early Holocene distribution and later

  16. Optimizing breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, P J; Gröhn, Y T; Allore, H G

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reproductive performance on profitability and optimal breeding decisions for Finnish dairy herds. We used a dynamic programming model to optimize dairy cow insemination and replacement decisions. This optimization model maximizes the expected net revenues from a given cow and her replacements over a decision horizon. Input values and prices reflecting the situation in 1998 in Finland were used in the study. Reproductive performance was reflected in the model by overall pregnancy rate, which was a function of heat detection and conception rate. Seasonality was included in conception rate. The base run had a pregnancy rate of 0.49 (both heat detection and conception rate of 0.7). Different scenarios were modeled by changing levels of conception rate, heat detection, and seasonality in fertility. Reproductive performance had a considerable impact on profitability of a herd; good heat detection and conception rates provided an opportunity for management control. When heat detection rate decreased from 0.7 to 0.5, and everything else was held constant, net revenues decreased approximately 2.6%. If the conception rate also decreased to 0.5 (resulting in a pregnancy rate of 0.25), net revenues were approximately 5% lower than with a pregnancy rate of 0.49. With lower fertility, replacement percentage was higher and the financial losses were mainly from higher replacement costs. Under Finnish conditions, it is not optimal to start breeding cows calving in spring and early summer immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Instead, it is preferable to allow the calving interval to lengthen for these cows so that their next calving is in the fall. However, cows calving in the fall should be bred immediately after the voluntary waiting period. Across all scenarios, optimal solutions predicted most calvings should occur in fall and the most profitable time to bring a replacement heifer into a herd was in the fall. It

  17. The State of the Art Report on the Development and Manufacturing Technology of Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Jeong, Y. H.; Park, S. Y.; Lee, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Baek, J. H.; Park, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Kim, K. H

    2006-07-15

    The main objective of the present R and D on breeder blanket is the development of test blanket modules (TBMs) to be installed and tested in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In the program of the blanket development, a blanket module test in the ITER is scheduled from the beginning of the ITER operation, and the performance test of TBM in ITER is the most important milestone for the development of the DEMO blanket. The fabrication of TBMs has been required to test the basic performance of the DEMO blanket, i.e., tritium production/recovery, high-grade heat generation and radiation shielding. Therefore, the integration of the TBM systems into ITER has been investigated with the aim to check the safety, reliability and compatibility under nuclear fusion state. For this reason, in the Test Blanket Working Group (TBWG) as an activity of the International Energy Association (IEA), a variety of ITER TBMs have been proposed and investigated by each party: helium-cooled ceramic (WSG-1), helium-cooled LiPb (WSG-2), water-cooled ceramic (WSG-3), self-cooled lithium (WSG-4) and self-cooled molten salt (WSG-5) blanket systems. Because we are still deficient in investigation of TBM development, the need of development became pressing. In this report, for the development of TBM sub-module and mock-up, it is necessary to analyze and examine the state of the art on the development of manufacturing technology of TBM in other countries. And we will be applied as basic data to establish a manufacturing technology.

  18. Wash resistance and repellent properties of Africa University mosquito blankets against mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lukwa; A. Makuwaza; T. Chiwade; Mutambu, S L; M. Zimba; P. Munosiyei

    2013-01-01

    The effect of permethrin-treated Africa University (AU) mosquito blankets on susceptible female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes was studied under laboratory conditions at Africa University Campus in Mutare, Zimbabwe. Wash resistance (ability to retain an effective dose that kills ≥80% of mosquitoes after a number of washes) and repellence (ability to prevent ≥80% of mosquito bites) properties were studied. The AU blankets were wash resistant when 100% mortality was recorded up t...

  19. Next generation breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabaschi, Delfina; Tondelli, Alessandro; Desiderio, Francesca; Volante, Andrea; Vaccino, Patrizia; Valè, Giampiero; Cattivelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The genomic revolution of the past decade has greatly improved our understanding of the genetic make-up of living organisms. The sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Re-sequencing allows the identification of an unlimited number of markers as well as the analysis of germplasm allelic diversity based on allele mining approaches. High throughput marker technologies coupled with advanced phenotyping platforms provide new opportunities for discovering marker-trait associations which can sustain genomic-assisted breeding. The availability of genome sequencing information is enabling genome editing (site-specific mutagenesis), to obtain gene sequences desired by breeders. This review illustrates how next generation sequencing-derived information can be used to tailor genomic tools for different breeders' needs to revolutionize crop improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of the heterogeneous (HG) blankets for controlling the base structure vibration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ashwini; Fuller, C. R.; Carneal, James

    2005-09-01

    This work presents an extensive analysis of the properties of the heterogeneous blankets (HGs) and their effectiveness in controlling the vibration of the base structures. The HG blankets act as a distributed vibration absorbers consisting of mass inhomogeneities inside a layer of porous media (acoustic foam). To asses the effectiveness of these HG blankets in controlling the vibration of the base structure (plate), detailed finite element (FE) models of the foam, the HG blanket, and the plate have been developed. The foam has been dicretized using the eight node hexahedral elements. The HG blanket model consists of the foam model with point masses attached to the nodes of the elements. The structural (plate) domain is discretized using four node rectangular plate elements. Each of the FE models has been individually validated by comparing the numerical results with their respective analytical and experimental results. The structural and the HG blanket FE models were then combined into a larger FE model comprised of a base plate with the HG treatment on its surface. The results from this numerical model have shown that there is a significant reduction in the vibration levels of the base plate due to the HG treatment on it.

  1. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  2. Prospects and problems using vanadium alloys as a structural material of the first wall and blanket of fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votinov, S.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Solonin, M.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kazennov, Yu.I. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Kondratjev, V.P. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Nikulin, A.D. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Tebus, V.N. [RSRC, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.A. Bochvar Inst. of Inorg. Mater.; Adamov, E.O. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bougaenko, S.E. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strebkov, Yu.S. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorenkov, A.V. [RDIPE, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V.B. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Kazakov, V.A. [Nauchno-Issledovatel`skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Evtikhin, V.A. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I.E. [SE ``Krasnaya Zvezda``, Moscow (Russian Federation); Trojanov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Rusanov, A.E. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Birgevoj, G.A. [SSC- IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Vanadium-based alloys are most promising as low activation structural materials for DEMO. It was previously established that high priority is to be given to V-alloys of the V-Ti-Cr system as structural materials of a tritium breeding blanket and the first wall of a fusion reactor. However, there is some uncertainty in selecting a specific element ratio between the alloy components in this system. This is primarily explained by the fact that the properties of V-alloys are dictated not only by the ratio between the main alloying elements (here Ti and Cr), but also by impurities, both metallic and oxygen interstitials. Based on a number of papers today one can say that V-Ti-Cr alloys with insignificant variations in the contents of the main constituents within 5-10 mass% Ti and 4-6 mass% Cr must be taken as a base for subsequent optimization of chemical composition and thermomechanical working. However, the database is obviously insufficient to assess the ecological acceptability (activation), physical and mechanical properties, corrosion and irradiation resistance and, particularly, the commercial production of alloys. Therefore, there is a need for comprehensive studies of promising V-alloys, namely V-4Ti-4Cr and V-10Ti-5Cr. (orig.).

  3. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  4. Materials development for ITER shielding and test blanket in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.M., E-mail: Chenjm@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wu, J.H.; Liu, X.; Wang, P.H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Z.H.; Li, Z.N. [Ningxia Orient Non-ferrous Metals Group Co. Ltd., P.O. Box 105, Shizuishan (China); Wang, X.S.; Zhang, P.C. [China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-71, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhang, N.M.; Fu, H.Y.; Liu, D.H. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2011-10-01

    China is a member of the ITER program and is developing her own materials for its shielding and test blanket modules. The materials include vacuum-hot-pressing (VHP) Be, CuCrZr alloy, 316L(N) and China low activation ferritic/martensitic (CLF-1) steels. Joining technologies including Be/Cu hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and electron beam (EB) weldability of 316L(N) were investigated. Chinese VHP-Be showed good properties, with BeO content and ductility that satisfy the ITER requirements. Be/Cu mock-ups were fabricated for Be qualification tests at simulated ITER vertical displacement event (VDE) and heat flux cycling conditions. Fine microstructure and good mechanical strength of the CuCrZr alloy were achieved by a pre-forging treatment, while the weldability of 316L(N) by EB was demonstrated for welding depths varying from 5 to 80 mm. Fine microstructure, high strength, and good ductility were achieved in CLF-1 steel by an optimized normalizing, tempering and aging procedure.

  5. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston [Idaho National Laboratory; Merrill, Brad Johnson [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  6. Detailed 3-D nuclear analysis of ITER blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, T.D., E-mail: tdbohm@wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Sawan, M.E.; Marriott, E.P.; Wilson, P.P.H. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ulrickson, M.; Bullock, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-15

    In ITER, the blanket modules (BM) are arranged around the plasma to provide thermal and nuclear shielding for the vacuum vessel (VV), magnets, and other components. As a part of the BM design process, nuclear analysis is required to determine the level of nuclear heating, helium production, and radiation damage in the BM. Additionally, nuclear heating in the VV is also important for assessing the BM design. We used the CAD based DAG-MCNP5 transport code to analyze detailed models inserted into a 40-degree partially homogenized ITER global model. The regions analyzed include BM01, the neutral beam injection (NB) region, and the upper port region. For BM01, the results show that He production meets the limit necessary for re-welding, and the VV heating behind BM01 is acceptable. For the NBI region, the VV nuclear heating behind the NB region exceeds the design limit by a factor of two. For the upper port region, the nuclear heating of the VV exceeds the design limit by up to 20%. The results presented in this work are being used to modify the BM design in the cases where limits are exceeded.

  7. Status of the EU test blanket systems safety studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panayotov, Dobromir, E-mail: dobromir.panayotov@f4e.europa.eu; Poitevin, Yves; Ricapito, Italo; Zmitko, Milan

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • TBS safety demonstration files. • Safety functions and related design features – detailed TBS components classifications. • Nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection. • TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization. • Selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios and accidents analyses. - Abstract: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy (‘Fusion for Energy’ – F4E) provides the European contributions to the ITER international fusion energy research project. Among others it includes also the development, design, technological demonstration and implementation of the European test blanket systems (TBS) in ITER. Currently two EU TBS designs are in the phase of conceptual design – helium-cooled lithium-lead (HCLL) and helium-cooled pebble-bed (HCPB). Safety demonstration is an important part of the work devoted to the achievement of the next key project milestone the conceptual design review. The paper reveals the details of the work on EU TBS safety performed in the last couple of years: update of the TBS safety demonstration files; safety functions and related design features; detailed TBS components classifications; nuclear analyses, radiation shielding and protection; TBS radiological waste management strategy and categorization; selection and definition of reference accidents scenarios, and accidents analyses. Finally the authors share the information on on-going and planned future EU TBS safety activities.

  8. The development of ferritic steels for DEMO blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Advanced Energy; Hishinuma, A.; Shiba, K. [Tokai Establishment, JAERI, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Department of Materials Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113 (Japan); Sagara, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The development of low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels is a key to the achievement of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally attractive and economically competitive energy source. The Japanese and the European Fusion Materials programs have put low-activation ferritic and martensitic steels R and D at the highest priority for a demonstration reactor (DEMO) and the beyond. An international collaborative test program on low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion is in progress as an activity of the International Energy Agency (IEA) fusion materials working group to verify the feasibility of using ferritic/martensitic steels for fusion by an extensive test program covering the most relevant technical issues for the qualification of a material for a nuclear application. The development of a comprehensive data base on the representative industrially processed reduced-activation steels of type 8-9Cr-2WVTa is underway for providing designers a preliminary set of material data for the mechanical design of components, e.g. for DEMO relevant blanket modules. The current design status of FFHR and SSTR utilizing low-activation ferritic steels is reviewed and future prospects are defined. (orig.) 12 refs.

  9. Nuclear analysis of ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, Rosaria, E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Kim, Byoung Yoon; Barabash, Vladimir; Giancarli, Luciano; Levesy, Bruno; Loughlin, Michael; Merola, Mario [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Fusion Technical Unit, Nuclear Technologies Laboratory, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pascal, Romain [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Petrizzi, Luigino [European Commission, DG Research & Innovation G5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Polunovsky, Eduard; Van Der Laan, Jaap G. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D nuclear analysis of the ITER TBM Port Plug (PP). • Calculations of neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, damage and He-production in TBM PP components. • Shutdown dose rate assessment with Advanced D1S method considering different configurations. • Potential design improvements to reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace. - Abstract: Nuclear analyses have been performed for the ITER Test Blanket Module Port Plug (TBM PP) using the MCNP-5 Monte Carlo Code. A detailed 3D model of the TBM Port Plug with dummy TBM has been integrated into the ITER MCNP model (B-lite v.3). Neutron fluxes, nuclear heating, helium production and neutron damage have been calculated in all the TBM PP components. Global shutdown dose rate calculations have also been performed with Advanced D1S method for different configurations of the TBM PP system. This paper presents the results of these analyses and discusses potential design improvements aiming to further reduce the shutdown dose rate in the port interspace.

