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Sample records for breeding bird populations

  1. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A.; Steven J. Wagner.

    2005-06-29

    Gauthreaux, Sidney, A., and Steven J. Wagner. 2005. Breeding bird populations and habitat associations within the Savannah River Site (SRS). Final Report. USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, Aiken, SC. 48 pp. Abstract: During the 1970's and 1980's a dramatic decline occurred in the populations of Neotropical migratory birds, species that breed in North America and winter south of the border in Central and South America and in the Caribbean. In 1991 an international initiative was mounted by U. S. governmental land management agencies, nongovernmental conservation agencies, and the academic and lay ornithological communities to understand the decline of Neotropical migratory birds in the Americas. In cooperation with the USDA Forest Service - Savannah River (FS - SR) we began 1992 a project directed to monitoring population densities of breeding birds using the Breeding Bird Census (BBC) methodology in selected habitats within the Savannah River Site SRS. In addition we related point count data on the occurrence of breeding Neotropical migrants and other bird species to the habitat data gathered by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service and data on habitat treatments within forest stands.

  2. Breeding bird populations of Irish peatlands : capsule peatlands are very important habitats for birds despite low species diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Barry J. McMahon; Whelan, John

    2008-01-01

    Aims to describe the variation in breeding bird populations that occur on different types of Irish peatlands and their associated habitat characteristics. Methods: Bird abundance and diversity were compared between four peatland habitat types: fens; raised bogs; Atlantic blanket bogs; and montane blanket bogs at twelve study sites using transects. Various measures of habitat quality were also taken at each location. Results: Only 21 species were recorded during the study with Meadow Pip...

  3. Climate change and the risks associated with delayed breeding in a tropical wild bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Senapathi, Deepa; Nicoll, Malcolm A C; Teplitsky, Celine; Jones, Carl G.; Norris, Ken

    2011-01-01

    There is growing evidence of changes in the timing of important ecological events, such as flowering in plants and reproduction in animals, in response to climate change, with implications for population decline and biodiversity loss. Recent work has shown that the timing of breeding in wild birds is changing in response to climate change partly because individuals are remarkably flexible in their timing of breeding. Despite this work, our understanding of these processes in wild populations ...

  4. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  5. Breeding Bird Populations at Selected Sites on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes breeding bird surveys that were conducted on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge in June and July of 2002. Eleven study plots were established...

  6. Breeding Bird Populations at Selected Sites on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge Complex : 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes breeding bird surveys that were conducted on Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge in June of 2001. Eleven study plots were established and...

  7. Effects of five-year DDT application on breeding bird population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Springer, P.F.; Webster, C.G.

    1951-01-01

    Aerial applications of DDT in oil at the rate of 2 pounds per acre applied over a four-year interval on bottomland forest resulted in a 26 percent decrease in the breeding bird population by the fifth spring. The American redstart, parula warbler, and red-eyed vireo suffered decreases of 44 percent, 40. percent, and 28 percent, respectively, over the four-year period. Only the redstart decreased significantly immediately following application of the spray; a few days after the first, second, and fifth annual sprayings an average of 23 percent of redstart territories were deserted. No significant decrease was observed for other species, either immediately following spraying, or over the four-year period.

  8. A Study of the Effects of Gas Well Compressor Noise on Breeding Bird Populations of the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area, San Juan County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaGory, K.E.; Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.; Reeves, T.; Liebich, R.; Smith, K.

    2001-06-04

    This report, conducted from May through July 2000, addressed the potential effect of compressor noise on breeding birds in gas-production areas administered by the FFO, specifically in the Rattlesnake Canyon Habitat Management Area northeast of Farmington, New Mexico. The study was designed to quantify and characterize noise output from these compressors and to determine if compressor noise affected bird populations in adjacent habitat during the breeding season.

  9. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  10. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  11. Breeding Bird Survey and bird banding data: Applications to raptor research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Bystrak, D.

    1991-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Bird Banding Laboratory (BBL) are sources of information for raptor biologists. The BBS has been conducted each year since 1966 in the United States and Canada; historical bird banding records extend back to the early 20th century. BBS data can be used to document population trends and breeding distributions of many bird species. Banding data are generally collected for specific and local studies of bird populations or behavior. Past use of these data has been limited by their volume and relative inaccessibility. In this paper, we present an overview of BBS and BBL raptor data and their uses, limitations and availability.

  12. Estimating the size of Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis) breeding populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, Ricard; Figuerola, Jordi

    1997-01-01

    [eng] The esti­ mation of Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis breeding numbers has been found to be quite difficult, given the shy behavior of breeding birds, Different methods have been used, although their accuracy has never been tested. The breeding population was estimated in 1994 at 27 different water bodies in the Liobregat Delta (NE Spain). Breeding numbers were estimated by two methods: a) call census plus territory mapping, and b) direct nest searches. Breeding call surveys gave a 19...

  13. Breeding bird study in the Mississippi River Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A breeding bird study was initiated in 1992 to census birds on the Gardner Division of Mark Twain NWR. The division is located in the Mississippi River floodplain...

  14. Some breeding and ecological aspects of heronry birds at Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary Agra, Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-species heronry at Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, Agra was studied for some breeding and ecological aspects. This is an established heronry in semi-arid region with less than 600 mm rainfall and temperature range of 2oC to 48oC. Two near threatened (Black-headed Ibis and Darter and twelve least concerned species nested in colony during late summer and rainy season. They were categorized as the early arrivers (Black-crowned Night Heron, Little Egret, Cattle Egret, Darter and Grey Heron, late arrivers (Intermediate Egret, Indian Pond Heron, Great Egret, Black-headed Ibis, Purple Heron and Asian Openbill and very late arrivers (Eurasian Spoonbill, Little Cormorant and Indian Cormorant. Total Nest occupancy at a time followed the rainfall pattern of the locality. Nest occupancy calendar was recorded in the form of pre-egg laying, egg laying and chick rearing dates for all the species. Nesting height-bird size hypothesis was checked as mixed results as the stratum specific birds proved the hypothesis right, while stratum interface birds suggested relook of the hypothesis. Heronry threat, disturbance behavior of the birds and disturbance distance were recorded. Buffer establishment and heronry protection measures are recommended for conservation of the source population. The breeding phenology data could be used as baseline as indicator tool for climate change impact.

  15. A citywide breeding bird survey for Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidian, J.; Sauer, J.R.; Swarth, C.; Handly, P.; Droege, S.; Williams, C.; Huff, J.; Didden, G.

    1997-01-01

    `DC Birdscape' was initiated in 1993 to systematically count the birds occurring throughout Washington D.C. during the breeding season. It involved a coordinated planning effort and partnership between the Audubon Naturalist Society, the National Park Service, and the National Biological Survey, and engaged the participation of more than 100 volunteers. A method for rapidly assessing the status of bird populations over a large area was developed and incorporated into a Geographic Information System to allow a multidimensional analysis of species presence and abundance across a variety of urban land use areas. A total of 91 species were observed, with an estimated total number of 115, making Washington D.C. almost as `bird rich' as nearby suburban counties. Data from the study clearly indicate that avian species are not randomly distributed throughout the Washington D.C. metropolitan area, and show affinity, at least in part, to some of the most broadly recognized land use patterns that are commonly used to zone and classify urban areas under development schemes. This study represents a prototype that will allow efficient and economical monitoring of urban bird populations.

  16. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  17. Migratory diversity predicts population declines in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Gill, Jennifer A; Butchart, Stuart H M; Jones, Victoria R; Franco, Aldina M A

    2016-03-01

    Declines in migratory species are a pressing concern worldwide, but the mechanisms underpinning these declines are not fully understood. We hypothesised that species with greater within-population variability in migratory movements and destinations, here termed 'migratory diversity', might be more resilient to environmental change. To test this, we related map-based metrics of migratory diversity to recent population trends for 340 European breeding birds. Species that occupy larger non-breeding ranges relative to breeding, a characteristic we term 'migratory dispersion', were less likely to be declining than those with more restricted non-breeding ranges. Species with partial migration strategies (i.e. overlapping breeding and non-breeding ranges) were also less likely to be declining than full migrants or full residents, an effect that was independent of migration distance. Recent rates of advancement in Europe-wide spring arrival date were greater for partial migrants than full migrants, suggesting that migratory diversity may also help facilitate species responses to climate change. PMID:26807694

  18. Survey of breeding birds, Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of the results of the third annual survey of breeding birds of Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge conducted in 1996. Information on...

  19. Relative Abundance of Breeding Birds in the Dismal Swamp 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To obtain an idea of the relative abundance of breeding birds in the predominant mixed swamp hardwoods forest of the Dismal Swamp in southeastern Virginia, a...

  20. Bird-window collisions in the summer breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hager

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Birds that reside in urban settings face numerous human-related threats to survival, including mortality from bird-window collisions (BWCs. Our current understanding of this issue has largely been driven by data collected during spring and fall migration, and patterns of collision mortality during the summer breeding season remain relatively unexplored. We assessed BWCs during four breeding seasons (2009–2012 at a site in northwestern Illinois, USA, by comparing the abundance, richness, migratory class, and age of the species living around buildings to species mortally wounded by window collisions. We also systematically assessed the daily timing of BWCs throughout the breeding season. We documented BWCs in 4 of 25 (16% species and 7 of 21 (33% species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The relationship between BWCs and abundance depended on age. For adults, BWCs were highest in the least abundant species, e.g., Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus, and lowest in species with high abundance values, e.g., Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina. For juveniles, mortality was greatest for the most abundant species, and the American Robin (Turdus migratorius accounted for 62% of all juvenile carcasses. Early in the breeding season, collision mortality was restricted to adults of Long-distance Migrants, whereas juveniles of all three migratory guilds (Long-distance and Short-distance Migrants and Permanent Residents died at windows from late June through early August. Daily mortality for all species was highest between sunrise–1600 h and lowest from 1600 h–sunrise the next day. Generally, the species observed as carcasses matched birds considered a ‘high risk’ for BWCs, e.g., Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris, and those considered ‘low risk’ were not observed as carcasses, e.g., Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea. Our results suggest that the number of BWCs during the breeding season does not necessarily increase with

  1. Grassland bird surveys in support of the Michigan Breeding Bird Atlas II: Final report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Grassland birds, as a group, have suffered the most severe population declines of any other North American birds (Herkert 1995, Herkert et al. 1996). Compared to...

  2. Iowa Breed Bird Atlas 2, 2008-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — These are the locations of Iowa's Second Breeding Bird Atlas. Blocks are 3 by 3 miles in size. Some of the blocks are the same as those surveyed in the first BBA,...

  3. Artificial insemination for breeding non-domestic birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Temple, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Captive breeding of non-domestic birds has increased dramatically in this century, and production of young often exceeds that of the same number of birds in their native habitat. However, when infertility is a problem, artificial insemination can be a useful method to improve production. Artificial insemination programs with non-domestic birds are relatively recent, but several notable successes have been documented, especially with cranes and raptors. Three methods of artificial insemination are described--cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation. Cooperative artificial insemination requires training of birds imprinted on man and is used extensively in some raptor programs. The massage technique generally is used when there are larger numbers of birds to inseminate since it requires less training of the birds than with the cooperative method, and a larger number of attempted semen collections are successful. Although the best samples are obtained from birds conditioned to capture and handling procedures associated with the massage method, samples can be obtained from wild birds. Semen collection and insemination for the crane serves to illustrate some of the modifications necessary to compensate for anatomical variations. Collection of semen by electrical stimulation is not commonly used in birds. Unlike the other two methods which require behavioral cooperation by the bird, electroejaculation is possible in reproductively active birds without prior conditioning when properly restrained. Fertility from artificial insemination in captive non-domestic-birds has been good. Although some spermatozoal morphology has been reported, most aspects of morphology are not useful in predicting fertility. However, spermatozoal head length in the crane may have a positive correlation with fertility. Nevertheless, insemination with the largest number of live spermatozoa is still the best guarantee of fertile egg production.

  4. The North American Breeding Bird Survey 1966–2011: Summary analysis and species accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Link, William A.; Fallon, Jane E.; Pardieck, Keith L.; Ziolkowski, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The North American Breeding Bird Survey is a roadside, count-based survey conducted by volunteer observers. Begun in 1966, it now is a primary source of information on spatial and temporal patterns of population change for North American birds. We analyze population change for states, provinces, Bird Conservation Regions, and the entire survey within the contiguous United States and southern Canada for 426 species using a hierarchical log-linear model that controls for observer effects in counting. We also map relative abundance and population change for each species using a spatial smoothing of data at the scale of survey routes. We present results in accounts that describe major breeding habitats, migratory status, conservation status, and population trends for each species at several geographic scales. We also present composite results for groups of species categorized by habitats and migratory status. The survey varies greatly among species in percentage of species' range covered and precision of results, but consistent patterns of decline occur among eastern forest, grassland, and aridland obligate birds while generalist bird species are increasing.

  5. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  6. Bird populations in coastal habitats, Arctic National Wildlife Range, Alaska: Results of 1978 and 1979 surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the coastal zone of the Arctic National Wildlife Range, the highest breeding populations of birds occurred in wet and flooded sedge tundra areas surrounded...

  7. Assemblages of breeding birds as indicators of grassland condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browder, S.F.; Johnson, D.H.; Ball, I.J.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a measure of biological integrity for grasslands (GI) based on the most influential habitat types in the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota. GI is based on proportions of habitat types and the relationships of these habitat types to breeding birds. Habitat types were identified by digital aerial photography, verified on the ground, and quantified using GIS. We then developed an index to GI based on the presence or abundance of breeding bird species. Species abundance data were obtained from 3 min roadside point counts at 889 points in 44, 4050 ha study plots over a 2-year period. Using a modified North American Breeding Bird Survey protocol, species were recorded in each of four quadrants at each point. Fifty species selected for analysis included all grassland species that occurred in at least 15 quadrants and all other bird species that occurred in at least 1% of quadrants. We constructed preliminary models using data from each of the 2 years, then tested their predictive ability by cross-validation with data from the other year. These cross-validation tests indicated that the index consistently predicted grassland integrity. The final four models (presence and abundance models at 200 and 400 m scales) included only those species that were statistically significant (P 0.05) in all preliminary models. Finally we interpreted the components of the indices by examining associations between individual species and habitat types. Logistic regression identified 386 statistically significant relationships between species and habitat types at 200 and 400 m scales. This method, though labor-intensive, successfully uses the presence of grassland-dependent species and absence of species associated with woody vegetation or cropland to provide an index to grassland integrity. Once regional associations of species with habitat types have been identified, such indices can be applied relatively inexpensively to monitor grassland integrity over large geographic

  8. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehouse, Michael J.; Harrison, Nancy M.; Julia Mackenzie; Shelley A Hinsley

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England – mi...

  9. Breeding Atlantic Puffins, Fratercula arctica, and other birds species of Coburg Island, Nunavut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, M.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Allard, K.

    2000-01-01

    Coburg Island and neighbouring waters were recently designated a Canadian National Wildlife Area. The large seabird colony at Cambridge Point has been previously described, and is dominated by Thick-billed Murres (160 000 pairs). We found that a small offshore island, named Princess Charlotte Monument, also supported breeding populations of seven marine bird species; three of which did not breed at the main colony (i.e., Northern Fulmar, Common Eider, and Atlantic Puffin). This is the most northern confirmed breeding site for Atlantic Puffins in Canada. Puffins at both Coburg Island and northern Greenland nest in rock crevices, apparently because permafrost in soil prevents burrow nesting. We suggest that puffin populations in the high arctic may be limited by habitat, rather than prey availability.

  10. Integrating Shrubland and Grassland breeding bird habitat management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a series of reports and emails that attempt to answer the question “Is it possible to integrate grassland breeding bird and shrub land bird management in...

  11. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychra, O; Literák, I; Podzemný, P; Harmat, P; Hrabák, R

    2011-02-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in pre-breeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds. PMID:21395201

  12. Population trend and breeding biology of Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus in a natural vegetation site in northeast Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Limiñana, Rubén; Surroca Royo, Martín; Miralles, Stephan; Urios, Vicente; Jiménez, Juan (O.F.M.), trad

    2004-01-01

    Capsule: Reproductive output in a natural habitat was higher than in birds breeding in cereal crops, highlighting the importance of natural habitats for the species. Aims: To evaluate breeding in a natural habitat in inland Castellon province, Spain, and compare breeding parameters with other European populations. Methods: Breeding population size in inland Castellon was recorded between 1981 and 2003. A logistic growth model was used to describe population increase. We also calculated clu...

  13. Potential impacts of climatic change on European breeding birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Huntley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climatic change is expected to lead to changes in species' geographical ranges. Adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation require quantitative estimates of the magnitude, direction and rates of these potential changes. Such estimates are of greatest value when they are made for large ensembles of species and for extensive (sub-continental or continental regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For six climate scenarios for 2070-99 changes have been estimated for 431 European breeding bird species using models relating species' distributions in Europe to climate. Mean range centroid potentially shifted 258-882 km in a direction between 341 degrees (NNW and 45 degrees (NE, depending upon the climate scenario considered. Potential future range extent averaged 72-89% of the present range, and overlapped the present range by an average of 31-53% of the extent of the present range. Even if potential range changes were realised, the average number of species breeding per 50x50 km grid square would decrease by 6.8-23.2%. Many species endemic or near-endemic to Europe have little or no overlap between their present and potential future ranges; such species face an enhanced extinction risk as a consequence of climatic change. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although many human activities exert pressures upon wildlife, the magnitude of the potential impacts estimated for European breeding birds emphasises the importance of climatic change. The development of adaptation strategies for biodiversity conservation in the face of climatic change is an urgent need; such strategies must take into account quantitative evidence of potential climatic change impacts such as is presented here.

  14. Analysis of the North American Breeding Bird Survey using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, John R.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed population change for 420 bird species from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a hierarchical log-linear model, and compared the results to route regression analysis results. Survey-wide trend estimates based on the hierarchical model were more precise than estimates from the earlier analysis. No consistent pattern of differences existed in magnitude of trends between the analysis methods. Survey-wide trend estimates changed substantially for 15 species between route regression and hierarchical model analyses. We compared regional estimates for states, provinces, and Bird Conservation Regions; differences observed in these regional analyses are likely a consequence of the route regression procedure's inadequate accommodation of temporal differences in survey effort. We used species-specific hierarchical model results to estimate composite change for groups of birds associated with major habitats and migration types. Grassland, aridland, and eastern forest obligate bird species declined, while urban/suburban species increased over the interval 1968-2008. No migration status group experienced significant changes, although Nearctic-Neotropical migrant species showed intervals of decline and permanent resident species increased almost 20% during the interval. Hierarchical model results better portrayed patterns of population change over time than route regression results; we recommend use of hierarchical models for BBS analyses.

  15. Forest area and distribution in the Mississippi alluvial valley: Implications for breeding bird conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.

    1999-01-01

    Knowing the current forest distribution and patch size characteristics is integral to the development of geographically defined, habitat-based conservation objectives for breeding birds. Towards this end, we classified 2.6 million ha of forest cover within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley using 1992 thematic mapper satellite imagery. Although historically this area, from southern Illinois to southern Louisiana, was dominated by forested wetlands, forest cover remains on less than 25% of the floodplain. Remaining forest cover is comprised of > 38,000 discrete forest patches > 2 ha. Mean patch area (64.1?5.2 ha; 0 ?SE) was highly skewed towards small fragment size. Larger patches had a higher proportion of more hydric forest cover classes than did smaller patches which had a higher proportion of less hydric forest cover classes. Public lands accounted for 16% of remaining forested wetlands. Fewer than 100 forest patches exceeded our hypothesized habitat objective (4000 ha minimum contiguous forest area) intended to support self-sustaining populations of forest breeding birds. To increase the number of forest patches exceeding 4000 ha contiguous area, and thereby increase the likelihood of successful forest bird conservation, we recommend afforestation adjoining existing forest fragments ?1012 ha and focused within designated Forest Bird Conservation Regions.

  16. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  17. Climate change and population declines in a long-distance migratory bird

    OpenAIRE

    Both, C; Bouwhuis, S.; Lessells, CM; Visser, ME

    2006-01-01

    Phenological responses to climate change differ across trophic levels(1-3), which may lead to birds failing to breed at the time of maximal food abundance. Here we investigate the population consequences of such mistiming in the migratory pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca(4). In a comparison of nine Dutch populations, we find that populations have declined by about 90% over the past two decades in areas where the food for provisioning nestlings peaks early in the season and the birds are cu...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1979. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey was initiated experimentally in 1947 and became operational in 1955. It is conducted cooperatively by the U.S....

  2. Waterfowl breeding population survey: Southern Saskatchewan: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for southern Saskatchewan during 1999. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of insect ectoparasites found on wild birds during pre-breeding was compared with previous data from the post-breeding period. There was no difference in total prevalence of chewing lice in prebreeding and post-breeding periods. Higher prevalence of fleas and slightly higher mean intensity of chewing lice were found on birds during the pre-breeding period. There was a significant difference in total prevalence but equal mean intensity of chewing lice on resident and migrating birds.

  4. Breeding latitude drives individual schedules in a trans-hemispheric migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F; Potter, Murray A; Fox, James W

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear benefits of optimal arrival time on breeding grounds, migration schedules may vary with an individual bird's innate quality, non-breeding habitat or breeding destination. Here, we show that for the bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica baueri), a shorebird that makes the longest known non-stop migratory flights of any bird, timing of migration for individual birds from a non-breeding site in New Zealand was strongly correlated with their specific breeding latitudes in Alaska, USA, a 16,000-18,000 km journey away. Furthermore, this variation carried over even to the southbound return migration, 6 months later, with birds returning to New Zealand in approximately the same order in which they departed. These tightly scheduled movements on a global scale suggest endogenously controlled routines, with breeding site as the primary driver of temporal variation throughout the annual cycle. PMID:20842198

  5. Bird-resistant pollination bags for sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. Seed loss by bird damage was elimi...

  6. Field irradiator gamma: pre-irradiation occurrence of breeding birds in three boreal habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trail census was conducted of the breeding birds found in three major habitats in the Field Irradiator Gamma area at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment, Pinawa, Manitoba. The area sampled was about 10.50 ha in size, and included 4.25 ha of upland forest, 4.75 ha of lowland conifers, and 1.50 ha of black spruce-tamarack bog. Forty-four species of birds were identified, of which 24 were considered to be resident in the study area. The highest population density was observed in the bog, followed by upland forest and lowland conifer respectively. In contrast, species diversity was greatest in the upland forest, while it decreased markedly in the relatively monotypic lowland conifer and bog habitats. (author)

  7. Demographic routes to variability and regulation in bird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Grøtan, Vidar; Engen, Steinar; Coulson, Tim; Grant, Peter R.; Visser, Marcel E.; Brommer, Jon E.; Rosemary Grant, B.; Gustafsson, Lars; Hatchwell, Ben J.; Jerstad, Kurt; Karell, Patrik; Pietiäinen, Hannu; Roulin, Alexandre; Røstad, Ole W.; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    There is large interspecific variation in the magnitude of population fluctuations, even among closely related species. The factors generating this variation are not well understood, primarily because of the challenges of separating the relative impact of variation in population size from fluctuations in the environment. Here, we show using demographic data from 13 bird populations that magnitudes of fluctuations in population size are mainly driven by stochastic fluctuations in the environment. Regulation towards an equilibrium population size occurs through density-dependent mortality. At small population sizes, population dynamics are primarily driven by environment-driven variation in recruitment, whereas close to the carrying capacity K, variation in population growth is more strongly influenced by density-dependent mortality of both juveniles and adults. Our results provide evidence for the hypothesis proposed by Lack that population fluctuations in birds arise from temporal variation in the difference between density-independent recruitment and density-dependent mortality during the non-breeding season. PMID:27328710

  8. POPULATION SIZE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS AND LOCALLY ADAPTED HEN’S BREEDS ON AREA OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On basic certificates about acceptation of Oravka Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn and Sussex, controlled flocks of Slovak Union of Breeders, we analyzed total number of birds, number of breeding males, number of breeding females and effective population size by Simon and Buchenauer (1993 and we evaluated the populations of observed hen’s breeds to categorisations by Scherf (2000. The highest number of birds we recorded at breed New Hampshire from observed hen’s breeds. Average total number of animals in period of year 2003 - 2008 was 1373 birds with average effective population size 445.103. However, the population of New Hampshire poultry in Slovakia was evaluating by massive decrease in last years as a endangered - maintained breed for which an active conservation programme is in place. By contrast, the smallest number of animals was detected at breed White Leghorn with average total number 18.83 birds in period of year 2003 - 2008 and average effective population size 6.605. The breed White Leghorn in Slovakia we categorized to critical breed. National legislation on Slovakia has been created, the fist experience is being gathered and the European legislation is coming in practice. The conditions for the development and preservation of endangered breeds of poultry in Slovak Republic in the long term are being put in place by means of creative and well aimed utilisation of European and national legislation.

  9. Evaluation of a reproductive index for estimating productivity of grassland breeding birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M.R.; Norment, C.; Runge, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Declining populations of grassland breeding birds have led to increased efforts to assess habitat quality, typically by estimating density or relative abundance. Because some grassland habitats may function as ecological traps, a more appropriate metric for determining quality is breeding success, which is challenging to determine for many cryptic-nesting grassland birds. This difficulty led Vickery et al. (1992) to propose a reproductive index based on behavioral observations rather than nest fate. We rigorously evaluated the index for 2 years using a Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) population in western New York and found a weak correlation in classification of the breeding stages of monitored territories among multiple observers (r = 0.398). We also discovered a large difference between overall territory and nest success rates independently estimated with the index (9.8% over the entire breeding cycle) and with nest searching and monitoring (41.7% of nests successfully fledged young). Most importantly, we made territory-level comparisons of index estimates with actual nest fate and found that the index correctly predicted fates for only 43% of the monitored nests. A Mayfield logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only index rank 4 (eggs hatched, but young failed to fledge) showed a strong positive correlation with nest success. Although the reproductive index may function as a coarse indicator of habitat suitability (e.g., documenting production in potential ecological traps), in our study the index exhibited neither internal consistency nor the ability to predict nest fate at the plot or territory level and functioned poorly as a substitute for nest searching and monitoring. ?? 2010 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  10. Review of the breeding status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni N. Maurício

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Information on the breeding biology of birds is essential for improving avian life-history theory and implementing sound management and conservation actions for these organisms. Comprehensive reviews of this kind of information are lacking for most Neotropical regions, including Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian state. Aiming to update the knowledge on the reproductive status of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, we reviewed breeding records of all potential breeding species recorded in the state using a set of predefined, restrictive criteria for accepting breeding evidences as effective. Data satisfying our criteria were available for 165 species in the literature. We also collected novel breeding information obtained in the state for an additional 126 species, including observations for several species whose reproductive biology is poorly known. Among these are birds previously unknown to breed in Brazil. This new data and the critical review of the previous information resulted in a total of 291 species for which breeding evidences are accepted as effective. This corresponds to 54.7% of the 532 species considered either confirmed or potential breeders in the state. In addition to providing information on nesting dates, clutch size, nest architecture and breeding behavior of south Brazilian birds, our review serves as a benchmark for the adequate assessment of avian breeding records elsewhere. We hope to stimulate observers to rigorously document breeding events, especially for taxa for which basic information is lacking.

  11. Breeding bird survey of the Delair Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Annada District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this study was to inventory the breeding birds, both game and nongame, present within the boundaries of the Mark Twain NWR, and to identify habitat...

  12. The effects of prairie management techniques, burning and mowing, on Iowa grassland breeding bird communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report investigates the effects of burning and mowing on the grassland breeding bird community of Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge in central Iowa. Two...

  13. A summary of the 2003 Devils Lake Wetland Management District breeding bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) was conducted in the Devils Lake Wetland Management District (DLWMD) during the late spring and early summer of 2003. The DLWMD...

  14. Amendment Number 2 - Effects of Commercial Thinning in Slash Pine on Breeding Birds and Their Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A plan to determine the impact on breeding birds and their habitat of thinning by commercial harvest in the slash pine habitat type on St. Vincent Island. This plan...

  15. Breeding Birds of two Atlantic White Cedar Stands in the Great Dismal Swamp 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Breeding birds were censused during two years in two Atlantic white cedar stands of the Great Dismal Swamp, and a comparison was made with census results of the...

  16. 1999 Breeding Bird Survey Route Paths for the Lower 48 States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a 1999 snapshot of the approximate route paths of active Breeding Bird Survey routes in the lower 48 States. The paths are a visual...

  17. Initial Survey Instructions for North American breeding bird survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial Survey Instructions for the North American Breeding Bird Survey at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted annually between May 22nd...

  18. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Michael J; Harrison, Nancy M; Mackenzie, Julia; Hinsley, Shelley A

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature) and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland. PMID:24058694

  19. Preferred habitat of breeding birds may be compromised by climate change: unexpected effects of an exceptionally cold, wet spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Whitehouse

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the consequences for breeding birds of climate change have explored how their populations may respond to increasing temperatures. However, few have considered the likely outcome of predicted extreme conditions and the relative vulnerability of populations in different habitats. Here, we compare phenology and breeding success in great tits and blue tits over a 10 year period, including the extremely harsh conditions during spring 2012, at three sites in eastern England--mixed deciduous woodland, riparian and urban habitat. Production, measured as brood biomass, was significantly lower in 2012 compared with the previous 9 years, with the decrease in productivity relatively greatest in woodland habitat. Production was related to hatch delay, i.e. birds not initiating incubation immediately after clutch completion, which was more common in 2012 than in previous years. The best predictor of hatch delay was daytime temperature (not nighttime minimum temperature and rainfall, which convincingly reflected low growth and activity of caterpillar prey. We found that birds breeding in riparian and urban habitats were less vulnerable to the extremes of weather than those breeding in mixed deciduous woodland.

  20. Strategic Plan for the North American Breeding Bird Survey: 2006-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The mission of the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is to provide scientifically credible measures of the status and trends of North American bird populations at continental and regional scales to inform biologically sound conservation and management actions. Determining population trends, relative abundance, and distributions of North American avifauna is critical for identifying conservation priorities, determining appropriate conservation actions, and evaluating those actions. The BBS program, jointly coordinated by the U.S. Geological Survey and Environment Canada?s Canadian Wildlife Service, provides the U.S. and Canadian Federal governments, state and provincial agencies, other conservation practitioners, and the general public with science-based avian population trend estimates and other information for regional and national species' population assessments. Despite the demonstrated value of the BBS for furthering avian conservation across North America, its importance is often underappreciated, and it is underfunded compared with many other government-supported programs that report on status of the environment. Today, BBS resources, adjusted for inflation, are below the amount allocated in the 1970s and are still only sufficient to support two biologists. Yet the number of routes, participants, data, and data requests has quadrupled. Data and information management and delivery requirements and security concerns, non-existent in 1966, impose further demands on BBS resources. In addition, the Mexican expansion of the BBS offers new hope for a truly continental approach to avian conservation, but also brings additional challenges. Meeting the goals of this plan will take cooperation among myriad stakeholders; yet, even with collaboration, most objectives of this plan will be unattainable if BBS program support is not increased. The BBS developed this strategic plan to help set priorities and identify resources required for the

  1. Ecological Causes and Consequences of Intratropical Migration in Temperate-Breeding Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutchbury, Bridget J M; Siddiqui, Raafia; Applegate, Kelly; Hvenegaard, Glen T; Mammenga, Paul; Mickle, Nanette; Pearman, Myrna; Ray, James D; Savage, Anne; Shaheen, Tim; Fraser, Kevin C

    2016-09-01

    New discoveries from direct tracking of temperate-breeding passerines show that intratropical migration (ITM) occurs in a growing number of species, which has important implications for understanding their evolution of migration, population dynamics, and conservation needs. Our large sample size ([Formula: see text]) for purple martins (Progne subis subis) tracked with geolocators to winter sites in Brazil, combined with geolocator deployments at breeding colonies across North America, allowed us to test hypotheses for ITM, something which has not yet been possible to do for other species. ITM in purple martins was not obligate; only 44% of individuals exhibited ITM, and movements were not coordinated in time or space. We found no evidence to support the resource hypothesis; rainfall and temperature experienced by individual birds during their last 2 weeks at their first roost site were similar to conditions at their second roost site after ITM. Birds generally migrated away from the heavily forested northwestern Amazon to less forested regions to the south and east. ITM in this aerial insectivore appears to support the competition-avoidance hypothesis and may be triggered by increasing local density in the core wintering region. Full life cycle models and migratory networks will need to incorporate ITM to properly address seasonal carryover effects and identify which wintering regions are most important for conservation. PMID:27513909

  2. Rainforest birds: A land manager's guide to breeding bird habitat in young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Bob; Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This document (hereafter Guide) has been prepared to assist land managers interested in conducting conservation and management activities to benefit breeding birds associated with young conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest. Audiences targeted for use of the Guide include land trusts, watershed councils, non-commercial private land owners, forest products companies, land-managing conservation organizations, government agencies, tribes, and First Nations. We hope the Guide will be a useful and valuable tool to support any of the variety of reasons to manage for bird habitat in young conifer forests (for example, regulatory, biodiversity, bird conservation, and forest certification standards).