  10. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    . Concentrated waste (usually sewage sludge) can be added continuously or periodically (semi-batch operation), where it is mixed with the contents of the reactor. Theoretically, the conventional digester is operated as a once-through, completely mixed, reactor. In this particular mode of operation the hydraulic retention time (HRT) is equal to the solids retention time (SRT). Basically, the required process efficiency is related to the sludge retention time (SRT), and hence longer SRT provided, results in satisfactory population (by reproduction) for further waste stabilization. By reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the conventional mode reactor, the quantity of biological solids within the reactor is also decreased as the solids escape with the effluent. The limiting HRT is reached when the bacteria are removed from the reactor faster than they can grow. Methanogenic bacteria are slow growers and are considered the rate-limiting component in the anaerobic digestion process. The first anaerobic process developed, which separated the SRT from the HRT was the anaerobic contact process. In 1963, Young and McCarty (1968) began work, which eventually led to the development of the anaerobic upflow filter (AF) process. The anaerobic filter represented a significant advance in anaerobic waste treatment, since the filter can trap and maintain a high concentration of biological solids. By trapping these solids, long SRT's could be obtained at large waste flows, necessary to anaerobically treat low strength wastes at nominal temperatures economically. Another anaerobic process which relies on the development of biomass on the surfaces of a media is an expanded bed upflow reactor. The primary concept of the process consists of passing wastewater up through a bed of inert sand sized particles at sufficient velocities to fluidize and partially expand the sand bed. One of the more interesting new processes is the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process (UASB), which was developed

  11. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  12. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  13. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  14. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  15. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  16. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  17. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  18. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  19. Development of the Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoeda, Mikio, E-mail: enoeda.mikio@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Konno, Chikara; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Yoshikawa, Akira; Tsuru, Daigo; Akiba, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 311-0193 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The development of a Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) Test Blanket Module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and evaluation toward DEMO blanket, the module fabrication technology development by a candidate structural material, reduced activation martensitic/ferritic steel, F82H, is one of the most critical items from the viewpoint of realization of TBM testing in ITER. In Japan, fabrication of a real scale first wall, side walls, a breeder pebble bed box and assembling of the first wall and side walls have succeeded. Recently, the real scale partial mockup of the back wall was fabricated. The fabrication procedure of the back wall, whose thickness is up to 90 mm, was confirmed toward the fabrication of the real scale back wall by F82H. Important key technologies are almost clarified for the fabrication of the real scale TBM module mockup. From the view point of testing and evaluation, development of the technology of the blanket tritium recovery, development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles and the development of the blanket neutronics measurement technology are also performed. Also, tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) facility has been started as the verification test of tritium production performance. This paper overviews the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB TBM in Japan.

  20. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  1. Development of Joining Technologies for the ITER Blanket First Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyun Gil; Park, Sang Yoon; Park, Jeong Yong; Jeong, Yong Hwan; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The design of the ITER blanket first wall includes the Beryllium amour tiles joined to CuCrZr heat sink with stainless steel cooling tubes. For the ITER application, the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint was proposed as a first wall material. The joining of Be/CuCrZr as well as CuCrZr/SS was generally carried out by using a hot isostatic pressing (CuC) in many countries. The joining strength for Be/CuCrZr is relatively lower than that for CuCrZr/SS, since we usually forms surface oxides (BeO) and brittle a metallics with Cu. Therefore, the joining technology for the Be/CuCrZr joint has been investigated. Be is apt to adsorb oxygen in an air atmosphere, so we should be etched to eliminate the surface pre-oxide using a chemical solution and Ar ions in a vacuum chamber. Then we is coated with a first was to prevent further oxidation. The kinds of a first we are chosen to be able to enhance the joining strength as inhibiting excessive be diffusion. The performance of the Be/CuCrZr/SS joint used for the ITER first wall is primarily dependent on the joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr interface. The Cr/Cu and Ti/Cr/Cu interlayers enabled the successful joining of be tile to CuCrZr plate. Moreover, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) increased joining strength of the Be/CuCrZr joint mock-ups. IBAD induced the increased packing of depositing atoms, which resulted in denser and more adhesive interlayers. The interlayers formed by IBAD process revealed about 40% improved resistance to the scratch test. It is suggested that the improved adhesion of coating interlayers enabled tight joining of Be and CuCrZr blocks. As compared to without IBAD coating, the shear strength as well as the 4-point bend strength were increased more than 20% depending on interlayer types and coating conditions

  2. Tritium recovery in Pb17Li-water cooled blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malara, C. [Safety Technology Inst., Ispra (Italy); Casini, G. [Systems Engineering & Information Inst., Ispra (Italy); Viola, A. [Univ. of Cagliari (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The question of tritium recovery in Pb17Li, water cooled blankets is under investigation since several years at JRC Ispra. The method which has been more extensively analyzed is that of slowly circulating the breeder out from the blanket units and of extracting the tritium from it outside the plasma vacuum vessel by helium gas purging in a suited process apparatus. The design features of the process systems are related to: (1) the very low tritium solubility in Pb17Li which implies high permeation rates through the containment structures; (2) the need of keeping as low as possible the tritium concentration in the cooling water both for safety and economical reasons. A computerized model of the tritium behavior in the blanket units and in the extraction system has been developed.

  3. Experimental investigations of flow distribution in coolant system of Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilić, M.; Schlindwein, G., E-mail: georg.schlindwein@kit.edu; Meyder, R.; Kuhn, T.; Albrecht, O.; Zinn, K.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental investigations of flow distribution in HCPB TBM are presented. • Flow rates in channels close to the first wall are lower than nominal ones. • Flow distribution in central chambers of manifold 2 is close to the nominal one. • Flow distribution in the whole manifold 3 agrees well with the nominal one. - Abstract: This paper deals with investigations of flow distribution in the coolant system of the Helium-Cooled-Pebble-Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB TBM) for ITER. The investigations have been performed by manufacturing and testing of an experimental facility named GRICAMAN. The facility involves the upper poloidal half of HCPB TBM bounded at outlets of the first wall channels, at outlet of by-pass pipe and at outlets of cooling channels in breeding units. In this way, the focus is placed on the flow distribution in two mid manifolds of the 4-manifold system: (i) manifold 2 to which outlets of the first wall channels and inlet of by-pass pipe are attached and (ii) manifold 3 which supplies channels in breeding units with helium coolant. These two manifolds are connected with cooling channels in vertical/horizontal grids and caps. The experimental facility has been built keeping the internal structure of manifold 2 and manifold 3 exactly as designed in HCPB TBM. The cooling channels in stiffening grids, caps and breeding units are substituted by so-called equivalent channels which provide the same hydraulic resistance and inlet/outlet conditions, but have significantly simpler geometry than the real channels. Using the conditions of flow similarity, the air pressurized at 0.3 MPa and at ambient temperature has been used as working fluid instead of HCPB TBM helium coolant at 8 MPa and an average temperature of 370 °C. The flow distribution has been determined by flow rate measurements at each of 28 equivalent channels, while the pressure distribution has been obtained measuring differential pressure at more than 250 positions. The

  4. Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.

  5. Some critical considerations on rice high-yielding breeding in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Lihong

    2007-01-01

    Views and comments concerning rice highyielding breeding in China had been touched upon:(1) historical development of rice breeding in China and its prominent contributions recounted;current challenges evolved from rapid population increase,erosion of key natural resources and socioeconomic changes envisaged;(2) concept of extra or super high-yielding rice breeding and related ideas embraced nowadays in the main rice-producing countries assessed;the conception of so-called superrice in China could have been misled and misunderstood,and no substantial genetical differences could be affirmed yet between superrice and modern high-yielding rice;(3) two strategical approaches of rice production and breeding in China would have been persistent in the construction of most favorable-to-growth rice fields to plant rice varieties with high-yielding potentiality as well as renovation and rejuvenation of less favorable rice fields to plant most adaptableto-ecoenvironment varieties with promising productivity;in addition,breeding for rice varieties compatible with the specific rice regions ridden by adverse ecoenvironments;(4) overview of the relationship between the development of genetical researches and the perspective of rice breeding;integration of the classical genetical principles and breeding methods and techniques wherefrom with molecular biotechniques underscored.Finally,appeal to the breeders to adhere to due attentions to the development of genetics and promote pragmatism and traditional ethic solemnly so as to live up to implementing the national rice breeding mandates.

  6. Neutronics optimization study for D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, T.; Kanda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1985-12-01

    Position-dependent optimization calculations have been carried out on a D-D fusion reactor blanket/shield to maximize the energy gain in the blanket and to minimize the atomic displacement rate of the copper stabilizer in the superconducting magnet. The results obtained by using the optimization code SWAN indicate the advantage of D/sub 2/O coolant over H/sub 2/O coolant with respect to increasing the energy gain, and the difference in the optimal shield distributions between D-T and D-D neutron sources. The possibility of improving both the energy gain and radiation shielding characteristics is also discussed.

  7. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  8. 75 FR 62510 - Chevron U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... prohibited by U.S. law or policy. The application was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as... U.S.A. Inc.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of..., 2010, by Chevron U.S.A. Inc. (Chevron), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural...

  9. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  10. APT Blanket Detailed Bin Model Based on Initial Plate-Type Design -3D FLOWTRAN-TF Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    This report provides background information for a series of reports documenting accident scenario simulations for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) blanket heat removal systems. The simulations were performed in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the APT. This report gives a brief description of the FLOWTRAN-TF code which was used for detailed blanket bin modeling.

  11. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY... November 30, 2010, by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA), requesting blanket authorization to export... and Gas Global Security and Supply, Office of Fossil Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 3E-042, 1000...

  12. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cerolini

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described; the majority (61% were classified as extinct and only 8.9% as still widely spread. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza to multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation programme. Fourteen females and eight males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organised into eight families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and were fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every two weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values from 94% to 87% were recorded in the first three settings and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% owing to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between days 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatching. The highest hatchability values were recorded in settings 1 and 2, 69% and 60% respectively, and a large decrease was found in the subsequent settings. Marked variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results represent the basic know ledge of reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  13. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  14. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  15. CASSAVA BREEDING I: THE VALUE OF BREEDING VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ceballos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials - UYT. This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g. high number of their progenies reaching the UYT, suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05. Breeding value (e.g. average SIN at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g. S1 or S2 genotypes would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0 parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele

  16. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  17. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles using PVA-boric acid reaction for solid breeding materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yi-Hyun; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young

    2014-12-01

    Lithium metatitanate (Li2TiO3) is a candidate breeding material of the Helium Cooled Ceramic Reflector (HCCR) Test Blanket Module (TBM). The breeding material is used in pebble-bed form to reduce the uncertainty of the interface thermal conductance. In this study, Li2TiO3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by the slurry droplet wetting method using the cross-linking reaction between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and boric acid. The effects of fabrication parameters on the shaping of Li2TiO3 green body were investigated. In addition, the basic characteristics of the sintered pebble were also evaluated. The shape of Li2TiO3 green bodies was affected by slurry viscosity, PVA content and boric acid content. The grain size and average crush load of sintered Li2TiO3 pebble were controlled by the sintering time. The boron was completely removed during the final sintering process.

  18. Distribution of bog and heath in a Newfoundland blanket bog complex: topographic limits on the hydrological processes governing blanket bog development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Graniero

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This research quantified the role of topography and hydrological processes within and, hence, the development of, blanket bogs. Topographic characteristics were derived from digital elevation models (DEMs developed for the surface and underlying substrate at three blanket bog sites on the southeastern lobe of the Avalon Peninsula, Newfoundland. A multinomial logit (MNL model of the probability of bog occurrence was constructed in terms of relevant topographic characteristics. The resulting model was then used to investigate the probabilistic boundary conditions of bog occurrence within the landscape. Under average curvatures for the sites studied, substrate slopes up to 0.065 favoured blanket bog development. However, steeper slopes could, theoretically, be occupied by blanked bog where water is concentrated by convergent curvatures or large contributing areas. Near community boundaries, bog and heath communities both occupied similar topographic conditions. Since these boundary locations are capable of supporting the hydrological conditions necessary for bog development, the heath is likely to be encroached upon by bog.

  19. Issues and perspectives in dairy sheep breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierlorenzo Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review consists of two parts. In the first part, the authors briefly describe the state of the art of breedingprogrammes for Italian dairy sheep; then they report new models for genetic evaluation and consider the problem ofgenotype x environment interaction and the impact of farming systems on the genetic merit of animals. In the secondpart new breeding goals regarding the evolution of milk quality concept and the increasing importance of functional traitsare reported. Regarding milk quality, the authors especially focus on the traits related to cheese-making ability and onthe nutraceutical aspects of milk. Among functional traits, resistance to diseases (mastitis and Scrapie has been highlightedfor its great importance in livestock species. Finally, the perspectives of marker-assisted selection have also beenreported.

  20. APT Blanket System Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) Based on Initial Conceptual Design - Case 1: External HR Break Near Inlet Header

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    1998-10-07

    The APT blanket system has about 57 MW of thermal energy deposited within the blanket region under normal operating conditions from the release of neutrons and the interaction of the High energy particles with the blanket materials. This corresponds to about 48 percent of total thermal energy deposited in the APT target/blanket system. The deposited thermal energy under normal operation conditions is an important input parameter used in the thermal-hydraulic design and accident analysis.

  1. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Picard, Willy

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  2. Modeling Virtual Organization Architecture with the Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Paszkiewicz, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    While Enterprise Architecture Modeling (EAM) methodologies become more and more popular, an EAM methodology tailored to the needs of virtual organizations (VO) is still to be developed. Among the most popular EAM methodologies, TOGAF has been chosen as the basis for a new EAM methodology taking into account characteristics of VOs presented in this paper. In this new methodology, referred as Virtual Organization Breeding Methodology (VOBM), concepts developed within the ECOLEAD project, e.g. the concept of Virtual Breeding Environment (VBE) or the VO creation schema, serve as fundamental elements for development of VOBM. VOBM is a generic methodology that should be adapted to a given VBE. VOBM defines the structure of VBE and VO architectures in a service-oriented environment, as well as an architecture development method for virtual organizations (ADM4VO). Finally, a preliminary set of tools and methods for VOBM is given in this paper.

  3. Diet of canvasbacks during breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Serie, J.R.; Noyes, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We examined diets of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) breeding in southwestern Manitoba during 1977-81. Percent volume of animal foods consumed did not differ between males and females nor among prenesting, rapid follicle growth, laying, incubation, and renesting periods in females (mean = 50.1%). Tubers and shoots of fennelleaf pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus) and midge larvae (Chironomidae) were the predominant foods, comprising on average 45% and 23% of the diet volume, respectively. Continued importance of plant foods to canvasbacks throughout reproduction contrasts with the mostly invertebrate diets of other prairie-breeding ducks, and does not fit current theories of nutritional ecology of breeding anatids (i.e., females meet the protein requirements of reproduction by consuming a high proportion of animal foods).

  4. A Phased Development of Breed-and-Burn Reactors for Enhanced Nuclear Energy Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Greenspan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several options for designing fast reactors to operate in the Breed-and-Burn (B&B mode are compared and a strategy is outlined for early introduction of B&B reactors followed by a gradual increase in the fuel utilization of such reactors. In the first phase the fast reactor core will consist of a subcritical B&B blanket driven by a relatively small critical seed. As the required discharge burnup/radiation-damage to both driver and blanket fuel had already been proven, and as the depleted uranium fueled B&B blanket could generate close to 2/3 of the core power and will have very low fuel cycle cost, the deployment of such fast reactors could start in the near future. The second phase consists of deploying self-sustaining stationary wave B&B reactors. It will require development of fuel technology that could withstand peak burnups of ~30% and peak radiation damage to the cladding of ~550 dpa. The third phase requires development of a fuel reconditioning technology that will enable using the fuel up to an average burnup of ~50%—the upper bound permitted by neutron balance considerations when most of the fission products are not separated from the fuel. The increase in the uranium ore utilization relative to that provided by contemporary power reactors is estimated to be 20, 40 and 100 folds for, respectively, phase 1, 2 and 3. The energy value of the depleted uranium stockpiles (“waste” accumulated in the US is equivalent to, when used in the B&B reactors, up to 20 centuries of the total 2010 USA supply of electricity. Therefore, a successful development of B&B reactors could provide a great measure of energy sustainability and cost stability.

  5. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  6. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  7. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  8. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  9. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    The purpose of this article is to review the development of breeding objectives in beef cattle ... selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. ... Unfortunately, the evolution from a performance .... The beef cattle industry has a history of chasing and promoting maximum values (e.g. maximum weight).

  10. Breed base representation in dairy animals of 5 breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance of DNA from different dairy breeds can be determined by genotyping, just as individual ancestors such as parents, grandparents, or even great grandparents can be identified correctly in a high percentage of the cases by genotyping even if not reported or reported incorrectly in pedigrees...

  11. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  12. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  13. Stochastic modeling to determine the economic effects of blanket, selective, and no dry cow therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In many countries, blanket dry cow therapy (DCT) is the standard way to dry off cows. Because of concerns about antibiotic resistance, selective DCT is proposed as an alternative. The economic consequences of different types of DCT were studied previously, but variation between input traits and diff

  14. 76 FR 23808 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Authorization Take notice that on April 7, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG) filed a prior notice... Station located in Sweetwater County, Wyoming, under CIG's blanket certificate issued in Docket No. CP83-21- 000.\\1\\ Specifically, CIG proposes to remove all above and below-ground facilities and the...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 327 - DeCA Blanket Routine Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 76-07. (h) Routine Use—Disclosure to the Office of Personnel Management. A record from a system of... Personnel Management (OPM) concerning information on pay and leave, benefits, retirement deduction, and any... Blanket Routine Uses (a) Routine Use—Law Enforcement. If a system of records maintained by a DoD...

  16. Salted lamb meat blanket of Petrolina-Pernambuco, Brazil: process and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nely de Almeida Pedrosa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Salted lamb meat blanket, originated from boning, salting, and drying of whole lamb carcass, was studied aiming at obtaining information that support the search for guarantees of origin for this typical regional product from the city of Petrolina-Pernambuco-Brazil. Data from three processing units were obtained, where it was observed the use of a traditional local technology that uses salting, an ancient preservation method; however, with a peculiar boning technique, resulting in a meat product with great potential for exploitation in the form of meat blanket. Based on the values of pH (6.22 ± 0.22, water activity (0.97 ± 0.02, and moisture (69.86 ± 2.26 lamb meat blanket is considered a perishable product, and consequently it requires the use of other preservation methods combined with salt, which along with the results of the microbiological analyses (absence of Salmonella sp, score <10 MPN/g of halophilic bacteria, total coliforms between 6.7 × 10³ and 5.2 × 10(6 FUC/g, and Staphylococcus from 8.1 × 10³ CFU/g at uncountable reinforce the need of hygienic practices to ensure product safety. These results, together with the product notoriety and the organization of the sector are important factors in achieving Geographical Indication of the Salted lamb Meat blanket of Petrolina.

  17. 75 FR 17708 - Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 30, 2010. Take notice that on March 25, 2010, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC (KMLP... directed to Norman Watson, Director, Business Development, Kinder Morgan Louisiana Pipeline LLC, 500...

  18. 75 FR 35019 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 11, 2010. Take notice that on June 3, 2009, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas..., Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC, P.O. Box 281304, Lakewood, Colorado 80228-8304, or...

  19. 75 FR 53966 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization August 27, 2010. Take notice that on August 25, 2010, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission, LLC (Kinder Morgan), 370 Van Gordon Street, Lakewood, Colorado 80228-8304...

  20. 75 FR 45111 - Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization July 26, 2010. Take notice that on July 20, 2010, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas..., Vice President, Regulatory, Kinder Morgan Interstate Gas Transmission LLC, 370 Van Gordon...

  1. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... in the federal waters offshore Louisiana. Specifically, Stingray proposes to abandon, by sale, its...

  2. 75 FR 8327 - Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Pass Pipeline LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 17, 2010. Take notice that on October 29, 2009, Golden Pass Pipeline, LLC (GPPL), filed in...

  3. 77 FR 48150 - Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Grover Compressor Station. Carolina Gas states that it would convert the three standby compressor units... Energy Regulatory Commission Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 25, Carolina Gas Transmission Corporation (Carolina Gas), 601 Old Taylor...

  4. 78 FR 51182 - Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 31, 2013, Sea Robin Pipeline Company, LLC (Sea Robin), P. O. Box 4967....205(b) and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA), and Sea...

  5. Depth of Blanket. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasmith, E. E.

    The determination of the thickness of a sludge blanket in primary and secondary clarifiers and in gravity thickness is important in making operational control decisions. Knowing the thickness and concentration will allow the operator to determine sludge volume and detention time. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant…

  6. 77 FR 53874 - The Dow Chemical Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY The Dow... application (Application), filed on July 13, 2012, by The Dow Chemical Company (Dow), requesting blanket... on a short-term or spot market basis for a two-year period commencing on October 5, 2012.\\1\\...

  7. 75 FR 33803 - Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pipe Line LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization June 8, 2010. Take notice that on June 1, 2010, Sabine Pipe Line LLC (Sabine), 4800 Fournace Place, Bellaire...-free, (866) 208-3676 or TTY, (202) 502-8659. Specifically, Sabine proposes to abandon, in place,...

  8. 76 FR 18216 - Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on March 16, 2011, Southern Natural Gas Company (Southern), Post Office Box 2563... and 157.216 of the Commission's Regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) as amended, to abandon...

  9. 75 FR 3232 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization January 8, 2010. Take notice that on December 30, 2009, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111... sections 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act for authorization...

  10. 75 FR 13535 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 12, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South... External Affairs, Northern Natural Gas Company, 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, at...

  11. Acoustic contributions of a sound absorbing blanket placed in a double panel structure: absorption versus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutres, Olivier; Atalla, Noureddine

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose a simple tool to estimate the absorption vs. transmission loss contributions of a multilayered blanket unbounded in a double panel structure and thus guide its optimization. The normal incidence airborne sound transmission loss of the double panel structure, without structure-borne connections, is written in terms of three main contributions; (i) sound transmission loss of the panels, (ii) sound transmission loss of the blanket and (iii) sound absorption due to multiple reflections inside the cavity. The method is applied to four different blankets frequently used in automotive and aeronautic applications: a non-symmetric multilayer made of a screen in sandwich between two porous layers and three symmetric porous layers having different pore geometries. It is shown that the absorption behavior of the blanket controls the acoustic behavior of the treatment at low and medium frequencies and its transmission loss at high frequencies. Acoustic treatment having poor sound absorption behavior can affect the performance of the double panel structure.

  12. Status of the EU domestic agency electromagnetic analyses of ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, P., E-mail: pietro.testoni@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Josep Plá n. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Albanese, R. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEL, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Lucca, F.; Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate, Lecco (Italy); Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, Josep Plá n. 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Rubinacci, G. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEL, Università Federico II di Napoli, Napoli 80125 (Italy); Ventre, S.; Villone, F. [Association Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DAEIMI, Università di Cassino, Cassino 03043 (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: Eddy and halo currents and corresponding Lorentz forces on the ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules have been computed. VDEs and MDs belonging to cat III, II and I, and a magnet fast discharge have been simulated. The maximum vertical force in the VV (about 120 MN downwards) is experienced in VDE-DW-SLOW cat III. For the FW panel of blanket 18 the most demanding load case is the VDE downward cat III producing a radial torque of about 110 kNm. For the FW of blanket module 10 the most demanding load case is the VDE upward exp cat III producing a poloidal torque of about 130 kNm. -- Abstract: This paper presents the results of the electromagnetic analyses of the ITER vacuum vessel and blanket modules. A wide collection of electromagnetic transients has been simulated: VDEs and MDs belonging to cat III, II and I, and a magnet fast discharge. Eddy and halo currents and corresponding Lorentz forces have been computed using 3D solid FE models implemented in ANSYS and CARIDDI. The plasma equilibrium configurations (displacement and quench of the plasma current, toroidal flux variation due to the β drop and halo currents wetting the first wall) used as an input for the EM analyses have been supplied by the 2D axisymmetric code DINA. The paper describes in detail the methodology used for the analyses and the main results obtained.

  13. 18 CFR 284.284 - Blanket certificates for unbundled sales services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... granted a blanket certificate of public convenience and necessity pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas... the sales customer to arrange for any pipeline-provided service necessary to deliver gas to the customer. (e) Small customer cost-based rate. A pipeline that provided bundled sales service to a...

  14. Non-LTE Line Blanketing in Stars With Extended Outflowing Atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, D. J.; Miller, D. L.

    1995-05-01

    With continuing advances in radiative transfer techniques, increases in computing power, and the availability of at least some of the necessary atomic data, it is now possible to consider the computation of detailed non-LTE model atmospheres in which the full effects of non-LTE line blanketing are taken into account. We discuss our own implementation of non-LTE line blanketing in a spherical non-LTE code developed for the investigation of objects with extended outflows. A partial linearization technique is used to simultaneously solve the radiative transfer equation in conjunction with the equations of statistical equilibrium. Convergence properties are similar to that obtained with an ``Optimal'' Approximate-Lambda Operator. CNO line blanketing has been incorporated without major difficulty, while Fe blanketing is currently being installed. Comparisons of model spectra with recent HST observations of an LMC WC star will be presented. When completed we anticipate the code will be applicable to the study of a wide range of phenomena exhibiting outflows including Luminous-Blue variables, Supernovae, Wold-Rayet stars and Novae. Partial support for this work was provided by NASA through grant Nos GO-5460.01-93A and GO-4550.01-92A from the Space Science Institute which is operated under the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support from NASA award NAGW-3828 is also gratefully acknowledged.

  15. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; P. de Vries,; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C.M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized m

  16. 77 FR 38622 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on June 4, 2012, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  17. 78 FR 68835 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on October 31, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  18. 78 FR 25264 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 16, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  19. 78 FR 53746 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on August 13, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, Owensboro,...

  20. 77 FR 14517 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 21, 2012 Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 State Highway 56,...

  1. 78 FR 13663 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on February 11, 2013, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700 Highway 56, P.O. Box...

  2. 75 FR 8053 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization February 16, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star), 4700...

  3. 77 FR 25711 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... to export * * *'' \\9\\ \\6\\ Cheniere Marketing, LLC, DOE/FE Order No 2795 at 11. \\7\\ See Dominion Cove... application (Application), filed on March 30, 2012, by Cheniere Marketing, LLC (CMI), requesting...

  4. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  5. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  6. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation

  7. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  8. FEPI-MB: identifying SNPs-disease association using a Markov Blanket-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions among genetic factors related to diseases are called epistasis. With the availability of genotyped data from genome-wide association studies, it is now possible to computationally unravel epistasis related to the susceptibility to common complex human diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. However, the difficulties of detecting epistatic interaction arose from the large number of genetic factors and the enormous size of possible combinations of genetic factors. Most computational methods to detect epistatic interactions are predictor-based methods and can not find true causal factor elements. Moreover, they are both time-consuming and sample-consuming. Results We propose a new and fast Markov Blanket-based method, FEPI-MB (Fast EPistatic Interactions detection using Markov Blanket, for epistatic interactions detection. The Markov Blanket is a minimal set of variables that can completely shield the target variable from all other variables. Learning of Markov blankets can be used to detect epistatic interactions by a heuristic search for a minimal set of SNPs, which may cause the disease. Experimental results on both simulated data sets and a real data set demonstrate that FEPI-MB significantly outperforms other existing methods and is capable of finding SNPs that have a strong association with common diseases. Conclusions FEPI-MB algorithm outperforms other computational methods for detection of epistatic interactions in terms of both the power and sample-efficiency. Moreover, compared to other Markov Blanket learning methods, FEPI-MB is more time-efficient and achieves a better performance.