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, M. C. [CDM Smith (United States); Haines, A. M. [Xcel Engineering, Inc.(United States); Evans, J. W. [Tennessee WIldlife Resources Agency (WRA), Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950-2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species--approximately 10% of the total number of species observed--have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation Bird Records and Population Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, W. Kelly [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Giffen, Neil R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wade, Murray [CDM Smith, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Haines, Angelina [Xcel Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, James W. [Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, Nashville, TN (United States); Jett, Robert Trent [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Bird data have been collected through surveys, environmental assessments, and other observations for decades in the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park, located on the US Department of Energy s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in East Tennessee. Birds were recorded in a variety of habitats, including wetlands, interior forests, grasslands, ponds, corridors, forest edges, and more. Most of the information was gathered from waterfowl surveys conducted from 1990 to 2008, from Partners in Flight (PIF) breeding bird surveys conducted from 1995 to 2013, and from past publications and research on Reservation birds. We have also included our own observations and, in a few instances, credible observations of ORR birds of which we have been made aware through eBird or discussions with area ornithologists and bird watchers. For the period 1950 2014, we were able to document 228 species of birds on the ORR. Several of these species are known from historic records only, while others were not known to have ever occurred on the Reservation until recently. This report does not include PIF breeding bird data from the 2014 season or any records after July 2014. Twenty-two species approximately 10% of the total number of species observed have state-listed status in Tennessee as endangered, threatened, or in need of management. Of the 228 species we documented, 120 are believed to be breeding birds on the ORR.

  5. A method of studying wild bird populations by mist-netting and banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, D.D.; Davis, D.E.; Robbins, C.S.

    1960-01-01

    1. Progress is reported toward development of a method of bird-population study based on mist-netting and banding. A definite pattern of arrangement and schedule of operation are presented. 2. Nets were operated for a total of 4200 net-hours during which 966 captures were made (23.0 birds per 100 net-hours). A total of 431 adult breeding birds were banded and 38 per cent of them were recaptured. 3. A breeding bird census was made simultaneously in the same area by the Williams spot-mapping technique. 4. Estimates of population by recapture agreed closely with the spot-mappmg census. 5. Some birds are demonstrated to have overlapping home-ranges much larger than their singing territories. 6. Recruitment and net-shyness distort recapture estimates of population .but the method allows detection and assessment of their influence in the population dealt with here. 7. The method produced integrated information on population density and dynamics, movement and behavior. 8. The procedure is especially well adapted to studies of disease agents in bird populations. 9. A simple scheme for description of the habitat in terms of relative abundance and frequency of occurrence of tree species was used.

  6. Breeding biology of an afrotropical forest understory bird community in northeastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkongewa, Victor J.; Newmark, William D.; Stanley, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of the breeding biology of Afrotropical forest birds are poorly known. Here we provide a description based on the monitoring of 1461 active nests over eight breeding seasons about one or more aspects of the breeding biology for 28 coexisting understory bird species on the Amani Plateau in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Mean nest height and mean distance of nest from forest edge varied widely among species with most species constructing nests across a broad vertical and forest edge to interior gradient. However, there were important exceptions with all sunbird species and several dove and waxbill species constructing nests in close proximity to the forest edge. For 17 common species for which we recorded two or more active nests, mean clutch size across species was 1.9 eggs per clutch, the lowest site-specific mean clutch size yet reported for a tropical forest bird community. For nine bird species, a subset of the 17 common species, length of breeding season, defined as the difference between the earliest and latest recorded incubation onset date, ranged from 88–139 days. Most of these nine species displayed a unimodal distribution in incubation onset dates across a breeding season which extended from the end of August through middle January. In summary, a wide variation exists in most aspects of the breeding biology within an understory forest bird community in the East Usambara Mountains.

  7. Energy crop cultivations of reed canary grass - An inferior breeding habitat for the skylark, a characteristic farmland bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vepsaelaeinen, Ville [Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 17, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-07-15

    Here, I present the first comparison of the abundance of farmland birds in energy grass fields and in cereal-dominated conventionally cultivated fields (CCFs). I demonstrate that in boreal farmland, skylark (Alauda arvensis) densities were significantly lower in reed canary grass (RCG) (Phalaris arundinacea) fields than in CCFs. I found that during the early breeding season RCG fields and CCFs are equally good habitats, but over the ensuing couple of weeks RCG rapidly grows too tall and dense for field-nesting species. Consequently, RCG is an inferior habitat for skylark for laying replacement clutches (after failure of first nesting) or for a second clutch after one successful nesting. The results imply that if RCG cultivation is to be expanded, the establishment of large monocultures should be avoided in farmland landscapes; otherwise the novel habitat may affect detrimentally the seriously depleted skylark population, and probably also other field-nesting bird species with similar breeding habitats. (author)

  8. Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges

    OpenAIRE

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent; Ottvall, Richard; Van Turnhout, Chris; van der Jeugd, Henk; Lindström, Åke

    2010-01-01

    Beyond the effects of temperature increase on local population trends and on species distribution shifts, how populations of a given species are affected by climate change along a species range is still unclear. We tested whether and how species responses to climate change are related to the populations locations within the species thermal range. We compared the average 20 year growth rates of 62 terrestrial breeding birds in three European countries along the latitudinal gradient of the spec...

  9. Familiarity breeds content: assessing bird species popularity with culturomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ricardo A; Jepson, Paul R; Malhado, Ana C M; Ladle, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding public perceptions of biodiversity is essential to ensure continued support for conservation efforts. Despite this, insights remain scarce at broader spatial scales, mostly due to a lack of adequate methods for their assessment. The emergence of new technologies with global reach and high levels of participation provide exciting new opportunities to study the public visibility of biodiversity and the factors that drive it. Here, we use a measure of internet saliency to assess the national and international visibility of species within four taxa of Brazilian birds (toucans, hummingbirds, parrots and woodpeckers), and evaluate how much of this visibility can be explained by factors associated with familiarity, aesthetic appeal and conservation interest. Our results strongly indicate that familiarity (human population within the range of a species) is the most important factor driving internet saliency within Brazil, while aesthetic appeal (body size) best explains variation in international saliency. Endemism and conservation status of a species had small, but often negative, effects on either metric of internet saliency. While further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between internet content and the cultural visibility of different species, our results strongly indicate that internet saliency can be considered as a broad proxy of cultural interest. PMID:26966663

  10. Studies on breeding schemes in a closed pig population.

    OpenAIRE

    Roo, de, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Size of a population in genetic terms is a function of number of male and female individuals used for breeding over a generation. A breed can be small because of a small total number of individuals but also because of a small number of individuals of one sex. According to this definition, many breeds of livestock, pets and zoo animals are small populations.Breeding scheme designed for finite populations sometimes primarily aim at conservation of animal genetic resources. In most cases, howeve...

  11. Gnezdilke Parka Škocjanske jame (Kras, JZ Slovenija/ The breeding birds of Škocjan Caves Park (Kras, SW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figelj Jernej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study done in 2011 and 2012 was to identify the number of breeding bird species, to provide population estimates as well as to evaluate the conservational importance of Škocjan Caves Park for birds. Common bird species were surveyed using the territory mapping method. Rare species and nocturnally active species were surveyed using species-specific methods: observation, the playback method and the line transect method. 81 species were registered, 49 of which bred within the boundaries of the Park. The most abundant breeding species were Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla (260-320 breeding pairs, Robin Erithacus rubecula (250-310 breeding pairs, Blackbird Turdus merula (230-280 breeding pairs, Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs (230-280 breeding pairs and Marsh Tit Poecile palustris (200-240 breeding pairs. Qualifying species for the Special Protected Area (SPA Kras (SI5000023 also bred within the Park: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus, Scops Owl Otus scops and Woodlark Lululla arborea. Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also registered, but breeding attempts during the study period were unsuccessful due to the negative influence of several factors. One of the largest colonies of Alpine Swifts Apus melba, a rare and localized species in Slovenia, is also of conservation concern.

  12. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  13. Evolutionary routes to non-kin cooperative breeding in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Riehl, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatively breeding animals live in social groups in which some individuals help to raise the offspring of others, often at the expense of their own reproduction. Kin selection—when individuals increase their inclusive fitness by aiding genetic relatives—is a powerful explanation for the evolution of cooperative breeding, particularly because most groups consist of family members. However, recent molecular studies have revealed that many cooperative groups also contain unrelated immigrants...

  14. Insect ectoparasites on wild birds in the Czech Republic during the pre-breeding period

    OpenAIRE

    Sychra O.; Literák I.; Podzemný P.; Harmat P.; Hrabák R.

    2011-01-01

    Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes) from the northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites during the pre-breeding period in 2007. Two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae), and 23 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Ricinus, Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), Brueelia, Penenirmus, and Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) were found on 108 birds of 16 species. Distribution of ins...

  15. Ecological Succession of Breeding Bird Communities in Deciduous and Coniferous Forests in the Sopron Mountains, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WINKLER, Dániel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between breeding bird communities and different phases of secondary succession of deciduous (sessile oak – Quercus petraea and coniferous (spruce – Picea abies forests in the Sopron Mountains was studied. The bird censi have been carried out in 5 different successional stages using the “double-visit fixed-radius point count technique”. A total of 38 bird species were encountered. There are typical bird communities to order to different stages of forest succession, containing unique bird species or species appearing predominantly in that successional stage. The study has shown structural changes in breeding bird communities during the succession. Bird species richness, density and diversity showed the same trends. Their numerical values were the lowest in the clear-cut areas with young (1-2 year old plantations, and the highest in the mature stands. After a starting increase (shrub stage there is a slight decline (10-12 year old stands because of the canopy closure of the young trees. Further decrease can be observed in the low pole stands, as these habitats are no longer appropriate for species nesting in shrubs and not yet suitable for the hole-nesting ones. Species richness, density and diversity were lower in early pole and older spruce stands than in the corresponding oak stands.

  16. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  17. Artificial cavities enhance breeding bird densities in managed cottonwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The paucity of natural cavities within short-rotation hardwood agroforests restricts occupancy by cavity-nesting birds. However, providing 1.6 artificial nesting cavities (nest boxes)/ha within 3- to 10-year-old managed cottonwood forests in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley increased territory density of cavity-nesting birds. Differences in territory densities between forests with and without nest boxes increased as stands aged. Seven bird species initiated 38 nests in 173 boxes during 1997 and 39 nests in 172 boxes during 1998. Prothonotary warblers (Protonotaria citrea) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) accounted for 67% of nests; nearly all warbler nests were in 1.8-L, plastic-coated cardboard (paper) boxes, whereas bluebird nests were divided between paper boxes and 3.5-L wooden boxes. Larger-volume (16.5-L) wooden nest boxes were used by eastern screech owls (Otus asio) and great crested flycatchers (Myiarchus crinitus), but this box type often was usurped by honey bees (Apis mellifera). To enhance territory densities of cavity-nesting birds in cottonwood agroforests, we recommend placement of plastic-coated paper nest boxes, at a density of 0.5/ha, after trees are >4 years old but at least 2 years before anticipated timber harvest.

  18. Species composition and number of breeding birds in urban parks in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Tucakov Marko J.

    2010-01-01

    Numbers of breeding pairs of breeding birds and breeding density are established by territory mapping in Limanski (12.9 ha), Futoški (8.26 ha), and Dunavski (3.9 ha) Parks in Novi Sad from early March to late June 2007. In Limanski Park 11 species of breeders were found, the most numerous being tree sparrow (Passer montanus). Futoški Park had 15 breeders and the most numerous were great tit (Parus major). The smallest number of species (9) bred in Dunavski Park, with great tit as the most com...

  19. Reasons for the decline in bird numbers breeding near the Ravenglass Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-headed Gulls breeding at Ravenglass (and at other coastal sites in Cumbria) fed exclusively inland during the breeding season and so could not have acquired any radionuclide contaminants present in the estuarine muds and invertebrates. They, and two other ground-nesting bird species have suffered severe disturbance and predation by foxes at Ravenglass in recent years. In contrast, the Shelduck, which nests in holes (and so does not suffer fox predation) but feeds at Ravenglass on estuarine invertebrates, has bred successfully. Levels of heavy metal contaminants in gull tissues and eggs were too low to have caused the observed breeding failures at Ravenglass. Gulls feeding on the estuary before the breeding season, but which then moved to other (inland) breeding sites, nested successfully. (author)

  20. Factors affecting breeding status of wading birds in the Everglades.

    OpenAIRE

    Peter C Frederick; Hylton, Becky; Heath, Julie; Spalding, Marilyn; Babbitt, Greg; Semones, John David

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive final report summarizes the results of a four-year research and monitoring effort (1998 - 2001) designed to document nesting effort and success by wading birds, and to investigate the reproductive physiology and ecology of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the Everglades ecosystem. The monitoring of nesting has been accomplished bystandardized systematic aerial and ground surveys and study of nesting success of nesting colonies in Water Conservation Areas (WC...

  1. Inbreeding in the Danish populations of five Nordic sheep breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Christian; Norberg, Elise

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark there are small populations of five Nordic sheep breeds, two of which are Danish in origin. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in inbreeding for these breeds. All five breeds have been recording pedigrees for decades, so pedigree completeness is adequate. The rate of...

  2. A comparison of landscapes occupied by increasing and decreasing populations of grassland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veech, Joseph A

    2006-10-01

    For several decades, many grassland bird species have been declining in abundance throughout the Midwest and Great Plains regions of the United States, possibly due to loss of natural grassland habitat and increasing urbanization. I used 20 years of data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to identify increasing, decreasing, and stable populations of 36 grassland-nesting bird species. I characterized the immediate landscape (circle with radius = 30 km) surrounding each population based on data from the National Resources Inventory. For each landscape, I calculated the proportion of eight different land-cover types: restored grassland, rangeland, cultivated cropland, pasture, noncultivated cropland, forest, urban land, and water. Using a null model, I compared landscape composition of increasing, decreasing, and stable populations. As predicted on the basis of the habitat preferences of grassland birds, increasing populations inhabited landscapes that contained significantly more restored grassland and rangeland but significantly less forest land and urban land than landscapes inhabited by decreasing populations. There was no significant difference in the proportion of cropland within the landscapes of increasing and decreasing populations, although cropland composed a large proportion (>30%) of many landscapes. In contrast, restored grassland typically composed a very small proportion (land cover, yet it was significantly more common in the landscapes of increasing than decreasing populations. These results suggest that grassland birds may benefit from government initiatives, such as the Conservation Reserve Program, that promote the restoration of grassland at a landscape scale. PMID:17002760

  3. 77 FR 25192 - Wild Bird Conservation Act; Receipt of Application for Approval of a Cooperative Breeding Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Cooperative Breeding Program AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of... listed birds for scientific research, zoological breeding or display programs, or personal pet purposes, when the applicant meets certain criteria. We also may approve cooperative breeding programs of...

  4. Population viability analysis on domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, Janne Pia; Bach, Lars; Loeschcke, Volker;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we performed a population viability analysis on 3 domestic horse breeds (Equus caballus) of Danish origin, namely, the Frederiksborg, the Knabstrupper, and the Jutland breeds. Because of their small population sizes, these breeds are considered endangered. The Vortex software...... (Frederiksborg ) at its present 30% level. Monitoring of the breeds in the future, however, may be exploited to adjust the breeding strategies. We suggest that the large amount of data required by Vortex makes it very useful for analyzing domestic animals because of the comprehensive data material often...

  5. Population-Wide Failure to Breed in the Clark's Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza D Schaming

    Full Text Available In highly variable environments, conditions can be so stressful in some years that entire populations forgo reproduction in favor of higher likelihood of surviving to breed in future years. In two out of five years, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga Columbiana in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem exhibited population-wide failure to breed. Clark's nutcrackers at the study site experienced substantial interannual differences in food availability and weather conditions, and the two nonbreeding years corresponded with low whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis cone crops the previous autumn (≤ an average of 8 ± 2 cones per tree versus ≥ an average of 20 ± 2 cones per tree during breeding years and high snowpack in early spring (≥ 61.2 ± 5.5 cm versus ≤ 51.9 ± 4.4 cm during breeding years. The average adult body condition index during the breeding season was significantly lower in 2011 (-1.5 ± 1.1, a nonbreeding year, as compared to 2012 (6.2 ± 2.0, a breeding year. The environmental cues available to the birds prior to breeding, specifically availability of cached whitebark pine seeds, may have allowed them to predict that breeding conditions would be poor, leading to the decision to skip breeding. Alternatively, the Clark's nutcrackers may have had such low body energy stores that they chose not to or were unable to breed. Breeding plasticity would allow Clark's nutcrackers to exploit an unpredictable environment. However, if large-scale mortality of whitebark pines is leading to an increase in the number of nonbreeding years, there could be serious population-level and ecosystem-wide consequences.

  6. Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; Song, Gang; Navarro, Joan; Zhang, Ruiying; Symes, Craig T; Forero, Manuela G; Lei, Fumin

    2016-06-01

    Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale. PMID:26994943

  7. Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, P A; Mason, L.R.; Green, R. E.; Gregory, R. D.; Sauer, J.R.; Alison, J.; Aunins, A.; Brotons, L.; Butchart, S.H.M; Campedelli, T; Chodkiewicz, T.; Chylarecki, P.; Crowe, O.; Elts, J.; Escandell, V.

    2016-01-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. Large-scale analyses have generally focused on the impacts of climate change on the geographic ranges of species and on phenology, the timing of ecological phenomena. We used long-term monitoring of the abundance of breeding birds across Europe and the United States to produce, for both regions, composite population indices for two groups of species: those for which climate suitability has been either improving or declining since 1980. ...

  8. Does breeding population trajectory and age of nesting females influence disparate nestling sex ratios in two populations of Cooper's hawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N; Stout, William E; Giovanni, Matthew D; Levine, Noah H; Cava, Jenna A; Hardin, Madeline G; Haynes, Taylor G

    2015-09-01

    Offspring sex ratios at the termination of parental care should theoretically be skewed toward the less expensive sex, which in most avian species would be females, the smaller gender. Among birds, however, raptors offer an unusual dynamic because they exhibit reversed size dimorphism with females being larger than males. And thus theory would predict a preponderance of male offspring. Results for raptors and birds in general have been varied although population-level estimates of sex ratios in avian offspring are generally at unity. Adaptive adjustment of sex ratios in avian offspring is difficult to predict perhaps in part due to a lack of life-history details and short-term investigations that cannot account for precision or repeatability of sex ratios across time. We conducted a novel comparative study of sex ratios in nestling Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) in two study populations across breeding generations during 11 years in Wisconsin, 2001-2011. One breeding population recently colonized metropolitan Milwaukee and exhibited rapidly increasing population growth, while the ex-Milwaukee breeding population was stable. Following life-history trade-off theory and our prediction regarding this socially monogamous species in which reversed sexual size dimorphism is extreme, first-time breeding one-year-old, second-year females in both study populations produced a preponderance of the smaller and cheaper sex, males, whereas ASY (after-second-year), ≥2-year-old females in Milwaukee produced a nestling sex ratio near unity and predictably therefore a greater proportion of females compared to ASY females in ex-Milwaukee who produced a preponderance of males. Adjustment of sex ratios in both study populations occurred at conception. Life histories and selective pressures related to breeding population trajectory in two age cohorts of nesting female Cooper's hawk likely vary, and it is possible that these differences influenced the sex ratios we documented for

  9. Breeding bird response to partially harvested riparian management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Peterson, Anna; Hanowski, JoAnn; Blinn, Charles R.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Niemi, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    We compared avian communities among three timber harvesting treatments in 45-m wide even-age riparian management zones (RMZs) placed between upland clearcuts and along one side of first- or second-order streams in northern Minnesota, USA. The RMZs had three treatments: (1) unharvested, (2) intermediate residual basal area (RBA) (targeted goal 11.5 m2/ha, realized 16.0 m2/ha), and (3) low RBA (targeted goal 5.7 m2/ha, realized 8.7 m2/ha). Surveys were conducted one year pre-harvest and three consecutive years post-harvest. There was no change in species richness, diversity, or total abundance associated with harvest but there were shifts in the types of birds within the community. In particular, White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) and Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvanica) increased while Ovenbirds (Seiurus aurocapilla) and Red-eyed Vireos (Vireo olivaceus) decreased. The decline of avian species associated with mature forest in the partially harvested treatments relative to controls indicates that maintaining an unharvested RMZ adjacent to an upland harvest may aid in maintaining avian species associated mature forest in Minnesota for at least three years post-harvest. However, our observations do not reflect reproductive success, which is an area for future research.

  10. Recent Shift in Climate Relationship Enables Prediction of the Timing of Bird Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley A Hinsley

    Full Text Available Large-scale climate processes influence many aspects of ecology including breeding phenology, reproductive success and survival across a wide range of taxa. Some effects are direct, for example, in temperate-zone birds, ambient temperature is an important cue enabling breeding effort to coincide with maximum food availability, and earlier breeding in response to warmer springs has been documented in many species. In other cases, time-lags of up to several years in ecological responses have been reported, with effects mediated through biotic mechanisms such as growth rates or abundance of food supplies. Here we use 23 years of data for a temperate woodland bird species, the great tit (Parus major, breeding in deciduous woodland in eastern England to demonstrate a time-lagged linear relationship between the on-set of egg laying and the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation such that timing can be predicted from the winter index for the previous year. Thus the timing of bird breeding (and, by inference, the timing of spring events in general can be predicted one year in advance. We also show that the relationship with the winter index appears to arise through an abiotic time-lag with local spring warmth in our study area. Examining this link between local conditions and larger-scale processes in the longer-term showed that, in the past, significant relationships with the immediately preceding winter index were more common than those with the time-lagged index, and especially so from the late 1930s to the early 1970s. However, from the mid 1970s onwards, the time-lagged relationship has become the most significant, suggesting a recent change in climate patterns. The strength of the current time-lagged relationship suggests that it might have relevance for other temperature-dependent ecological relationships.

  11. Recent Shift in Climate Relationship Enables Prediction of the Timing of Bird Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Paul E.; Hill, Ross A.; Ferns, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale climate processes influence many aspects of ecology including breeding phenology, reproductive success and survival across a wide range of taxa. Some effects are direct, for example, in temperate-zone birds, ambient temperature is an important cue enabling breeding effort to coincide with maximum food availability, and earlier breeding in response to warmer springs has been documented in many species. In other cases, time-lags of up to several years in ecological responses have been reported, with effects mediated through biotic mechanisms such as growth rates or abundance of food supplies. Here we use 23 years of data for a temperate woodland bird species, the great tit (Parus major), breeding in deciduous woodland in eastern England to demonstrate a time-lagged linear relationship between the on-set of egg laying and the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation such that timing can be predicted from the winter index for the previous year. Thus the timing of bird breeding (and, by inference, the timing of spring events in general) can be predicted one year in advance. We also show that the relationship with the winter index appears to arise through an abiotic time-lag with local spring warmth in our study area. Examining this link between local conditions and larger-scale processes in the longer-term showed that, in the past, significant relationships with the immediately preceding winter index were more common than those with the time-lagged index, and especially so from the late 1930s to the early 1970s. However, from the mid 1970s onwards, the time-lagged relationship has become the most significant, suggesting a recent change in climate patterns. The strength of the current time-lagged relationship suggests that it might have relevance for other temperature-dependent ecological relationships. PMID:27182711

  12. Effects of Habitat Manipulation on Grassland Bird Populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Because of continuing concern over the decline of grassland bird populations in the Northeast, and the fact that many management activities designed to increase...

  13. Potential Sensitivity of Québec's Breeding Birds to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc DesGranges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between climatic factors and the distribution of breeding birds in southern Québec, Canada to identify the species whose distribution renders them potentially sensitive to climate change in the study area. We determined the degree of association between the distribution of 65 breeding bird species (601 presence-absence squares of the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Québec and climate variables (212 climatological stations in operation for at least 20 years over the period 1953-1984 by statistically correcting for the effects of several factors that are correlated with bird distribution. Factors considered were the nature and scale of land cover patterns that included vegetation types and landscape characterization, geographical coordinates, and elevation. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to investigate the effect of climatic variables on breeding bird distribution. Independent variables accounted for a total of 29.1% of the variation in the species matrix. A very large portion of the variance explained by climate variables was shared with spatial variables, reflecting the relationships among latitude, longitude, elevation, and climate. After correcting for the effect of land cover variables, climatic variables still explained 11.4% of the variation in the species matrix, with temperature, i.e., warmer summers and milder winters, having a greater influence than precipitation, i.e., wetter summers. Of the 65 species, 14 appeared to be particularly climate-sensitive. Eight are insectivorous neotropical migrants and six species are at the northern limit of their range in the study area. The opposite is largely true for the eight others; they are practically absent from the southern part of the study area, except for the Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis, which is widespread there. The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis is the only resident species that seemed responsive to climatic variables, i

  14. The dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.): Evaluation of breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding populations of the dwarf saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr. [Chenopodiaceae]) have been evaluated under high seawater salinity (45 dS m-1) for phenotypic, morphometric, biomass and seed traits in an effort to select suitable families and genotypes within families for breeding purposes and...

  15. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Lucas A; Frederick, Peter C; Mazzotti, Frank J; Vliet, Kent A; Brandt, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  16. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Nell

    Full Text Available Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis, apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction.

  17. 1977 breeding bird censuses and vegetation surveys in two successional stages of oak--pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, G.S.; Ruscica, J.J.; Clinton, J.H.; Larsen, D.L.

    1977-12-01

    As part of a program to characterize the plant and animal life of the Laboratory site and surrounding areas, two breeding bird census plots were established in 1977 to document the occurrence and abundance of breeding species in two extreme successional stages of Long Island oak-pine forest. A 9.3-hectare plot located near the northeastern corner of the Laboratory site is composed of second growth oak-pine forest in a late successional stage. The second plot measures 9.7 hectares and is located in the scrub oak-pitch pine barrens at Westhampton. Each plot was surveyed with a transit and steel tape and marked with wooden stakes at 100-foot intervals. Quantitative vegetational surveys were made in each plot and all plant species identified. Tree composition was measured as a function of species and size. Shrub density, percent of ground cover and percent of canopy were also measured. The Laboratory plot contained 2100 trees of five species per hectare, 72% ground cover and 84% canopy coverage. The Westhampton plot contained only one tree species, Pitch Pine, at 366 trees per hectare, 92% ground cover and no canopy. Twelve census trips, mostly of two to three hour duration, were made in each plot. Each bird observed was located on a scale map of the plot. At the end of the season, the number of territories was determined from the distribution of sightings. Eighteen territorial bird species were found in the Laboratory plot with between 479 and 629 territorial males per km/sup 2/. In Westhampton, only five breeding species were present. Density was between 312 and 374 males per km/sup 2/. The Rufous-sided Towhee was the most common species in both plots. Future studies will document changes in both bird and plant species composition and abundance.

  18. Song diversity predicts the viability of fragmented bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laiolo

    Full Text Available In the global scenario of increasing habitat fragmentation, finding appropriate indicators of population viability is a priority for conservation. We explored the potential of learned behaviours, specifically acoustic signals, to predict the persistence over time of fragmented bird populations. We found an association between male song diversity and the annual rate of population change, population productivity and population size, resulting in birds singing poor repertoires in populations more prone to extinction. This is the first demonstration that population viability can be predicted by a cultural trait (acquired via social learning. Our results emphasise that cultural attributes can reflect not only individual-level characteristics, but also the emergent population-level properties. This opens the way to the study of animal cultural diversity in the increasingly common human-altered landscapes.

  19. Heart rate responses provide an objective evaluation of human disturbance stimuli in breeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberg, Ursula; Mattern, Thomas; Seddon, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Intuition is a poor guide for evaluating the effects of human disturbance on wildlife. Using the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin, Megadyptes antipodes, as an example, we show that heart rate responses provide an objective tool to evaluate human disturbance stimuli and encourage the wider use of this simple and low-impact approach. Yellow-eyed penguins are a flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism; however, unregulated visitor access has recently been associated with reduced breeding success and lower first year survival. We measured heart rate responses of Yellow-eyed penguins via artificial eggs to evaluate a range of human stimuli regularly occurring at their breeding sites. We found the duration of a stimulus to be the most important factor, with elevated heart rate being sustained while a person remained within sight. Human activity was the next important component; a simulated wildlife photographer, crawling slowly around during his stay, elicited a significantly higher heart rate response than an entirely motionless human spending the same time at the same distance. Stimuli we subjectively might perceive as low impact, such as the careful approach of a 'wildlife photographer', resulted in a stronger response than a routine nest-check that involved lifting a bird up to view nest contents. A single, slow-moving human spending 20 min within 2 m from the nest may provoke a response comparable to that of 10 min handling a bird for logger deployment. To reduce cumulative impact of disturbance, any human presence in the proximity of Yellow-eyed penguins needs to be kept at a minimum. Our results highlight the need for objective quantification of the effects of human disturbance in order to provide a sound basis for guidelines to manage human activity around breeding birds. PMID:27293597

  20. Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, E.A.T.; Cullom, J.; Farrell, J.H.; Joyce, E.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Malcolm, J.G.; Rasberry, D.A.; Ringler, R.F.; Solem, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    This was the result of a 5-year cooperative study with the Maryland Ornithological Society and the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Each of Maryland's 1,256 5-km (25 sq km) blocks was surveyed for breeding birds using the standard categories of Possible, Probable, and Confirmed breeding. Special features include: (1) coverage of all blocks instead of a random sample; (2) one-third of the state (including the most rapidly changing counties) was covered in quarterblocks (2.5 km on each side) to facilitate detecting future changes; (3) quantitative sampling (miniroutes) was completed in more than half the blocks; (4) a 2 percent statewide random sample of blocks was searched for about 30 hours each by Patuxent professionals to evaluate efficiency of coverage by the volunteers; (5) besides species maps for 1983-87, the atlas also includes distribution maps from the 1950s; (6) life history data are based largely on unpublished Maryland information.