  9. Equalization characteristics of an upflow sludge blanket-aerated biofilter (USB-AF) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H B; Park, S M; Park, J K; Lee, S H

    2005-01-01

    Equalization characteristics of the upflow sludge blanket-aerated bio-filter (USB-AF) were investigated with the fluctuated raw domestic sewage. Recycle of nitrified effluent from AF to USB triggered the equalization characteristics of the sludge blanket on both soluble and particulate organic matter. Increment of EPS in sludge blanket by nitrate recycle was detected and removal of turbidity and particulates increased at higher recycle ratios by bio-flocculation. Increased TCOD removal in the USB was due to both denitrification of recycled nitrate and entrapment of the particulate organic matter in sludge blanket. Capture of both soluble and particulate organic matter increased sludge blanket layer in the USB, which improved the reactor performances and reduced the organic load on the subsequent AF. Overall TCOD and SS removal efficiencies were about 98% and 96%, respectively in the USB-AF system. Turbidity in the USB effluent was about 44, 20 and 5.5 NTU, at recycle ratios of 0, 100 and 200%, respectively. Particle counts in the range 2-4 microm in the USB effluent were higher than those in influent without nitrate recycle, while particle counts in the range of 0.5-15 microm in the USB effluent decreased 70% at recycle ratio of 200%. The major constituent of EPS extracted from anaerobic sludge was protein and total EPS increased from 109.1 to 165.7 mg/g-VSS with nitrate recycle of 100%. Removal efficiency and concentration of T-N in the UBS-AF effluent was over 70% and below 16 mg/L, respectively.

  10. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  11. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with upper body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Steinmetz, N; Lorenz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2002-09-01

    Forced-air warming with upper body blankets has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with upper body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of eight complete upper body warming systems and to gain more insight into the principles of forced-air warming. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows: Qdot;=h. DeltaT. A, where Qdot;= heat flux [W], h=heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT=temperature gradient between the blanket and surface [ degrees C], and A=covered area [m2]. We tested eight different forced-air warming systems: (1) Bair Hugger and upper body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc. Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and upper body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) Thermacare (Gaymar Industries) with reusable Optisan upper body blanket (Willy Rüsch AG, Kernen, Germany); (4) WarmAir and upper body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (5) Warm-Gard and single use upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (6) Warm-Gard and reusable upper body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); (7) WarmTouch and CareDrape upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO); and (8) WarmTouch and reusable MultiCover trade mark upper body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc.) on a previously validated copper manikin of the human body. Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 11 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 11 thermocouples. The temperature gradient between the blanket and surface (DeltaT) was varied between -8 and +8 degrees C, and h was determined by linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, as similar mean skin surface temperatures have been found in volunteers. The covered area was estimated to be 0

  12. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  13. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  14. Analysing Resistance of Stereotyped Sexuality via ‘Gender Performance’ in The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Soleha binti Mohd Noor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies had shown that gender stereotyping is still evident in contemporary Malaysian English literature particularly in novels. By using the concepts of ‘gender performance’ and ‘performativity’ introduced by Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990, the current study aims to prove that there is an act of resistance among the new generations/contemporary Malaysian writers against the gender norms placed on sexuality. These writers resisted the norms by performing “gender trouble” through the construction of their characters’ gender identity. Two short stories are selected from 25 Malaysian Short Stories: Best of Silverfish New Writing 2001 – 2005 as the scope of the study to answer these questions; (a what are the stereotyped ‘gender performances’ of the characters’ sexuality in the two selected short stories?, and (b how do contemporary Malaysian writers resist stereotyped sexuality using ‘gender performance’ in their writings? The study found that the selected characters from the short story The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket, do perform “gender trouble” in resisting gender expectations on their sexuality. Thus, based on the results of this study, it is hoped that the misconceptions on gender and the conventional way of thinking about sexuality and gender in Malaysian society can be somewhat liberated.

  15. Manufacturing and characterization of porous SiC for flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereciartu, Ainhoa [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Ordas, Nerea, E-mail: nordas@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, Carmen [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Manuel de Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Morono, Alejandro; Malo, Marta; Hodgson, Eric R. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abella, Jordi [Institut Quimic de Sarria, University Ramon Llull, Via Augusta 390, 08017 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, Luis [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    SiC is the primary candidate for the flow channel inserts in dual-coolant blanket concepts. Porous SiC ceramics are attractive candidates for this non-structural application, since they can satisfy the required properties through a low cost manufacturing route, compared to SiC{sub f}/SiC. This work shows first results of the manufacturing of porous SiC ceramics prepared with different amounts of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as sintering additives. C powders were used as pore-formers by their burnout during oxidation after sintering. Comparison of microstructure, porosity, flexural strength, thermal and electrical conductivity and corrosion under Pb-15.7Li of porous SiC without and with sintering additives is presented. The addition of 2.5 wt.% of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} improves the mechanical properties, and reduces the thermal and electrical conductivity down to reasonable values. Preliminary corrosion tests under Pb-15.7 Li at 500 deg. C show that the absence of a dense coating on porous SiC leads to poor corrosion behavior.

  16. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  17. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  18. Vision of breeding for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.; Groen, A.; Roep, D.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Baars, T.

    2003-01-01

    Taking the current breeding situation as the starting point, a number of scenarios are described for each animal sector which could gradually lead to a system of breeding which is more organic both in its aims and in the chain-based approach. The naturalness of the breeding techniques is an

  19. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  20. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding

  1. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  2. A simple language to script and simulate breeding schemes: the breeding scheme language

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is difficult for plant breeders to determine an optimal breeding strategy given that the problem involves many factors, such as target trait genetic architecture and breeding resource availability. There are many possible breeding schemes for each breeding program. Although simulation study may b...

  3. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  4. A Cylindrical Shielding Design Concept for the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sunghwan; Kim, Sang Ji [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In the Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (PGSFR), a metal fueled, blanket-free, pool type SFR concept is adopted to acquire the inherent safety characteristics and high proliferation-resistance. In the pool type fast reactor, the intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), which transfer heat from the primary sodium pool to a secondary sodium loop, are placed inside of the reactor vessel. Hence, secondary sodium passing the IHXs can be radioactivated by a {sup 23}Na(n,g){sup 24}Na reaction, and radioactivated secondary sodium causes a significant dose in the Steam Generator Building (SGB). Therefore, a typical core of a pool type fast reactor is usually surrounded by a massive quantity of shields. In addition, the blanket composed of depleted uranium plays a role as superior shielding material; a significant increase in shields is required in the blanket-free pool type SFR. In this paper, a new cylindrical shielding design concept is proposed for a blanket-free pool type SFR. In a conventional shielding design, massive axial shields are required to prevent irradiation of secondary sodium passing IHXs and they should be replaced according to the subassembly replacement in spite of negligible depletion of the shielding material. The proposed shielding design concept minimizes the quantity of shields without their replacement. In this paper, a new cylindrical shielding design concept is proposed for a blanket-free pool type SFR such as a PGSFR. The proposed design concept satisfied the dose limit in the steam generator building successfully without introducing a large quantity of B{sub 4}C shielding inside the subassembly.

  5. Exploring climatic controls on blanket bog litter decomposition across an altitudinal gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael; Ritson, Jonathan P.; Clark, Joanna M.; Verhoef, Anne; Brazier, Richard E.

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological and ecological functioning of blanket bogs is strongly coupled, involving multiple ecohydrological feedbacks which can affect carbon cycling. Cool and wet conditions inhibit decomposition, and favour the growth of Sphagnum mosses which produce highly recalcitrant litter. A small but persistent imbalance between production and decomposition has led to blanket bogs in the UK accumulating large amounts of carbon. Additionally, healthy bogs provide a suite of other ecosystems services including water regulation and drinking water provision. However, there is concern that climate change could increase rates of litter decomposition and disrupt this carbon sink. Furthermore, it has been argued that the response of these ecosystems in the warmer south west and west of the UK may provide an early analogue for later changes in the more extensive northern peatlands. In order to investigate the effects of climate change on blanket bog litter decomposition, we set-up a litter bag experiment across an altitudinal gradient spanning 200 m of elevation (including a transition from moorland to healthy blanket bog) on Dartmoor, an area of hitherto unstudied, climatically marginal blanket bog in the south west of the UK. At seven sites, water table depth and soil and surface temperature were recorded continuously. Litter bags filled with the litter of three vegetation species dominant on Dartmoor were incubated just below the bog surface and retrieved over a period of 12 months. We found significant differences in the rate of decomposition between species. At all sites, decomposition progressed in the order Calluna vulgaris (dwarf shrub) > Molinia caerulea (graminoid) > Sphagnum (bryophyte). However, while soil temperature did decrease along the altitudinal gradient, being warmer in the lower altitudes, a hypothesised accompanying decrease in decomposition rates did not occur. This could be explained by greater N deposition at the higher elevation sites (estimated

  6. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailer Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Results Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. Conclusion The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic

  7. Assortative mating and fragmentation within dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnerfeldt, Susanne; Hailer, Frank; Nord, Maria; Vilà, Carles

    2008-01-28

    There are around 400 internationally recognized dog breeds in the world today, with a remarkable diversity in size, shape, color and behavior. Breeds are considered to be uniform groups with similar physical characteristics, shaped by selection rooted in human preferences. This has led to a large genetic difference between breeds and a large extent of linkage disequilibrium within breeds. These characteristics are important for association mapping of candidate genes for diseases and therefore make dogs ideal models for gene mapping of human disorders. However, genetic uniformity within breeds may not always be the case. We studied patterns of genetic diversity within 164 poodles and compared it to 133 dogs from eight other breeds. Our analyses revealed strong population structure within poodles, with differences among some poodle groups as pronounced as those among other well-recognized breeds. Pedigree analysis going three generations back in time confirmed that subgroups within poodles result from assortative mating imposed by breed standards as well as breeder preferences. Matings have not taken place at random or within traditionally identified size classes in poodles. Instead, a novel set of five poodle groups was identified, defined by combinations of size and color, which is not officially recognized by the kennel clubs. Patterns of genetic diversity in other breeds suggest that assortative mating leading to fragmentation may be a common feature within many dog breeds. The genetic structure observed in poodles is the result of local mating patterns, implying that breed fragmentation may be different in different countries. Such pronounced structuring within dog breeds can increase the power of association mapping studies, but also represents a serious problem if ignored. In dog breeding, individuals are selected on the basis of morphology, behaviour, working or show purposes, as well as geographic population structure. The same processes which have

  8. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Key issues on a D-T Tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket concept using CFAB (Compact Fusion Advanced Brayton) cycle are presented. Although the previously proposed and studied compact fusion advanced Rankine cycle using mercury liquid metal has shown, in general, excellent performance characteristics in extracting energy and electricity with high efficiency by the {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} nonequilibrium MHD disk generator, and in enhancing safety potential, there was a fear about uses of hazardous mercury as primary coolant as well as its limited natural resources. To overcome these disadvantages while retaining the advantage features of a ultra-high temperature coolant inherent in the synchrotron energy-enhanced D-T tokamak reactor, a compact fusion advanced Brayton cycle using helium was reexamined which was once considered relatively not superior in the CFAR study, at the expense of high, but acceptable circulation power, lower heat transfer characteristics, and probably of a little bit reduced safety.

  9. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  10. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  11. Charge Breeding of Radioactive Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Wenander, F J C

    2013-01-01

    Charge breeding is a technique to increase the charge state of ions, in many cases radioactive ions. The singly charged radioactive ions, produced in an isotope separator on-line facility, and extracted with a low kinetic energy of some tens of keV, are injected into a charge breeder, where the charge state is increased to Q. The transformed ions are either directed towards a dedicated experiment requiring highly charged ions, or post-accelerated to higher beam energies. In this paper the physics processes involved in the production of highly charged ions will be introduced, and the injection and extraction beam parameters of the charge breeder defined. A description of the three main charge-breeding methods is given, namely: electron stripping in gas jet or foil; external ion injection into an electron-beam ion source/trap (EBIS/T); and external ion injection into an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). In addition, some preparatory devices for charge breeding and practical beam delivery aspects ...

  12. Progress in design and study of ITER test blanket modules%ITER氚增殖实验包层设计研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松林; 柏云清; 陈红丽; 李春京; 黄群英; 吴宜灿; FDS团队

    2009-01-01

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be the first experimental D-T fusion reactor to provide an exclusive test platform of physics and engineering technology for research and development of fusion, where the technology of Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER is one of the most critical kernels to achieve fusion power in the future. According to defined concepts of DEMO blanket, the parties had proposed DEMOrelevant TBM, respectively, which would be to be tested during ITER operation. Design of proposed TBM concepts, R&D status, and recommended port allocation in ITER are introduced in this contribution.%国际热核实验反应堆(ITER)为人类开发聚变能提供重要的物理和工程技术实验平台,ITER氚增殖实验包层模块(TBM)技术是必须掌握的关键技术.参与ITER计划的成员国根据本国商用演示堆包层发展策略,分别提出了各自的实验包层概念,以便在ITER运行期间进行实验.本文对ITER-TBM目前已经开展和正在进行的主要设计研究工作进展进行总结,介绍了各方提出的设计方案、支撑设计的相关技术研究进展,以及合作实验窗口的分配现状.

  13. Purchasing. They Got Out From Under Blanket Orders With a Stores-Based Buy-Out System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Ralph E.