  1. Predators and the breeding bird: behavioral and reproductive flexibility under the risk of predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Steven L

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of work suggests that breeding birds have a significant capacity to assess and respond, over ecological time, to changes in the risk of predation to both themselves and their eggs or nestlings. This review investigates the nature of this flexibility in the face of predation from both behavioural and reproductive perspectives, and also explores several directions for future research. Most available work addresses different aspects of nest predation. A substantial change in breeding location is perhaps the best documented response to nest predation, but such changes are not always observed and not necessarily the best strategy. Changes in nesting microhabitat (to more concealed locations) following predation are known to occur. Surprisingly little work addresses the proactive avoidance of areas with many nest predators, but such avoidance is probably widespread. Individual birds could conceivably adopt anti-predator strategies based on the nest predators actually present in an area, but such effects have yet to be demonstrated. In fact, the ways in which birds assess the risk of nest predation is unclear. Nest defence in birds has historically received much attention, but little is known about how it interacts with other aspects of decision-making by parents. Other studies concentrate on predation risk to adults. Some findings suggest that risk to adults themselves influences territory location, especially relative to raptor nests. An almost completely unexplored area concerns the sorts of social protection from predators that might exist during the breeding season. Flocking typical of the non-breeding season appears unusual while breeding, but a mated pair may sometimes act as a "flock of two". Opportunistic heterospecific sociality may exist, with heterospecific protector species associations more prevalent than currently appreciated. The dynamics of singing during the breeding season may also respond to variation in predation risk, but empirical

  2. Earlier breeding, lower success: does the spatial scale of climatic conditions matter in a migratory passerine bird?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Annegret; Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Mundry, Roger; Köppen, Ulrich; Brueckmann, Tomas; Thomsen, Ruth; Widdig, Anja

    2015-12-01

    Following over 20 years of research on the climatic effects on biodiversity we now have strong evidence that climate change affects phenology, fitness, and distribution ranges of different taxa, including birds. Bird phenology likely responds to changes in local weather. It is also affected by climatic year-to-year variations on larger scales. Although such scale-related effects are common in ecology, most studies analyzing the effects of climate change were accomplished using climatic information on a single spatial scale. In this study, we aimed at determining the scale-dependent sensitivity of breeding phenology and success to climate change in a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). For both annual broods, we investigated effects of local weather (local scale) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, large scale) on the timing of breeding and breeding success. Consistent with previous studies in migratory birds we found that barn swallows in Eastern Germany bred progressively earlier. At the same time, they showed reduced breeding success over time in response to recent climatic changes. Responses to climatic variation were observed on both local and large climatic scales, but they differed with respect to the ecological process considered. Specifically, we found that the timing of breeding was primarily influenced by large-scale NAO variations and to a lesser extent by local weather on the breeding grounds. Conversely, climatic conditions on the local scale affected breeding success, exclusively. The observed decrease in breeding success over years is likely a consequence of scale-related mismatches between climatic conditions during different breeding phases. This provides further evidence that a species' response of earlier breeding may not be enough to cope with climate change. Our results emphasize the importance of considering the response of ecological processes along different climatic scales in order to better understand the

  3. Loss of sagebrush ecosystems and declining bird populations in the Intermountain West: Priority research issues and information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2002-01-01

    Sagebrush lands in the Intermountain West are declining rapidly in quality and extent. Consequently, populations of many bird species dependent on these ecosystems also are declining. The greater sage-grouse has been petitioned for listing as a threatened and endangered species, and other species of sagebrush-obligate birds have special conservation status in most states. We identified the primary issues and information needs during a multi-agency workshop, conducted in response to concerns by management agencies related to declining bird population trends in sagebrush habitats. Priority needs were to (1) obtain a better understanding of bird response to habitat and landscape features, (2) develop monitoring designs to sample habitats and bird populations, (3) determine the effects of land use on sagebrush habitats and dependent bird species, and (4) identify linkages between breeding and wintering ranges. This agenda will identify causes and mechanisms of population declines in birds dependent on sagebrush ecosystems and will lead to better management of the ecosystems upon which they depend.

  4. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe's farmland bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donal, P F; Gree, R E; Heath, M F

    2001-01-01

    The populations of farmland birds in Europe declined markedly during the last quarter of the 20th century, representing a severe threat to biodiversity. Here, we assess whether declines in the populations and ranges of farmland birds across Europe reflect differences in agricultural intensity, which arise largely through differences in political history. Population and range changes were modelled in terms of a number of indices of agricultural intensity. Population declines and range contractions were significantly greater in countries with more intensive agriculture, and significantly higher in the European Union (EU) than in former communist countries. Cereal yield alone explained over 30% of the variation in population trends. The results suggest that recent trends in agriculture have had deleterious and measurable effects on bird populations on a continental scale. We predict that the introduction of EU agricultural policies into former communist countries hoping to accede to the EU in the near future will result in significant declines in the important bird populations there. PMID:12123294

  5. Comparative morphology among northern populations of breeding Cooper's Hawks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William E.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies at a broad geographical scale have characterized intraspecific variation in morphology of woodland hawks in the genus Accipiter. From 1999 to 2007 we investigated morphological variation in large samples of live Cooper's Hawks (A. cooperii) nesting in four study areas: coniferous woodland around Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, isolated deciduous woodlands in short-grass prairies of northwestern North Dakota, towns and rural deciduous woodlands along the border of North Dakota and Minnesota, and urban and rural mixed deciduous and coniferous landscapes of Wisconsin. These sites span 2660 km across the northern part of the species' breeding range. We measured body mass (i.e., size), wing chord, tail length, tarsus diameter, hallux length, and culmen length of breeding adults, finding significant and clinal variation in body mass (or size). The smallest and most similar-sized birds occurred in British Columbia and western North Dakota, larger birds along the border between North Dakota and Minnesota, and the largest birds in Wisconsin. Several other characters varied significantly when mass was used as a covariate. Variation by study site in mean indices of sexual size dimorphism was negligible and not significant. We speculate that the morphological differences we found, in part, are the result of geographic isolation, where diets, migratory behavior, and structural characteristics of nesting habitats vary across landscape types.

  6. Time to extinction of bird populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sæther, B-E.; Engen, S.; Møller, A.P.; Visser, M.E.; Matthysen, E.; Fiedler, W.; Lambrechts, M.M.; Becker, P.H.; Brommer, J.E.; Dickinson, J.; du Feu, C.; Gehlbach, F.R.; Merilä, J.; Rendell, W.; Robertson, R.J.; Thomson, D.L.; Török, J.

    2005-01-01

    The risk of extinction of populations has not previously been empirically related to parameters characterizing their population dynamics. To analyze this relationship, we simulated how the distribution of population dynamical characters changed as a function of time, in both the remaining and the ex

  7. Synanthropic acarine population associated with bird nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Chaudhury

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A systematic survey was carried out in Kolkata city to explore the diversity of synanthropic mites associated with birds’ nests, constructed in close proximity to human habitations like varandahs, balconies, inside rooms, etc. by common residential birds,. The study revealed the presence of 31 species of mites belonging to 23 genera, 12 families and 3 orders. Glycyphagus domesticus has been identified as the most predominant species in all the birds’ nests surveyed and a total of 9 species have been reported for the first time from this unique habitat in India. The nature of association and host specificity have also been discussed. The nature of association varied, may be parasitic, predatory and / or phoretic.

  8. Using occupancy models of forest breeding birds to prioritize conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wan, A. A.; Sullivan, P.J.; Lembo, A.J.; Smith, C.R.; Maerz, J.C.; Lassoie, J.P.; Richmond, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    As urban development continues to encroach on the natural and rural landscape, land-use planners struggle to identify high priority conservation areas for protection. Although knowing where urban-sensitive species may be occurring on the landscape would facilitate conservation planning, research efforts are often not sufficiently designed to make quality predictions at unknown locations. Recent advances in occupancy modeling allow for more precise estimates of occupancy by accounting for differences in detectability. We applied these techniques to produce robust estimates of habitat occupancy for a subset of forest breeding birds, a group that has been shown to be sensitive to urbanization, in a rapidly urbanizing yet biological diverse region of New York State. We found that detection probability ranged widely across species, from 0.05 to 0.8. Our models suggest that detection probability declined with increasing forest fragmentation. We also found that the probability of occupancy of forest breeding birds is negatively influenced by increasing perimeter-area ratio of forest fragments and urbanization in the surrounding habitat matrix. We capitalized on our random sampling design to produce spatially explicit models that predict high priority conservation areas across the entire region, where interior-species were most likely to occur. Finally, we use our predictive maps to demonstrate how a strict sampling design coupled with occupancy modeling can be a valuable tool for prioritizing biodiversity conservation in land-use planning. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Population Change in a Marine Bird Colony is Driven By Changes in Recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Gaston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of long-lived birds are thought to be very sensitive to changes in adult survival. However, where natal philopatry is low, recruitment from the larger metapopulation may have the strongest effect on population growth rate even in long-lived species. Here, we illustrate such a situation where changes in a seabird colony size appeared to be the consequence of changes in recruitment. We studied the population dynamics of a declining colony of Ancient Murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus at East Limestone Island, British Columbia. During 1990-2010, Ancient Murrelet chicks were trapped at East Limestone Island while departing to sea, using a standard trapping method carried on throughout the departure period. Adult murrelets were trapped while departing from the colony during 1990-2003. Numbers of chicks trapped declined during 1990-1995, probably because of raccoon predation, increased slightly from 1995-2000 and subsequently declined again. Reproductive success was 30% lower during 2000-2003 than in earlier years, mainly because of an increase in desertions. The proportion of nonbreeders among adult birds trapped at night also declined over the study period. Mortality of adult birds, thought to be mainly prebreeders, from predators more than doubled over the same period. Apparent adult survival of breeders remained constant during 1991-2002 once the first year after banding was excluded, but the apparent survival rates in the first year after banding fell and the survival of birds banded as chicks to age three halved over the same period. A matrix model of population dynamics suggested that even during the early part of the study immigration from other breeding areas must have been substantial, supporting earlier observations that natal philopatry in this species is low. The general colony decline after 2000 probably was related to diminished recruitment, as evidenced by the lower proportion of nonbreeders in the trapped

  10. Shortening day length as a previously unrecognized selective pressure for early breeding in a bird with long parental care

    OpenAIRE

    Podlaszczuk, Marcin; Wojciechowski, Zbigniew; Podlaszczuk, Patrycja; Minias, Piotr; Janiszewski, Tomasz; Wojciechowska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Several different selective pressures have been suggested to explain an intense competition for early return to breeding grounds in birds. In this study we hypothesized that shortening day length during summer months may constitute additional selective force acting towards early breeding in avian species with long parental care. To test this hypothesis, we studied time budget and foraging activities of early-nesting and late-nesting white storks Ciconia ciconia from th...

  11. Overview of national bird population monitoring programs and databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, G.S.; Peterjohn, B.; Ralph, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of programs have been set up to monitor populations of nongame migratory birds. We review these programs and their purposes and provide information on obtaining data or results from these programs. In addition, we review recommendations for improving these programs.

  12. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  13. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  14. Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Robinson

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.

  15. Climate Change Influences on Antarctic Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak-Abshire, Małgorzata

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in the major environmental variables like: temperature, wind and precipitation have occurred in the Antarctic region during the last 50 years. In this very sensitive region, even small changes can potentially lead to major environmental perturbations. Then the climate change poses a new challenge to the survival of Antarctic wildlife. As important bioindicators of changes in the ecosystem seabirds and their response to the climate perturbations have been recorded. Atmospheric warming and consequent changes in sea ice conditions have been hypothesized to differentially affect predator populations due to different predator life-history strategies and substantially altered krill recruitment dynamics.

  16. How cooperatively breeding birds identify relatives and avoid incest: New insights into dispersal and kin recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Christina; Stern, Caitlin A

    2015-12-01

    Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring - usually males - delay dispersal from their natal group, remaining with the family to help rear younger kin. Sex-biased dispersal is thought to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of inbreeding, resulting in low relatedness between mates and the loss of indirect fitness benefits for the dispersing sex. In this review, we discuss several recent studies showing that dispersal patterns are more variable than previously thought, often leading to complex genetic structure within cooperative avian societies. These empirical findings accord with recent theoretical models suggesting that sex- biased dispersal is neither necessary, nor always sufficient, to prevent inbreeding. The ability to recognize relatives, primarily by learning individual or group-specific vocalizations, may play a more important role in incest avoidance than currently appreciated. PMID:26577076

  17. The Dwarf Saltwort (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.): Evaluation of Breeding Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jaradat, Abdullah A.; Mohammed Shahid

    2012-01-01

    Breeding populations of the dwarf saltwort (Salicornia   bigelovii Torr. (Chenopodiaceae)) have been evaluated under high seawater salinity (45 dS m−1) for phenotypic, morphometric, biomass and seed traits to select and develop genotypes for biomass, seed, and vegetable production using sea and brackish water and marginal land resources. The largest variation between populations was found for harvest index and the smallest for number of spikes per plant; however, a more complex structure of v...

  18. Extra-pair paternity in birds: explaining variation between species and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, M; Kempenaers, B

    1998-02-01

    Molecular techniques used to assign paternity have revealed previously unknown incidences of extra-pair paternity in socially monogamous bird species. DNA fingerprinting has now been used sufficiently often for mating-system biologists to appreciate the natural variation in the frequency of broods showing extra-pair young. The variation between species and between populations of the same species is surprisingly marked. Explaining this variation may help us to understand the factors promoting sexual selection. Recent comparative studies and detailed behavioural studies suggest that factors such as breeding density, genetic variation in the population and the intensity of sexual conflicts determine the costs and benefits to males and females of engaging in extra-pair copulations, and therefore contribute to the variation among populations. PMID:21238200

  19. The potential for typhoon impact on bird populations on the island of Rota, Northern Mariana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha, C.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous independent analyses of climate change have suggested that changing weather patterns are resulting in increasing frequency or intensity of hurricanes and typhoons. We explore the relationship between cyclonic event frequency and severity on measures of bird abundance on the island of Rota, in the Northern Mariana Islands to determine if changes in cyclonic event pattern might be related to the local decline of avian species. We developed a database of Rota cyclonic event encounters since 1952 and three primary variables for analysis of cyclonic event behavior were then derived from this data: Time-Between-Typhoon-Encounters, Distance from Rota at closest approach, and Pressure at the center of the cyclonic event at the point of closest approach Three similar smoothed variables were derived relative to each Breeding Bird and Variable Circle Plot census time point. Multivariate general linear models were constructed separately for each bird abundance data set with multiple species as dependent variables and smoothed cyclonic event time-between-encounter, distance-at-closest- point, and central-pressure-at-closest-point as independent variables. Cyclonic event behavior in relation to Rota did not exhibit an increase in frequency, as sometimes perceived, but did show a significant decrease in distance to the island and an increase in intensity as measured by central pressure. Several species abundances showed significant relationships with cyclonic event pressure or distance, including the Mariana Crow, Philippine Turtle Dove, and Rufous Fantail. It appears that changes in cyclonic event “behavior” could be impacting forest-bird populations on Rota. Overall, bird population declines may be due to a combined effect of habitat loss, introduced species pressure, and cyclonic events, where any one of the factors might be enough to tip a species into decline.

  20. Terrestrial bird populations and habitat use on coastal plain tundra of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Presents results of four breeding season and three postbreeding season bird surveys conducted on 45 10ha plots representing seven habitat types study sites on the...

  1. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Scott J.; Sun, Mindy; Zolkos, Scott; Hansen, Andy; Dubayah, Ralph

    2014-03-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  2. Associations of breeding birds with fire-influenced and riparian-upland gradients in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.C.; Krieger, S.M.; Walters, J.R.; Collazo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effects of fire history and a riparian-upland gradient on the breeding bird community at Fort Bragg Military Installation in North Carolina, one of the largest remnant areas of the endangered longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. Study sites were classified into two treatments: fire-intense (areas experiencing growing-season burns) and fire-suppressed (areas lacking fires). Within each treatment, bird and vegetation data were recorded at point-count stations positioned at three distances from streamhead pocosins to characterize the riparian-upland habitat gradient: 0, 75, and ???150 m. Total bird abundance and species richness varied significantly along the riparian-upland gradient, with pocosins contributing greatly to avian biodiversity. Our data revealed strong effects of fire history and riparian-upland gradient on bird species, which we described in terms of breeding-bird assemblages. Members of the open longleaf assemblage (e.g., Red-cockaded Woodpecker [Picoides borealis], Bachman's Sparrow [Aimophila aestivalis]) were most common in fire-intense areas and at upland locations. Members of the fire-suppressed assemblage (e.g., Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]) were confined to pocosins in fire-intense areas, but became more abundant in fire-suppressed areas. Members of the pocosin assemblage (e.g., Eastern Towhee [Pipilo erythropthalamus], Common Yellowthroat [Geothlypis trichas]) were largely confined to pocosins and, in some cases, were most abundant in fire-intense pocosins. Fire suppression increased structural diversity of vegetation and promoted one breeding-bird assemblage (fire-suppressed), but at the expense of two others (open longleaf, pocosin). Continued management of Fort Bragg to promote longleaf pine restoration is essential for supporting conservation of the open-longleaf bird assemblage; in addition, it will benefit the pocosin assemblage. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  3. The relative importance of climate and vegetation properties on patterns of North American breeding bird species richness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and ecological modeling warrant a timely and robust investigation of the ecological variables that underlie large-scale patterns of breeding bird species richness, particularly in the context of intensifying land use and climate change. Our objective was to address this need using an array of bioclimatic and remotely sensed data sets representing vegetation properties and structure, and other aspects of the physical environment. We first build models of bird species richness across breeding bird survey (BBS) routes, and then spatially predict richness across the coterminous US at moderately high spatial resolution (1 km). Predictor variables were derived from various sources and maps of species richness were generated for four groups (guilds) of birds with different breeding habitat affiliation (forest, grassland, open woodland, scrub/shrub), as well as all guilds combined. Predictions of forest bird distributions were strong (R2 = 0.85), followed by grassland (0.76), scrub/shrub (0.63) and open woodland (0.60) species. Vegetation properties were generally the strongest determinants of species richness, whereas bioclimatic and lidar-derived vertical structure metrics were of variable importance and dependent upon the guild type. Environmental variables (climate and the physical environment) were also frequently selected predictors, but canopy structure variables were not as important as expected based on more local to regional scale studies. Relatively sparse sampling of canopy structure metrics from the satellite lidar sensor may have reduced their importance relative to other predictor variables across the study domain. We discuss these results in the context of the ecological drivers of species richness patterns, the spatial scale of bird diversity analyses, and the potential of next generation space-borne lidar systems relevant to vegetation and ecosystem studies. This study strengthens current understanding of bird species

  4. [Characteristics of pedigree cat breeding in the Netherlands: breeds, population increase and litter size].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, P O; Huisman, T; Knol, B W

    1999-03-01

    A survey of the Dutch Cat Fancy was carried out to determine reproductive, patterns of pedigree cats. The data of the present study were obtained by questioning the pedigree registers of the cat clubs participating in the foundation 'Overleg Platform van de Nederlandse Cat Fancy'. The Dutch Cat Fancy registers 34 different cat breeds. From 1992 up to 1996 a total of 25.985 litters were registered. Over this period the number of litters increased from 4989 to 5313. Litters from Longhair and Exotic Shorthair cats comprised the biggest group and accounted for 55% of the total number of litters. However, over this period, the number of Longhair and Exotic Shorthair litters decreased by 9%. Litters from British Shorthair, Birman, Maine Coon and Norwegian Forrest Cat increased in number as did litters from small breeds such as Ragdoll, Bengal and Sphynx. Litters from Abyssinian, Siamese, Oriental Shorthair cats remained relatively the same. The average litter size of the total cat population, based on pedigree certificates, was calculated at 3.3 kittens per litter. For different breeds litter size varied from 2.7 (Longhair and Exotic Shorthair) to 4.3 (Burmese and Maine Coon). Taking into account an average age of 14 years, the total Dutch pedigree cat population was estimated at 240,000 viz. about 10% of the total cat population. PMID:10084198

  5. Genetic analysis in the Collaborative Cross breeding population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, Vivek [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokoloff, Greta [ORNL; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Striz, Martin [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Branstetter, Lisa R [ORNL; Beckmann, Melissa [ORNL; Spence, Jason S [ORNL; Jackson, Barbara L [ORNL; Galloway, Leslie D [ORNL; Barker, Gene [ORNL; Wymore, Ann M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hunsicker, Patricia R [ORNL; Durtschi, David W [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shaw, Ginger S [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Shinpock, Sarah G [ORNL; Manly, Kenneth F [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Miller, Darla R [ORNL; Donahue, Kevin [University at Buffalo, NY; Culiat, Cymbeline T [ORNL; Churchill, Gary A [Jackson Laboratory, The, Bar Harbor, ME; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Palmer, Abraham [University of Chicago; O' Hara, Bruce [University of Kentucky; Voy, Brynn H [ORNL; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Genetic reference populations in model organisms are critical resources for systems genetic analysis of disease related phenotypes. The breeding history of these inbred panels may influence detectable allelic and phenotypic diversity. The existing panel of common inbred strains reflects historical selection biases, and existing recombinant inbred panels have low allelic diversity. All such populations may be subject to consequences of inbreeding depression. The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a mouse reference population with high allelic diversity that is being constructed using a randomized breeding design that systematically outcrosses eight founder strains, followed by inbreeding to obtain new recombinant inbred strains. Five of the eight founders are common laboratory strains, and three are wild-derived. Since its inception, the partially inbred CC has been characterized for physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. The construction of this population provided a unique opportunity to observe phenotypic variation as new allelic combinations arose through intercrossing and inbreeding to create new stable genetic combinations. Processes including inbreeding depression and its impact on allelic and phenotypic diversity were assessed. Phenotypic variation in the CC breeding population exceeds that of existing mouse genetic reference populations due to both high founder genetic diversity and novel epistatic combinations. However, some focal evidence of allele purging was detected including a suggestive QTL for litter size in a location of changing allele frequency. Despite these inescapable pressures, high diversity and precision for genetic mapping remain. These results demonstrate the potential of the CC population once completed and highlight implications for development of related populations. Supplementary material consists of Supplementary Table 1 Phenotypic means, variances, ranges and heritabilities for all traits and generations, Supplementary Table

  6. Construction of dense linkage maps "on the fly" using early generation wheat breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    In plant species, construction of framework linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait loci mapping and molecular breeding has been confined to experimental mapping populations. However, development and evaluation of these populations is detached from breeding efforts for cultivar development. In...

  7. Climate change affects populations of northern birds in boreal protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkala, Raimo; Rajasärkkä,Ari

    2010-01-01

    Human land-use effects on species populations are minimized in protected areas and population changes can thus be more directly linked with changes in climate. In this study, bird population changes in 96 protected areas in Finland were compared using quantitative bird census data, between two time slices, 1981–1999 and 2000–2009, with the mean time span being 14 years. Bird species were categorized by distribution pattern and migratory strategy. Our results showed that northern bird species ...

  8. Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Philip A; Mason, Lucy R; Green, Rhys E; Gregory, Richard D; Sauer, John R; Alison, Jamie; Aunins, Ainars; Brotons, Lluís; Butchart, Stuart H M; Campedelli, Tommaso; Chodkiewicz, Tomasz; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Crowe, Olivia; Elts, Jaanus; Escandell, Virginia; Foppen, Ruud P B; Heldbjerg, Henning; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frédéric; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindström, Åke; Noble, David G; Paquet, Jean-Yves; Reif, Jiri; Sattler, Thomas; Szép, Tibor; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven; van Strien, Arco J; van Turnhout, Chris A M; Vorisek, Petr; Willis, Stephen G

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity. Large-scale analyses have generally focused on the impacts of climate change on the geographic ranges of species and on phenology, the timing of ecological phenomena. We used long-term monitoring of the abundance of breeding birds across Europe and the United States to produce, for both regions, composite population indices for two groups of species: those for which climate suitability has been either improving or declining since 1980. The ratio of these composite indices, the climate impact indicator (CII), reflects the divergent fates of species favored or disadvantaged by climate change. The trend in CII is positive and similar in the two regions. On both continents, interspecific and spatial variation in population abundance trends are well predicted by climate suitability trends. PMID:27034371

  9. Current status, surveillance and control of avian flu in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    areas. Many of the Anatidae populations migrate between wetlands in the northern breeding areas and southern non-breeding areas and in doing so, regularly cross the borders of two or more countries. During the expansion of HPAI (H5N l) outbreaks from Asia to Europe, 2 events implicated wild birds, particularly waterbirds, as long-distance virus vectors. First, virus outbreaks in 2005 rapidly spread westward from Russia and Kazakhstan in July and August to Turkey, Romania, and Ukraine in October.There have been further reports of H5N1 avian influenza infection in birds in Russia, the Middle East, the Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan, a swan in Maribor, Slovenia, wild fowl in Krasnodar and Dagestan,, and further cases in swans in Italy. There have been reports of H5 avian influenza infection in swans in Slovenia, Austria, and Hungary. It is not yet known whether these swans were infected with the H5N1 strain. Wild water birds were suggested as a vector because the virus spread through areas that had no record of any virus presence and coincided with the fall migration of wild water birds between these areas. Second, at the beginning of 2006, HPAIV (H5N1) was detected in many wild water birds in East Europe, often in areas where no outbreaks had been detected among intensively surveyed poultry; this event overlapped with unusual water bird movements associated with cold weather in the Black Sea area. Quantitative analysis of the global spread of HPAIV (H5N1) also supports the potential role of migratory wild birds in virus spread. migratory path of wild birds and the Black Sea cost, The national early warning and surveillance system also was adapted and covered these risk areas on the basement of periodic risk assessment. Two well equipped laboratories in Sofia and Varna covered the needs of samples investigation and research activities for AI of the whole territories of the country. The national surveillance plan includes domestic and wild bird populations and domestic (back yards

  10. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  11. Effects of wind-energy facilities on breeding grassland bird distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Jill A; Buhl, Deborah A

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of renewable energy to meet worldwide demand continues to grow. Wind energy is one of the fastest growing renewable sectors, but new wind facilities are often placed in prime wildlife habitat. Long-term studies that incorporate a rigorous statistical design to evaluate the effects of wind facilities on wildlife are rare. We conducted a before-after-control-impact (BACI) assessment to determine if wind facilities placed in native mixed-grass prairies displaced breeding grassland birds. During 2003-2012, we monitored changes in bird density in 3 study areas in North Dakota and South Dakota (U.S.A.). We examined whether displacement or attraction occurred 1 year after construction (immediate effect) and the average displacement or attraction 2-5 years after construction (delayed effect). We tested for these effects overall and within distance bands of 100, 200, 300, and >300 m from turbines. We observed displacement for 7 of 9 species. One species was unaffected by wind facilities and one species exhibited attraction. Displacement and attraction generally occurred within 100 m and often extended up to 300 m. In a few instances, displacement extended beyond 300 m. Displacement and attraction occurred 1 year after construction and persisted at least 5 years. Our research provides a framework for applying a BACI design to displacement studies and highlights the erroneous conclusions that can be made without the benefit of adopting such a design. More broadly, species-specific behaviors can be used to inform management decisions about turbine placement and the potential impact to individual species. Additionally, the avoidance distance metrics we estimated can facilitate future development of models evaluating impacts of wind facilities under differing land-use scenarios. PMID:26213098

  12. The breeding ranges of Central European and Arctic bird species move poleward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Brommer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climatic warming predicts that species move their entire distribution poleward. Poleward movement of the 'cold' side of the distribution of species is empirically supported, but evidence of poleward movement at the 'warm' distributional side is relatively scarce. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Finland has, as the first country in the world, completed three national atlas surveys of breeding birds, which we here use to calculate the sizes and weighted mean latitudes of the national range of 114 southern and 34 northern bird species during three periods (1974-1979; 1986-1989; 2006-2010, each denoting species presence in approximately 3 800 10 × 10 km2 squares. We find strong evidence that southern species (breeding predominantly in central Europe showed a latitudinal shift of 1.1-1.3 km/year poleward during all three pairwise comparisons between these atlases (covering 11, 20.5 and 31.5 years respectively. We find evidence of a latitudinal shift of 0.7-0.8 km/year poleward of northern boreal and Arctic species, but this shift was not found in all study periods and may have been influenced by increased effort put into the more recent surveys. Species showed no significant correlation in changes in range size and weighted mean latitude between the first (11 year and second (20.5 year period covered by consecutive atlases, suggesting weak phylogenetic signal and little scope of species characteristics in explaining latitudinal avian range changes. CONCLUSIONS: Extinction-driven avian range changes (at the 'warm' side of a species' distribution occur at approximately half the rate of colonisation-driven range changes (at the 'cold' side, and its quantification therefore requires long-term monitoring data, possibly explaining why evidence for such changes is currently rare. A clear latitudinal shift in an assemblage of species may still harbour considerable temporal inconsistency in latitudinal movement on the species level. Understanding

  13. Breeding biology and success of a reintroduced population of the critically endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, E.J.; Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Monahan, W.B.; Kellerman, J.L.; Lieberman, A.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate success of reintroduction programs for endangered species depends on the ability of reintroduced animals to breed in the wild. We studied the nesting success and breeding biology of a reintroduced population of Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) on the island of Kaua'i, Hawaii. Thirty-four captive-bred Puaiohi were released into the Alaka'i Swamp in 1999-2001 and monitored using radiotelemetry. Ten females and two males paired with wild and other released birds, including one polygynous trio. From March to September, 31 nests were built. Mean clutch size was 2.0 eggs, daily nest survival was 0.97 ?? 0.01 (mean ?? SE) and overall nest success was 0.40 ?? 0.02. We confirmed predation, most probably by rats (Rattus spp.), as the greatest cause of nest failure, occurring at 38% of active nests with known fates, and causing the death of two nesting adult females. Ground-based rodent control proved ineffective at protecting nest attempts. Successful nests fledged an average of 1.4 young each (n = 10), and 85% of fledglings survived at least two weeks. Importantly, breeding behavior and success were comparable to those of wild Puaiohi. This is the first record of breeding in the wild from captive-bred endangered Hawaiian passerines. The ability of captive-bred Puaiohi to survive and breed successfully in the wild bodes well for future releases of this and other endangered passerines, but high predation rates on nests and nesting females highlights the importance of maintaining and restoring safe habitat for recovery. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  14. Grassland breeding bird use of managed grasslands on National Wildlife Refuges in Region 5 of the Fish and Wildlife Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The overall purpose of this project is to understand the likely capacity of Fish and Wildlife Service land managers to affect grassland bird populations in Region...

  15. Habitat Relationships of Three Grassland Breeding Bird Species: Broadscale Comparisons and Hayfield Management Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Nocera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Generalized recommendations for the conservation of birds in agro-ecosystems have been elusive because studies are often of a local nature, and do not compare source data against those from other regions. In this study, we developed geographically broad habitat relationship models to provide conservation prescriptions for three species that breed in farmed grasslands: Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus, Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis, and Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus. We develop models from our study in Nova Scotia, Canada and confront them with independent data from Wisconsin, USA pastures and Iowa, USA restored prairies. Vegetation that was higher and denser in the prebreeding season was linked to increased occupancy rates and abundance of Bobolinks in each study region. Providing tall spring grass is easily accomplished by not cutting late in the previous year. Savannah Sparrows were instead associated with shorter and sparser spring grass, which highlights the need to simultaneously provide heterogeneous habitat for otherwise ecologically similar species. Nelson's Sharp-tailed Sparrows were more likely to occur, and be numerous, in areas with greater availability of drainage ditches. They and several other species would benefit from provision of ditches with adequate vegetation to promote occupancy. By combining these with other well-established recommendations, such as a delayed first harvest, a greater net conservation benefit can be realized from these working landscapes.

  16. Concentration of contaminants in breeding bird eggs from the Colorado River Delta, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Sapozhnikova, Yelena V; Schlenk, Daniel; Mason, Andrew Z; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Rivera-Díaz, Juan José; Ramos-Delgado, Norma Alicia; Sánchez-Bon, Gerardo

    2006-06-01

    Organic contaminants (organochlorine [OC], organophosphorus [OP] pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), and metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se) are a concern to avian health in the Colorado River delta, Mexico. We determined concentrations of contaminants in eggs of three breeding species of birds from the delta (mourning doves [Zenaida macroura], burrowing owls [Athene cunicularia], and marsh wrens [Cistothorus palustris]). We collected 27 eggs of mourning doves, eight eggs of burrowing owls, and 18 eggs of marsh wrens for analyses. Polychlorinated biphenyls, OC, and OP pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector, and metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The non-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 77 and 126) were found in mourning dove and burrowing owl eggs at concentrations in which hatchability can be affected. Mean selenium concentration found in marsh wren eggs (5.6 microg/g dry wt) exceeded the level of concern. Arsenic and Cd were found at higher than normal concentrations, Hg concentrations did not exceed the level of concern in any of the species, and Pb concentrations were higher in eggs of species subject to hunting. With the exception of lead, marsh wren eggs contained the highest metal concentrations. PMID:16764484

  17. Modeling direct and indirect climate change impacts on ecological networks : a case study on breeding habitat of Dutch meadow birds

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Jerry; Van Der Vliet, Roland E.; De Jong, Harm; Zeylmans Van Emmichoven, Maarten J.; Van Hardeveld, Henk A.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Climate change can directly affect habitats within ecological networks, but may also have indirect effects on network quality by inducing land use change. The relative impact of indirect effects of climate change on the quality of ecological networks currently remains largely unknown. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect effects of climate change on a network of breeding habitat of four meadow bird species (Black-tailed g...

  18. Distribution and abundance of breeding birds and small mammals in the high salt marsh and the adjacent upland critical edge in southern Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of the study was to document breeding bird and small mammal distribution and abundance in the high salt marsh and the adjacent riparian zone...

  19. A Breeding Bird Survey of the West Mountain Wildlife Management Area and the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to: 1) Create a list of birds occurring in the study area during the breeding season; 2.) Identify species and habitats of...

  20. Report of the breeding bird study and vegetation analysis on the Gardner Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Annada District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An ornithological study of the breeding birds of the islands that make up the Gardner Division and the Bear Creek Unit of Mark Twain NWR was initiated in 1992. A...

  1. Dynamics of a recovering Arctic bird population: the importance of climate, density dependence, and site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Jason E; Swem, Ted; Andersen, David E; Kennedy, Patricia L; Nigro, Debora

    2015-10-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect vital rates and population-level processes, and understanding these factors is paramount to devising successful management plans for wildlife species. For example, birds time migration in response, in part, to local and broadscale climate fluctuations to initiate breeding upon arrival to nesting territories, and prolonged inclement weather early in the breeding season can inhibit egg-laying and reduce productivity. Also, density-dependent regulation occurs in raptor populations, as territory size is related to resource availability. Arctic Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus tundrius; hereafter Arctic peregrine) have a limited and northern breeding distribution, including the Colville River Special Area (CRSA) in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, USA. We quantified influences of climate, topography, nest productivity, prey habitat, density dependence, and interspecific competition affecting Arctic peregrines in the CRSA by applying the Dail-Madsen model to estimate abundance and vital rates of adults on nesting cliffs from 1981 through 2002. Arctic peregrine abundance increased throughout the 1980s, which spanned the population's recovery from DDT-induced reproductive failure, until exhibiting a stationary trend in the 1990s. Apparent survival rate (i.e., emigration; death) was negatively correlated with the number of adult Arctic peregrines on the cliff the previous year, suggesting effects of density-dependent population regulation. Apparent survival and arrival rates (i.e., immigration; recruitment) were higher during years with earlier snowmelt and milder winters, and apparent survival was positively correlated with nesting season maximum daily temperature. Arrival rate was positively correlated with average Arctic peregrine productivity along a cliff segment from the previous year and initial abundance was positively correlated with cliff height. Higher cliffs with documented higher productivity (presumably

  2. The effect of hunger on the acoustic individuality in begging calls of a colonially breeding weaver bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacot Alain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In colonially breeding birds, the ability to discriminate between individuals is often essential. During post-fledging care, parents have to recognize their own offspring among many other unrelated chicks in the breeding colony. It is well known that fledglings and food-provisioning parents of many bird species use contact calls to convey their identity. These calls are also often used as hunger-related signals of need in young birds. Here, we investigate how such calls incorporate signals of need and at the same time act as reliable indicators of each chick's identity. Results In a field study, we experimentally manipulated the hunger level of colonially breeding Jackson's golden-backed weaver (Ploceus jacksoni nestlings close to fledging and investigated its effects on acoustic call parameters. Some acoustic parameters that were related to the time-frequency pattern showed high individuality and were largely unaffected by a nestling's state of hunger. However, the majority of call parameters were significantly affected by hunger. Interestingly, most of these acoustic parameters showed both consistent changes with hunger and high between-individual differences, i.e. potential for individual recognition. Conclusion The results indicate that individual recognition processes can be based on static, hunger-independent call parameters, but also on dynamic hunger-related parameters that show high individuality. Furthermore, these signal properties suggest that the assessment of signals of need can be improved if the signal value is referenced to a chick's vocal spectrum.

  3. Extinction risk to bird populations caused by DDT exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Iwasa, Yoh; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    The impact of toxic chemicals on wild animals and plants can be quantified in terms of the enhanced risk of population extinction. To illustrate a method for doing this, we estimated such impact for two bird species: herring gull (Larus argentatus) in Long Island, NY, and sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) in eastern England, when they were exposed to DDT (p,p(')-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and its metabolites (called DDTs). The method we used is based on a formula of the mean time to population extinction derived for a stochastic differential equation (the canonical model). The intrinsic rate of natural population growth was estimated from an exponentially growing population, and the intensity of the environmental fluctuation was estimated from the magnitude of population size fluctuation. The effect of exposure to DDTs in reducing the population growth rate was evaluated based on an age-structured population model, by assuming that age-specific fertility is density-dependent and sensitive to DDTs exposure, but age-specific survivorship is not. The results are expressed in terms of the risk equivalent--the decrease in carrying capacity K that causes the same enhancement of extinction risk as chemical exposure at a given level. The risk equivalent can be used in mitigation banking. PMID:12946395

  4. Within-year differences in reproductive investment in laboratory zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata), an opportunistically breeding bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn; Gilbert, Lucy; Rutstein, Alison N.; Pariser, Emma C.; Graves, Jeff A.

    2008-12-01

    Reproduction in opportunistically breeding bird species has traditionally been considered non-seasonal with individuals taking advantage of favourable environmental conditions as they arise. However, some studies imply that this opportunistic breeding may be superimposed on an underlying seasonality, which has effects on the readiness to breed when conditions are favourable. The zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata) is the classic opportunistic breeder and widely used as such in studies. In a series of laboratory-based breeding experiments, we found evidence to suggest that there are seasonal differences in maternal reproductive investment in the zebra finch even when photoperiod, temperature, relative humidity and diet were held constant. Females showed highly significant seasonal differences in clutch size and egg mass with laying order. Clutch size showed a spring/summer peak typical of multi-brooded species in the wild. There was also a significant increase in egg mass with laying order in all seasons except winter. This variation in breeding parameters with season may allow females to adjust investment depending on the potential fitness returns from a given reproductive attempt. These findings also raise a warning about interpreting results of multiple zebra finch breeding experiments that have been carried out in different seasons.

  5. Habitat-specific population growth of a farmland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess population persistence of species living in heterogeneous landscapes, the effects of habitat on reproduction and survival have to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a matrix population model to estimate habitat-specific population growth rates for a population of northern wheatears Oenanthe oenanthe breeding in farmland consisting of a mosaic of distinct habitat (land use types. Based on extensive long-term data on reproduction and survival, habitats characterised by tall field layers (spring- and autumn-sown crop fields, ungrazed grasslands displayed negative stochastic population growth rates (log lambda(s: -0.332, -0.429, -0.168, respectively, that were markedly lower than growth rates of habitats characterised by permanently short field layers (pastures grazed by cattle or horses, and farmyards, log lambda(s: -0.056, +0.081, -0.059. Although habitats differed with respect to reproductive performance, differences in habitat-specific population growth were largely due to differences in adult and first-year survival rates, as shown by a life table response experiment (LTRE. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that estimation of survival rates is important for realistic assessments of habitat quality. Results also indicate that grazed grasslands and farmyards may act as source habitats, whereas crop fields and ungrazed grasslands with tall field layers may act as sink habitats. We suggest that the strong decline of northern wheatears in Swedish farmland may be linked to the corresponding observed loss of high quality breeding habitat, i.e. grazed semi-natural grasslands.

  6. Demography of a breeding population of whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) near Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Johanna

    I used a GIS raster layer of an area in the Churchill, Manitoba region to investigate the effect of breeding habitat on demography and density of Whimbrel from 2010 through 2013. Program MARK was used to quantify adult and daily nest survival. Apparent annual survival of 0.73 +/- 0.06 SE (95% CI = 0.60-0.83) did not significantly differ between sexes or habitats and was lower than expected based on longevity records and estimates for other large-bodied shorebirds. Nest success, corrected for exposure days, was highly variable, ranging from a low of 3% (95% CI = 0-12%) in 2011 to a high of 71% (95% CI = 54-83%) in 2013. The highest rate of nest survival occurred in the spring with the warmest mean temperature. I developed a generalized linear model (GLM) with a negative-binomial distribution from random plots that were surveyed for abundance to extrapolate a local breeding population size of 410 +/- 230 SE and density of 3.2 birds per square km +/- 1.8 SE. The result of my study suggests that other aspects of habitat not captured by the land cover categories may be more important to population dynamics.

  7. Effects of DDT on bird population of scrub forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Stewart, R.E.

    1949-01-01

    An oil spray of DDT was applied at the rate of five pounds per acre to a 90-acre tract of 5-year-old scrub and sapling growth at Beltsville, Maryland. Bird population studies were carried on in a 30-acre plot at the center of the sprayed area, and in a 30-acre check area of the same habitat one-half mile away. Of the five commonest species in the sprayed area, the Maryland yellowthroat, prairie warbler, and house wren were reduced 80 per cent, and the red-eyed towhee was apparently reduced 35 per cent; while no appreciable change in the numbers of yellow-breasted chats was noted. The total decrease for the five commonest species, which represented 77 per cent of the original population, was 65 per cent.

  8. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  9. Dispersal as a means of inbreeding avoidance in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulkin, Marta; Sheldon, Ben C

    2008-03-22

    The long-term study of animal populations facilitates detailed analysis of processes otherwise difficult to measure, and whose significance may appear only when a large sample size from many years is available for analysis. For example, inbreeding is a rare event in most natural populations, and therefore many years of data are needed to estimate its effect on fitness. A key behaviour hypothesized to play an important role in avoiding inbreeding is natal dispersal. However, the functional significance of natal dispersal with respect to inbreeding has been much debated but subject to very few empirical tests. We analysed 44 years of data from a wild great tit Parus major population involving over 5000 natal dispersal events within Wytham Woods, UK. Individuals breeding with a relative dispersed over several-fold shorter distances than those outbreeding; within the class of inbreeding birds, increased inbreeding was associated with reduced dispersal distance, for both males and females. This led to a 3.4-fold increase (2.3-5, 95% CI) in the likelihood of close (f=0.25) inbreeding relative to the population average when individuals dispersed less than 200m. In the light of our results, and published evidence showing little support for active inbreeding avoidance in vertebrates, we suggest that dispersal should be considered as a mechanism of prime importance for inbreeding avoidance in wild populations. PMID:18211876

  10. Birds like it Corky: the influence of habitat features and management of 'montados' in breeding bird communities.

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, Carlos; Rabaça, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In the southwest part of the Iberian Peninsula the dominant land-use are the Portuguese montados and Spanish dehesas, parkland forested areas of anthropogenic origin dominated by cork oak. They form a wooded matrix with open areas, scattered woodlands and undisturbed patches of Mediterranean forest and scrublands. The montados are characterized by a rich bird community. We have focus our study in a multidisciplinary approach, evaluating how management and landscape patterns influe...

  11. Chronic lack of breeding by Galápagos Blue-footed Boobies and associated population decline

    OpenAIRE

    David Anchundia; Huyvaert, Kathryn P; David J. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    A survey of Blue-footed Boobies (Sula nebouxii excisa) throughout the taxon's range in Galápagos, Ecuador found ~6400 adults, compared to a rough estimate of 20,000 in the 1960s. Few pairs bred in 2011-2013 and almost no birds in juvenile plumage were seen. Long-term data suggest that poor breeding began in 1998. Lack of recruitment over this period would mean that the current population is mostly elderly and experiencing senescent decline in performance. Anthropogenic effects such as int...

  12. Chronic lack of breeding by Galápagos Blue-footed Boobies and associated population decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anchundia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of Blue-footed Boobies (Sula nebouxii excisa throughout the taxon's range in Galápagos, Ecuador found ~6400 adults, compared to a rough estimate of 20,000 in the 1960s. Few pairs bred in 2011-2013 and almost no birds in juvenile plumage were seen. Long-term data suggest that poor breeding began in 1998. Lack of recruitment over this period would mean that the current population is mostly elderly and experiencing senescent decline in performance. Anthropogenic effects such as introduced predators are unlikely to explain this decline because islands with and without such factors exhibited the same low breeding. The poor reproduction seems to be linked to diet. Previous work indicated that sardine and herring (Clupeidae supported successful breeding, but these fish were mostly absent from the diet during this study, except in the central part of Galápagos, where most breeding attempts during this study occurred. Elsewhere in the eastern Pacific sardine abundance has decreased dramatically by natural processes in the last 15 years, as part of a well-documented and apparently natural cycle. This cyclic change in abundance provides a possible explanation for the recent demographic changes in Blue-footed Boobies in Galápagos. Whether natural or anthropogenic in origin, the implications of senescent decline in breeding ability and survival are dramatic for this genetically distinct icon of biodiversity and ecotourism.

  13. Social genetic and social environment effects on parental and helper care in a cooperatively breeding bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Robinson, Matthew R; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Hatchwell, Ben J

    2015-07-01

    Phenotypes expressed in a social context are not only a function of the individual, but can also be shaped by the phenotypes of social partners. These social effects may play a major role in the evolution of cooperative breeding if social partners differ in the quality of care they provide and if individual carers adjust their effort in relation to that of other carers. When applying social effects models to wild study systems, it is also important to explore sources of individual plasticity that could masquerade as social effects. We studied offspring provisioning rates of parents and helpers in a wild population of long-tailed tits Aegithalos caudatus using a quantitative genetic framework to identify these social effects and partition them into genetic, permanent environment and current environment components. Controlling for other effects, individuals were consistent in their provisioning effort at a given nest, but adjusted their effort based on who was in their social group, indicating the presence of social effects. However, these social effects differed between years and social contexts, indicating a current environment effect, rather than indicating a genetic or permanent environment effect. While this study reveals the importance of examining environmental and genetic sources of social effects, the framework we present is entirely general, enabling a greater understanding of potentially important social effects within any ecological population. PMID:26063846

  14. Species richness and relative abundance of breeding birds in forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    aquatica), American elm (Ulmus arnericana), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and willow oak (Quercus phellos) The mean basal area of all trees 10 cm diameter-at-breast height (dbh) was 28 m2 /ha (range 7-70). The mean canopy cover was 87 percent, mean canopy height was 20 m, ground cover was 60 percent, and vegetation density (2-7 m) was 47 percent. The most frequently encountered understory species were sugarberry, ash (Fraxinus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), and elm (Ulnrus spp.). A cooperative GIs effort among the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Nature Conservancy, and the University of Arkansas is currently classifying forested habitats within the MAV. This effort will provide information on stand size and topology which will be used in concert with our current data, and data from visits to additional forest stands in 1993, to assess the relationship between the size, quatity, and composition of forests within the MAV and their breeding bird community.

  15. Evaluation of the Bird Conservation Area Concept in the Northern Tallgrass Prairie : Annual Report: 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1998 we initiated a test of the concept that Bird Conservation Areas (BCA's) can maintain populations of breeding grassland birds. The underlying hypothesis is...

  16. Global population collapse in a superabundant migratory bird and illegal trapping in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Johannes; Oppel, Steffen; Ananin, Alexandr A; Durnev, Yurii A; Gashev, Sergey N; Hölzel, Norbert; Mishchenko, Alexandr L; Pessa, Jorma; Smirenski, Sergey M; Strelnikov, Evgenii G; Timonen, Sami; Wolanska, Kolja; Chan, Simba

    2015-12-01

    Persecution and overexploitation by humans are major causes of species extinctions. Rare species, often confined to small geographic ranges, are usually at highest risk, whereas extinctions of superabundant species with very large ranges are rare. The Yellow-breasted Bunting (Emberiza aureola) used to be one of the most abundant songbirds of the Palearctic, with a very large breeding range stretching from Scandinavia to the Russian Far East. Anecdotal information about rapid population declines across the range caused concern about unsustainable trapping along the species' migration routes. We conducted a literature review and used long-term monitoring data from across the species' range to model population trend and geographical patterns of extinction. The population declined by 84.3-94.7% between 1980 and 2013, and the species' range contracted by 5000 km. Quantitative evidence from police raids suggested rampant illegal trapping of the species along its East Asian flyway in China. A population model simulating an initial harvest level of 2% of the population, and an annual increase of 0.2% during the monitoring period produced a population trajectory that matched the observed decline. We suggest that trapping strongly contributed to the decline because the consumption of Yellow-breasted Bunting and other songbirds has increased as a result of economic growth and prosperity in East Asia. The magnitude and speed of the decline is unprecedented among birds with a comparable range size, with the exception of the Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius), which went extinct in 1914 due to industrial-scale hunting. Our results demonstrate the urgent need for an improved monitoring of common and widespread species' populations, and consumption levels throughout East Asia. PMID:26059233

  17. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Vedder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations.

  18. Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

    2013-07-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations. PMID:23874152

  19. Joint review of related contracts on bird populations in the Ravenglass Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-headed Gulls breeding at Ravenglass (and at other coastal sites in Cumbria) fed exclusively inland during the breeding season and so they and their young could not have acquired any radionuclides present in the estuarine muds and invertebrates. Levels in the invertebrates and in gull tissues were low; they were slightly higher in Shelducks, which feed on estuarine invertebrates but have nested successfully at Ravenglass in recent years. Gulls and two other ground-nesting bird species have suffered severe disturbance and predation by foxes in recent springs at Ravenglass; Shelducks nest in burrows and have escaped such effects. Levels of radionuclides in birds, particularly gulls, are too low to have caused breeding failures at Ravenglass. (author)

  20. Long-term changes of species richness in a breeding bird community of a small Mediterranean archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Abraín, A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the pattern of species richness changes in a bird–breeding bird community on a small western Mediterranean archipelago (Columbretes Islands over a 40–year period (1964–2003. The aim of this study was to qualitatively account for the relative roles of local and regional factors in shaping the community. As expected, we found that regional factors (at the metapopulation spatial scale increased diversity whereas local factors (i.e. ecological probably prevented further increases in diversity. We found that the archipelago gained four new species (two seabirds and two falconids during the study period, whereas no extinctions were recorded. The community seems partially or completely closed to some groups of species (e.g. small–sized birds such as passerines and storm–petrels, probably owing to predatory exclusion by Eleonora falcons (Falco eleonorae. As newly arrived species have breeding calendars that do not fully overlap with those of resident species, competition for space in a rather saturated area is prevented. Preservation of rare species which increase gamma (regional diversity rather than alpha diversity with common species should be the main local conservation goal.

  1. Phylogeny, genetic relationships and population structure of five Italian local chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ceccobelli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Number and population size of local chicken breeds in Italy is considered to be critical. Molecular data can be used to provide reliable insight into the diversity of chicken breeds. The first aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genetic origin of five Italian local chicken breeds (Ancona, Livorno, Modenese, Romagnola and Valdarnese bianca based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA information. Secondly, the extent of the genetic diversity, population structure and the genetic relationships among these chicken populations, by using 27 microsatellite markers, were assessed. To achieve these targets, a 506 bp fragment of the D-loop region was sequenced in 50 chickens of the five breeds. Eighteen variable sites were observed which defined 12 haplotypes. They were assigned to three clades and two maternal lineages. Results indicated that 90% of the haplotypes are related to clade E, which has been described to originate from the Indian subcontinent. For the microsatellite analysis, 137 individual blood samples from the five Italian breeds were included. A total of 147 alleles were detected at 27 microsatellite loci. The five Italian breeds showed a slightly higher degree of inbreeding (FIS=0.08 than the commercial populations that served as reference. Structure analysis showed a separation of the Italian breeds from the reference populations. A further sub-clustering allowed discriminating among the five different Italian breeds. This research provides insight into population structure, relatedness and variability of the five studied breeds.

  2. Protection Island NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Purple Martin Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — During the 2013 breeding season, several Purple Martins were observed entering cavities in snags located on or adjacent to the grasslands on PINWR. In 2014, Purple...

  3. Effects of set-aside management on birds breeding in lowland Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bracken, Fintan; Bolger, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Farmland birds have suffered a severe decline in recent years throughout Europe including Ireland. Agricultural intensification is believed to be the main cause and this has led to the introduction of agri-environmental schemes, of which set-aside is a part. Bird abundance and diversity were compared between set-aside and adjacent tillage or grassland at 18 locations. The set-aside sites were also assigned to one of four management types: rotational set-aside, non-rotational set-aside, first ...

  4. Techniques used in reducing oil impact on bird populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper deals with methods for deterring birds from oil spill areas. This subject has been exhaustively reviewed by Koski and Richardson (1976) and succinctly...

  5. Breeding Birds Associated with Seasonal Pools in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal pools in the northeast US are important habitats for amphibians and invertebrates, but little is known of their importance for birds. We examined avian community composition at seasonal pools across an urbanization gradient in Rhode Island to test the hypotheses that se...

  6. Bird populations and habitat use, Canning River Delta, Alaska: Report to Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bird populations and use of habitat at the Canning River Delta, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, was the subject of a study during the summer of 1979 and 1980....

  7. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  8. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report takes a look at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on...

  9. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  10. Black Tern Population Survey and other Marsh Bird Monitoring Activities in Vermont 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report looks at marsh bird population trends within the marshes of Vermont, and investigates the effect of water level and marsh vegetation changes on marsh...

  11. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  12. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    S. Riffell; McIntyre, N; Hayes, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes ...

  13. Birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Geneva : WHO Press, 2008 - (Bonnefoy, X.; Kampen, H.; Sweeney, K.), s. 239-287 ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : birds * urban ecosystem * pathogenic microorganisms Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine http://www.euro.who.int/document/e91435.pdf

  14. A Deeper Statistical Examination of Arrival Dates of Migratory Breeding Birds in Relation to Global Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Herbert Wilson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an 18-year dataset of arrival dates of 65 species of Maine migratory breeding birds, I take a deeper view of the data to ask questions about the shapes of the distribution. For each year, most species show a consistent right-skewed pattern of distribution, suggesting that selection is stronger against individuals that arrive too early compared to those that arrive later. Distributions are consistently leptokurtic, indicating a narrow window of optimal arrival dates. Species that arrive earlier in the spring show higher skewness and kurtosis values. Nectarivorous species showed more pronounced skewness. Wintering area did not explain patterns of skewness or kurtosis. Deviations from average temperatures and the North Atlantic Oscillation index explained little variation in skewness and kurtosis. When arrival date distributions are broken down into different medians (e.g., 5% median and 75% median, stronger correlations emerge for portions of the distribution that are adjacent, suggesting species fine-tune the progress of their migration. Interspecific correlations for birds arriving around the same time are stronger for earliest migrants (the 25% median compared to the true median and the 75% median.

  15. Impacts of anthropogenic activities and habitat degradation on breeding waterbirds

    OpenAIRE

    ONMUŞ, Ortaç; SIKI, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of threats on breeding waterbirds in the Gediz Delta, Turkey. Breeding Bird Surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2006. The survey area comprised 305 UTM grids of 1 × 1 km2. Populations and distributions of breeding birds were compared between 2002 and 2006 for the UTM grids under threat and without any threat using paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and GIS. Urbanization, industrialization, pollution, overgrazing, disturbance, and illegal reed cutting ...

  16. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Chuan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is possible to perform genome wide population genetic analyses in cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among eight cattle breeds sampled from Bos indicus and Bos taurus. Results Two thousand six hundred and forty one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning all of the bovine autosomal genome were genotyped in Angus, Brahman, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black, Limousin and Nelore cattle. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE and Fst estimates were used to construct a neighbor-joining tree to represent the phylogenetic relationship among these breeds. Conclusion The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. The greatest level of genetic differentiation was detected between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. When the Bos indicus breeds were excluded from the analysis, genetic differences among beef versus dairy and European versus Asian breeds were detected among the Bos taurus breeds. Exploration of the number of SNP loci required to differentiate between breeds showed that for 100 SNP loci, individuals could only be correctly clustered into breeds 50% of the time, thus a large number of SNP markers are required to replace the 30 microsatellite markers that are currently commonly used in genetic diversity studies.

  17. Genealogical analyses in open populations: the case of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, I; Gutiérrez, J P; Molina, A; Goyache, F; Valera, M

    2009-10-01

    This research assesses the genetic composition of three Arab-derived Spanish horse breeds as an example to highlight the major shortcomings related to genealogical analyses in open populations and to propose approaches useful to deal with this task. The studbooks of three Spanish Arab (SA)-derived horse breeds, Spanish Anglo-Arab (dAA), Hispano-Arab (dHA) and Spanish Sport Horse (dSSH) and those of their parental breeds SA, Spanish Purebred (SPB) and Thoroughbred (TB), totalling 211 754 individuals, were available. The genealogies of the dAA, dHA and dSSH were analysed not only using the corresponding studbook (breed exclusive dataset) but also including the genealogies of the founders from parental breeds (completed dataset). Coancestry analyses revealed that the present SA-derived populations share more genes with the Arab than with the other parental breeds. Effective population size was computed by accounting for migration rates to obtain an equivalent closed-population effective size ((eq)N(e)) of 39.2 for the dAA, 56.3 for dHA and 114.1 for dSSH. The essayed methodologies were useful for characterising populations involving migration. The consequences of the management of the analysed breeds are discussed. The results emphasize the need to include the complete genealogies of the individuals to attain reliable genealogical parameters. PMID:19765160

  18. High urban breeding densities do not disrupt genetic monogamy in a bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martínez, Sol; Carrete, Martina; Roques, Séverine; Rebolo-Ifrán, Natalia; Tella, José L

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization causes widespread endangerment of biodiversity worldwide. However, some species successfully colonize cities reaching higher densities than in their rural habitats. In these cases, although urban city dwellers may apparently be taking advantage of these new environments, they also face new ecological conditions that may induce behavioural changes. For example, the frequency of alternative reproductive behaviours such as extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism might increase with breeding densities. Here, using a panel of 17 microsatellites, we tested whether increments in breeding densities such as those associated with urban invasion processes alter genetic monogamy in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia. Our results show low rates of extra-pair paternity (1.47%), but relatively high levels of intraspecific brood parasitism (8.82%). However, we were not able to detect differences in the frequency at which either alternative reproductive behaviour occurs along a strong breeding density gradient. Further research is needed to properly ascertain the role of other social and ecological factors in the frequency at which this species presents alternative reproductive strategies. Meanwhile, our results suggest that genetic monogamy is maintained despite the increment in conspecific density associated with a recent urban invasion process. PMID:24614308

  19. The effects of grazing on ground nesting bird populations on alkaline grasslands in the Hortobagy region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMAY Gabor

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of grazing on ground-nesting bird because of the lack of former studies in our region. Alkaline grasslands provide optimal habitats for several bird species, thus it seemed to be important to determine appropriate management methods in order to help to maintain present breeding densities. We conducted our investigation in two differently grazed areas both laying close to the River Hortobágy, in the middle/eastern part of the National Park. One area (Angyalháza-puszta is heavily, while the other one (Pentezug is moderately grazed. In both area we had a 2x2 km sample quadrate, where we counted the singing or territorial males of every bird species in two years (2001 and 2003. During the analyses we compared the densities of different species between the two area and the differences between the two years. We have also prepared habitat maps for both areas, and analysed the habitat preference of all bird species. After analysing these data, our results showed no significant differences in the density of most breeding species, but showed significant differences between the years in the case of several species connected to wetlands, assumably because of the differences in annual precipitation.

  20. Experimental waterfowl breeding population survey Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Maine, the Maritime provinces, and Central Quebec during 1997. The primary purpose...

  1. 1985 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1985. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Manitoba, northern Saskatchewan, and the Saskatchewan River Delta during...

  3. 1990 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  4. Plan for Establishment of a Breeding Canada Goose Population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines a plan on how to implement a program for the establishment of a breeding Canada Goose population on the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. It...

  5. 1993 waterfowl breeding population survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  6. 1980 raptor survey: The breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the breeding peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) population was made on Amchitka Island, Alaska, during the 1980 summer field season. The survey was...

  7. Population age composition, breeding biology and notes on the wolverine in Alaska and Yukon Territory

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the population age, composition, breeding biology and notes on the wolverine in Alaska and the Yukon territory. Life history, physical...

  8. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  9. Landscape factors and hydrology influence mercury concentrations in wading birds breeding in the Florida Everglades, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M

    2013-08-01

    The hydrology of wetland ecosystems is a key driver of both mercury (Hg) methylation and waterbird foraging ecology, and hence may play a fundamental role in waterbird exposure and risk to Hg contamination. However, few studies have investigated hydrological factors that influence waterbird Hg exposure. We examined how several landscape-level hydrological variables influenced Hg concentrations in great egret and white ibis adults and chicks in the Florida Everglades. The great egret is a visual "exploiter" species that tolerates lower prey densities and is less sensitive to hydrological conditions than is the white ibis, which is a tactile "searcher" species that pursues higher prey densities in shallow water. Mercury concentrations in adult great egrets were most influenced by the spatial region that they occupied in the Everglades (higher in the southern region); whereas the number of days a site was dry during the previous dry season was the most important factor influencing Hg concentrations in adult ibis (Hg concentrations increased with the number of days dry). In contrast, Hg concentrations in egret chicks were most influenced by calendar date (increasing with date), whereas Hg concentrations in ibis chicks were most influenced by chick age, region, and water recession rate (Hg concentrations decreased with age, were higher in the southern regions, and increased with positive water recession rates). Our results indicate that both recent (preceding two weeks) hydrological conditions, and those of the prior year, influence Hg concentrations in wading birds. Further, these results suggest that Hg exposure in wading birds is driven by complex relationships between wading bird behavior and life stage, landscape hydrologic patterns, and biogeochemical processes. PMID:23707869

  10. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado Juan J; González Carmen; Cuevas Javier; Marcos-Carcavilla Ane; Martínez Marta; Calvo Jorge H; Serrano Magdalena; de Tejada Paloma

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed wh...

  11. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  12. Identification of Putative Wintering Areas and Ecological Determinants of Population Dynamics of Common House-Martin (Delichon urbicum and Common Swift (Apus apus Breeding in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Bani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify the causes of population decline in migratory birds, researchers must determine the relative influence of environmental changes on population dynamics while the birds are on breeding grounds, wintering grounds, and en route between the two. This is problematic when the wintering areas of specific populations are unknown. Here, we first identified the putative wintering areas of Common House-Martin (Delichon urbicum and Common Swift (Apus apus populations breeding in northern Italy as those areas, within the wintering ranges of these species, where the winter Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, which may affect winter survival, best predicted annual variation in population indices observed in the breeding grounds in 1992–2009. In these analyses, we controlled for the potentially confounding effects of rainfall in the breeding grounds during the previous year, which may affect reproductive success; the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO, which may account for climatic conditions faced by birds during migration; and the linear and squared term of year, which account for nonlinear population trends. The areas thus identified ranged from Guinea to Nigeria for the Common House-Martin, and were located in southern Ghana for the Common Swift. We then regressed annual population indices on mean NDVI values in the putative wintering areas and on the other variables, and used Bayesian model averaging (BMA and hierarchical partitioning (HP of variance to assess their relative contribution to population dynamics. We re-ran all the analyses using NDVI values at different spatial scales, and consistently found that our population of Common House-Martin was primarily affected by spring rainfall (43%–47.7% explained variance and NDVI (24%–26.9%, while the Common Swift population was primarily affected by the NDVI (22.7%–34.8%. Although these results must be further validated, currently they are the only hypotheses about the

  13. Limited catching bias in a wild population of birds with near-complete census information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Mirre J P; Winney, Isabel; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Burke, Terry; Schroeder, Julia

    2015-08-01

    Animal research often relies on catching wild animals; however, individuals may have different trappability, and this can generate bias. We studied bias in mist netting, the main method for catching wild birds. The unusually high resighting rate in our study population-house sparrows (Passer domesticus) on Lundy Island (England)-allowed us to obtain accurate estimates of the population size. This unique situation enabled us to test for catching bias in mist netting using deviations from the expected Poisson distribution. There was no evidence that a fraction of the birds in the population consistently remained uncaught. However, we detected a different bias: More birds than expected were captured only once within a year. This bias probably resulted from a mixture of fieldworkers sometimes ignoring rapid recaptures and birds becoming net shy after their first capture. We had sufficient statistical power with the available data to detect a substantial uncaught fraction. Therefore, our data are probably unbiased toward catching specific individuals from our population. Our analyses demonstrate that intensively monitored natural insular populations, in which population size can be estimated precisely, provide the potential to address important unanswered questions without concerns about a fraction of the population remaining uncaught. Our approach can help researchers to test for catching bias in closely monitored wild populations for which reliable estimates of population size and dispersal are available. PMID:26380681

  14. Enhancement of Linear Agricultural Areas to Provide Invertebrates as Potential Food for Breeding Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R. Evans

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Birds are an important part of the agricultural landscape, as having nature value, but also as pest control agents and bio-indicators for the health of the environment. Here we look at linear non-crop elements in agricultural areas as a potential source of food for nestlings of avian species. We measured invertebrate availability as it relates to structural complexity at the local and landscape levels in three counties in central Illinois. Invertebrates were measured with taxonomic diversity, abundance, and estimated biomass during spring of 2012 and 2013. Our study shows that easily modifiable field edge characteristics have the greatest impact on invertebrate diversity and abundance, as compared to field and landscape features. This finding shows that a potential invertebrate food source as measured by both diversity and biomass, may be easily enhanced without changes to agricultural practices.