    1974-01-01

    By having a university 'stores' set up with a blanket order with about 115 local vendors, a university has eliminated petty cash disbursements for small purchases and proliferating purchase orders. (Author/PG)

  14. A study on the enhancement of the reliability in gravure offset roll printing with blanket swelling control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eul Kim, Ga; Woo, Kyoohee; Kang, Dongwoo; Jang, Yunseok; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Moon G.; Lee, Taik-Min; Kwon, Sin

    2016-10-01

    In roll-offset printing (patterning) technology with a PDMS blanket as a transfer medium, one of the major reliability issues is the occurrence of swelling, which involves absorption of the ink solvent in the printing blanket with repeated printing. This study developed a method to resolve blanket swelling in gravure offset roll printing and performed experiments for performance verification. The physical phenomena of mass and heat transfer were applied to fabricate a device based on convection drying. The proposed device managed to effectively control blanket swelling through drying by blowing air and additional temperature control. The experiments verified that printing quality (in particular the variation of the width of printed patterns) was maintained over 500 continuous printing.

  15. Comparison of forced-air warming systems with lower body blankets using a copper manikin of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuer, A; English, M J M; Lorenz, N; Steinmetz, N; Perl, T; Braun, U; Weyland, W

    2003-01-01

    Forced-air warming has gained high acceptance as a measure for the prevention of intraoperative hypothermia. However, data on heat transfer with lower body blankets are not yet available. This study was conducted to determine the heat transfer efficacy of six complete lower body warming systems. Heat transfer of forced-air warmers can be described as follows:[1]Qdot;=h.DeltaT.A where Qdot; = heat transfer [W], h = heat exchange coefficient [W m-2 degrees C-1], DeltaT = temperature gradient between blanket and surface [ degrees C], A = covered area [m2]. We tested the following forced-air warmers in a previously validated copper manikin of the human body: (1) Bair Hugger and lower body blanket (Augustine Medical Inc., Eden Prairie, MN); (2) Thermacare and lower body blanket (Gaymar Industries, Orchard Park, NY); (3) WarmAir and lower body blanket (Cincinnati Sub-Zero Products, Cincinnati, OH); (4) Warm-Gard(R) and lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden); (5) Warm-Gard and reusable lower body blanket (Luis Gibeck AB); and (6) WarmTouch and lower body blanket (Mallinckrodt Medical Inc., St. Luis, MO). Heat flux and surface temperature were measured with 16 calibrated heat flux transducers. Blanket temperature was measured using 16 thermocouples. DeltaT was varied between -10 and +10 degrees C and h was determined by a linear regression analysis as the slope of DeltaT vs. heat flux. Mean DeltaT was determined for surface temperatures between 36 and 38 degrees C, because similar mean skin temperatures have been found in volunteers. The area covered by the blankets was estimated to be 0.54 m2. Heat transfer from the blanket to the manikin was different for surface temperatures between 36 degrees C and 38 degrees C. At a surface temperature of 36 degrees C the heat transfer was higher (between 13.4 W to 18.3 W) than at surface temperatures of 38 degrees C (8-11.5 W). The highest heat transfer was delivered by the Thermacare system (8.3-18.3 W), the

  16. An electro-hydraulic servo control system research for CFETR blanket RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Changqi [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Tang, Hongjun, E-mail: taurustang@126.com [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Qi, Songsong [Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, Anhui (China); Cheng, Yong; Feng, Hansheng; Peng, Xuebing; Song, Yuntao [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We discussed the conceptual design of CFETR blanket RH maintenance system. • The mathematical model of electro-hydraulic servo system was calculated. • A fuzzy adaptive PD controller was designed based on control theory and experience. • The co-simulation models of the system were established with AMESim/Simulink. • The fuzzy adaptive PD algorithm was designed as the core strategy of the system. - Abstract: Based on the technical design requirements of China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) blanket remote handling (RH) maintenance, this paper focus on the control method of achieving high synchronization accuracy of electro-hydraulic servo system. Based on fuzzy control theory and practical experience, a fuzzy adaptive proportional-derivative (PD) controller was designed. Then a more precise co-simulation model was established with AMESim/Simulink. Through the analysis of simulation results, a fuzzy adaptive PD control algorithm was designed as the core strategy of electro-hydraulic servo control system.

  17. Overview on ITER and DEMO blanket fabrication activities of the KIT INR and related frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuberger, Heiko, E-mail: heiko.neuberger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rey, Joerg; Weth, Axel von der; Hernandez, Francisco [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Martin, Tatiana [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied materials, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zmitko, Milan [Fusion for energy, ITER Department, Test Blanket Modules and Materials Development Project Team, Barcelona (Spain); Felde, Alexander [Institut für Umformtechnik (IFU), Universität Stuttgart (Germany); Niewöhner, Reinhard [Forschungsgesellschaft Umformtechnik (FGU), Stuttgart (Germany); Krüger, Friedhelm [Krüger Erodiertechnik, Biedenkopf (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent achievements in fabricaition within different frameworks. • First Wall mockup with erosion technology. • Manufacturing of a HCPB TBM Cooling Plate Mockup (F4E) - Abstract: Fabrication experiments have been carried out in the KIT with the goal to qualify manufacturing technologies for the realization of fusion reactor components. The main focus of the activities managed by the fabrication team in the Institute of Neutron Physics and reactor technologies (INR) has been on the Test Blanket Module for ITER. Sets of fabrication and welding procedure specifications have been demonstrated and qualified in relevant scale for TBM structural and functional components. This paper presents interactions in between the different frameworks on domestic and European level to underline backgrounds of developments. It also summarizes results of development and their relevancy for DEMO and gives an outlook on the future development strategy for the DEMO blanket fabrication.

  18. Reduced activation martensitic steels as a structural material for ITER test blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, K. E-mail: shiba@realab01.tokai.jaeri.go.jp; Enoeda, M.; Jitsukawa, S

    2004-08-01

    A Japanese ITER test blanket module (TBM) is planed to use reduced-activation martensitic steel F82H. Feasibility of F82H for ITER test blanket module is discussed in this paper. Several kinds of property data, including physical properties, magnetic properties, mechanical properties and neutron-irradiation data on F82H have been obtained, and these data are complied into a database to be used for the designing of the ITER TBM. Currently obtained data suggests F82H will not have serious problems for ITER TBM. Optimization of F82H improves the induced activity, toughness and HIP resistance. Furthermore, modified F82H is resistant to temperature instability during material production.

  19. Use of Ball Blanket in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder sleeping problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Based on actigraphic surveillance, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom rating and sleep diary, this study will evaluate the effect of Ball Blanket on sleep for a sample of 8-13-year-old children with ADHD. Design: Case-control study. Setting: A child and adolescent...... psychiatric department of a teaching hospital. Participants: 21 children aged 8-13 years with a diagnosis of ADHD and 21 healthy control subjects. Intervention: Sleep was monitored by parent-completed sleep diaries and 28 nights of actigraphy. For 14 of those days, the child slept with a Ball Blanket. Main...... outcome measures: The sleep latency, number of awakenings and total length of sleep was measured, as was the possible influence on parent- and teacher-rated ADHD symptom load. Results: The results of this study will show that the time it takes for a child to fall asleep is shortened when using a Ball...

  20. Preliminary lifetime predictions for 304 stainless steel as the LANL ABC blanket material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.J.; Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.; Arthur, E.D.

    1997-11-01

    The prediction of materials lifetime in the preconceptual Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Accelerator-Based Conversion of Plutonium (ABC) is of utmost interest. Because Hastelloy N showed good corrosion resistance to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten Salt Reactor Experiment fuel salt that is similar to the LANL ABC fuel salt, Hastelloy N was originally proposed for the LANL ABC blanket material. In this paper, the possibility of using 304 stainless steel as a replacement for the Hastelloy N is investigated in terms of corrosion issues and fluence-limit considerations. An attempt is made, based on the previous Fast Flux Test Facility design data, to predict the preliminary lifetime estimate of the 304 stainless steel used in the blanket region of the LANL ABC.

  1. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined.

  2. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igitkhanov, Yu., E-mail: juri.igitkhanov@lhm.fzk.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bazylev, B.; Landman, I. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IHM, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boccaccini, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ∼14 MW/m{sup 2}. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  3. Applicability of tungsten/EUROFER blanket module for the DEMO first wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igitkhanov, Yu.; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.; Boccaccini, L.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we analyse a sandwich-type blanket configuration of W/EUROFER for DEMO first wall under steady-state normal operation and off-normal conditions, such as vertical displacements and runaway electrons. The heat deposition and consequent erosion of the tungsten armour is modelled under condition of helium cooling of the first wall blanket module and by taking into account the conversion of the magnetic energy stored in the runaway electron current into heat through the ohmic dissipation of the return current induced in the metallic armour structure. It is shown that under steady-state DEMO operation the first wall sandwich type module will tolerate heat loads up to ˜14 MW/m2. It will also sustain the off-normal events, apart from the hot vertical displacement events, which will melt the tungsten armour surface.

  4. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  5. Microstructure and hardness of HIP-bonded regions in F82H blanket structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K.; Wakai, E.; Ando, M.; Sawai, T.; Nakamura, K.; Takeuchi, H.; Iwabuchi, A.

    2002-12-01

    Metallurgical examinations and hardness measurements were performed at hot isostatic pressing (HIP)-bonded regions in blanket structures made from F82H alloy in order to investigate the HIP-bondability and the influence on the microstructure due to the HIP and heat treatments which would correspond to the fabrication of an actual blanket. The metallurgical examination showed that the HIP-bonded interfaces were sufficiently diffusion-bonded without significant defects, i.e. voids and/or exfoliations, although grain coarsening was observed at a part of the HIP interfaces. Hardness was nearly equal in the coarsening region and a region without coarsening, but about a 10 Hv increase was found in a boundary in between the regions with and without coarsening. Microcrystallized grains were observed in a region about ˜6 μm from HIP interfaces, and the hardness increased by about 0.2 GPa in the region.

  6. Technical issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels for fabrication of ITER test blanket modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp; Hirose, T.; Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kasada, R. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Wakai, E. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Serizawa, H.; Kawahito, Y. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jitsukawa, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kohno, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido 050-8585 (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Katayama, S. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Mori, H.; Nishimoto, K. [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Klueh, R.L.; Sokolov, M.A.; Stoller, R.E.; Zinkle, S.J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6132 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. The RAFM F82H was developed in Japan with emphasis on high-temperature properties and weldability. Extensive irradiation studies have conducted on F82H, and it has the most extensive available database of irradiated and unirradiated properties of all RAFMs. The objective of this paper is to review the R and D status of F82H and to identify the key technical issues for the fabrication of an ITER test blanket module (TBM) suggested from the recent research achievements in Japan. This work clarified that the primary issues with F82H involve welding techniques and the mechanical properties of weld joints. This is the result of the distinctive nature of the joint caused by the phase transformation that occurs in the weld joint during cooling, and its impact on the design of a TBM will be discussed.

  7. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  8. Blanket guarantee, deposit insurance, and risk-shifting incentive: evidence from Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kariastanto, Bayu

    2011-01-01

    Indonesia established a deposit insurance system to maintain stability in its banking sector after the abolishment of blanket guarantees in 2005. Since the insurance premiums are fixed and flat, deposit insurance may create an incentive for banks to take more risks and transfer the risks to the deposit insurer. Using an option pricing based model of deposit insurance, we compute the fair deposit insurance premiums for all banks listed on the Indonesian stock exchange. We find evidence that ba...

  9. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  10. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Kenji [ed.

    1998-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of `the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions` which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: (1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, (2) properties data for ceramic breeders, (3) tritium release characteristics, (4) modeling of tritium behavior, (5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, (6) blanket design and R and D requirements, (7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and (8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, tritium release behavior of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li{sub 2}O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Ethical distinctions between different kinds of plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myskja, B.K.; Schouten, H.J.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    ethically between these approaches, often relying on ambiguous concepts such as ‘naturalness’. We argue that a virtue-based approach can be used to explicate the assumptions behind such distinctions that are relevant for scientific and public discourse, and support a conclusion that there are ethical......The article discusses whether there are ethically significant distinctions between different forms of plant breeding. We distinguish different forms of plant breeding according to the kind of technology and degree of human intervention compared to plant reproduction occurring in nature. According...... to the dominant scientific view, the main concerns are issues of biosafety that are dealt with through risk assessment. Thus, the techniques are ethically equivalent and only the resulting product is of interest. In parts of the societal and philosophical discourse, however, there are attempts to distinguish...

  12. Optimizing reproductive performance of herds Simmental breed of cattle imported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of livestock farms that breed cows with high production capacities such as Simmental and Holstein breeds, an important role of manage genetic breed capacity import into future generations and management factors that constrain improvement of reproductive performance population. Importing a considerable amount of pregnant heifer Simmental and Holstein breeds from Austria, Germany , contributed positively to the addition of milk and meat production in our country. The study was conducted in Bio farm " Ramilli " – Shijak - Durres, for the periods 2008-2011. We also included about 150 cows Simmental pure - breed for dual purpose (milk – meat. Birth of a calf annually for cow provides the optimal milk production that can only be achieved with the correct programs to monitor the events of reproduction. To optimize reproductive indicators for genetic capacity utilization cow is aiming in our study. We also included three groups heifer imported from Austria, and approach them in terms of the farm. Production of milk for the first lactationconducted three groups to 4994 ± 936.4, 4123 ± 817.3, 3750 ± 560 proven statistically differences between them ( P less then 0:05. Calving interval realized 421.7 ± 73.4, 396.5 ± 42.1, 386.6 ± 43.7 days, the difference proven statistically (P less then 0:05. Conception index 2.1, 1.7, and 1.6. Improving reproductive performance in cows with higher milk production capacities, livestock farms achievedthrough unifying control period after calving.

  13. Investigating the breeding capabilities of hybrid soliton reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catsaros, N., E-mail: nicos@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Gaveau, B., E-mail: bernardgaveau@orange.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jaekel, M.-T., E-mail: jaekel@lpt.ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Jejcic, A. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (CNRS), 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Maillard, J., E-mail: maillard@idris.fr [Institut National de Physique Nucléaire et de Physique des Particules (CNRS), 3 rue Michel Ange, 75794 Paris Cedex 16 (France); Institut du Développement et des Ressources en Informatique Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire d’Orsay, rue John Von Neumann, Bat 506, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France); Maurel, G., E-mail: gerard.maurel@sat.aphp.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Savva, P., E-mail: savvapan@ipta.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Energy and Safety, National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, 27, Neapoleos Str., 15341 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece); Silva, J., E-mail: jorge.silva@upmc.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Campus Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: • ANET code simulates innovative reactor designs including Accelerator Driven Systems. • Preliminary analysis of thermal hybrid soliton reactor examines breeding capabilities. • Subsequent studies will aim at optimizing parameters examined in this analysis. • Breeding capacity could be obtained while preserving efficiency and reactor stability. -- Abstract: Nuclear energy industry asks for an optimized exploitation of available natural resources and a safe operation of reactors. A closed fuel cycle requires the mass of fissile material depleted in a reactor to be equal to or less than the fissile mass produced in the same or in other reactors. In this work, a simple closed cycle scheme is investigated, grounded on the use of a conceptual thermal water-cooled and moderated subcritical hybrid soliton reactor (HSR). The concept is a specific Accelerator Driven System (ADS) operating at lower power than usual pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This type of reactor can be inherently safe, since shutdown is achieved by simply interrupting the accelerator's power supply. In this work a preliminary investigation is attempted concerning the existence of conditions under which the operation of a thermal HSR in breeding regime is possible. For this purpose, a conceptual encapsulated core has been defined by choosing the magnitude of a set of parameters which are important from the neutronic point of view, such as core geometry and fuel composition. Indications of breeding operation regime for thermal HSR systems are sought by performing preliminary simulations of this core. For this purpose, the Monte Carlo code ANET, which is being developed based on the high energy physics code GEANT is utilized, as being capable of simulating particles’ transport and interactions produced, including also simulation of low energy neutrons transport. A simple analytical model is also developed and presented in order to investigate the conditions under which

  14. Effect of thick blanket modules on neoclassical tearing mode locking in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Haye, R. J.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Liu, Y. Q.

    2017-01-01

    The rotation of m/n  =  2/1 tearing modes can be slowed and stopped (i.e. locked) by eddy currents induced in resistive walls in conjunction with residual error fields that provide a final ‘notch’ point. This is a particular issue in ITER with large inertia and low applied torque (m and n are poloidal and toroidal mode numbers respectively). Previous estimates of tolerable 2/1 island widths in ITER found that the ITER electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) system could catch and subdue such islands before they persisted long enough and grew large enough to lock. These estimates were based on a forecast of initial island rotation using the n  =  1 resistive penetration time of the inner vacuum vessel wall and benchmarked to DIII-D high-rotation plasmas, However, rotating tearing modes in ITER will also induce eddy currents in the blanket as the effective first wall that can shield the inner vessel. The closer fitting blanket wall has a much shorter time constant and should allow several times smaller islands to lock several times faster in ITER than previously considered; this challenges the ECCD stabilization. Recent DIII-D ITER baseline scenario (IBS) plasmas with low rotation through small applied torque allow better modeling and scaling to ITER with the blanket as the first resistive wall.

  15. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  16. Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF: An Innovative Technology in Activated Sludge Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Saeedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new biological domestic wastewater treatment process, which has been presented these days in activated sludge modification, is Upflow Sludge Blanket Filtration (USBF. This process is aerobic and acts by using a sludge blanket in the separator of sedimentation tank. All biological flocs and suspended solids, which are presented in the aeration basin, pas through this blanket. The performance of a single stage USBF process for treatment of domestic wastewater was studied in laboratory scale.Methods: The pilot of USBF has been made from fiberglass and the main electromechanical equipments consisted of an air com­pressor, a mixing device and two pumps for sludge return and wastewater injection. The wastewater samples used for the experiments were prepared synthetically to have qualitative characteristics similar to a typical domestic wastewater (COD= 277 mg/l, BOD5= 250 mg/l and TSS= 1 mg/l.Results: On the average, the treatment system was capable to remove 82.2% of the BOD5 and 85.7% of COD in 6 h hydraulic re­tention time (HRT. At 2 h HRT BOD and COD removal efficiencies dramatically reduced to 50% and 46.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Even by increasing the concentrations of pollutants to as high as 50%, the removal rates of all pollutants were re­mained similar to the HRT of 6 h.

  17. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  18. [Air conditioning units and warm air blankets in the operating room].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Preflow stresses in Martian rampart ejecta blankets - A means of estimating the water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronow, A.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of extents of rampart ejecta deposits as a function of the size of the parent craters support models which, for craters larger than about 6 km diameter, constrain ejecta blankets to all have a similar maximum thickness regardless of the crater size. These volatile-rich ejecta blankets may have failed under their own weights, then flowed radially outward. Assuming this to be so, some of the physicomechanical properties of the ejecta deposits at the time of their emplacement can then be determined. Finite-element studies of the stress magnitudes, distributions, and directions in hypothetical Martian rampart ejecta blankets reveal that the material most likely failed when the shear stresses were less than 500 kPa and the angle of internal friction was between 26 and 36 deg. These figures imply that the ejecta has a water content between 16 and 72%. Whether the upper limit or the lower limit is more appropriate depends on the mode of failure which one presumes: namely, viscous flow of plastic deformation.

  20. AB Blanket for Cities (for continual pleasant weather and protection from chemical, biological and radioactive weapons)

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In a series of previous articles (see references) the author offered to cover a city or other important large installations or subregions by a transparent thin film supported by a small additional air overpressure under the form of an AB Dome. The building of a gigantic inflatable AB Dome over an empty flat surface is not difficult. However, if we want to cover a city, garden, forest or other obstacle course we cannot easily deploy the thin film over building or trees. In this article is suggested a new method which solves this problem. The idea is to design a double film blanket filled by light gas (for example, methane, hydrogen, or helium). Sections of this AB Blanket are lighter then air and fly in atmosphere. They can be made on a flat area (serving as an assembly area) and delivered by dirigible or helicopter to station at altitude over the city. Here they connect to the already assembled AB Blanket subassemblies, cover the city in an AB Dome and protect it from bad weather, chemical, biological and rad...

  1. Engineering challenges and development of the ITER Blanket System and Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merola, Mario, E-mail: mario.merola@iter.org; Escourbiac, Frederic; Raffray, Alphonse Rene; Chappuis, Philippe; Hirai, Takeshi; Gicquel, Stefan

    2015-10-15

    The ITER Blanket System and the Divertor are the main components which directly face the plasma. Being the first physical barrier to the plasma, they have very demanding design requirements, which include accommodating: (1) surface heat flux and neutronic volumetric heating, (2) electromagnetic loads, (3) nuclear shielding function, (4) capability of being assembled and remote-handled, (5) interfaces with other in-vessel components, and (6) high heat flux technologies and complex welded structures in the design. The main functions of the Blanket System have been substantially expanded and it has now also to provide limiting surfaces that define the plasma boundary during startup and shutdown. As regards the Divertor, the ITER Council decided in November 2013 to start the ITER operation with a full-tungsten armour in order to minimize costs and already gain operational experience with tungsten during the non-active phase of the machine. This paper gives an overview of the design and technology qualification of the Blanket System and the Divertor.

  2. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  3. Factors that determine use of breeding services by smallholder dairy farmers in Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murage, Alice W; Ilatsia, Evans D

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of smallholder dairy farmers' use of breeding services in Nyandarua and Kiambu districts, Central Kenya. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with 140 randomly selected respondents. The breeding services considered were artificial insemination (AI), natural bull service, or a combination of AI and bull services. A multinomial logit econometric model was used fitting AI as the base category. There was a negative relationship between higher levels of education, herd size, and location and the use of bull service. However, education, herd size, and credit were positively related to the combined option. The results indicate that uptake of AI services after the liberalization of the sector is influenced by other factors besides cost-related factors. Factors such as accessibility to breeding services and product markets had influence on the farmer decision to choose among the available breeding services. The effectiveness of the breeding services in terms of successful conception also plays a big role in the choice. A need for concerted efforts to increase farmer's knowledge base on utilization and effectiveness of available breeding services is imperative. Furthermore, smallholder dairy farming could be made more sustainable and economically viable by implementing initiatives geared towards enhancing access to breeding services that would guarantee access to quality genetic material.

  4. Effect of organic matter strength on anammox for modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chongjun; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Lei, Chenxiao; Zhang, Tian C; Wu, Weixiang

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-N removal from modified greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater with different chemical oxygen demand (COD) strengths (194.0-577.8 mg L(-1)) at relatively fixed C/N ratios (≈ 2) was investigated using a lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) anammox reactor. During the entire experiment, the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was about 85% or higher, while the average COD removal efficiency was around 56.5 ± 7.9%. Based on the nitrogen and carbon balance, the nitrogen removal contribution was 79.6 ± 4.2% for anammox, 12.7 ± 3.0% for denitrification+denitritation and 7.7 ± 4.9% for other mechanisms. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed that Planctomycete, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi bacteria were coexisted in the reactor. Anammox was always dominant when the reactor was fed with different COD concentrations, which indicated the stability of the anammox process with the coexistence of the denitrification process in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater.

  5. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally......In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...

  6. Breeding of speciality maize for industrial purposes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The breeding programme on speciality maize with specific traits was established at the Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, several decades ago. The initial material was collected, new methods applying to breeding of speciality maize, i.e. popping maize, sweet maize and white-seeded maize, were introduced. The aim was to enhance and improve variability of the initial material for breeding these three types of maize. Then, inbred lines of good combining abilities were developed and used as c...

  7. Development Of Space Breeding In China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Luxiang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Space breeding provides a new technical platform for Chinese agricaltural scientists to explore the mechanism of crop mutation induced during spaceflight and breeds new varieties of crops. It is important for China to develop the space breeding industry,maintain China's lead position in this field,serve agricultural production better,promote China's sustainable and healthy agricultural development,and ensure national food safety.

  8. The Breeding Bird Survey, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Van Velzen, W.T.

    1967-01-01

    A Breeding Bird Survey of a large section on North America was conducted during June 1966. Cooperators ran a total of 585 Survey routes in 26 eastern States and 4 Canadian Provinces. Future coverage of established routes will enable changes in the abundance of North American breeding birds to be measured. Routes are selected at random on the basis of one-degree blocks of latitude and longitude. Each 241/2-mile route, with 3-minute stops spaced one-half mile apart, is driven by automobile. All birds heard or seen at the stops are recorded on special forms and the data are then transferred to machine punch cards. The average number of birds per route is tabulated by State, along with the total number of each species and the percent of routes and stops upon which they were recorded. Maps are presented showing the range and abundance of selected species. Also, a year-to-year comparison is made of populations of selected species on Maryland routes in 1965 and 1966.

  9. Molecular tools for breeding basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, L; Larraya, L M; Pisabarro, A G

    2000-09-01

    The industrial production of edible basidiomycetes is increasing every year as a response to the increasing public demand of them because of their nutritional properties. About a dozen of fungal species can be currently produced for food with sound industrial and economic bases. Notwithstanding, this production is threatened by biotic and abiotic factors that make it necessary to improve the fungal strains currently used in industry. Breeding of edible basidiomycetes, however, has been mainly empirical and slow since the genetic tools useful in the selection of the new genetic material to be introduced in the commercial strains have not been developed for these fungi as it was for other organisms. In this review we will discuss the main genetic factors that should be considered to develop breeding approaches and tools for higher basidiomycetes. These factors are (i) the genetic system controlling fungal mating; (ii) the genomic structure and organisation of these fungi; and (iii) the identification of genes involved in the control of quantitative traits. We will discuss the weight of these factors using the oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus as a model organism for most of the edible fungi cultivated industrially.

  10. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  11. Chemical classification of cattle. 1. Breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M; Manwell, C

    1980-01-01

    From approximately 1000 papers with data on protein polymorphism in some 216 breeds of cattle, 10 polymorphic proteins were compared in means and variances of gene frequencies (arcsin p 1/2) for ten well-recognized breed groups for 196 of the breeds. The polymorphic proteins were alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, caseins (alpha s1, beta and chi), serum albumin, transferrin, haemoglobin, amylase I and carbonic anhydrase II. The breed groups were North European, Pied Lowland, European Red brachyceros, Channel Island brachyceros, Upland brachyceros, primigenius-brachyceros mixed, primigenius, Indian Zebu, African Humped (with Zebu admixture), and African Humped (Sanga). The coherence within groups and the differences between groups are often impressive. Only carbonic anhydrase II fails to differentiate at least some of the major breed groups. In some cases paradoxical distributions of rare genetic variants can be explained by a more detailed inspection of breed history. The chemical data support the morphological and geographical divisions of cattle into major breed groups. There are three distinct but related brachyceros groups; for some polymorphisms the two Channel Island breeds, the Jersey and the Guernsey, are quite divergent. Although some authorities have considered the Pied Lowland as primigenius, it is a very distinct breed group.