  15. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Results Using AFL...

  16. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke eProp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard and one in east Greenland. Summer occurrence of polar bears, measured as the probability of encountering bears and the number of days with bear presence, has increased significantly from the 1970/80s to the present. The shifts in polar bear occurrence coincided with trends for shorter sea ice seasons and less sea ice during the spring in the study area. This resulted in a strong inverse relationship between the probability of bear encounters on land and the length of the sea ice season. Within ten years after their first appearance on land, polar bears had advanced their arrival dates by almost 30 days. Direct observations of nest predation showed that polar bears may severely affect reproductive success of the barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis, common eider (Somateria mollissima and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus. Nest predation was strongest in years when the polar bears arrived well before hatch, with more than 90% of all nests being predated. The results are similar to findings from Canada, and large-scale processes, such as climate and subsequent habitat changes, are pinpointed as the most likely drivers in various parts of the Arctic. We suggest that the increasing, earlier appearance of bears on land in summer reflects behavioral adaptations by a small segment of the population to cope with a reduced hunting range on sea ice. This exemplifies how behavioral adaptations may contribute to the cascading effects of climate change.

  17. SNP variation in ADRB3 gene reflects the breed difference of sheep populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianliang; Qiao, Liying; Liu, Jianhua; Yuan, Yanan; Liu, Wenzhong

    2012-08-01

    The β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3), a G-protein coupled receptor, plays a major role in energy metabolism and regulation of lipolysis and homeostasis. We detect the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in full-length sequence of ovine ADRB3 gene in 12 domestic sheep populations within four types by polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing to reveal the breed difference. Twenty-two SNPs, 12 of which in the exon 1 and ten in the intron, were detected, and 12 new exonic and four new intronic SNPs were found. Most SNPs presented in Shanxi Dam Line and least ones in Dorset. The average SNP number in both meat and dual purpose for meat and wool breeds was significantly higher than general and dual purpose breeds for wool and meat. Frequency of each SNP in studied breeds or types was different. The 18C Del and 1617T Ins majorly existed in dual purpose breeds for wool and meat. The 25A Del, 119C>G and 130C>T were mostly found in the meat and dual purpose for meat and wool breeds. The 1764C>A more frequently presented in meat than in other types. The majority of variations came from within the populations as suggested by analysis of molecular variance. Close relationship presented among the Chinese and western breeds, respectively. In conclusion, SNPs of ovine ADRB3 gene can reflect the breed difference and within- and between-population variations, and to a great extent, the breed relationship. PMID:22711302

  18. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds

  19. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  20. Bird populations on the Island of Tinian: persistence despite wholesale loss of native forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Amidon, Frederick A.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.

    2012-01-01

    Bird habitat on the island of Tinian, Mariana Islands, has been substantially altered, and only around 5% of the island has native forest today. The modern bird fauna is likely to be a subset of the original avifauna where only species tolerant to native forest loss and human disturbance have survived. Avian surveys were conducted on the island in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current densities and abundances of the remaining species, and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. During the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 11 species. Five of the nine native species and one alien bird have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two birds (one native and one alien) were considered relatively stable. Only five birds, including the Tinian Monarch, showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Increased development on Tinian may result in increases in habitat clearing and expansion of human-dominated habitats, and declines in some bird populations would likely continue or be exacerbated with these actions. Expanded development activities on Tinian would also mean increased cargo movement between Guam and Tinian, elevating the probability of transporting the Brown Tree Snake (Boiga irregularis) to Tinian, which would lead to precipitous decreases and extinctions.

  1. Contributions of Weather and Predation to Reduced Breeding Success in a Threatened Northern Loggerhead Shrike Population

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas M. Collister; Scott Wilson

    2007-01-01

    Populations on the periphery of a species' range may experience more severe environmental conditions relative to populations closer to the core of the range. As a consequence, peripheral populations may have lower reproductive success or survival, which may affect their persistence. In this study, we examined the influence of environmental conditions on breeding biology and nest survival in a threatened population of Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus) at the northern limit of the r...

  2. Breeding value estimation in the Hungarian Sport Horse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, János; Komlósi, István; Mihók, Sándor

    2009-07-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for a range of traits in Hungarian Sport Horses, and to compare several methods of estimating breeding value (BV) in this breed. The analyses were based on the Hungarian Sport Horse Studbook, results of self-performance tests (SPTs) and show-jumping competition results. An SPT comprises subjective judgement of conformation traits, movement analysis traits and free-jumping performance, assessed via ordinal scores. Genetic parameters of SPTs were estimated with an animal model. Different measurements of the competition performance were compared using the same repeatability model. Estimates of BV for sport were made with random regression models using a first-order Legendre polynomial. Heritability was found to increase and permanent environmental variance to decrease continuously with age. BVs can be estimated at different ages and from these a composite BV index can be computed. It is possible to weight BVs for the specific age of a horse. PMID:19375365

  3. HUMIDIFICATION AS A FACTOR OF STRUCTURIAL ORGANIZATION OF BIRD POPULATIONS IN THE WOOD STANDS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ASKANIA NOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Listopadsky M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different humidification types towards appearance of forest vegetation conditions on spatial organization of birds in the wood stands is analyzed. Population density, coefficient of occurrence, and informative connection with six types of soil humidification are given for 53 bird species. The informative estimation of every humidification type is determined for every bird species. Thereby it is definitely a contribution of every gradation of edaphic factor to the structural genesis of dendrophilous bird communities. The strongest informative connection between humidity gradients and the avifauna structure of the wood stands is available in dry edaphotopes for margin representatives and fresh one for typical forest species. These two humidification types play a start function in the structural genesis of some blocks of dendrophilous bird communities per se. It is determined that change of bird species of forest-steppe faunogenetic complex by species from Nemoral complex undergoes in most cases on the border of the gradient between fresh and humid edaphotopes. For 53 species of birds from dendrophilous complex is was revealed that the importance of different levels of soil moisture has a different impact in shaping of the modern structure dendrophilous avifauna. Dry and especially drily edaphotopes determine the spatial structure of the species that are of forest-steppe origin and belong to the representatives of the optional component of dendrophilous bird communities. Wet edafotopes are involved in the formation of the spatial structure of species of predominantly immoral origin and relate to the obligate component of representatives of dendrophilous bitd comminities. Gradient wetting of edaphotopes on the verge of ‘linked’/’fresh’ is restructuring for the bird communities. It takes an optional replacement red communists feature to obligate. Stands rather dry and fresh items currently being the most active formation of

  4. An Indicator of the Impact of Climatic Change on European Bird Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, R D; Willis, S G; Jiguet, F.; Voříše, P.; Klvaňová, A.; Van Strien, A; Huntley, B; Collingham, Y.C.; Couvet, D.; Green, R E

    2009-01-01

    Rapid climatic change poses a threat to global biodiversity. There is extensive evidence that recent climatic change has affected animal and plant populations, but no indicators exist that summarise impacts over many species and large areas. We use data on long-term population trends of European birds to develop such an indicator. We find a significant relationship between interspecific variation in population trend and the change in potential range extent between the late 20th and late 21st ...

  5. Climate change and the increasing impact of polar bears on bird populations

    OpenAIRE

    Prop, Jouke; Aars, Jon; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Bech, Claus; Bourgeon, Sophie; de Fouw, Jimmy; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Lang, Johannes; Noreen, Elin; Oudman, Thomas; Sittler, Benoit; Stempniewicz, Lech; Tombre, Ingunn; Wolters, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is becoming warmer at a high rate, and contractions in the extent of sea ice are currently changing the habitats of marine top-predators dependent on ice. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) depend on sea ice for hunting seals. For these top-predators, longer ice-free seasons are hypothesized to force the bears to hunt for alternative terrestrial food, such as eggs from colonial breeding birds. We analyzed time-series of polar bear observations at four locations on Spitsbergen (Svalbard)...

  6. Breeding site heterogeneity reduces variability in frog recruitment and population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Eby, Lisa A.; Maxell, Bryce A.; Corn, Paul Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental stochasticity can have profound effects on the dynamics and viability of wild populations, and habitat heterogeneity provides one mechanism by which populations may be buffered against the negative effects of environmental fluctuations. Heterogeneity in breeding pond hydroperiod across the landscape may allow amphibian populations to persist despite variable interannual precipitation. We examined recruitment dynamics over 10 yr in a high-elevation Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris) population that breeds in ponds with a variety of hydroperiods. We combined these data with matrix population models to quantify the consequences of heterogeneity in pond hydroperiod on net recruitment (i.e. number of metamorphs produced) and population growth rates. We compared our heterogeneous system to hypothetical homogeneous environments with only ephemeral ponds, only semi-permanent ponds, and only permanent ponds. We also examined the effects of breeding pond habitat loss on population growth rates. Most eggs were laid in permanent ponds each year, but survival to metamorphosis was highest in the semi-permanent ponds. Recruitment success varied by both year and pond type. Net recruitment and stochastic population growth rate were highest under a scenario with homogeneous semi-permanent ponds, but variability in recruitment was lowest in the scenario with the observed heterogeneity in hydroperiods. Loss of pond habitat decreased population growth rate, with greater decreases associated with loss of permanent and semi-permanent habitat. The presence of a diversity of pond hydroperiods on the landscape will influence population dynamics, including reducing variability in recruitment in an uncertain climatic future.

  7. Interior Least Tern (Sternula antillarum) breeding distribution and ecology: implications for population-level studies and the evaluation of alternative management strategies on large, regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Casey A; Wiley, Robert L; Fischer, Richard A; Hartfield, Paul D; Scott, J Michael

    2013-09-01

    Interior Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) (ILT) are colonial, fish-eating birds that breed within active channels of large sand bed rivers of the Great Plains and in the Lower Mississippi Valley. Multipurpose dams, irrigation structures, and engineered navigation systems have been present on these rivers for many decades. Despite severe alteration of channels and flow regimes, regulation era floods have remained effective at maintaining bare sandbar nesting habitat on many river segments and ILT populations have been stable or expanding since they were listed as endangered in 1985. We used ILT breeding colony locations from 2002 to 2012 and dispersal information to identify 16 populations and 48 subpopulations. More than 90% of ILT and >83% of river km with suitable nesting habitat occur within the two largest populations. However, replicate populations remain throughout the entire historical, geophysical, and ecological range of ILT. Rapid colonization of anthropogenic habitats in areas that were not historically occupied suggests metapopulation dynamics. The highest likelihood of demographic connectivity among ILT populations occurs across the Southern Plains and the Lower Mississippi River, which may be demographically connected with Least Tern populations on the Gulf Coast. Paired ecological and bird population models are needed to test whether previously articulated threats limit ILT population growth and to determine if management intervention is necessary and where. Given current knowledge, the largest sources of model uncertainty will be: (1) uncertainty in relationships between high flow events and subsequent sandbar characteristics and (2) uncertainty regarding the frequency of dispersal among population subunits. We recommend research strategies to reduce these uncertainties. PMID:24223295

  8. Long-term consequences of high incubation temperature in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-04-01

    Because incubation by birds is energetically costly, parents frequently trade off investment in incubation against self-maintenance. This can be manifested by a reduction in incubation temperature, which comes at high somatic costs for nestlings. The extent to which these costs constrain fitness is poorly understood. We incubated wild blue tit clutches at three biologically relevant temperatures and subsequently recorded winter survival and survival to the breeding season. Fledglings from the coldest treatment (35.0°C) survived less well than other fledglings, but the proportion of winter and breeding survivors did not differ significantly between treatments. However, survival probability in both seasons increased with body mass at fledging in birds from low and mid incubation temperatures, but decreased with fledging body mass in the high-temperature treatment. Mid-temperature nestlings were heavier as adults, weighing 7% more than low- and high-temperature survivors. Thus, high incubation temperature can be beneficial in the short term, but costs of accelerated embryonic development may equal those of protracted development in the long term. Such hidden consequences of faster development could maintain natural selection for average incubation temperature. PMID:27048468

  9. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  10. Evaluation of population-level ecological risks of fish-eating birds to dioxinlike PCBs exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Wataru; Yoshida, Kikuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Research Center for Chemical Risk Management, Tsukuba (Japan); Murata, Mariko [National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and some non- and monoortho- polychlorinated biphenyl congeners that can attain planar configuration (dioxinlike PCBs), which are chemically stable and persistent, are thought to be biomagnified via foodchain. Many studies have revealed that higher levels of these compounds have been observed in fish-eating birds, a top consumer in aquatic biota. Among these compounds, Dioxinlike PCBs has contributed more than 80% of the total TEQs found in eggs of fish-eating birds. In order to evaluate the effects of these compounds on fish-eating birds, therefore, it is important to elucidate exposure pathways and characteristics of dioxinlike PCBs. The conventional ecological risk assessment method of chemicals entails comparing the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from laboratory toxicity tests with the predicted or observed concentration in a target organism or a surrounding environmental media. Utilizing such a result of simplistic individual-level effect to draw conclusions regarding chemical effects on population is, however, questionable. Since risk management decisions should be based on protecting populations, the methods for population-level ecological risk assessment of chemicals have been of increasing interest for risk assessors and managers. In this study, a population-level ecological risk assessment of dioxinlike PCBs on fish-eating birds was performed to judge the need for risk management measures to protect aquatic wildlife from dioxinlike PCBs contamination in Japan. Egg mortality risk and the changes in population growth rate, {lambda}, in relation to the contamination levels of dioxinlike PCBs in eggs of four different types of fish-eating birds were determined by integrating the results from both bioaccumulation and life-history models.

  11. Habitat selection by breeding waterbirds at ponds with size-structured fish populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloskowski, Janusz; Nieoczym, Marek; Polak, Marcin; Pitucha, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Fish may significantly affect habitat use by birds, either as their prey or as competitors. Fish communities are often distinctly size-structured, but the consequences for waterbird assemblages remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of size structure of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio) cohorts together with other biotic and abiotic pond characteristics on the distribution of breeding waterbirds in a seminatural system of monocultured ponds, where three fish age classes were separately stocked. Fish age corresponded to a distinct fish size gradient. Fish age and total biomass, macroinvertebrate and amphibian abundance, and emergent vegetation best explained the differences in bird density between ponds. Abundance of animal prey other than fish (aquatic macroinvertebrates and larval amphibians) decreased with increasing carp age in the ponds. Densities of ducks and smaller grebes were strongly negatively associated with fish age/size gradient. The largest of the grebes, the piscivorous great crested grebe ( Podiceps cristatus), was the only species that preferred ponds with medium-sized fish and was positively associated with total fish biomass. Habitat selection by bitterns and most rallids was instead strongly influenced by the relative amount of emergent vegetation cover in the ponds. Our results show that fish size structure may be an important cue for breeding habitat choice and a factor affording an opportunity for niche diversification in avian communities.

  12. The effects of organic inputs to estuaries on overwintering bird populations and communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the relationship between changes in organic inputs to river estuaries and other coastal intertidal areas, and changes in the populations of waterfowl in these habitats. This is done in the context of tidal barrage construction, where barrage construction and operation may coincide with the cleaning of estuarine water. A thorough review of the literature is undertaken to determine the current status of knowledge of bird/organic-enrichment interactions. The use of multivariate statistics for identifying gradients in similarity between bird communities (specifically waders) of different estuaries, irrespective of geographic locations is investigated. (UK)

  13. Population Status Of Major U.S. Swine Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, genetic diversity of livestock populations is contracting. Knowing the true extent of the contraction is needed to develop effective conservation strategies. To accomplish this goal, pedigree records were obtained for: Duroc (n = 878,480), Hampshire (n =744,270), Landrace (n = 126,566), an...

  14. Heritable circadian period length in a wild bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Helm, Barbara; Visser, Marcel E

    2010-01-01

    Timing is essential, but circadian clocks, which play a crucial role in timekeeping, are almost unaddressed in evolutionary ecology. A key property of circadian clocks is their free-running period length (τ), i.e. the time taken for a full cycle under constant conditions. Under laboratory conditions, concordance of τ with the ambient light–dark cycle confers major fitness benefits, but little is known about period length and its implications in natural populations. We therefore studied natura...

  15. Population genetic structure and colony breeding system in dampwood termites (Zootermopsis angusticollis and Z. nevadensis nuttingi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies describing the population genetic structure and breeding system of basal lineages of termite species remain rare. Such species, however, may reveal ancestral life history attributes potentially influential in the evolution of eusociality within the Order Isoptera. Through the development and...

  16. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is poss...

  17. The impact of climate change on birds: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Weiwei Wu; Haigen Xu; Jun Wu; Mingchang Cao

    2012-01-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity has become a hot issue. This paper reviews the effects of climate change on avian distribution, phenology and population dynamics according to the results of the latest research. Due to climate change, bird distributions have shifted towards high-latitude and high-altitude areas, which is changing more quickly than before. However, the breeding area which bird lived was changed different from the non-breedings. In addition, the ranges of many speci...

  18. Temporal shift in density dependence among North American breeding duck populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Dennis L; Anderson, Michael G; Steury, Todd D

    2010-02-01

    Environmental perturbation can have a marked influence on abundance and trend in many animal populations, but information is scant on how numerical change relates to variability in density-dependent and density-independent processes acting on populations. Using breeding population estimates for 10 duck species from a survey area of approximately 2.2 million km2 in central North America (1955-2005), we compared population growth models and related parameters among species and across time. All duck species showed evidence of density-dependent growth, and the best-fit relationship between population growth (r(t)) and population size (N(t)) was linear or convex for all species. Density dependence and associated population parameters were not related to an index of species life history strategy. Reanalysis of segmented (1955-1979, 1980-2005) r(t) time series, where the truncation date coincided with a putative decline in wetland availability on breeding grounds, showed that density-dependent forces were weakened during the latter time segment. Additionally, in later years most populations experienced increased first-order autocorrelation in annual counts, decreased intrinsic growth rate, increased nonlinearity in the relationship between r(t) and N(t), increased equilibrium return time, and increased inter-species synchrony in numbers. Such changes were not closely related to species life history strategy or to shifts in mean population size, average trend, and estimated carrying capacity. We speculate that shifts in breeding duck habitat quality altered historical predator-prey dynamics in the system and thereby underlie observed dynamical changes. The paradoxical finding that population abundance and trend do not reveal shifts in population processes highlights the need to go beyond simple numerical assessment when evaluating population responses to environmental perturbation. PMID:20392021

  19. Analysis of genetic distribution and population genetic structure of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZHU; Xuewei LI; Surong SHUAI; Mingzhou LI; Fangqiong LI; Lei CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data was applied to analyze the distribution of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds and pig breed crosses.The population genetic information about genetic distribution,variation,and heterozygosity of the MyoD gene in different breed populations were analyzed.Based on the allele frequency,genetic distance and evolution distance among each breed populations were calculated and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) phylogenetic tree was gained based on the evolution distances between populations.The results indicated that the distribution of the MyoD genotype kept in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in most tested groups but not in Duroc (D) and Duroc × (Landrance × Yorkshire)(DLY) population.Generally,the genetic diversity of the MyoD gene was abundant and these tested breed populations had high genetic variations.The evolution of the MyoD gene was under natural selection pressure.On the phylogenetic tree,10 pig breeds were divided into 4 clusters.The first cluster consisted of four breeds developed from Landrace.The second cluster was two indigenous Chinese pig breeds.The third cluster was three breeds developed from Duroc.The fourth cluster was a Tibetan pig breed.The constitution of the topology of the phylogenetic tree was consistent with the breeding history of each pig breed.From this experiment,we can conclude that some RFLP data obtained from functional gene can be used in the genetic deviation research between some closely related species or between different populations in certain species.

  20. Preliminary investigation on reliability of genomic estimated breeding values in the Danish and Swedish Holstein Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Gregersen, V R;

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in the Danish Holstein population. The data in the analysis included 3,330 bulls with both published conventional EBV and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After data editing, 38,134 SNP markers...... or no effects, and a single prior distribution common for all SNP. It was found that, in general, the model with a common prior distribution of scaling factors had better predictive ability than any mixture prior models. Therefore, a common prior model was used to estimate SNP effects and breeding values...

  1. HUMIDIFICATION AS A FACTOR OF STRUCTURIAL ORGANIZATION OF BIRD POPULATIONS IN THE WOOD STANDS OF THE BIOSPHERE RESERVE ASKANIA NOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Listopadsky M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different humidification types towards appearance of forest vegetation conditions on spatial organization of birds in the wood stands is analyzed. Population density, coefficient of occurrence, and informative connection with six types of soil humidification are given for 53 bird species. The informative estimation of every humidification type is determined for every bird species. Thereby it is definitely a contribution of every gradation of edaphic factor to the structural g...

  2. Collision mortality has no discernible effect on population trends of North American birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd W Arnold

    Full Text Available Avian biodiversity is threatened by numerous anthropogenic factors and migratory species are especially at risk. Migrating birds frequently collide with manmade structures and such losses are believed to represent the majority of anthropogenic mortality for North American birds. However, estimates of total collision mortality range across several orders of magnitude and effects on population dynamics remain unknown. Herein, we develop a novel method to assess relative vulnerability to anthropogenic threats, which we demonstrate using 243,103 collision records from 188 species of eastern North American landbirds. After correcting mortality estimates for variation attributable to population size and geographic overlap with potential collision structures, we found that per capita vulnerability to collision with buildings and towers varied over more than four orders of magnitude among species. Species that migrate long distances or at night were much more likely to be killed by collisions than year-round residents or diurnal migrants. However, there was no correlation between relative collision mortality and long-term population trends for these same species. Thus, although millions of North American birds are killed annually by collisions with manmade structures, this source of mortality has no discernible effect on populations.

  3. Variance estimation between different body measurements at the males population from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel Dronca

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog, was selected from a natural population breed in Carpathian Mountains. The aim of this paper was to estimate variance at 12 body measurements using 26 males from Romanian Mioritic Shepherd Dog breed. The animals were registered with the Romanian Mioritic Association Club from Romania. The statistical data showed that there is a large variance for body length and tail length, a middle variance for the croup width and thorax width and a small variance for height at withers, height at middle of back, height at croup, height at the base of the tail, depth of thorax, thoracic perimeter, elbow height and height of the hock. We recommend of breeders dogs from this breed to take account in genetic improvement programs, of values presented in this paper.

  4. Crop Breeding for Low Input Agriculture: A Sustainable Response to Feed a Growing World Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner A. Benedito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World population is projected to reach its maximum (~10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45% increase of the current world population (approaching seven billion people will boost the demand for food and raw materials. However, we live in a historical moment when supply of phosphate, water, and oil are at their peaks. Modern agriculture is fundamentally based on varieties bred for high performance under high input systems (fertilizers, water, oil, pesticides, which generally do not perform well under low-input situations. We propose a shift of research goals and plant breeding objectives from high-performance agriculture at high-energy input to those with an improved rationalization between yield and energy input. Crop breeding programs that are more focused on nutrient economy and local environmental fitness will help reduce energy demands for crop production while still providing adequate amounts of high quality food as global resources decline and population is projected to increase.

  5. Strategies for imputation to whole genome sequence using a single or multi-breed reference population in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam;

    2014-01-01

    individual). Conclusion Combining reference populations across breeds is a good option to increase the size of the reference data and in turn the accuracy of imputation when only few animals are available. Pre-phasing the reference data only slightly decreases the accuracy but gives substantial improvements...... autosome 29 using 387,436 bi-allelic variants and 13,612 SNP markers from the bovine HD panel. Results A combined breed reference population led to higher imputation accuracies than did a single breed reference. The highest accuracy of imputation for all three test breeds was achieved when using BEAGLE...

  6. Forms of density regulation and (quasi-) stationary distributions of population sizes in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Grøtan, Vidar; Bregnballe, Thomas; Both, Chistiaan; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Leivits, Agu; Wright, Jonathan; Møller, Anders Pape; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    that have grown from very small population sizes followed by a period of fluctuations around K. We then use these parameters to estimate the quasi-stationary distribution of population size. There were often large uncertainties in these parameters specifying the form of density regulation that were...... generally independent of the duration of the study period. In contrast, precision in the estimates of environmental variance increased with the length of the time series. In most of the populations, a large proportion of the probability density of the (quasi-) stationary distribution of population sizes was...... due to the need for information concerning population growth at low densities as well as data on fluctuations around the carrying capacity K in order to estimate the strength of density regulation. Here we estimate parameters of the theta-logistic model for 28 populations of three species of birds...

  7. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed.

  8. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed

  9. An Integrated Population Model From Constant Effort Bird-Ringing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cave, Vanessa M.; King, Ruth; Freeman, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    Data from annual bird-ringing programs, in which catch effort is standardized, are routinely used to index abundance, productivity, and adult survival. Efficient models have been developed for each. Such monitoring schemes, based on ringing across a number of sites, are perhaps unique in providing this combination of demographic information and make the data particularly amenable to an integrated approach to population modeling. We develop a Bayesian approach and a deterministi...

  10. Diversity in Population Size and Production Parameters of Selected Varieties of Plymouth Rock Chicken Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research was to compare population size, eggs and meat production of the locally adapted chicken breed – Plymouth Rock of different varieties (white, barred and buff in Slovakia reared in extensive system. From the view of population size in conditions of Slovak Republic, most numerous of Plymouth Rock variety is white (average effective population size 118.96, while the lowest numerous we recorded for buff variety (21.62. The highest eggs and meat production we noted in case of White Plymouth. For this reason, this variety of Plymouth Rock was used in hybridisation for development of modern hybrid combination for production of broiler chickens.

  11. Model to track wild birds for avian influenza by means of population dynamics and surveillance information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alba

    Full Text Available Design, sampling and data interpretation constitute an important challenge for wildlife surveillance of avian influenza viruses (AIV. The aim of this study was to construct a model to improve and enhance identification in both different periods and locations of avian species likely at high risk of contact with AIV in a specific wetland. This study presents an individual-based stochastic model for the Ebre Delta as an example of this appliance. Based on the Monte-Carlo method, the model simulates the dynamics of the spread of AIV among wild birds in a natural park following introduction of an infected bird. Data on wild bird species population, apparent AIV prevalence recorded in wild birds during the period of study, and ecological information on factors such as behaviour, contact rates or patterns of movements of waterfowl were incorporated as inputs of the model. From these inputs, the model predicted those species that would introduce most of AIV in different periods and those species and areas that would be at high risk as a consequence of the spread of these AIV incursions. This method can serve as a complementary tool to previous studies to optimize the allocation of the limited AI surveillance resources in a local complex ecosystem. However, this study indicates that in order to predict the evolution of the spread of AIV at the local scale, there is a need for further research on the identification of host factors involved in the interspecies transmission of AIV.

  12. Current status, surveillance and control of avian influenza in domestic and wild bird populations in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the history and current status of avian influenza (AI) infection and control in Bulgaria. The country has a unique geographic position in Europe with regard to wild bird populations and their migration routes which pass through its territory. In recent years, Bulgaria did not remain free from AI. The region with the highest rate of isolation of H5N1 virus strains were the Black Sea coast and wet territories connected with the Via Pontica migration pathway in the administrative districts of Dobrich, Varna and Bourgas. Low pathogenic (LP) AI strains isolated from ducks were subtypes H3, H4 and H6 from the areas of Plovdiv, Pazardjik, St. Zagora, Yambol, Sliven and Haskovo. Raising ducks for liver production is a popular practice in south and southeast Bulgaria. From an epidemiological standpoint, controlling circulation of AI viruses among duck flocks, especially before their gathering in larger farms for fattening is a mandatory requirement of official authorities. To prevent the spread of highly pathogenic (HP) AI, surveillance of domestic poultry as well as wild birds should be strengthened in countries at risk, especially along bird migration routes. Monitoring, sampling and analysis of the viral subtypes of AI found in wild birds needs to be carried out to fully understand their role in the propagation and spread of HPAI viruses. (author)

  13. POPULATION ANALYSIS OF THE LOCAL ENDANGERED PŘEŠTICE BLACK-PIED PIG BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Krupa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pedigree analysis of the local endangered Přeštice Black-Pied pig breed (n=19 289 was performed. Animals born within the period 2012-2014 were assumed as the reference population (n=1 374. The pedigree completeness index reached 100% for four generations back. The 100 % of the genetic pool was explained by 66 ancestors. Although all animals of the reference population were inbred, 57% of them had inbreeding less than five percent. Average inbreeding, co-ancestry coefficient and rate of inbreeding reached 4.93%, 13.48% and 1.29% in reference population, respectively. The effective population size calculated by four different methods varied from 32 to 91 animals in 2014. Average generation interval, average family size for sire and dam parents was 2.5, 17.46 and 6.5 animals, respectively. Total number of founders, effective number of founders, effective number of founders’ genomes and effective number of non-founders genomes reached values 299, 98.05, 21.92 and 28.23 founders, respectively. The average genetic diversity (GD loss was 13.71% in reference population. The GD loss has increased within the last three year period mainly due to the random genetic drift (77.6% and by unequal contribution of founders (22.4%. The Preštice Black-Pied breed is highly endangered with GD loss. Mating of closely related animals has to be prevented in breeding and mating program of this breed.

  14. Genetic population structure and call variation in a passerine bird, the satin bowerbird, Ptilonorhynchus violaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, J A; Austin, J J; Moritz, C; Goldizen, A W

    2006-06-01

    Geographic variation in vocalizations is widespread in passerine birds, but its origins and maintenance remain unclear. One hypothesis to explain this variation is that it is associated with geographic isolation among populations and therefore should follow a vicariant pattern similar to that typically found in neutral genetic markers. Alternatively, if environmental selection strongly influences vocalizations, then genetic divergence and vocal divergence may be disassociated. This study compared genetic divergence derived from 11 microsatellite markers with a metric of phenotypic divergence derived from male bower advertisement calls. Data were obtained from 16 populations throughout the entire distribution of the satin bowerbird, an Australian wet-forest-restricted passerine. There was no relationship between call divergence and genetic divergence, similar to most other studies on birds with learned vocalizations. Genetic divergence followed a vicariant model of evolution, with the differentiation of isolated populations and isolation-by-distance among continuous populations. Previous work on Ptilonorhynchus violaceus has shown that advertisement call structure is strongly influenced by the acoustic environment of different habitats. Divergence in vocalizations among genetically related populations in different habitats indicates that satin bowerbirds match their vocalizations to the environment in which they live, despite the homogenizing influence of gene flow. In combination with convergence of vocalizations among genetically divergent populations occurring in the same habitat, this shows the overriding importance that habitat-related selection can have on the establishment and maintenance of variation in vocalizations. PMID:16892977

  15. Are differences in breeding mechanisms and fertility among populations contributing to rarity in Grevillea rhizomatosa (Proteaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C L; Caddy, H A R

    2006-12-01

    Plant breeding systems are seldom studied across the breadth of a species' range. For many systems, this precludes an informed assessment of the evolutionary biology of a species, particularly of the factors that shape fecundity. Grevillea rhizomatosa is a threatened species of shrub known only from a 7 × 8 km area and c. 2000 plants in northern New South Wales, Australia. The species reproduces asexually from rhizomatous suckers, and fruit are only produced in a few populations. Over two flowering seasons, we investigated the extent of sexual reproduction and the mechanisms of infertility in five populations that span the range of the species. Seed were produced in three of the five populations. The breeding system varied among populations from obligate outcrossing to facultative outcrossing to fully sterile. Fruit to flower ratios were below 0.13 in the fertile populations but within the range found in other species of Grevillea. Pollinator limitation was not linked to infertility. Stigmatic opening and receptivity were functional in all populations. Interpopulation crosses using fertile pollen failed to recover fertility in an infertile population. A breakdown in female and male fertility mechanisms was found including a fault in the mechanical release of pollen from anthers, wild-fires. PMID:21642125

  16. An avifaunal survey of the Istranca mountains, turkish thrace: novel breeding bird records including the first breeding record of Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    breeding evidence for Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, European Shag P. aristotelis, Pygmy Cormorant P. pygmeus, Garganey Anas querquedula, Common Redshank Tringa totanus, Alpine Swift Apus melba, Eurasian Wryneck Jynx torquilla, Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica, White-throated Dipper Cinclus...

  17. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineens...

  18. Pedigree analysis of seven small French sheep populations and implications for the management of rare breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Palhiere, Isabelle; François, Dominique; Bibé, Bernard; Leroy, Grégoire; Verrier, Etienne

    2010-01-01

    Pedigree information was analyzed in 7 small populations of sheep raised in France (Bleu du Maine, Charmoise, Cotentin, on-farm Romanov, Romanov ex situ in vivo, Roussin de la Hague, Solognote) to estimate their genetic variability. The pedigree information for each breed, estimated by the number of equivalent generations traced, ranged from rather poor (4.6) to very good (10.5) when compared with other studies. On the basis of probabilities of gene origin, the effective number of ancestors r...

  19. Prediction of rates of inbreeding in populations selected on best linear unbiased prediction of breeding value.

    OpenAIRE

    Bijma, P.; Woolliams, John

    2000-01-01

    Predictions for the rate of inbreeding (DeltaF) in populations with discrete generations undergoing selection on best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding value were developed. Predictions were based on the concept of long-term genetic contributions using a recently established relationship between expected contributions and rates of inbreeding and a known procedure for predicting expected contributions. Expected contributions of individuals were predicted using a linear model, u(i)(...

  20. Individual variation in rates of senescence: natal origin effects and disposable soma in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Charmantier, Anne; Verhulst, Simon; Sheldon, Ben C

    2010-11-01

    1. Longitudinal studies of various vertebrate populations have recently demonstrated senescent declines in reproductive performance and/or survival probability with age to be almost ubiquitous in nature. Little is known, however, about the extent to which rates of senescence vary between individuals, and about causes or consequences of such variation. Quantifying these links in natural populations is important for understanding the constraints and adaptive processes underlying the evolution of senescence. 2. Here, we analyse breeding data from 1029 female great tits Parus major to quantify the effect of natal conditions and early life reproduction on rates of reproductive senescence, reproductive life span and lifetime reproductive success. 3. Although for locally born females we find no evidence that natal conditions influence rates of reproductive senescence, we show that immigrant females suffer from faster rates of senescence than locally born females, and that this difference contributes to immigrants having a lower lifetime reproductive success. 4. Additionally, and independently, we find rates of reproductive senescence to increase with rates of early life reproduction, as predicted by the disposable soma hypothesis. Despite accelerated senescence late in life, high early life reproduction is, however, positively associated with lifetime reproductive success across individuals. 5. Female immigrant status and early life reproduction do not relate to reproductive life span. 6. We thus show that both immigration into our population, and high levels of early life reproduction, are associated with reduced late life reproductive performance in female great tits, but that fitness can be increased by high levels of early life reproduction at the expense of accelerated reproductive senescence. These results suggest disposable soma to be a likely mechanism underlying senescence in these birds, and encourage further study of the genetic basis (i.e. antagonistic

  1. Population structure of humpback whales from their breeding grounds in the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard C Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Although humpback whales are among the best-studied of the large whales, population boundaries in the Southern Hemisphere (SH have remained largely untested. We assess population structure of SH humpback whales using 1,527 samples collected from whales at fourteen sampling sites within the Southwestern and Southeastern Atlantic, the Southwestern Indian Ocean, and Northern Indian Ocean (Breeding Stocks A, B, C and X, respectively. Evaluation of mtDNA population structure and migration rates was carried out under different statistical frameworks. Using all genetic evidence, the results suggest significant degrees of population structure between all ocean basins, with the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean most differentiated from each other. Effective migration rates were highest between the Southeastern Atlantic and the Southwestern Indian Ocean, followed by rates within the Southeastern Atlantic, and the lowest between the Southwestern and Northern Indian Ocean. At finer scales, very low gene flow was detected between the two neighbouring sub-regions in the Southeastern Atlantic, compared to high gene flow for whales within the Southwestern Indian Ocean. Our genetic results support the current management designations proposed by the International Whaling Commission of Breeding Stocks A, B, C, and X as four strongly structured populations. The population structure patterns found in this study are likely to have been influenced by a combination of long-term maternally directed fidelity of migratory destinations, along with other ecological and oceanographic features in the region.

  2. First evidence and predictions of Plasmodium transmission in Alaskan bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Loiseau

    Full Text Available The unprecedented rate of change in the Arctic climate is expected to have major impacts on the emergence of infectious diseases and host susceptibility to these diseases. It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming. Here we show for the first time that avian Plasmodium transmission occurs in the North American Arctic. Over a latitudinal gradient in Alaska, from 61°N to 67°N, we collected blood samples of resident and migratory bird species. We found both residents and hatch year birds infected with Plasmodium as far north as 64°N, providing clear evidence that malaria transmission occurs in these climates. Based on our empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming scenario in Alaska. These findings raise new concerns about the spread of malaria to naïve host populations.

  3. First Evidence and Predictions of Plasmodium Transmission in Alaskan Bird Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Claire; Harrigan, Ryan J.; Cornel, Anthony J.; Guers, Sue L.; Dodge, Molly; Marzec, Timothy; Carlson, Jenny S.; Seppi, Bruce; Sehgal, Ravinder N. M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented rate of change in the Arctic climate is expected to have major impacts on the emergence of infectious diseases and host susceptibility to these diseases. It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming. Here we show for the first time that avian Plasmodium transmission occurs in the North American Arctic. Over a latitudinal gradient in Alaska, from 61°N to 67°N, we collected blood samples of resident and migratory bird species. We found both residents and hatch year birds infected with Plasmodium as far north as 64°N, providing clear evidence that malaria transmission occurs in these climates. Based on our empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming scenario in Alaska. These findings raise new concerns about the spread of malaria to naïve host populations. PMID:23028595

  4. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Cécile; Cao, Tuong-Vi; Ospina, Yolima; Quintero, Constanza; Châtel, Marc Henri; Tohme, Joe; Courtois, Brigitte; Ahmadi, Nourollah

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) and minor allele frequency (MAF) thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP) and of the validation population (VP), the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian) on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb) and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%), and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06). The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed. PMID:26313446

  5. Accuracy of Genomic Selection in a Rice Synthetic Population Developed for Recurrent Selection Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Grenier

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a promising strategy for enhancing genetic gain. We investigated the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV in four inter-related synthetic populations that underwent several cycles of recurrent selection in an upland rice-breeding program. A total of 343 S2:4 lines extracted from those populations were phenotyped for flowering time, plant height, grain yield and panicle weight, and genotyped with an average density of one marker per 44.8 kb. The relative effect of the linkage disequilibrium (LD and minor allele frequency (MAF thresholds for selecting markers, the relative size of the training population (TP and of the validation population (VP, the selected trait and the genomic prediction models (frequentist and Bayesian on the accuracy of GEBVs was investigated in 540 cross validation experiments with 100 replicates. The effect of kinship between the training and validation populations was tested in an additional set of 840 cross validation experiments with a single genomic prediction model. LD was high (average r2 = 0.59 at 25 kb and decreased slowly, distribution of allele frequencies at individual loci was markedly skewed toward unbalanced frequencies (MAF average value 15.2% and median 9.6%, and differentiation between the four synthetic populations was low (FST ≤0.06. The accuracy of GEBV across all cross validation experiments ranged from 0.12 to 0.54 with an average of 0.30. Significant differences in accuracy were observed among the different levels of each factor investigated. Phenotypic traits had the biggest effect, and the size of the incidence matrix had the smallest. Significant first degree interaction was observed for GEBV accuracy between traits and all the other factors studied, and between prediction models and LD, MAF and composition of the TP. The potential of GS to accelerate genetic gain and breeding options to increase the accuracy of predictions are discussed.

  6. 内蒙古中部地区繁殖鸟类多样性调查%Diversity of Breeding Birds in Middle Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 陈文婧; 魏炜; 王晨; 杨贵生

    2012-01-01

    Breeding bird diversity were surveyed by line transect and fixed-radius point count methods in 3 habitat,arid grassland,typical grassland and wetland in Middle Inner Mongolia from May to June 2011. A total of 63 breeding species belonging to 25 families and 17 orders were recorded. Among them 12 were resident birds and 51 were summer visitors. Considering the avifauna,54 species (85. 71% ) belong to Palearctic Realm and 9 (14. 39% ) are Oriental Realm. The bird diversity from the most to least richness in the 3 habitat surveyed by Shannon-Wiener index is wetland,arid grassland,and typical grassland. The value of evenness index was highest in arid grassland and lowest in typical grassland.%2011年5~6月,采用样线法和固定半径样点法对内蒙古中部地区荒漠草原、典型草原及湿地3种生境中的鸟类进行了调查,共记录到繁殖鸟63种,隶属于11目25科,其中留鸟12种,夏候鸟51种.在动物地理区系成分上,古北界鸟类54种(占85.71%);东洋界鸟类9种(占14.29%).调查结果表明,3种生境的鸟类群落结构在多样性指数上以湿地为最高,其次为荒漠草原,典型草原最低;均匀度指数最高的为荒漠草原,其次为湿地,典型草原最低.

  7. A Breeding Bird Survey of the Nulhegan Basin Division of the Silvio O. Conte National Fish and Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2000, the author used point counts, area searches, and callback surveys to investigate the use ofrepresentative natural communities (RNC) by breeding landbirds...

  8. Dynamics of low and high pathogenic avian influenza in wild and domestic bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Necibe; Torres, Juan; Martcheva, Maia; Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a time-since-recovery structured, multi-strain, multi-population model of avian influenza. Influenza A viruses infect many species of wild and domestic birds and are classified into two groups based on their ability to cause disease: low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Prior infection with LPAI provides partial immunity towards HPAI. The model introduced in this paper structures LPAI-recovered birds (wild and domestic) with time-since-recovery and includes cross-immunity towards HPAI that can fade with time. The model has a unique disease-free equilibrium (DFE), unique LPAI-only and HPAI-only equilibria and at least one coexistence equilibrium. We compute the reproduction numbers of LPAI ([Formula: see text]) and HPAI ([Formula: see text]) and show that the DFE is locally asymptotically stable when [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. A unique LPAI-only (HPAI-only) equilibrium exists when [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and it is locally asymptotically stable if HPAI (LPAI) cannot invade the equilibrium, that is, if the invasion number [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). We show using numerical simulations that the ODE version of the model, which is obtained by discarding the time-since-recovery structures (making cross-immunity constant), can exhibit oscillations, and also that the pathogens LPAI and HPAI can coexist with sustained oscillations in both populations. Through simulations, we show that even if both populations (wild and domestic) are sinks when alone, LPAI and HPAI can persist in both populations combined. Thus, reducing the reproduction numbers of LPAI and HPAI in each population to below unity is not enough to eradicate the disease. The pathogens can continue to coexist in both populations unless transmission between the populations is reduced. PMID:26667351

  9. Interaction of breeds, years, age of bird and pen effects on hen day lay of three layer breeds and their adaptation in the derived Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzungwe Ahemen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg production of Haco black, Shaver’s brown, Lohman brown and Olympia black werecollected from production records at Big Bam commercial farm Makurdi from 1997 to 2004. The meanhen day lay of the breeds were estimated in percentages at 49-52, 56-60 and 69-73 weeks. The meanhen day lay of effects of breed by year and breed by pen by age of bird interactions were estimated.The hen day lay of Haco black by year interaction were low varied significantly (P1,L2, and L3, were significantly lower than that at 49-56 weeks. The mean hen day lay due to effects ofinteraction of Shavers brown at 56-60 and 69-73 weeks by pen L1, L2, and L3, were significantly higherthan that at 49-56 weeks. The mean hen day lay of interaction of Lohman brown and Olympia black at69-73 weeks by Pen L1, L2, and L3, were significantly higher than that at 56-60 weeks. This resultindicated that the response to the restrictions of the years and their effects on the strategies of aging ofthe breeds on their hen lay varied across the genetic groups. Haco black was more susceptible to thisstress especially at the advanced age. Lohman brown and Olympia black were better than Haco black.Shaver’s brown was superior in this trait as neither the restrictions of the years nor the strategies ofaging affected its hen day lay. In order of fitness, Shavers brown, Lohman brown and Olympia blackwere most adapted to this region. Thus, Shavers brown which is better adapted to the prevailingenvironmental conditions in the Southern Guinea Savannah is recommended for poultry farmers in thislocality.

  10. Accuracy of estimated genomic breeding values for wool and meat traits in a multi-breed sheep population

    OpenAIRE

    Daetwyler, H.D.; Hayes, B J; Hickey, J.M.; Henshall, J.M.; Dominik, S.; Werf, J.H.J. van der; Gredler, B.

    2010-01-01

    Estimated breeding values for the selection of more profitable sheep for the sheep meat and wool industries are currently based on pedigree and phenotypic records. With the advent of a medium-density DNA marker array, which genotypes ∼50000 ovine single nucleotide polymorphisms, a third source of information has become available. The aim of this paper was to determine whether this genomic information can be used to predict estimated breeding values for wool and meat traits. The effects of all...

  11. The annual number of breeding adults and the effective population size of syntopic newts (Triturus cristatus, T-marmoratus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jehle, R; Arntzen, W.; Burke, T.; Krupa, A.P.; Hodl, W.

    2001-01-01

    Pond-breeding amphibians are deme-structured organisms with a population genetic structure particularly susceptible to demographic threats. We estimated the effective number of breeding adults (N-b) and the effective population size (N-e) of the European urodele amphibians Triturus cristatus (the crested newt) and T. marmoratus (the marbled newt), using temporal shifts in microsatellite allele frequencies. Eight microsatellite loci isolated from a T. cristatus library were used, five of which...

  12. Influence of life history strategies on sensitivity, population growth and response to climate for sympatric alpine birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Scott

    2012-06-01

    . Juvenile survival was a highly influential rate for both species, but the period from independence to first breeding is a poorly understood stage for many bird species. Additional study on juvenile survival, the influence of density dependence and the effects of predators as the mechanism driving survival-reproduction tradeoffs are all areas requiring further study.

  13. Avian response to timber harvesting applied experimentally to manage Cerulean Warbler breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, James; Wood, Petra Bohall; Buehler, David A.; Keyser, Patrick D.; Larkin, Jeffrey L.; Rodewald, Amanda D.; Wigley, T. Bently; Boves, Than J.; George, Gregory A.; Bakermans, Marja H.; Beachy, Tiffany A.; Evans, Andrea; McDermott, Molly E.; Newell, Felicity L.; Perkins, Kelly A.; White, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Timber harvesting has been proposed as a management tool to enhance breeding habitat for the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining Neotropical–Nearctic migratory songbird that nests in the canopy of mature eastern deciduous forests. To evaluate how this single-species management focus might fit within an ecologically based management approach for multiple forest birds, we performed a manipulative experiment using four treatments (three intensities of timber harvests and an unharvested control) at each of seven study areas within the core Cerulean Warbler breeding range. We collected pre-harvest (one year) and post-harvest (four years) data on the territory density of Cerulean Warblers and six additional focal species, avian community relative abundance, and several key habitat variables. We evaluated the avian and habitat responses across the 3–32 m2 ha−1 residual basal area (RBA) range of the treatments. Cerulean Warbler territory density peaked with medium RBA (∼16 m2 ha−1). In contrast, territory densities of the other focal species were negatively related to RBA (e.g., Hooded Warbler [Setophaga citrina]), were positively related to RBA (e.g., Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]), or were not sensitive to this measure (Scarlet Tanager [Piranga olivacea]). Some species (e.g., Hooded Warbler) increased with time post-treatment and were likely tied to a developing understory, whereas declines (e.g., Ovenbird) were immediate. Relative abundance responses of additional species were consistent with the territory density responses of the focal species. Across the RBA gradient, greatest separation in the avian community was between early successional forest species (e.g., Yellow-breasted Chat [Icteria virens]) and closed-canopy mature forest species (e.g., Ovenbird), with the Cerulean Warbler and other species located intermediate to these two extremes. Overall, our results suggest that harvests within 10–20 m2 ha−1 RBA yield the largest

  14. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Meese, Robert J; Graves, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent investigation. The method we

  15. Combining site occupancy, breeding population sizes and reproductive success to calculate time-averaged reproductive output of different habitat types: an application to Tricolored Blackbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Holyoak

    Full Text Available In metapopulations in which habitat patches vary in quality and occupancy it can be complicated to calculate the net time-averaged contribution to reproduction of particular populations. Surprisingly, few indices have been proposed for this purpose. We combined occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, and reproductive success to determine the net value of different sites through time and applied this method to a bird of conservation concern. The Tricolored Blackbird (Agelaius tricolor has experienced large population declines, is the most colonial songbird in North America, is largely confined to California, and breeds itinerantly in multiple habitat types. It has had chronically low reproductive success in recent years. Although young produced per nest have previously been compared across habitats, no study has simultaneously considered site occupancy and reproductive success. Combining occupancy, abundance, frequency of occurrence, reproductive success and nest failure rate we found that that large colonies in grain fields fail frequently because of nest destruction due to harvest prior to fledging. Consequently, net time-averaged reproductive output is low compared to colonies in non-native Himalayan blackberry or thistles, and native stinging nettles. Cattail marshes have intermediate reproductive output, but their reproductive output might be improved by active management. Harvest of grain-field colonies necessitates either promoting delay of harvest or creating alternative, more secure nesting habitats. Stinging nettle and marsh colonies offer the main potential sources for restoration or native habitat creation. From 2005-2011 breeding site occupancy declined 3x faster than new breeding colonies were formed, indicating a rapid decline in occupancy. Total abundance showed a similar decline. Causes of variation in the value for reproduction of nesting substrates and factors behind continuing population declines merit urgent

  16. Current selection for lower migratory activity will drive the evolution of residency in a migratory bird population

    OpenAIRE

    F Pulido; Berthold, P

    2010-01-01

    Global warming is impacting biodiversity by altering the distribution, abundance, and phenology of a wide range of animal and plant species. One of the best documented responses to recent climate change is alterations in the migratory behavior of birds, but the mechanisms underlying these phenotypic adjustments are largely unknown. This knowledge is still crucial to predict whether populations of migratory birds will adapt to a rapid increase in temperature. We monitored migratory behavior in...

  17. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  18. Growth rates of the population in a branching Brownian motion with an inhomogeneous breeding potential

    CERN Document Server

    Berestycki, Julien; Harris, John W; Harris, Simon C; Roberts, Matthew I

    2012-01-01

    We consider a branching particle system where each particle moves as an independent Brownian motion and breeds at a rate proportional to its distance from the origin raised to the power $p$, for $p\\in[0,2)$. The asymptotic behaviour of the right-most particle for this system is already known; in this article we give large deviations probabilities for particles following "difficult" paths, growth rates along "easy" paths, the total population growth rate, and we derive the optimal paths which particles must follow to achieve this growth rate.

  19. Breeding biology of Grey eagle-buzzard (Geranoaetus melanoleucos) population in Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraldo, F.; Donázar, José A.; Ceballos, Olga; Travaini, Alejandro; Bustamante, Javier; Funes, Martín

    1995-01-01

    We studied the breeding performance of a Grey Eagle-Buzzard (Geranoaetus melanoleucus) population in a region of northern Argentinian Patagonia where two different habitats occur; the mountains near the Andean cordiBera and the plains where shrub-steppes predominate. Mean eagle density was I pair/I 9 km2 (N = 44), with higher densities occuring in the plains (1 pair/13.2 km2. N — 17) than in the mountains (1 pair/22.7 km2. N = 27). We located four communal roosts, with ...

  20. Assessing regional populations of ground-nesting marine birds in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maftei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Queens Channel region of Nunavut is an ecologically distinct area within the Canadian High Arctic consisting of an extensive archipelago of small, low-lying gravel islands throughout which form several localized but highly productive polynyas. We used aerial survey and colony-monitoring data to assess regional- and colony-level fluctuations in the number of birds in this region between 2002 and 2013. Regional and colony-specific monitoring suggested that common eider (Somateria mollissima numbers are increasing, while numbers of Arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea may be in decline. Based on these data, we suggest that even infrequent comprehensive surveys are more useful than annual monitoring at specific sites in generating an accurate assessment of ground-nesting seabird populations at the regional level, and that dramatic fluctuations at individual colonies probably belie the overall stability of regional populations.

  1. Absolute consistency: individual versus population variation in annual-cycle schedules of a long-distance migrant bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Jesse R; Battley, Phil F; Potter, Murray A

    2013-01-01

    Flexibility in scheduling varies throughout an organism's annual cycle, reflecting relative temporal constraints and fitness consequences among life-history stages. Time-selection can act at different scales, either by limiting the range of alternative strategies in the population, or by increasing the precision of individual performance. We tracked individual bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica baueri for two full years (including direct observation during non-breeding seasons in New Zealand and geolocator tracking of round-trip migrations to Alaska) to present a full annual-cycle view of molt, breeding, and migration schedules. At both population and individual scales, temporal variation was greater in post-breeding than pre-breeding stages, and greater in molts than in movements, but schedules did not tighten across successive stages of migration toward the breeding grounds. In general, individual godwits were quite consistent in timing of events throughout the year, and repeatability of pre-breeding movements was particularly high (r = 0.82-0.92). However, we demonstrate that r values misrepresent absolute consistency by confounding inter- and intra-individual variation; the biological significance of r values can only be understood when these are considered separately. By doing so, we show that some stages have considerable tolerance for alternative strategies within the population, whereas scheduling of northbound migratory movements was similar for all individuals. How time-selection simultaneously shapes both individual and population variation is central to understanding and predicting adaptive phenological responses to environmental change. PMID:23342168

  2. Influence of characteristics of irrigation channels on the breeding bird community of a wetland zone in southeast of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Pomares, Alejandro; López Iborra, Germán Manuel; Martín Cantarino, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    The “El Hondo Nature Park” is mainly composed of a series of irrigation channels and water reservoirs, subjected to various regimes of management as well as reed and vegetation control, thus creating a great variety of habitats and situations. To determine the influence of these habitats and management regimes on the local bird community, a set of characteristics of these channels and their surrounding area were analysed with a Correspondence Analysis (CA). The degree of reed development in c...

  3. Growth performance of the clam, Meretrix meretrix, breeding-selection populations cultured in different conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao; CHAI Xueliang; WANG Hongxia; TANG Baojun; LIU Baozhong

    2013-01-01

    A breeding-selection program for the clam, Meretrix meretrix, was conducted since 2004. Two of the selec-tion populations were generated with the shell color pattern as an additional selection criterion and named as SP (purple stripes) population and SB (black dots) population. The third-generation SP and SB popula-tions (08G3SP and 08G3SB, respectively) were cultured at two commercial clam farms and a nursery pond and their shell lengths were compared. 08G3SB clams had significantly larger sizes than 08G3SP clams at commercial clam farms (p<0.05), yet 08G3SB individuals were significantly smaller than 08G3SP individ-uals at the nursery pond (p <0.05). Then, we examined the growth of the fourth-generation SP and SB populations (10G4SP and 10G4SB, respectively) at a commercial farm, and found that the shell lengths of the 10G4SB clams increased at a significantly higher growth rate than the 10G4SP clams (p <0.05) from May to September, when the water temperature was between 24.2-27.5◦C, while 10G4SB lost the growth advantage in the other months. These results indicated that SP and SB populations responded differently to environmental factors, so it is beneficial for the clam farmers to select a suitable population according to the culture environment. Furthermore, a diallel mating of the SB and SP populations was designed to investigate whether their hybrid population would show heterosis. However, the heterosis was not shown in this study, which might result from the slight genetic divergence between SB and SP populations.

  4. Breeding bird territory placement in riparian wet meadows in relation to invasive reed canary grass, Phalaris arundinacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, E.M.; Gray, B.R.; Fox, T.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plants are a growing concern worldwide for conservation of native habitats. In endangered wet meadow habitat in the Upper Midwestern United States, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) is a recognized problem and its prevalence is more widespread than the better-known invasive wetland plant purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Although resource managers are concerned about the effect of reed canary grass on birds, this is the first study to report how common wet meadow birds use habitat in relation to reed canary grass cover and dominance. We examined three response variables: territory placement, size of territories, and numbers of territories per plot in relation to cover of reed canary grass. Territory locations for Sedge Wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) were positively associated with reed canary grass cover, while those for Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) were not. Only Swamp Sparrow (M. georgiana) territory locations were negatively associated with reed canary grass cover and dominance (which indicated a tendency to place territories where there was no reed canary grass or where many plant species occurred with reed canary grass). Swamp Sparrow territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and litter depth. Common Yellowthroat territories were positively associated with vegetation height density and shrub cover. Song Sparrow territories were negatively associated with litter depth. Reed canary grass cover within territories was not associated with territory size for any of these four bird species. Territory density per plot was not associated with average reed canary grass cover of plots for all four species. Sedge Wrens and Song Sparrows may not respond negatively to reed canary grass because this grass is native to wet meadows of North America, and in the study area it merely replaces other tall lush plants. Avoidance of reed canary grass by Swamp Sparrows may be mediated

  5. Quantitative trait loci for rice blast resistance detected in a local rice breeding population by genome-wide association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Toshio; Sato, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Eiji; Hori, Kiyosumi; Yonemaru, Junichi; Sato, Takashi; Fujino, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Plant breeding programs aim to develop cultivars with high adaptability to the specific conditions in a local region. As a result, unique genes and gene combinations have been accumulated in local elite breeding populations during the long history of plant breeding. Genetic analyses on such genes and combinations may be useful for developing new cultivars with more-desirable agronomic traits. Here, we attempted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for rice blast resistance (BR) using a local breeding rice population from Hokkaido, Japan. Using genotyping data on single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeat markers distributed throughout the whole genomic region, we detected genetic regions associated with phenotypic variation in BR by a genome-wide association mapping study (GWAS). An additional association analysis using other breeding cultivars verified the effect and inheritance of the associated region. Furthermore, the existence of a gene for BR in the associated region was confirmed by QTL mapping. The results from these studies enabled us to estimate potential of the Hokkaido rice population as a gene pool for improving BR. The results of this study could be useful for developing novel cultivars with vigorous BR in rice breeding programs. PMID:26719741

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds assessed by microsatellite polymorphism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Hui-Fang; Song Wei-Tao; Shu Jing-Ting; Chen Kuan-Wei; Zhu Wen-Qi; Han Wei; Xu Wen-Juan

    2010-04-01

    The genetic structure and diversity of 10 Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds were investigated using 29 microsatellite markers. The total number of animals examined were 569, on average 57 animals per breed were selected. The microsatellite marker set analysed provided 177 alleles (mean 6.1 alleles per locus, ranging from 3 to 10). All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest estimate of 0.539 for the Jinding ducks, and the highest 0.609 observed for Jingjiang partridge ducks. The global heterozygote deficit across all populations ($F_{\\text{IT}}$) amounted to $-0.363$. About 10% of the total genetic variability originated from differences among breeds, with all loci contributing significantly. An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the NeighborNet tree based on the Reynold’s genetic distance. The structure software was used to assess genetic clustering of these egg-type duck breeds. Clustering analysis provided an accurate representation of the current genetic relations among the breeds. An integrated analysis was undertaken to obtain information on the population dynamics in Chinese indigenous egg-type duck breeds, and to better determine the conservation priorities.

  7. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%, but was far less prevalent (<1% in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  8. Performance of climate envelope models in retrodicting recent changes in bird population size from observed climatic change

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rhys E.; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Willis, Stephen G; Gregory, Richard D; Smith, Ken W.; Huntley, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five-year population trends of 42 bird species rare as breeders in the UK were examined in relation to changes in climatic suitability simulated using climatic envelope models. The effects of a series of potential ‘nuisance’ variables were also assessed. A statistically significant positive correlation was found across species between population trend and climate suitability trend. The demonstration that climate envelope models are able to retrodict species' population trends provides ...

  9. Contributions of Weather and Predation to Reduced Breeding Success in a Threatened Northern Loggerhead Shrike Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Collister

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Populations on the periphery of a species' range may experience more severe environmental conditions relative to populations closer to the core of the range. As a consequence, peripheral populations may have lower reproductive success or survival, which may affect their persistence. In this study, we examined the influence of environmental conditions on breeding biology and nest survival in a threatened population of Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus at the northern limit of the range in southeastern Alberta, Canada, and compared our estimates with those from shrike populations elsewhere in the range. Over the 2-year study in 1992–1993, clutch sizes averaged 6.4 eggs, and most nests were initiated between mid-May and mid-June. Rate of renesting following initial nest failure was 19%, and there were no known cases of double-brooding. Compared with southern populations, rate of renesting was lower and clutch sizes tended to be larger, whereas the length of the nestling and hatchling periods appeared to be similar. Most nest failures were directly associated with nest predators, but weather had a greater direct effect in 1993. Nest survival models indicated higher daily nest survival during warmer temperatures and lower precipitation, which may include direct effects of weather on nestlings as well as indirect effects on predator behavior or food abundance. Daily nest survival varied over the nesting cycle in a curvilinear pattern, with a slight increase through laying, approximately constant survival through incubation, and a decline through the nestling period. Partial brood loss during the nestling stage was high, particularly in 1993, when conditions were cool and wet. Overall, the lower likelihood of renesting, lower nest survival, and higher partial brood loss appeared to depress reproductive output in this population relative to those elsewhere in the range, and may have increased susceptibility to population declines.

  10. Multi-Generational Kinship, Multiple Mating, and Flexible Modes of Parental Care in a Breeding Population of the Veery (Catharus fuscescens), a Trans-Hemispheric Migratory Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavacharla, Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    We discovered variable modes of parental care in a breeding population of color-banded Veeries (Catharus fuscescens), a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, long thought to be socially monogamous, and performed a multi-locus DNA microsatellite analysis to estimate parentage and kinship in a sample of 37 adults and 21 offspring. We detected multiple mating in both sexes, and four modes of parental care that varied in frequency within and between years including multiple male feeders at some nests, and males attending multiple nests in the same season, each with a different female. Unlike other polygynandrous systems, genetic evidence indicates that multi-generational patterns of kinship occur among adult Veeries at our study site, and this was corroborated by the capture of an adult male in 2013 that had been banded as a nestling in 2011 at a nest attended by multiple male feeders. All genotyped adults (n = 37) were related to at least one other bird in the sample at the cousin level or greater (r ≥ 0.125), and 81% were related to at least one other bird at the half-sibling level or greater (r ≥ 0.25, range 0.25–0.60). Although our sample size is small, it appears that the kin structure is maintained by natal philopatry in both sexes, and that Veeries avoid mating with close genetic kin. At nests where all adult feeders were genotyped (n = 9), the male(s) were unrelated to the female (mean r = -0.11 ± 0.15), whereas genetic data suggest close kinship (r = 0.254) between two male co-feeders at the nests of two females in 2011, and among three of four females that were mated to the same polygynous male in 2012. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of polygynandry occurring among multiple generations of close genetic kin on the breeding ground of a Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird. PMID:27331399

  11. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    How land use can support both natural and agricultural resources is a key sustainability question. This question is more complicated when nature and agriculture support each other; here, birds consume pest insects, and coffee provides bird habitat. We used a model based on field research to study the effects of agricultural and natural land uses on birds, the pest control services that birds provide, and crop production on Jamaican coffee farms. Our conclusions address whether small forest-li...

  12. The Breeding Biology and Population Dynamics of the Black Tern in Western New York

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The black tern is currently considered a migratory non-game bird of management concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service Off ice of Migratory Bird Management and...

  13. Optimization of selection contribution and mate allocations in monoecious tree breeding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmann Patrik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of optimized contribution dynamic selection and various mating schemes was investigated over seven generations for a typical tree breeding scenario. The allocation of mates was optimized using a simulated annealing algorithm for various object functions including random mating (RM, positive assortative mating (PAM and minimization of pair-wise coancestry between mates (MCM all combined with minimization of variance in family size and coancestry. The present study considered two levels of heritability (0.05 and 0.25, two restrictions on relatedness (group coancestry; 1 and 2% and two maximum permissible numbers of crosses in each generation (100 and 400. The infinitesimal genetic model was used to simulate the genetic architecture of the trait that was the subject of selection. A framework of the long term genetic contribution of ancestors was used to examine the impacts of the mating schemes on population parameters. Results MCM schemes produced on average, an increased rate of genetic gain in the breeding population, although the difference between schemes was small but significant after seven generations (up to 7.1% more than obtained with RM. In addition, MCM reduced the level of inbreeding by as much as 37% compared with RM, although the rate of inbreeding was similar after three generations of selection. PAM schemes yielded levels of genetic gain similar to those produced by RM, but the increase in the level of inbreeding was substantial (up to 43%. Conclusion The main reason why MCM schemes yielded higher genetic gains was the improvement in managing the long term genetic contribution of founders in the population; this was achieved by connecting unrelated families. In addition, the accumulation of inbreeding was reduced by MCM schemes since the variance in long term genetic contributions of founders was smaller than in the other schemes. Consequently, by combining an MCM scheme with an algorithm that

  14. Population recovery following decline in an endangered stream-breeding frog (Mixophyes fleayi from subtropical Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alan Newell

    Full Text Available Amphibians have undergone dramatic declines and extinctions worldwide. Prominent among these have been the stream-breeding frogs in the rainforests of eastern Australia. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd has been postulated as the primary cause of these declines. We conducted a capture-mark-recapture study over a 7-year period on the endangered Fleay's barred frog (Mixophyes fleayi at two independent streams (30 km apart in order to assess the stability of these populations. This species had undergone a severe decline across its narrow geographic range. Mark-recapture modelling showed that the number of individuals increased 3-10 fold along stream transects over this period. Frog detection probabilities were frequently above 50% but declined as the populations increased. Adult survival was important to overall population persistence in light of low recruitment events, suggesting that longevity may be a key factor in this recovery. One male and female were present in the capture record for >6 years. This study provides an unambiguous example of population recovery in the presence of Bd.