  12. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  13. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Walker, Hira A.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    the number of sites and to establish more consistent definitions of the term 'site', adjacent and nearby sites from statewide reports were sometimes considered as a single site for the purposes of the rangewide data summary. Any combining or splitting of sites at the rangewide level was done on a case-by-case basis. Because of differences in site definitions, one should not evaluate the relative importance of a geographic region (such as drainage, watershed, or state) simply according to the number of flycatcher sites. A 'territory' is an exclusive defended area within a breeding site. Although detailed monitoring studies have identified unpaired territorial males and polygynous males at some flycatcher breeding sites, for the purposes of this report a territory is equivalent to the exclusive breeding area of a pair of flycatchers. In general, the concept of territory is more similar among states and different investigators than site; thus, it is a more robust unit to use for summaries and comparisons. However, note that the definition of a polygynous territory is not consistent among states; a male polygynously paired with two females would be considered one territory in some states and two territories in other states. For each site, we referred to reports or spoke directly with researchers and managers to gather information such as management entity/agency, location (state, drainage, elevation), gross habitat type (native, exotic, or mixed; dominant tree species), and number of flycatcher territories. Synthesizing the information on more than 200 breeding sites is challenging because annual data-collection and survey-reporting requirements are not standardized rangewide, and the nature and degree of readily available information varies widely from state to state. This is particularly true for areas such as California, where there are many flycatcher sites but surveyors are not required to submit standardized flycatcher survey forms. The lack of c

  14. Progress of R&D on water cooled ceramic breeder for ITER test blanket system and DEMO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: kawamura.yoshinori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tanigawa, Hisashi; Hirose, Takanori; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ochiai, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Konno, Chikara; Edao, Yuki; Hayashi, Takumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirane Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hoshino, Tsuyoshi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Nishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Yamanishi, Toshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Thermo-hydraulic calculation in the TBM at the water ingress event has been done. • Shielding calculations for the ITER equatorial port #18 were conducted by using C-lite model. • Prototypic pebbles of Be{sub 17}Ti{sub 2} and Be{sub 12}V had a good oxidation property similar to Be{sub 12}Ti pebble. • Li rich Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were successfully fabricated using the emulsion method by controlling sintering atmosphere. • New tritium production/recovery experiments at FNS have been started by using ionization chamber as on-line gas monitor. - Abstract: The development of a water cooled ceramic breeder (WCCB) test blanket module (TBM) is being performed as one of the most important steps toward DEMO blanket in Japan. For the TBM testing and development of DEMO blanket, R&D has been performed on the module fabrication technology, breeder and multiplier pebble fabrication technology, tritium production rate evaluation, as well as structural and safety design activities. The fabrication of full-scale first wall, side walls, breeder pebble bed box and back wall was completed, and assembly of TBM with box structure was successfully achieved. Development of advanced breeder and multiplier pebbles for higher chemical stability was continued for future DEMO blanket application. From the view point of TBM test result evaluation and DEMO blanket performance design, the development of the blanket tritium transport simulation technology, investigation of the TBM neutron measurement technology and the evaluation of the tritium production and recovery test using D-T neutron in the fusion neutron source (FNS) facility has been performed. This paper provides an overview of the recent achievements of the development of the WCCB Blanket in Japan.

  15. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  16. Strategy for solving a coupled problem of the electromagnetic load analysis and design optimization for local conducting structures to support the ITER blanket development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozov, Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir.rozov@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Belyakov, V.; Kukhtin, V.; Lamzin, E.; Mazul, I.; Sytchevsky, S. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the way of modeling transient electro-magnetic loads on local conductive domains in the large magnetic system. • Simplification is achieved by decomposing of the problem, multi-scale integral-differential modeling and use of integral parameters. • The intrinsic scale of loads on a localized conductor with eddy is quantified through the load susceptibility tensor. • Solution is searched as response of a simple equivalent dynamic simulator, using control theory methods. • The concept is exemplified with multi-scenario assessment of EM eddy loads on ITER blanket modules. - Abstract: The complexity of the electromagnetic (EM) response of the tokamak structures is one of the key and design-driving issues for the ITER. We consider the specifics of the assessment of ponderomotive forces, acting on local components of a large electro-physical device during electromagnetic transients. A strategy and approach is proposed for the operative EM loads modeling and analysis that enables design optimization at early phases of development. The paper describes a method of principal simplification of the mathematical model, based on the analysis and exploiting specific features and peculiarities of the relevant technical problem, determined by the design and operation of the device and system under consideration. The application of the method for predictive EM loads analysis and corresponding numerical calculations are exemplified for the localized ITER blanket components — shield modules. The example demonstrates the efficiency of EM load analysis in complex electromagnetic systems via a set of simplified models with different scope, contents and level of detail.

  17. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of ‘fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10–17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids – SS, BOD, nitrogen – N and phosphorus – P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  18. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  19. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Komen, J.; Windig, J.J.; Hanotte, O.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livel

  20. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  1. Artificiat insemination vercus natural breeding in a multi.breed beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calving-to-breeding period the following breeding season and a reduced ..... the first four weeks of the calving season, while only 49 9o of the calves born as a result ... breeding season rather than leaving the job to the bulls later in the season.

  2. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Valle-Zarate, A.; Haile, A.; Rischkowsky, B.; Dessie, T.; Mwai, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as un

  3. Immature Aedes mosquitoes colonize Culex quinquefasciatus breeding sites in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzane Alves dos Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The present study shows the colonization of Aedes mosquitoes in breeding sites specific for Culex quinquefasciatus in neighborhoods in the municipality of Olinda. Methods Samples were collected between May 2011 and June 2012 from breeding sites positive for Cx. quinquefasciatus by using a ladle and manual suction pump. Results Aedes aegypti (0.12%, Aedes albopictus (0.03%, and Cx. quinquefasciatus (99.8% were found across the breeding sites. Conclusions The presence of Aedes ssp. in several Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding sites with a heavy load of organic material demonstrates the need to review the concepts and methods used for treatment, as the use of specific larvicide for breeding sites of Culex.

  4. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  5. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in t

  6. Weaning the pig - Concepts and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluske, J.R.; Dividich, Le J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Weaning the Pig: Concepts and Consequences addresses the major issues surrounding the weaning process, both for piglets and the breeding herd, in modern-day pig production. The post-weaned pig presents many challenges to the manager, stockperson and nutritionist, and as such is a critical phase in

  7. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  8. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of genetic

  9. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  10. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  11. Genetic diversity of 11 European pig breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavall, G.; Iannuccelli, N.; Legault, C.; Milan, D.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Andersson, L.; Fredholm, M.; Geldermann, H.; Foulley, J.L.; Chevalet, C.; Ollivier, L.

    2000-01-01

    A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosi

  12. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  13. Lily breeding research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.; Holsteijn, van H.M.C.

    1996-01-01

    At the Centre for Plant Breeding and Reproduction Research (CPRO-DLO) in Wageningen lily breeding research in the Netherlands is concentrated. To this end sources of germplasm (genetic material) are maintained in a lily species and cultivar collection. Research is done on long term storage of this c

  14. Plant Breeding: Surprisingly, Less Sex Is Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Peter J; Rigola, Diana; Schauer, Stephen E

    2016-02-01

    Introduction of apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, into crop species has the potential to dramatically transform plant breeding. A new study demonstrates that traits can be stably transferred between generations in newly produced apomictic lines, and heralds a breeding revolution needed to increase food production for the growing planet.

  15. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and opportunit...

  16. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB

    2009-01-01

    examples, such as breeding for good maternal behaviour, could enhance welfare, production and naturalness, although dilemmas emerge where improved welfare could result from breeding away from natural behaviour. Selection against certain behaviours may carry a risk of creating animals which are generally...

  17. Impact of selective breeding on European aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.; Chavanne, H.; Berentsen, P.; Komen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the combined market share of breeding companies in aquaculture production in Europe, to describe the main characteristics of breeding companies and their programs, and to provide per species estimates on cumulative genetic gain in growth performance. Sur

  18. Molecule-surface interaction processes of relevance to gas blanket type fusion device divertor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, K.J. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Tawara, H.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms which may lead to the departure of molecular species from surfaces exposed to low energy (0.1-100 eV) particle or photon and electron irradiation are reviewed. Where possible, the charge and electronic state, angular, translational and internal energy distributions of the departing molecules are described and the physical origin of the nature of those distributions identified. The consequences, for the departing molecules, of certain material choices become apparent from such an analysis. Such information may help guide the choice of appropriate materials for plasma facing components of gas-blanket type divertors such as that recently proposed for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). (author). 71 refs.

  19. Establishment of design and fabrication technology and domestic qualification for ITER blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Bong Guen; In, S. R.; Bae, Y. D. (and others)

    2006-02-15

    To obtain and analyze the detailed design and manufacturing technology of the blanket system for each components, the related data are collected through the various sources. And also, design processes and results of the FWs, shield blocks, and TBMs are investigated. From these analysis of the blanket R and D status of each party, we develop the KO R and D plan and it is used in the selection of manufacturing method and the materials. For the ITA16-10 subtask1, we had the official agreement with ITER IT in December 2004 for the qualification of the FW panel fabrication methods and to establish the NDT methods for the FW panel. From the technical reports we published, we compare the manufacturing methods and the proposed material for each component according to the parties. Be is proposed as a plasma facing material and most parties have interest in S-65C. Cu alloy is proposed as a heat sink material and DSCu or CuCrZr are investigated now. For the structural material, stainless steel such as SS316L(N) is investigated internationally. HIP and brazing are proposed as the manufacturing methods. In order to establish the blanket system technology, design contents of shield block by ITER IT and other parties were investigated through participating the international workshop and meeting, dispatching the researcher to the ITER IT or other parties to collect the drafting and 3D modeling files. The modification items of blanket design were investigated and a researcher was dispatched in the ITER IT and participated in the analysis on cooling problem in shield block such as front header and drilled manifold. To investigate the development status of TBM, we participated the 14th TBWG meeting and proposed the KO HCSB and HCML as candidates. And also, we obtain the R and D results of other parties and make document about the R and D status of other parties for the TBM. Finally, we establish the KO TBM R and D plan and proposed it to ITER IT and other parties. In which, the

  20. Experimental facility for studying MHD effects in liquid metal cooled blankets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, C. B.; Picologlou, B. F.; Dauzvardis, P. V.

    The capabilities of a facility, brought into service to collect data on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects, pertinent to liquid metal cooled fusion reactor blankets, are presented. The facility, design to extend significantly the existing data base on liquid metal MHD, employs eutectic NaK as the working fluid in a room temperature closed loop. The instrumentation system is capable of collecting detailed data on pressure, voltage, and velocity distributions at any axial position within the base of a 2 Tesla conventional magnet. The axial magnetic field distribution can be uniform or varying with either rapid or slow spatial variations.

  1. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF). Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1976--August 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, K.O. (ed.)

    1976-08-01

    The work performed was primarily concerned with the preparation of the experiments to be performed on the Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) and the corresponding analysis. The work on the experimental program has been started. Since experiments are subject to safety constraints, a safety investigation program (for a hypothetically flooded facility) is reported. The neutronics part of the preanalysis is also reported. The testing of the first configuration has largely been prepared. The identification of the experiment need has been worked on extensively, largely through unsponsored research which had been started before the contract became effective. The work done in this area by other groups is being reviewed.

  2. Extracellular Polymers in Granular Sludge from Different Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermal extraction was used to quantify extracellular polymers (ECP) in granules from anaerobic upflow reactors. The optimal time for extraction was determined as the time needed before the intracellular material gives a significant contribution to the extracted extracellular material due to cell...... of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor from a sugar-containing waste-water to a synthetic waste-water containing acetate, propionate and butyrate resulted in a decrease in both the protein and polysaccharide content and an increase in the lipid content of the extracellular material. Furthermore...

  3. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...... in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease...... of handling is now included in some beef cattle breeding programmes. While breeding for behaviour is potentially beneficial, ethical concerns have been raised. Since animals are adapted to the environment rather than the other way around, there may be a loss of 'naturalness' and/or animal integrity. Some...

  4. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  5. Genetic diversity in Tunisian horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jemmali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at screening genetic diversity and differentiation in four horse breeds raised in Tunisia, the Barb, Arab-Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds. A total of 200 blood samples (50 for each breed were collected from the jugular veins of animals, and genomic DNA was extracted. The analysis of the genetic structure was carried out using a panel of 16 microsatellite loci. Results showed that all studied microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic in all breeds. Overall, a total of 147 alleles were detected using the 16 microsatellite loci. The average number of alleles per locus was 7.52 (0.49, 7.35 (0.54, 6.3 (0.44, and 6 (0.38 for the Arab-Barb, Barb, Arabian, and English Thoroughbred breeds, respectively. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.63 (0.03 in the English Thoroughbred to 0.72 in the Arab-Barb breeds, whereas the expected heterozygosities were between 0.68 (0.02 in the English Thoroughbred and 0.73 in the Barb breeds. All FST values calculated by pairwise breed combinations were significantly different from zero (p  <  0.05 and an important genetic differentiation among breeds was revealed. Genetic distances, the factorial correspondence, and principal coordinate analyses showed that the important amount of genetic variation was within population. These results may facilitate conservation programs for the studied breeds and enhance preserve their genetic diversity.