  15. Population trends of grassland birds in North America are linked to the prevalence of an agricultural epizootic in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph J; Koslowsky, Hannah M

    2011-03-22

    Globalization of trade has dramatic socioeconomic effects, and, intuitively, significant ecological effects should follow. However, few quantitative examples exist of the interrelationship of globalization, socioeconomics, and ecological patterns. We present a striking illustration of a cascade in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; "mad cow disease") outbreaks in Europe exerted pressure on global beef markets, subsequently affecting North American hayfields and grassland bird populations. We examined competing models, which linked the prevalence of BSE in five focal countries, volume of beef exports to those countries from North America, and the amount of hayfield harvested and the abundance of grassland birds in North America. We found that (i) imports from North America increased 1 y after BSE outbreaks; (ii) probably because fewer cattle remained, the hay harvest in North America was reduced 2 y after the outbreak; (iii) the reduced hay harvest yielded a positive response in grassland bird populations 3 y after the outbreak. PMID:21383197

  16. Antral follicles population in heifers and cows of Nelore and Girolando breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sábio de Oliveira Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian antral follicle populations (OAFP of Nelore and Girolando breed heifers (12–18 months old and cows (24–60 months old. Animals were assigned to four groups: (1 Nelore cows (n = 18, (2 Girolando cows (n = 20, (3 Nelore heifers (n = 7, and (4 Girolando heifers (n = 7. Cows were treated to synchronize follicular wave emergence by implantation of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone, as well as intramuscular administration of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 25 mg of dinoprost. This synchronization treatment was administered at a random day of the estrous cycle of each cow, designated D0. Intravaginal devices were removed on D7, and on D11, OAFP counts were performed by transvaginal ovarian ultrasound. For each cow, all follicles ?3 mm in diameter were counted in both ovaries and counts were performed three times at 35-day intervals. Counts were also obtained from heifers, but these animals were not treated for synchronization of follicular wave emergence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test were used to compare mean OAFPs between counts as well as mean OAFPs between breed and age groups. No differences were observed in mean OAFPs between Nelore and Girolando cows (30.9 vs. 26.7, respectively; P > 0.05 or heifers (16.2 vs. 18.1, respectively; P > 0.05. However, within each breed, there were differences in mean OAFPs between heifers and cows (for Nelore cattle: 16.2 and 30.9, respectively; for Girolando cattle: 18.1 and 26.7, respectively; both P < 0.05. In conclusion, OAFPs were similar between Nelore and Girolando breeds and were influenced by age. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation for individual animals between the mean numbers of follicles counted in both ovaries and total number of follicles counted in either the right or left ovary, indicating that the evaluation of a single ovary is sufficient to estimate the OAFP of an

  17. Population trends of Rhinolophus affinis during the breeding and non-breeding season roosting at the Kota Gelanggi limestone complex, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Ting Jin; Zubaid, Akbar; Foo, Ng Yong

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring population trends of bats in caves is difficult but is very important for their conservation. Their vulnerability to decline cannot be taken lightly and must be monitored for future management purposes especially in places open to the public. No studies have been done on bats roosting in caves at Kota Gelanggi and there are very few published studies of cave-dwelling bats in Malaysia. To fill this gap, a study on monitoring the population trends of Rhinolophus affinis was carried out in two caves namely, Gua Kepala Gajah and Gua Tongkat. This study was conducted from October 2013 until December 2014. The population size was estimated by direct visual counts and photographic methods during the day. The bats were caught by using mists net and harp traps. The reproductive condition of both female and male individuals was examined. The mean estimated population size for R. affinis in Gua Kepala Gajah was 221 individuals and 464 in Gua Tongkat. The population size of R. affinis showed an obvious decline during the breeding season and increased gradually after that for both caves. Pregnant R. affinis were found in April 2014 and lactating in June 2014 in both caves. It is important to know the breeding and non-breeding season of bats in both caves and their roosting behaviour in order to protect the bats from human disturbance as these caves are open to the public. The findings will enable the TEKAM management to come out with a proper conservation and management plan for protecting the bat fauna in these caves.

  18. Temporally increasing spatial synchrony of North American temperature and bird populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Walter D.; Liebhold, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The ecological impacts of modern global climate change are detectable in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from shifts in species ranges to changes in community composition and human disease dynamics. So far, however, little attention has been given to temporal changes in spatial synchrony--the coincident change in abundance or value across the landscape--despite the importance of environmental synchrony as a driver of population trends and the central role of environmental variability in population rescue and extinction. Here we demonstrate that across North America, spatial synchrony of a significant proportion of 49 widespread North American wintering bird species has increased over the past 50 years--the period encompassing particularly intense anthropogenic effects in climate--paralleling significant increases in spatial synchrony of mean maximum air temperature. These results suggest the potential for increased spatial synchrony in environmental factors to be affecting a wide range of ecological phenomena. These effects are likely to vary, but for North American wildlife species, increased spatial synchrony driven by environmental factors may be the basis for a previously unrecognized threat to their long-term persistence in the form of more synchronized population dynamics reducing the potential for demographic rescue among interacting subpopulations.

  19. Temporal variation in bird counts within a Hawaiian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, John C.; Pratt, T.K.; Berlin, Kim E.; Kowalsky, James R.; Fancy, S.G.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    We studied monthly and annual variation in density estimates of nine forest bird species along an elevational gradient in an east Maui rainforest. We conducted monthly variable circular-plot counts for 36 consecutive months along transects running downhill from timberline. Density estimates were compared by month, year, and station for all resident bird species with sizeable populations, including four native nectarivores, two native insectivores, a non-native insectivore, and two non-native generalists. We compared densities among three elevational strata and between breeding and nonbreeding seasons. All species showed significant differences in density estimates among months and years. Three native nectarivores had higher density estimates within their breeding season (December-May) and showed decreases during periods of low nectar production following the breeding season. All insectivore and generalist species except one had higher density estimates within their March-August breeding season. Density estimates also varied with elevation for all species, and for four species a seasonal shift in population was indicated. Our data show that the best time to conduct counts for native forest birds on Maui is January-February, when birds are breeding or preparing to breed, counts are typically high, variability in density estimates is low, and the likelihood for fair weather is best. Temporal variations in density estimates documented in our study site emphasize the need for consistent, well-researched survey regimens and for caution when drawing conclusions from, or basing management decisions on, survey data.

  20. INVESTIGATION OF ALFALFA LOCAL POPULATIONS FOR CREATION OF NEW BREEDING GERMPLAZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Čupić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Yield of dry matter and green mass are important factors in selection of fodder crop cultivars. Low genetic gain was achieved during the long time of fodder crops breeding for yield. Therefore we investigated possibility of using local populations of alfalfa for yield increase with direct and indirect selection. Strong and significant influence of genotypes and environments was recorded for all examined traits and their interactions at the level p<0.01. The highest variability was recorded for green mass yield 48.21%; while the lowest variation was for height 13.18%. High share of genotype variance as well as high heritability were recorded in total variance for the traits number of stem and plant height.

  1. Variation of cats under domestication: genetic assignment of domestic cats to breeds and worldwide random-bred populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, J D; Lipinski, M J; Gandolfi, B; Froenicke, L; Grahn, J C; Grahn, R A; Lyons, L A

    2013-06-01

    Both cat breeders and the lay public have interests in the origins of their pets, not only in the genetic identity of the purebred individuals, but also in the historical origins of common household cats. The cat fancy is a relatively new institution with over 85% of its 40-50 breeds arising only in the past 75 years, primarily through selection on single-gene aesthetic traits. The short, yet intense cat breed history poses a significant challenge to the development of a genetic marker-based breed identification strategy. Using different breed assignment strategies and methods, 477 cats representing 29 fancy breeds were analysed with 38 short tandem repeats, 148 intergenic and five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms. Results suggest the frequentist method of Paetkau (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.78, short tandem repeats = 0.88) surpasses the Bayesian method of Rannala and Mountain (single nucleotide polymorphisms = 0.56, short tandem repeats = 0.83) for accurate assignment of individuals to the correct breed. Additionally, a post-assignment verification step with the five phenotypic single nucleotide polymorphisms accurately identified between 0.31 and 0.58 of the misassigned individuals raising the sensitivity of assignment with the frequentist method to 0.89 and 0.92 for single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats respectively. This study provides a novel multistep assignment strategy and suggests that, despite their short breed history and breed family groupings, a majority of cats can be assigned to their proper breed or population of origin, that is, race. PMID:23171373

  2. Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil: genetic progress and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlane Novais Caires

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the history of the Tabapuã breed in Northeastern Brazil by determining its population structure and genetic progress. Pedigree information from animals born in the period between 1965 and 2006 and weight-adjusted data at 205 (W205, 365 (W365 and 550 (W550 days of age for bovines born between 1975 and 2006 were used. The (covariance components and genetic value were estimated using the application MTDFREML. Also, the software ENDOG was used for pedigree analysis and parameter estimation based on the probabilities of gene origin, inbreeding and average generation interval. The heritability coefficients for direct genetic effects were 0.21±0.03, 0.26±0.04 and 0.36±0.05 for W205, W365 and W550, respectively. During the first 20 years studied, the observed effective size was small. The generation intervals by gametic pathway were: 7.7±3.4 (sire-son, 7.8±3.7 (sire-daughter, 6.9±3.3 (dam-son, 6.8 ± 3.1 (dam-daughter, and mean interval of 7.3±3.4 years. The studied population showed moderate heritability coefficients, whereas the genetic gains based on the studied traits may be higher than those estimated by genetic tendencies. Reduced generation interval, increased effective size and continuous mating control of relatives are important strategies for the genetic progress of the Tabapuã breed in the region.

  3. Red List of birds of the Wadden Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, L. M.; Norden Andersen, O. G.; Frikke, J.; Laursen, K.; Salvig, J.; Fleet, D. M.; Hälterlein, B.; Heckenroth, H.; Merck, T.; Rösner, H.-U.; Südbeck, P.; Wolff, W. J.; Thissen, J. B. M.

    1996-10-01

    350000 400000 pairs of breeding birds as well as 10 12 millions of migratory waterbirds use the Danish-German-Dutch Wadden Sea as a feeding, roosting and moulting area. The exact number of migrating birds using the Wadden Sea is unknown. 4 Wadden Sea breeding bird species are (probably) extinct in the area, e.g. Caspian Tern ( Sterna caspia) and Roseate Tern ( Sterna dougallii); the status of 5 species is critical, 4 species are endangered, the status of 6 species is vulnerable and of 4 species susceptible. Internaional responsibility can be stated for at least 15 breeding bird species or subspecies, because considerable parts of the north-west-european population (at least 5%) breed in the Wadden Sea (e.g. Eurasian Spoonbill ( Platalea leucorodia), Common Shelduck ( Tadorna tadorna), Hen Harrier ( Circus cyaneus), Avocet ( Recurvirostra avosetta), Kentish Plover ( Charadrius alexandrinus), Common Redshank ( Tringa totanus totanus), Gull-billed Tern ( Gelochelidon nilotica), Sandwich Tern ( Sterna sandvicensis), Common Tern ( Sterna hirundo), Little Tern ( Sterna albifrons). International responsibility can be determined for at least 54 migratory bird species or subspecies, because considerable parts of the biogeographical population (at least 1%) occur in the Wadden Sea during migration. Some species are present in the Wadden Sea with about 50% or nearly 90% of all individuals of the concerned populations, which means a very special international responsibility of the Wadden Sea has to be stated for these species.

  4. Disentangling the Relative Importance of Changes in Climate and Land-Use Intensity in Driving Recent Bird Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Eglington, Sarah M.; Pearce-Higgins, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function...

  5. Disentangling the relative importance of changes in climate and land-use intensity in driving recent bird population trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Eglington

    Full Text Available Threats to biodiversity resulting from habitat destruction and deterioration have been documented for many species, whilst climate change is regarded as increasingly impacting upon species' distribution and abundance. However, few studies have disentangled the relative importance of these two drivers in causing recent population declines. We quantify the relative importance of both processes by modelling annual variation in population growth of 18 farmland bird species in the UK as a function of measures of land-use intensity and weather. Modelled together, both had similar explanatory power in accounting for annual fluctuations in population growth. When these models were used to retrodict population trends for each species as a function of annual variation in land-use intensity and weather combined, and separately, retrodictions incorporating land-use intensity were more closely linked to observed population trends than retrodictions based only on weather, and closely matched the UK farmland bird index from 1970 onwards. Despite more stable land-use intensity in recent years, climate change (inferred from weather trends has not overtaken land-use intensity as the dominant driver of bird populations.

  6. Structure of Allozymatic Diversity of Ten Temperate and Adapted Exotic Breeding Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Da-hao; YU Yang; WANG Zhen-ping; LI Yan-ru

    2009-01-01

    Ten temperate and adapted exotic breeding populations of maize were studied with electrophoretic techniques. Three isozyme systems coded by nine allozyme loci were used for evaluating the genetic variability within and among populations.The results revealed that 78.57% of allozyme loci were polymorphic. Low allelic variation with a mean number of 1.84 alleles per locus per population was detected. But, these populations still maintained higher level of heterozygosity;moreover, the exotic populations had greater gene diversity than the temperate populations. All the populations were non-panmictic with negative Wright's fixation indexes (-0.091- -0.424). The tropical BS16 was typified by maximum allelic richness, percent of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity. More than 93% of the gene diversity maintained within populations, and the genetic differentiation among populations was low (0.002-0.191). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the tropical BS29 diverged from other populations in the reverse direction. The temperate BS9 and tropical BS 16 were divergent each other, and highly differentiated from other temperate and tropical populations, consequently, these two populations would be analogically postulated as potential germplasms to establish new heterotic groups for temperate maize breeding programs.

  7. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L; Flori, A; Coffi, A; Cros, D; Glitho, I; Nodichao, L

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect's egg laying and feeding. PMID:26113512

  8. Carry-over effects of conditions at the wintering grounds on breeding plumage signals in a migratory bird: roles of phenotypic plasticity and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvistö, P E; Calhim, S; Schuett, W; Sirkiä, P M; Velmala, W; Laaksonen, T

    2016-08-01

    To understand the consequences of ever-changing environment on the dynamics of phenotypic traits, distinguishing between selection processes and individual plasticity is crucial. We examined individual consistency/plasticity in several male secondary sexual traits expressed during the breeding season (white wing and forehead patch size, UV reflectance of white wing patch and dorsal melanin coloration) in a migratory pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) population over an 11-year period. Furthermore, we studied carry-over effects of three environmental variables (NAO, a climatic index; NDVI, a vegetation index; and rainfall) at the wintering grounds (during prebreeding moult) on the expression of these breeding plumage traits of pied flycatcher males at individual and population levels. Whereas NAO correlates negatively with moisture in West Africa, NDVI correlates positively with primary production. Forehead patch size and melanin coloration were highly consistent within individuals among years, whereas the consistency of the other two traits was moderate. Wing patch size decreased with higher NAO and increased with higher rainfall and NDVI at the individual level. Interestingly, small-patched males suffered lower survival during high NAO winters than large-patched males, and vice versa during low NAO winters. These counteracting processes meant that the individual-level change was masked at the population level where no relationship was found. Our results provide a good example of how variation in the phenotypic composition of a natural population can be a result of both environment-dependent individual plasticity and short-term microevolution. Moreover, when plasticity and viability selection operate simultaneously, their impacts on population composition may not be evident. PMID:27159261

  9. Changes in patch features may exacerbate or compensate for the effect of habitat loss on forest bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available One and a half centuries after Darwin visited Chiloe Island, what he described as "…an island covered by one great forest…" has lost two-thirds of its forested areas. At this biodiversity hotspot, forest surface is becoming increasingly fragmented due to unregulated logging, clearing for pastures and replacement by exotic tree plantations. Decrease in patch size, increased isolation and "edge effects" can influence the persistence of forest species in remnant fragments. We assessed how these variables affect local density for six forest birds, chosen to include the most important seed dispersers (four species and bird pollinators (two species, one of which acts also as seed disperser, plus the most common insectivore (Aphrastura spinicauda. Based on cue-count point surveys (8 points per fragment, we estimated bird densities for each species in 22 forest fragments of varying size, shape, isolation and internal-habitat structure (e.g. tree size and epiphyte cover. Bird densities varied with fragment connectivity (three species and shape (three species, but none of the species was significantly affected by patch size. Satellite image analyses revealed that, from 1985 to 2008, forested area decreased by 8.8% and the remaining forest fragments became 16% smaller, 58-73% more isolated and 11-50% more regular. During that period, bird density estimates for the northern part of Chiloé (covering an area of 1214.75 km(2 decreased for one species (elaenia, increased for another two (chucao and hummingbird and did not vary for three (rayadito, thrust and blackbird. For the first three species, changes in patch features respectively exacerbated, balanced and overcame the effects of forest loss on bird population size (landscape-level abundance. Hence, changes in patch features can modulate the effect of habitat fragmentation on forest birds, suggesting that spatial planning (guided by spatially-explicit models can be an effective tool to facilitate

  10. Chloroplast DNA Variations in Wild Brassicas and Their Implication in Breeding and Population Genetics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Bharti; Martín, Juan Pedro; Kaula, Babeeta Chrungu; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of cytoplasm and also for population genetics/phylogeographic analyses. The former is useful for breeding programs involving wide hybridization and synthesis of alloplasmic lines, while the latter is important for formulating conservation strategies. Therefore, PCR-RFLP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) technique was applied to study cpDNA diversity in 14 wild brassicas (including 31 accessions) which revealed a total of 219 polymorphic fragments. The combination of polymorphisms obtained by using only two primer pair-restriction enzyme combinations was sufficient to distinguish all 14 wild brassicas. Moreover, 11 primer pairs-restriction enzyme combinations revealed intraspecific polymorphisms in eight wild brassicas (including endemic and endangered species, B. cretica and B. insularis, resp.). Thus, even within a small number of accessions that were screened, intraspecific polymorphisms were observed, which is important for population genetics analyses in wild brassicas and consequently for conservation studies. PMID:26347851

  11. Disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Hamish R; Howe, Laryssa; Varsani, Arvind; Doneley, Robert J T

    2014-03-01

    Disease surveillance is vital to the management of New Zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. Three infectious agents that are potential threats to New Zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (APV), beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), and avian malaria. All three agents have been reported in New Zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. In this communication, we report the first study of APV, BFDV, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhibition budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) in New Zealand. Blood samples were collected from 90 living adult budgerigars from three breeding locations in the North Island of New Zealand. An overall APV prevalence of 22% was determined using a broad-spectrum nested PCR that amplified the major capsid protein VP1 gene of polyomavirus. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed a unique isolate of APV, which had a sequence divergence of 32% to previously reported budgerigar fledgling disease strains and 33% to the recently reported New Zealand finch isolate. All of the budgerigars sampled were found to be PCR negative for BFDV, and an overall prevalence of 30% was detected by PCR for avian malaria. Sequencing revealed the presence of ubiquitous malarial strains and also the potentially destructive Plasmodium relictum strain. The results of this study suggest that both APV and avian malaria are present in New Zealand adult budgerigars, and our study highlights the need for further studies to determine whether these pathogens in captive bird populations may be a threat or spill over into New Zealand's endemic and threatened avifauna and whether prevention and control methods need to be implemented. PMID:24758122

  12. Multilocus phylogeography and population structure of common eiders breeding in North America and Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.; Scribner, K.T.; McCracken, K.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Glacial refugia during the Pleistocene had major impacts on the levels and spatial apportionment of genetic diversity of species in northern latitude ecosystems. We characterized patterns of population subdivision, and tested hypotheses associated with locations of potential Pleistocene refugia and the relative contribution of these refugia to the post-glacial colonization of North America and Scandinavia by common eiders (Somateria mollissima). Specifically, we evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia for other Arctic vertebrates, including Beringia, the High Arctic Canadian Archipelago, Newfoundland Bank, Spitsbergen Bank and north-west Norway. Location Alaska, Canada, Norway and Sweden. Methods Molecular data from 12 microsatellite loci, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and two nuclear introns were collected and analysed for 15 populations of common eiders (n=716) breeding throughout North America and Scandinavia. Population genetic structure, historical population fluctuations and gene flow were inferred using F-statistics, analyses of molecular variance, and multilocus coalescent analyses. Results Significant inter-population variation in allelic and haplotypic frequencies were observed (nuclear DNA FST=0.004-0.290; mtDNA ??ST=0.051-0.927). Whereas spatial differentiation in nuclear genes was concordant with subspecific designations, geographic proximity was more predictive of inter-population variance in mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequency. Inferences of historical population demography were consistent with restriction of common eiders to four geographic areas during the Last Glacial Maximum: Belcher Islands, Newfoundland Bank, northern Alaska and Svalbard. Three of these areas coincide with previously identified glacial refugia: Newfoundland Bank, Beringia and Spitsbergen Bank. Gene-flow and clustering analyses indicated that the Beringian refugium contributed little to common eider post-glacial colonization

  13. Quantitative Assessment of the Importance of Phenotypic Plasticity in Adaptation to Climate Change in Wild Bird Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; SHELDON, BEN C.

    2013-01-01

    Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK t...

  14. The importance of selection at the level of the pair over 25 years in a natural population of birds

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Mats; Gustafsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the pattern of selection in natural populations is fundamental for our understanding of the evolutionary process. Selection at higher levels has gained considerable theoretical support in recent years, and one possible level of selection is the breeding pair where fitness is a function of the pair and cannot be reduced to single individuals. We analyzed the importance of pair-level selection over 25 years in a natural population of the collared flycatcher. Pair-level selection wa...

  15. El ave mascota: desde el criadero a la pet-shop - de la pet-shop a la casa - The pet-bird: from the breeding centre to the pet-shop. From the pet- shop to home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra Elena Bert.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenConocer cuales son los factores que más afectan al ave de jaulaen su recorrido de vida desde el criadero hasta el hogar donde serámantenida como ave mascota, cuales pueden ser las principales patologías detectadas en ese transito y como evitarlas, es el objetivo de este articulo que intenta lograr se establezcan normativas que permitan mantener integra la salud y el bienestar de las aves, desde el criadero hasta la casa.SummaryIn this article we evaluate the factors that can affect the birds ofcage in the breeding farm, as well as in the pet-shop, where they will be kept as pet birds. We expose the main pathologies that can emerge in the birds during the transportation or caused by the habitat changes. We suggest some measures to detect and control clinical signs, and we try to establish some regulations to guarantee the health and wellness of the birds from the breeding centre to home.

  16. Population structure and history of the Welsh sheep breeds determined by whole genome genotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Beynon, Sarah E.; Slavov, Gancho T; Farré, Marta; Sunduimijid, Bolormaa; Waddams, Kate; Davies, Brian; Haresign, William; Kijas, James; MacLeod, Iona M.; Newbold, C. Jamie; Davies, Lynfa; Larkin, Denis M

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the most economically important areas within the Welsh agricultural sector is sheep farming, contributing around £230 million to the UK economy annually. Phenotypic selection over several centuries has generated a number of native sheep breeds, which are presumably adapted to the diverse and challenging landscape of Wales. Little is known about the history, genetic diversity and relationships of these breeds with other European breeds. We genotyped 353 individuals from 18 na...

  17. Diet specialization in a generalist population: the case of breeding great tits Parus major in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani-Núñez, E; Valls, M; Senar, J C

    2015-11-01

    The analysis of diet specialization provides key information on how different individuals deal with similar food and habitat constraints within populations. Characterizing parental diet specialization at the moment of breeding, and the consistency of these preferences under different levels of effort, may help us to understand why parents exploit alternative resources. We investigated these questions in a species commonly considered a generalist: a breeding population of Mediterranean great tits Parus major. Our aim was to determine whether they are specialists or generalists at the pair level, and the consistency of this behaviour under different levels of effort. Using proportional similarity and mean pairwise overlap indices, we found that parents showed great variability in prey selection between territories. That is, they displayed a small niche overlap. Interestingly, the most specialized breeding pairs showed a tendency to have larger broods. Additionally, we experimentally manipulated brood size and found that parents showed high short-term consistency in their foraging behaviour. They precisely adjusted the number of provisioning trips to the number of nestlings, while they were unable to modify prey proportions or prey size after brood size was changed. We can therefore characterize their foraging strategies as highly consistent. Our results suggest that although the great tit may be considered a generalist at the species or population level, there was a tendency for trophic specialization among breeding pairs. This high inter- and intrapopulation plasticity could account for their great success and wide distribution. PMID:25983114

  18. Effect of imputing markers from a low-density chip on the reliability of genomic breeding values in Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dassonneville, R; Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Druet, T;

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the imputation error and loss of reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) or genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV) when using genotypes imputed from a 3,000-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel to a 50,000-marker SNP panel. Data...... missing markers and prediction of breeding values were performed using 2 different reference populations in each country: either a national reference population or a combined EuroGenomics reference population. Validation for accuracy of imputation and genomic prediction was done based on national test...... with a national reference data set gave an absolute loss of 0.05 in mean reliability of GEBV in the French study, whereas a loss of 0.03 was obtained for reliability of DGV in the Nordic study. When genotypes were imputed using the EuroGenomics reference, a loss of 0.02 in mean reliability of GEBV was...

  19. Population genomic structure and linkage disequilibrium analysis of South African goat breeds using genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, K; Dzomba, E F; Huson, H J; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-08-01

    The sustainability of goat farming in marginal areas of southern Africa depends on local breeds that are adapted to specific agro-ecological conditions. Unimproved non-descript goats are the main genetic resources used for the development of commercial meat-type breeds of South Africa. Little is known about genetic diversity and the genetics of adaptation of these indigenous goat populations. This study investigated the genetic diversity, population structure and breed relations, linkage disequilibrium, effective population size and persistence of gametic phase in goat populations of South Africa. Three locally developed meat-type breeds of the Boer (n = 33), Savanna (n = 31), Kalahari Red (n = 40), a feral breed of Tankwa (n = 25) and unimproved non-descript village ecotypes (n = 110) from four goat-producing provinces of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West were assessed using the Illumina Goat 50K SNP Bead Chip assay. The proportion of SNPs with minor allele frequencies >0.05 ranged from 84.22% in the Tankwa to 97.58% in the Xhosa ecotype, with a mean of 0.32 ± 0.13 across populations. Principal components analysis, admixture and pairwise FST identified Tankwa as a genetically distinct population and supported clustering of the populations according to their historical origins. Genome-wide FST identified 101 markers potentially under positive selection in the Tankwa. Average linkage disequilibrium was highest in the Tankwa (r(2)  = 0.25 ± 0.26) and lowest in the village ecotypes (r(2) range = 0.09 ± 0.12 to 0.11 ± 0.14). We observed an effective population size of 100 kb with the exception of those in Savanna and Tswana populations. This study highlights the high level of genetic diversity in South African indigenous goats as well as the utility of the genome-wide SNP marker panels in genetic studies of these populations. PMID:27306145

  20. [Population genetic parameters of aboriginal Yakut horses as related to modern breeds of the domestic horse Equus caballus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V N; Cothran, E G; Kniazev, S P

    1998-06-01

    This study was the first to analyze the polymorphic characteristics of a wide range of biochemical markers in aboriginal Yakut horses. A total of 124 alleles, including 48 alleles of seven blood-group loci and 76 alleles of ten loci for enzymes and other proteins, were studied. For these polymorphic systems, a computer analysis of the genetic distances between 85 horse breeds of different origin from all parts of the world was performed. The low level of hereditary variation in the Yakut horses confirmed that this breed is old and has long been an isolated population. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Yakut horses exhibited the most genetic similarity to the breeds from the Central Asian cluster, such as Akhal Teke, Arabian, Yabou, and Caspan Pony (Iran). The dispersal route of ancient horses was revealed. It led from America through Siberia and Central Asia to Africa and Eastern Europe, where evidence of the earliest domestication of horses was found. Genetic and ecological explanations of the formation of racing and draft breeds with similar immunogenetic characteristics are advanced. These explanations agree with craniological data on fossils and with the relative rates of growth of the axial and peripheral skeletons in modern breeds. These data shed light on the initial stages of domestication of the horse, an event that was extremely important for development of the human civilization. PMID:9719925

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa; Neves Dina; Borges Carla; Sobral Maria F; Matos José; Penedo Maria CT; Ginja Catarina; Cravador Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. ...

  2. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that

  3. Study on genetic variability in MHC-DRB1 second exon in Makuie sheep breed population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafi Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study polymorphism of the exon 2 of MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex gene in Makuie sheep breed was studied. Genomic DNA from blood samples of 90 sheep was extracted and a 279 bp MHC exon 2 fragment was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. PCR products were subjected to enzymatic digestion using RsaI endonuclease. Digested PCR products were electrophoresed on 2% agarose gel. The results showed the existence of 10 alleles: A, B, E, F, I, M, O, P, Q and V for the exon 2 of the MHC gene, with the frequencies of 0.4756, 0.0976, 0.0183, 0.0366, 0.0549, 0.0122, 0.1098, 0.0915, 0.0854 and 0.0183, respectively. Eighteen genotypes: AA, AB, AE, FF, AM, BO, EO, IO, OM, AP, BP, OP, PP, AQ, OQ, PQ, QQ and AV with the frequencies of 0.317, 0.1585, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0121, 0.0243, 0.0243, 0.1097, 0.0121, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0365, 0.0365, 0.0487, 0.0121, 0.0121, 0.0487 and 0.0365, respectively were identified in the population under study. Effective number of alleles and heterozygosity for the examined region were 3.7231 and 0.7314, respectively. Chi-square test showed that the examined sheep population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the examined region.

  4. Effects of Decreased Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in South Sweden on Terrestrial Birds and Small Mammals in Natural Populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In southern Sweden, where exposure to long range distributed heavy metals is about the highest in Scandinavia, depositions of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) decreased about 20 and 70%,respectively, between mid-1980s and mid-1990s, as estimated by their concentrations in moss. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in tissues of the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) and bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were also lower in 1996and 1997 compared to 1981 and 1982. It is concluded that the decreased deposition rate of these elements in southern Sweden had caused decreased exposure, and thus also to decreased potential risk of detrimental effects on insectivorous birds and herbivorous mammals. There was no indication that breeding results of pied flycatcher was influenced by the decreased deposition of toxic metals

  5. Unravelling the annual cycle in a migratory animal: breeding-season habitat loss drives population declines of monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Pichancourt, Jean-Baptiste; Norris, D Ryan; Martin, Tara G

    2015-01-01

    Threats to migratory animals can occur at multiple periods of the annual cycle that are separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. Populations of the iconic monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America have declined over the last 21 years. Three hypotheses have been posed to explain the decline: habitat loss on the overwintering grounds in Mexico, habitat loss on the breeding grounds in the United States and Canada, and extreme weather events. Our objectives were to assess population viability, determine which life stage, season and geographical region are contributing the most to population dynamics and test the three hypotheses that explain the observed population decline. We developed a spatially structured, stochastic and density-dependent periodic projection matrix model that integrates patterns of migratory connectivity and demographic vital rates across the annual cycle. We used perturbation analysis to determine the sensitivity of population abundance to changes in vital rate among life stages, seasons and geographical regions. Next, we compared the singular effects of each threat to the full model where all factors operate concurrently. Finally, we generated predictions to assess the risk of host plant loss as a result of genetically modified crops on current and future monarch butterfly population size and extinction probability. Our year-round population model predicted population declines of 14% and a quasi-extinction probability (5% within a century. Monarch abundance was more than four times more sensitive to perturbations of vital rates on the breeding grounds than on the wintering grounds. Simulations that considered only forest loss or climate change in Mexico predicted higher population sizes compared to milkweed declines on the breeding grounds. Our model predictions also suggest that mitigating the negative effects of genetically modified crops results in higher population size and lower extinction

  6. Water and energy economy of an omnivorous bird: population differences in the Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Pablo; Cavieres, Grisel; Veloso, Claudio; Canals, Mauricio

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the intraspecific variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in the omnivorous passerine Zonotrichia capensis from two populations inhabiting regions with different precipitation regimes and aridity indices. Values of TEWL in birds from the semi-arid region were significantly lower than those found in sparrows from the mesic region. TEWL in birds from the semi-arid site was 74% of the expectation based on body mass for passerines from mesic areas and similar to the allometric expectation for passerines from arid environments. In sparrows from the mesic area, TEWL was higher than predicted by their body mass for passerines from arid environments (133%), but very close (97%) to the expectation for passerines from mesic areas. BMR values were 25% lower in sparrows from the semi-arid region. The lower TEWL and BMR of birds from the semi-arid region may be a physiological adjustment that allows them to cope with fewer resources and/or water. We propose that the lower endogenous heat production in birds from the semi-arid environment may decrease their water requirements. PMID:16750645

  7. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen; Nick Hanley; Jon Fjeldså; Carsten Rahbek; Niels Strange; Bo Jellesmark Thorsen

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmar...