  6. Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Pflueger, Solveig M; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Wade, Claire M; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2008-01-01

    Genetic variation in cat breeds was assessed utilizing a panel of short tandem repeat (STR) loci genotyped in 38 cat breeds and 284 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 24 breeds. Population structure in cat breeds generally reflects their recent ancestry and absence of strong breed barriers between some breeds. There is a wide range in the robustness of population definition, from breeds demonstrating high definition to breeds with as little as a third of their genetic variation partitioning into a single population. Utilizing the STRUCTURE algorithm, there was no clear demarcation of the number of population subdivisions; 16 breeds could not be resolved into independent populations, the consequence of outcrossing in established breeds to recently developed breeds with common ancestry. These 16 breeds were divided into 6 populations. Ninety-six percent of cats in a sample set of 1040 were correctly assigned to their classified breed or breed group/population. Average breed STR heterozygosities ranged from moderate (0.53; Havana, Korat) to high (0.85; Norwegian Forest Cat, Manx). Most of the variation in cat breeds was observed within a breed population (83.7%), versus 16.3% of the variation observed between populations. The hierarchical relationships of cat breeds is poorly defined as demonstrated by phylogenetic trees generated from both STR and SNP data, though phylogeographic grouping of breeds derived completely or in part from Southeast Asian ancestors was apparent.

  7. Breeding capacity, behavior and fertility of bulls with Brahman genetic influence during synchronized breeding of beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G L

    1988-07-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the feasibility of using bulls of Brahman-derived breeds for synchronized breeding of females treated with Syncro-Mate-B (SMB). Suckled, postpartum cows (n = 261) and virgin heifers (n = 227) were given the standard SMB treatment. Calves were removed from cows for 48 h beginning at implant removal, and individual bulls were placed in pens with 15 to 20 females (x = 1:15.7 ) for 48 h beginning at implant removal. Bulls (n = 31) were 18 to 36 mo of age and had scored satisfactorily on a breeding soundness evaluation (BSE). The mean +/- SEM percentage of females in estrus, percentage of estrous females serviced and percentage of total females serviced were 77.2 +/- 2.4, 72.9 +/- 2.9 and 55.7 +/- 3%, respectively. Total average services per bull was 23.6 +/- 1.6; however, average number of individuals serviced was only 8.6 +/- 0.42. Mean +/- SEM percentage of females conceiving of those serviced, percentage conceiving of those in estrus and percentage conceiving of total females available were 57.3 +/- 3.7, 40.6 +/- 2.6 and 32.6 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Mean BSE scores of eight Simbrah bulls tested immediately before and 5 d after synchronized breeding did not differ (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the conception rate of Brahman-influenced bulls servicing SMB-synchronized cows is within the normal range. However, the total number of individual females serviced and the total pregnancy rate under the protocol employed was low. This occurred because all estrous females were not inseminated, and some bulls exhibited unpredicted low fertility.

  8. CROSSING OF HOLSTEIN HORSE BREED WITH SOME OTHER BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Ljubešić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment of crossing a heavier-weight semi-breed horse (Holstein with mares of Croatian Posavian type draft horse resulted in possibility of such further crossing. Attained product meets today’s market requirements: firstly as an export-meat category that meets Italian market requirements, since other markets are not well known, secondly, it can be used as a sport-tourist-recreation horse. It must be pointed out that all produced hybrids did not meet the needs of these two basic criteria. In spite of being potential slaughtery head with good utilization, each produced head can be, according to its exterial properties, used as a sporttourist animal that showed certain usable values and results proven by the experiment. The hybrids showed some hereditory draft horse properties shown on enclosed photos. In addition, exterier measures show that former knowledge on hybrids can respond the question of a horse raising on non-utilized pastures which they got used to very well. Thus these horses are able to be estimated by their body development just as our native draft Posavian type horse including possibility of using them as a sport-tourist-recreation horse.

  9. Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock breeding for sustainability to mitigate global warming, with the emphasis ... is essential in implementing efficient breeding systems to cope with climate change. Sophisticated statistical models continue to support animal breeding and ...

  10. Analyses of Hubble Space Telescope Aluminized-Teflon Multilayer Insulation Blankets Retrieved After 19 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Perry, Bruce A.; Mohammed, Jelila S.; Banks, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Since its launch in April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has made many important observations from its vantage point in low Earth orbit (LEO). However, as seen during five servicing missions, the outer layer of multilayer insulation (MLI) has become increasingly embrittled and has cracked in many areas. In May 2009, during the 5th servicing mission (called SM4), two MLI blankets were replaced with new insulation and the space-exposed MLI blankets were retrieved for degradation analyses by teams at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The retrieved MLI blankets were from Equipment Bay 8, which received direct sunlight, and Equipment Bay 5, which received grazing sunlight. Each blanket was divided into several regions based on environmental exposure and/or physical appearance. The aluminized-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) outer layers of the retrieved MLI blankets have been analyzed for changes in optical, physical, and mechanical properties, along with chemical and morphological changes. Pristine and as-retrieved samples (materials) were heat treated to help understand degradation mechanisms. When compared to pristine material, the analyses have shown how the Al-FEP was severely affected by the space environment. Most notably, the Al-FEP was highly embrittled, fracturing like glass at strains of 1 to 8 percent. Across all measured properties, more significant degradation was observed for Bay 8 material as compared to Bay 5 material. This paper reviews the tensile and bend-test properties, density, thickness, solar absorptance, thermal emittance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental composition measurements, surface and crack morphologies, and atomic oxygen erosion yields of the Al-FEP outer layer of the retrieved HST blankets after 19 years of space exposure.

  11. 聚变-裂变混合堆高功率密度包层的设计研究%High Power Density Blanket Design Study for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦华; 邓培智

    2001-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a high power density blanket was carried out. The blanket is cooled by high-pressure helium in tubes in the form of cooling panels. A great number of cooling panels is arranged inside the blanket yet maintaining a fairly simple configuration. The module is robust and fabricable. The concept of LiPb eutectic/transuranium oxide suspension is adopted. The neutronics design is performed giving a flattened power density distribution with the peak value of 70 W/cm3. Thermal analysis shows the design can satisfy technical requirements. Preliminary structural analysis has also been done.%进行了高功率密度包层的概念设计研究。包层冷却采用管道承压的氦气。虽然引入了众多的氦冷却管道,包层结构仍然比较简单、坚固并便于制造。采用了超铀氧化物颗粒悬浮在锂铅共熔体的方案,中子学计算给出峰值功率密度为70 MW*m-3,功率密度分布比较平坦。热工分析计算表明设计能满足技术要求。此外,进行了初步的结构分析计算。

  12. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  13. Development of radiation hard components for ITER blanket remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Makiko, E-mail: saito.makiko@jaea.go.jp; Anzai, Katsunori; Maruyama, Takahito; Noguchi, Yuto; Ueno, Kenichi; Takeda, Nobukazu; Kakudate, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Clarify the components that will degrade by gamma ray irradiation. • Perform the irradiation tests to BRHS components. • Optimize the materials to increase the radiation hardness. - Abstract: The ITER blanket remote handling system (BRHS) will be operated in a high radiation environment (250 Gy/h max.) and must stably handle the blanket modules, which weigh 4.5 t and are more than 1.5 m in length, with a high degree of position and posture accuracy. The reliability of the system can be improved by reviewing the failure events of the system caused by high radiation. A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) identified failure modes and determined that lubricants, O-rings, and electric insulation cables were the dominant components affecting radiation hardness. Accordingly, we tried to optimize the lubricants and cables of the AC servo motors by using polyphenyl ether (PPE)-based grease and polyether ether ketone (PEEK), respectively. Materials containing radiation protective agents were also selected for the cable sheaths and O-rings to improve radiation hardness. Gamma ray irradiation tests were performed on these components and as a result, a radiation hardness of 8 MGy was achieved for the AC servo motors. On the other hand, to develop the radiation hardness and BRHS compatibility furthermore, the improvement of materials of cable and O ring were performed.

  14. Feasibility study of a neutron activation system for EU test blanket systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Kuo, E-mail: kuo.tian@kit.edu [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Calderoni, Pattrick [Fusion for Energy(F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Ghidersa, Bradut-Eugen; Klix, Axel [Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper summarizes the technical baseline and preliminary design of EU TBM Neutron Activation System, briefly describes the key components, and outlines the major integration challenges. - Abstract: The Neutron Activation System (NAS) for the EU Helium Cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) and Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) is an instrument that is proposed to determine the absolute neutron fluence and absolute neutron flux with information on the neutron spectrum in selected positions of the corresponding Test Blanket Modules (TBMs). In the NAS activation probes are exposed to the ITER neutron flux for periods ranging from several tens of seconds up to a full plasma pulse length, and the induced gamma activities are subsequently measured. The NAS is composed of a pneumatic transfer system and a counting station. The pneumatic transfer system includes irradiation ends in TBMs, transfer pipes, return gas pipes, a transfer station with a distributor (carousel), and a pressurized gas driving system, while the counting station consists of gamma ray detectors, signal processing electronic devices, and data analyzing software for neutron source strength evaluation. In this paper, a brief description on the proposed TBM NAS as well as the key components is presented, and the integration challenges of TBM NAS are outlined.

  15. The feasibility study I on the blanket fuel options for the ATW/HYPER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Lee, Byoung Oon; Lee, Bong Sang; Park, Won Seok; Meyer, M.K; Hayes, S.L

    2001-01-01

    The choice of a blanket fuel cycle technology and the fuel type for HYPER/ATW are important to develop an ADS with better economics, performance and safety. Even though several fuel types have been considered as an alternative of the blanket fuels for HYPER/ATW, the metal alloy and the dispersion fuels were selected as the candidate fuels for ADS, and the technical feasibilities for both fuels are evaluated in this report. General performance characteristics, fabrication abilities, technical aspects, safety aspects, economics, and non-proliferation aspects for each fuel type are reviewed and evaluated. And some technological problems are addressed in this report, focused on the development strategy, the roadmaps, and the flexibility to meet the missions and specific designs. This study has been performed at the first stage of conceptual design. Since it is under the lack of physical properties for each fuel material, no an attempt is made to select the best fuel option, but the more better fuel options are recommended.

  16. Application Effect’s Research of Vetiver Eco Blanket in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the ecological disasters in Pubugou Reservoir Fluctuating Zone, ecological blanket governance model is proposed in this paper, which may provide good early environment for plants’ survival in fluctuation zone, and then play the function of greening and sustainable development to ensure the slopes’ stability. Meanwhile, based on the result of vetiver ecological blanket in Hanyuan experimental zone, we find that three kinds of typical Fluctuating Zone slope’s greening effect is good, which includes the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope, and it gets an average coverage of 90.3 % as well as good strength. Due to the different geological conditions, the ecological blankets’ governance effect differs from slope to slope. Using analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight, we get the dirt piling up slope, the whole lump of rock slope and the gravel piling up slope’s weights are 0.41, 0.17, 0.42, respectively, namely, the dirt piling up slope and the gravel piling up slope have good results overall, followed by the whole lump of rock slope.

  17. Fusion-Driven Sub-Critical Dual-Cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket:Design and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weihua(汪卫华); Wu Yican(吴宜灿); Ke Yan(柯严); Kang Zhicheng(康志诚); Wang Hongyan(王红艳); Huang Qunying(黄群英)

    2003-01-01

    The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB),as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper is mainly involved with the basic structure design and thermalhydraulics analysis of DWTB. On the basis of a three-dimensional (3-D) model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal temperature gradients and structure analysis made with a comprehensive finite element method (FEM) have been performed with the computer code ANSYS5.7 and computational fluid dynamic finite element codes. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating condition of an outboard blanket segment. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions have been also taken into account.All the above loads have been combined as an input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated. Finally, the structure design and Pb-17Li flow velocity has been optimized according to the calculations and analysis.

  18. Fabrication of ITER Semi-Prototype Blanket First Wall for the Final Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Kwon; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Jeong Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Kwon; Lee, Don Won; Kim, Duck Hoi; Cho, Seung Yon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The ITER semi-prototype was designed to qualify the manufacturing technology for the ITER blanket first wall. According to the design of the semi-prototype, its fabrication is expected to face great difficulty. The blanket first wall consists of three different materials, i.e., beryllium (Be), CuCrZr, and stainless-steel (SS), which are joined into one part. For fabrication of these multi-layered structures, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), which is one of the diffusion bonding methods, has been considered as a promising technology to realize sufficient mechanical integrity of a joint under the anticipated high neutron and stress fields. HIP provides high dimensional accuracy, low residual stress during the joining process, and the joining of three-dimensionally complex structures in comparison with other joining methods. Even though the joining technology for the different materials had been developed in the first stage of the qualification, the joining is still a key issue for the fabrication of the semi-prototype

  19. Stellar model atmospheres with magnetic line blanketing. II. Introduction of polarized radiative transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, S A

    2006-01-01

    The technique of model atmosphere calculation for magnetic Ap and Bp stars with polarized radiative transfer and magnetic line blanketing is presented. A grid of model atmospheres of A and B stars are computed. These calculations are based on direct treatment of the opacities due to the bound-bound transitions that ensures an accurate and detailed description of the line absorption and anomalous Zeeman splitting. The set of model atmospheres was calculated for the field strengths between 1 and 40 kG. The high-resolution energy distribution, photometric colors and the hydrogen Balmer line profiles are computed for magnetic stars with different metallicities and are compared to those of non-magnetic reference models and to the previous paper of this series. The results of modelling confirmed the main outcomes of the previous study: energy redistribution from UV to the visual region and flux depression at 5200A. However, we found that effects of enhanced line blanketing when transfer for polarized radiation take...

  20. Properties and Technology for Quasi-Composite Blanket Using Natural Reinforcement of the Metal by Strain Affected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirichek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for making materials with advanced performance attributes at the expense of blanket heterogeneous strengthening are considered. A new trend is defined in a multiple increase of performance attributes in metal materials by natural reinforcement with nanostructural and ultra-fine-grained fragments. The application of a wave strain hardening technique is substantiated for obtaining a heterogeneous structure in wide-area listed full-size products including bulky ones. A high carrying capacity of heavy-loaded material with a deep-strengthened blanket is determined.