  8. The phenology of a rare salamander (Salamandra infraimmaculata in a population breeding under unpredictable ambient conditions: a 25 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Warburg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a long-term study (1974-1999 on the phenology of the rare, xeric- inhabiting salamander Salamandra infraimmaculata in a small isolated population during the breeding season near the breeding ponds on Mt. Carmel. This is a fringe area of the genus’ south-easternmost Palaearctic distribution. Salamanders were captured during the 25 year long study. The first years up to the 1980s the total number of salamanders increased but during the last years there seems to have been a decline. Although this could be a phase in normal population cyclic oscillations nevertheless when compared with long-term data on a European Salamandra it does not seem so. The interpretation of the species’ status is dependent on numbers of salamanders captured as well as on the duration of the study. These subjects are reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  9. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick;

    2014-01-01

    preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more...... for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country – even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level....... Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation...

  10. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  11. Scrapie prevalence in sheep of susceptible genotype is declining in a population subject to breeding for resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Engel Bas; Davidse Aart; Bossers Alex; Melchior Marielle B; Hagenaars Thomas J; van Zijderveld Fred G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Susceptibility of sheep to scrapie infection is known to be modulated by the PrP genotype of the animal. In the Netherlands an ambitious scrapie control programme was started in 1998, based on genetic selection of animals for breeding. From 2002 onwards EU regulations required intensive active scrapie surveillance as well as certain control measures in affected flocks. Here we analyze the data on genotype frequencies and scrapie prevalence in the Dutch sheep population obt...

  12. Surveillance for Avian Influenza Viruses in Wild Birds in Denmark and Greenland, 2007–10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona; Handberg, Kurt Jensen; Therkildsen, Ole Roland; Madsen, Jesper Johannes; Thorup, Kasper; Baroch, John A.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Larsen, Lars Erik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    In Denmark and Greenland, extensive surveillance of avian influenza (AI) viruses in wild bird populations has been conducted from 2007 through 2010. In Denmark, the surveillance consisted of passive surveillance of wild birds found dead or sick across Denmark and active surveillance of apparently...... were birds that were found dead. In Greenland, samples were collected mainly from fecal droppings in breeding areas. Samples from 3555 live and apparently healthy wild birds were tested. All swab samples were tested by pan-influenza reverse transcriptase–PCR (RT-PCR), and the positive samples were...

  13. Evidence for r- and K-selection in a wild bird population: a reciprocal link between ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Visser, Marcel E; Grøtan, Vidar; Engen, Steinar

    2016-04-27

    Understanding the variation in selection pressure on key life-history traits is crucial in our rapidly changing world. Density is rarely considered as a selective agent. To study its importance, we partition phenotypic selection in fluctuating environments into components representing the population growth rate at low densities and the strength of density dependence, using a new stochastic modelling framework. We analysed the number of eggs laid per season in a small song-bird, the great tit, and found balancing selection favouring large clutch sizes at small population densities and smaller clutches in years with large populations. A significant interaction between clutch size and population size in the regression for the Malthusian fitness reveals that those females producing large clutch sizes at small population sizes also are those that show the strongest reduction in fitness when population size is increased. This provides empirical support for ongoing r- and K-selection in this population, favouring phenotypes with large growth rates r at small population sizes and phenotypes with high competitive skills when populations are close to the carrying capacity K This selection causes long-term fluctuations around a stable mean clutch size caused by variation in population size, implying that r- and K-selection is an important mechanism influencing phenotypic evolution in fluctuating environments. This provides a general link between ecological dynamics and evolutionary processes, operating through a joint influence of density dependence and environmental stochasticity on fluctuations in population size. PMID:27122550

  14. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  15. Breed effects and genetic parameter estimates for calving difficulty and birth weight in a multibreed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, C M; Kuehn, L A; Thallman, R M; Kachman, S D; Snelling, W M; Spangler, M L

    2016-05-01

    Birth weight (BWT) and calving difficulty (CD) were recorded on 4,579 first-parity females from the Germplasm Evaluation Program at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Both traits were analyzed using a bivariate animal model with direct and maternal effects. Calving difficulty was transformed from the USMARC scores to corresponding -scores from the standard normal distribution based on the incidence rate of the USMARC scores. Breed fraction covariates were included to estimate breed differences. Heritability estimates (SE) for BWT direct, CD direct, BWT maternal, and CD maternal were 0.34 (0.10), 0.29 (0.10), 0.15 (0.08), and 0.13 (0.08), respectively. Calving difficulty direct breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.13 to 0.77 and maternal breed effects deviated from Angus ranged from -0.27 to 0.36. Hereford-, Angus-, Gelbvieh-, and Brangus-sired calves would be the least likely to require assistance at birth, whereas Chiangus-, Charolais-, and Limousin-sired calves would be the most likely to require assistance at birth. Maternal breed effects for CD were least for Simmental and Charolais and greatest for Red Angus and Chiangus. Results showed that the diverse biological types of cattle have different effects on both BWT and CD. Furthermore, results provide a mechanism whereby beef cattle producers can compare EBV for CD direct and maternal arising from disjoined and breed-specific genetic evaluations. PMID:27285683

  16. Effects of breeding versus winter habitat loss and fragmentation on the population dynamics of a migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Caz M; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2016-03-01

    Many migratory species are in decline and understanding these declines is challenging because individuals occupy widely divergent and geographically distant habitats during a single year and therefore populations across the range are interconnected in complex ways. Network modeling has been used to show, theoretically, that shifts in migratory connectivity patterns can occur in response to habitat or climate changes and that habitat loss in one region can affect sub-populations in regions that are not directly connected. Here, we use a network model, parameterized by integrating long-term monitoring data with direct tracking of -100 individuals, to explain population trends in the rapidly declining Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) and to predict future trends. Our model suggests that species-level declines in Wood Thrush are driven primarily by tropical deforestation in Central America but that protection of breeding habitat in some regions is necessary to prevent shifts in migratory connectivity and to sustain populations in all breeding regions. The model illustrates how shifts in migratory connectivity may lead to unexpected population declines in key regions. We highlight current knowledge gaps that make modeling full life-cycle population demographics in migratory species challenging but also demonstrate that modeling can inform conservation while these gaps are being filled. PMID:27209785

  17. Public availability of a genotyped, segregating population may foster marker assisted breeding (MAB) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery: An example using strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid str...

  18. Unexpected high PCB and total DDT levels in the breeding population of red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana National Park, south-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómara, Belén; González, María José; Baos, Raquel; Hiraldo, Fernando; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorines (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in the declining red kite (Milvus milvus L.) population breeding in the Doñana National Park (DNP), south-western Spain. Analyses were performed in addled eggs collected between 1999 and 2001. DDE concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 33.5 microg/g ww, representing more than 86% of the total DDTs. Of the samples studied, 50% showed DDE levels above those associated with reproductive impairment in other raptor species. Concentrations of ortho PCBs (average 36.8 microg/g ww+/-37.7) in 50% of the eggs were much higher than levels reported to cause reduced hatching success, embryo mortality, and deformities in birds (>20 microg/g ww). It is remarkable that average ortho PCB and DDE concentrations showed an increase of one order of magnitude compared to previous data for the species during the 80s. Total PCDD/Fs showed levels in the low pg/g range (7.2-42 pg/g ww), having PCDDs and PCDFs similar contributions in most samples. Total mean TEQs were 238 pg/g (ww), being the range 7.02-667 pg/g (ww). Spatial variation within DNP was observed for PCBs, DDTs, as well as for TEQs. Since some eggs exceeded the NOEL (67%) and LOEL (33%) reported for other raptor species, we would expect the red kite to experience detrimental effects to dioxin-like toxicity. Our results suggest that organochlorine contaminants should be regarded as an element of concern in the population under study, in addition to other conservation problems already reported. Further investigations should be undertaken to identify potential sources of these chemicals in DNP, and to find out if organochlorine contamination is present in other predator species in the area, as well as their potential health effects on individuals and/or populations. PMID:17727950

  19. Dahomey Breeding Bird Survey Route

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Document contains route directions and map for the naitonal Dahomey BBS route. Includes milage for where specific listening stations are located along the route...

  20. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in wild birds in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona; Handberg, Kurt J.; Therkildsen, Ole R.; Madsen, Jesper J.; Thorup, Kasper; Baroch, John A.; DeLiberto, Thomas J.; Larsen, Lars Erik; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    Avian influenza (AI) is a disease of major threat to poultry production. Surveillance of AI in wild birds contributes to the control of AI. In Denmark (DK) and Greenland (GL), extensive surveillance of AI viruses in the wild bird population has been conducted. The surveillance aimed at detecting...... areas for migratory waterfowl, whereas in GL, samples were collected in breeding areas. Samples from birds found dead at scattered locations across DK were sampled by oropharyngeal swabbing. 17530 wild birds from DK were tested as part of the surveillance during 2006-2010, of which 1614 were birds found......7 subtypes were detected throughout the period together with several other LPAI subtypes. In GL, HPAI was not detected, but few samples were PCR positive for AI. The occurrence of AI subtypes in the wild bird population correlates with concurrent outbreaks of LPAI in Danish poultry, which may...

  1. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  2. Genomic inbreeding estimation in small populations: evaluation of runs of homozygosity in three local dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, S; Tolone, M; Di Gerlando, R; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2016-05-01

    In the local breeds with small population size, one of the most important problems is the increase of inbreeding coefficient (F). High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays has facilitated the quantification of F by genomic markers in farm animals. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes and represent an estimate of the degree of autozygosity at genome-wide level. The current study aims to quantify the genomic F derived from ROH (F ROH) in three local dairy cattle breeds. F ROH values were compared with F estimated from the genomic relationship matrix (F GRM), based on the difference between observed v. expected number of homozygous genotypes (F HOM) and the genomic homozygosity of individual i (F MOL i ). The molecular coancestry coefficient (f MOL ij ) between individuals i and j was also estimated. Individuals of Cinisara (71), Modicana (72) and Reggiana (168) were genotyped with the 50K v2 Illumina BeadChip. Genotypes from 96 animals of Italian Holstein cattle breed were also included in the analysis. We used a definition of ROH as tracts of homozygous genotypes that were >4 Mb. Among breeds, 3661 ROH were identified. Modicana showed the highest mean number of ROH per individual and the highest value of F ROH, whereas Reggiana showed the lowest ones. Differences among breeds existed for the ROH lengths. The individuals of Italian Holstein showed high number of short ROH segments, related to ancient consanguinity. Similar results showed the Reggiana with some extreme animals with segments covering 400 Mb and more of genome. Modicana and Cinisara showed similar results between them with the total length of ROH characterized by the presence of large segments. High correlation was found between F HOM and F ROH ranged from 0.83 in Reggiana to 0.95 in Cinisara and Modicana. The correlations among F ROH and other

  3. Proximate drivers of spatial segregation in non-breeding albatrosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Thomas A.; Manica, Andrea; Ryan, Peter G.; Silk, Janet R. D.; Croxall, John P.; Ireland, Louise; Phillips, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Many animals partition resources to avoid competition, and in colonially-breeding species this often leads to divergent space or habitat use. During the non-breeding season, foraging constraints are relaxed, yet the patterns and drivers of segregation both between and within populations are poorly understood. We modelled habitat preference to examine how extrinsic (habitat availability and intra-specific competition) and intrinsic factors (population, sex and breeding outcome) influence the distributions of non-breeding grey-headed albatrosses Thalassarche chrysostoma tracked from two major populations, South Georgia (Atlantic Ocean) and the Prince Edward Islands (Indian Ocean). Spatial segregation was greater than expected, reflecting distinct seasonal differences in habitat selection and accessibility, and avoidance of intra-specific competition with local breeders. Previously failed birds segregated spatially from successful birds during summer, when they used less productive waters, suggesting a link between breeding outcome and subsequent habitat selection. In contrast, we found weak evidence of sexual segregation, which did not reflect a difference in habitat use. Our results indicate that the large-scale spatial structuring of albatross distributions results from interactions between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, with important implications for population dynamics. As habitat preferences differed substantially between colonies, populations should be considered independently when identifying critical areas for protection. PMID:27443877

  4. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á.; Sonesson, Anna K.; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already avai...

  5. A raça Indubrasil no Nordeste brasileiro: melhoramento e estrutura populacional The Indubrasil breed in the Brazilian Northeast: breeding and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Luiz Souza Carneiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de fornecer subsídios para programas de melhoramento, conservação e expansão da raça Indubrasil do Nordeste brasileiro, avaliaram-se o histórico evolutivo, as estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e a estrutura populacional da raça. Foram utilizadas informações do pedigree de animais nascidos no período de 1964 a 2006 e dados dos pesos ajustados aos 205, 365 e 550 dias de idade de bovinos nascidos a partir de 1976. As estimativas dos coeficientes de herdabilidade foram menores que as encontradas na literatura para os pesos ajustados nas três idades (P205: direta 0,11 ± 0,03 e materna 0,01 ± 0,03; P365: direta 0,16 ± 0,04 e P550: direta 0,15 ± 0,05 e os ganhos genéticos para as características decresceram no período avaliado (P205: -0,028 kg/ano; P365: -0,030 kg/ano e P550: -0,025 kg/ano. A baixa variabilidade genética e o ganho genético negativo provavelmente devem-se à redução do tamanho efetivo e ao aumento da endogamia nesse período. Além disso, a redução significativa no número de nascimentos por ano e a pouca utilização de reprodutores externos nos rebanhos colocam a raça Indubrasil do Nordeste brasileiro como um grupo genético sob risco de extinção, fato que sugere a necessidade de programas visando sua conservação e expansão.In order to provide knowledge for breeding, conservation programs and expansion policies of the Indubrasil breed from northeastern Brazil, the evolutionary history, estimates of genetic parameters and the populational structure of the breed were studied. Pedigree information was used from animals born from 1964 to 2006 and the adjusted weights at 205, 365 and 550 days of age of bovines born from 1976 onwards. The heritability coefficient estimates were lower than those reported in the literature for the adjusted weights at the three ages (P205: direct 0.11 ± 0,03 and maternal 0.01 ± 0.03; P365: direct 0.16 ± 0.04 and P550: direct 0.15 ± 0.05 and the genetic gains

  6. Breeding season food limitation drives population decline of the Little Owl Athene noctua in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Kasper; Sunde, Peter; Jacobsen, Lars B.;

    2010-01-01

    Many farmland bird species have declined markedly in Europe in recent decades because of changes in agricultural practice. The specific causes vary and are poorly known for many species. The Little Owl, which feeds extensively on large invertebrates and is strongly associated with the agricultural...... landscape, has declined over most of northwestern Europe, including Denmark. We investigated the likely reasons for the population decline in Denmark by identifying patterns of local extinction (scale, 5 x 5 km2) and estimating demographic parameters affecting local survival, focusing on changes over time...

  7. The role of selection and historical factors in driving population differentiation along an elevational gradient in an island bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J A M; Delahaie, B; Bourgeois, Y X C; Duval, T; García-Jiménez, R; Cornuault, J; Pujol, B; Thébaud, C; Milá, B

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation to local environmental conditions and the range dynamics of populations can influence evolutionary divergence along environmental gradients. Thus, it is important to investigate patterns of both phenotypic and genetic variations among populations to reveal the respective roles of these two types of factors in driving population differentiation. Here, we test for evidence of phenotypic and genetic structure across populations of a passerine bird (Zosterops borbonicus) distributed along a steep elevational gradient on the island of Réunion. Using 11 microsatellite loci screened in 401 individuals from 18 localities distributed along the gradient, we found that genetic differentiation occurred at two spatial levels: (i) between two main population groups corresponding to highland and lowland areas, respectively, and (ii) within each of these two groups. In contrast, several morphological traits varied gradually along the gradient. Comparison of neutral genetic differentiation (FST ) and phenotypic differentiation (PST ) showed that PST largely exceeds FST at several morphological traits, which is consistent with a role for local adaptation in driving morphological divergence along the gradient. Overall, our results revealed an area of secondary contact midway up the gradient between two major, cryptic, population groups likely diverged in allopatry. Remarkably, local adaptation has shaped phenotypic differentiation irrespective of population history, resulting in different patterns of variation along the elevational gradient. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding both historical and selective factors when trying to explain variation along environmental gradients. PMID:26779843

  8. Speeding up microevolution: the effects of increasing temperature on selection and genetic variance in a wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Husby

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount of genetic variance underlying a phenotypic trait and the strength of selection acting on that trait are two key parameters that determine any evolutionary response to selection. Despite substantial evidence that, in natural populations, both parameters may vary across environmental conditions, very little is known about the extent to which they may covary in response to environmental heterogeneity. Here we show that, in a wild population of great tits (Parus major, the strength of the directional selection gradients on timing of breeding increased with increasing spring temperatures, and that genotype-by-environment interactions also predicted an increase in additive genetic variance, and heritability, of timing of breeding with increasing spring temperature. Consequently, we therefore tested for an association between the annual selection gradients and levels of additive genetic variance expressed each year; this association was positive, but non-significant. However, there was a significant positive association between the annual selection differentials and the corresponding heritability. Such associations could potentially speed up the rate of micro-evolution and offer a largely ignored mechanism by which natural populations may adapt to environmental changes.

  9. Estimating population dynamics and dispersal distances of owls from nationally coordinated ringing data in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Saurola, P.; Francis, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Amateur bird ringers can collect data at a geographic and temporal scale that is rarely possible with professional field crews, thus allowing truly national analyses of population dynamics and dispersal. Since the early 1970s, bird ringers in Finland have been strongly encouraged to focus on birds of prey, especially cavity–nesting owls. In addition to ringing nestlings and adults, ringers also provide data on population trends and breeding success. The resultant data indicate that numbers of...

  10. Multiple-breed reaction norm animal model accounting for robustness and heteroskedastic in a Nelore-Angus crossed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M M; Santana, M L; Cardoso, F F

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to genetically characterize post-weaning weight gain (PWG), over a 345-day period after weaning, of Brangus-Ibagé (Nelore×Angus) cattle. Records (n=4016) were from the foundation herd of the Embrapa South Livestock Center. A Bayesian approach was used to assess genotype by environment (G×E) interaction and to identify a suitable model for the estimation of genetic parameters and use in genetic evaluation. A robust and heteroscedastic reaction norm multiple-breed animal model was proposed. The model accounted for heterogeneity of residual variance associated with effects of breed, heterozygosity, sex and contemporary group; and was robust with respect to outliers. Additive genetic effects were modeled for the intercept and slope of a reaction norm to changes in the environmental gradient. Inference was based on Monte Carlo Markov Chain of 110 000 cycles, after 10 000 cycles of burn-in. Bayesian model choice criteria indicated the proposed model was superior to simpler sub-models that did not account for G×E interaction, multiple-breed structure, robustness and heteroscedasticity. We conclude that, for the Brangus-Ibagé population, these factors should be jointly accounted for in genetic evaluation of PWG. Heritability estimates increased proportionally with improvement in the environmental conditions gradient. Therefore, an increased proportion of differences in performance among animals were explained by genetic factors rather than environmental factors as rearing conditions improved. As a consequence response to selection may be increased in favorable environments. PMID:26754914

  11. Breeding signature of combining ability improvement revealed by a genomic variation map from recurrent selection population in Brassica napus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinwang; Li, Bao; Zhang, Ka; Hu, Kaining; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Combining ability is crucial for parent selection in crop hybrid breeding. The present investigation and results had revealed the underlying genetic factors which might contribute in adequate combining ability, further assisting in enhancing heterosis and stability. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of genomic variation in order to define genomic regions affecting the combining ability in recurrent selection population of rapeseed. A population of 175 individuals was genotyped with the Brassica60K SNP chip. 525 hybrids were assembled with three different testers and used to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA) in three environments. By detecting the changes of the genomic variation, we identified 376 potential genome regions, spanning 3.03% of rapeseed genome which provided QTL-level resolution on potentially selected variants. More than 96% of these regions were located in the C subgenome, indicating that C subgenome had sustained stronger selection pressure in the breeding program than the A subgenome. In addition, a high level of linkage disequilibrium in rapeseed genome was detected, suggesting that marker-assisted selection for the population improvement might be easily implemented. This study outlines the evidence for high GCA on a genomic level and provided underlying molecular mechanism for recurrent selection improvement in B. napus. PMID:27412721

  12. Breeding signature of combining ability improvement revealed by a genomic variation map from recurrent selection population in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinwang; Li, Bao; Zhang, Ka; Hu, Kaining; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Shen, Jinxiong; Fu, Tingdong; Tu, Jinxing

    2016-01-01

    Combining ability is crucial for parent selection in crop hybrid breeding. The present investigation and results had revealed the underlying genetic factors which might contribute in adequate combining ability, further assisting in enhancing heterosis and stability. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of genomic variation in order to define genomic regions affecting the combining ability in recurrent selection population of rapeseed. A population of 175 individuals was genotyped with the Brassica60K SNP chip. 525 hybrids were assembled with three different testers and used to evaluate the general combining ability (GCA) in three environments. By detecting the changes of the genomic variation, we identified 376 potential genome regions, spanning 3.03% of rapeseed genome which provided QTL-level resolution on potentially selected variants. More than 96% of these regions were located in the C subgenome, indicating that C subgenome had sustained stronger selection pressure in the breeding program than the A subgenome. In addition, a high level of linkage disequilibrium in rapeseed genome was detected, suggesting that marker-assisted selection for the population improvement might be easily implemented. This study outlines the evidence for high GCA on a genomic level and provided underlying molecular mechanism for recurrent selection improvement in B. napus. PMID:27412721

  13. Bird associations with shrubsteppe plant communities at the proposed reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, C.A.; Rickard, W.H.; Sargeant, G.A.

    1988-03-01

    This report provides information on te seasonal use of shrubsteppe vegetation by bird species at the RRL. Bird abundance and distribution were studied at the RRL to ensure that the DOE monitored migratory bird species pursuant to the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and to assess potential impacts of site characterization activities on bird populations. Birds were counted on two transects that together sampled an areas of 1.39 km/sup 2/. The relative abundance of birds, species richness, seasonal distribution, and the association of breeding shrubsteppe birds with major vegetation types were determined from Janurary through December 1987. Only 38 species were counted during 82 surveys. Total bird density during the nesting season (March-June) was 42.96 birdskm/sup 2/ and the density for the entire year was 26.74 birdskm/sup 2/. The characteristic nesting birds in shrubsteppe habitats were western meadowlark, sage sparrow, burrowing owl, mourning dove, horned lark, long-billed curlew, lark sparrow, and loggerhead shrike. Western meadowlark and sage sparrows were the most abundant breeding birds with an average density of 11.25 and 7.76 birdskm/sup 2/, respectively. Seasonal distribution of birds varied with species, but most species were present from March to September. Distribution and abunandance of nesting birds were correlated with habitat type. About 63% of the habitat surveyed was sagebrush, 26% was cheatgrass, and 11% was spiny hopsage. Sagebrush habitat supproted a greeater total bird density than cheatgrass or hopsage habitats. Sage sparrows were closely associated with sagebrush habitats, while western meadowlarks showed no strong habitat affinities. 22 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Survey of breeding birds using point count methodologies on the Gardner Division of the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge in Illinois

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study done on the Gardner Division of Mark Twain NWR to compliment ongoing neotropical migrant bird studies along the Upper Mississippi...

  15. Variation in the hematocrit of a passerine bird across life stages is mainly of environmental origin

    OpenAIRE

    Potti, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    The heritability of the hematocrit in adult, breeding pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca is examined in a southern European population across seven years to see the consistency, or lack thereof, of patterns found with the trait at fledgling age where no significant heritability could be detected. While the across-years repeatability of the trait in adult, breeding birds was low but significant, heritabilities based on adult parent-adult offspring regressions controlling for assortative matin...

  16. The Swedish breeding cat: population description, infectious diseases and reproductive performance evaluated by a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström Holst, Bodil; Frössling, Jenny

    2009-10-01

    The questionnaire based study gives a combined description of management, infectious diseases and reproductive performance in breeding catteries during 1 year. The mean number of cats per cattery was 6.1, and 25% of the breeders let some of their cats have free access to outdoors. Breeders reported that infection with feline panleukopenia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukaemia virus was uncommon, but 8% of the breeders had sold or had themselves owned a cat that died of feline infectious peritonitis. Presence of conjunctivitis was reported by 33.3% of the breeders. Mean litter size was 3.7+/-1.5, with 9.7% stillbirths and 8.3% kitten mortality week 1-12. The percentage of stillborn kittens increased with the age of the queen and litter size, and also differed among breeds. Kitten mortality differed among breeds, but did not increase with age of the queen. Seven percent of the litters were delivered by caesarean section, significantly more during winter and positively associated with presence of stillborn kittens. PMID:19254857

  17. Breeding biology and conservation strategy of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) in southern China

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Wang; Youhui Shen; Qingyi Liao; Jianzhang Ma

    2013-01-01

    From April 1994 to November 2007, we studied the breeding biology of the Himalayan swiftlet (Aerodramus brevirostris innominata) based on field investigations, behavior observations, and bird bandings in the Shenjing Cave of Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan Province. Overall, we found a total breeding population of 2,000 swiftlets in the cave. The Himilayan swiftlet is a summer migrant in the area which arrives in early April and departs in early November. This species is monogamous ...

  18. Effects of Grassland Bird Management on Nongame Bird Community Structure and Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report includes data on bird/habitat relations, breeding biology, and effects of succession and current management practices on grassland bird communities in...

  19. Alien invasive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  20. The effects of climate change on the phenology of selected Estonian plant, bird and fish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahas, Rein; Aasa, Anto

    2006-09-01

    This paper summarises the trends of 943 phenological time-series of plants, fishes and birds gathered from 1948 to 1999 in Estonia. More than 80% of the studied phenological phases have advanced during springtime, whereas changes are smaller during summer and autumn. Significant values of plant and bird phases have advanced 5-20 days, and fish phases have advanced 10-30 days in the spring period. Estonia's average air temperature has become significantly warmer in spring, while at the same time a slight decrease in air temperature has been detected in autumn. The growing season has become significantly longer in the maritime climate area of Western Estonia. The investigated phenological and climate trends are related primarily to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) during the winter months. Although the impact of the winter NAOI on the phases decreases towards summer, the trends of the investigated phases remain high. The trends of phenophases at the end of spring and the beginning of summer may be caused by the temperature inertia of the changing winter, changes in the radiation balance or the direct consequences of human impacts such as land use, heat islands or air pollution. PMID:16738902

  1. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  2. Fragmentation of habitats used by neotropical migratory birds in Southern Appalachians and the neotropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, S.M.; Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).

  3. Genetic analysis of breeding traits in a Charolais cattle population segregating an inactive myostatin allele

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of the Charolais-specific inactive myostatin allele on phenotypic means and genetic parameters of heifer breeding traits. Records were registered from 1996 to 2006 in 282 herds dedicated to the on-farm French Charolais purebred progeny test. Data consisted of 36,867 female calf records, including 17,518 inseminated heifers that were bred by 186 genotyped sires, of which 43 were heterozygous and 6 were double muscled bulls. Six traits wer...

  4. Breeding system and reproductive skew in a highly polygynous ant population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haag-Liautard, C.; Pedersen, Jes Søe; Ovaskainen, O.;

    2008-01-01

     Factors affecting relatedness among nest members in ant colonies with high queen number are still poorly understood. In order to identify the major determinants of nest kin structure, we conducted a detailed analysis of the breeding system of the ant Formica exsecta. We estimated the number of...... individuals were significantly related to each other. Interestingly, the number of resident queens was a poor predictor of kin structure at the nest level, consistent with the observation that new queens are produced in bursts leading to highly fluctuating queen number across years. Queen number also varied...

  5. Signature of a pre-human population decline in the critically endangered Reunion Island endemic forest bird Coracina newtoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Salmona

    Full Text Available The exceptional biodiversity of Reunion Island is threatened by anthropogenic landscape changes that took place during the 350 years of human colonization. During this period the human population size increased dramatically from 250 to 800,000. The arrival of humans together with the development of agriculture, invasive species such as rats and cats, and deforestation has lead to the extinction of more than half of the original vertebrate species of the island. For the remaining species, significant work is being carried out to identify threats and conservation status, but little genetic work has been carried on some of the most endangered species. In the last decade theoretical studies have shown the ability of neutral genetic markers to infer the demographic history of endangered species and identify and date past population size changes (expansions or bottlenecks. In this study we provide the first genetic data on the critically endangered species the Reunion cuckoo-shrike Coracina newtoni. The Reunion cuckoo-shrike is a rare endemic forest bird surviving in a restricted 12-km(2 area of forested uplands and mountains. The total known population consists of less than one hundred individuals out of which 45 were genotyped using seventeen polymorphic microsatellite loci. We found a limited level of genetic variability and weak population structure, probably due to the limited geographic distribution. Using Bayesian methods, we identified a strong decline in population size during the Holocene, most likely caused by an ancient climatic or volcanic event around 5000 years ago. This result was surprising as it appeared in apparent contradiction with the accepted theory of recent population collapse due to deforestation and predator introduction. These results suggest that new methods allowing for more complex demographic models are necessary to reconstruct the demographic history of populations.

  6. Restricted dispersal reduces the strength of spatial density dependence in a tropical bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Malcolm D; Nicoll, Malcolm A. C.; Jones, Carl G; Norris, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Spatial processes could play an important role in density-dependent population regulation because the disproportionate use of poor quality habitats as population size increases is widespread in animal populations—the so-called buffer effect. While the buffer effect patterns and their demographic consequences have been described in a number of wild populations, much less is known about how dispersal affects distribution patterns and ultimately density dependence. Here, we investigated the role...

  7. The breeding systems of diploid and neoautotetraploid clones of Acacia mangium Willd. in a synthetic sympatric population in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, A R; Vuong, T D; Vaillancourt, R E; Harbard, J L; Harwood, C E; Nghiem, C Q; Thinh, H H

    2012-12-01

    Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0.97). In contrast, the progeny of the tetraploid clones were almost entirely selfs (t(m) = 0.02; 3 of 161 seedlings assayed were tetraploid outcrosses and there were no triploids). Segregation at loci heterozygous in the tetraploid mothers followed expected ratios, indicating sexual reproduction rather than apomixis. Post-zygotic factors are primarily responsible for divergence of the breeding systems. Commonly, less than 1 % of Acacia flowers mature as a pod, and after mixed pollination, diploid outcrossed seed normally develops at the expense of selfs. Selfs of the tetraploid trees appear to express less genetic load and have a higher probability of maturing. However, this does not fully explain the observed deficiency of outcross tetraploid progeny. Presumably, there are cytogenetic reasons which remain to be investigated. In nature, selfing would increase the probability of establishment of neotetraploids irrespective of cytotype frequency in the population. Breeders need to review their open-pollinated breeding and seed production strategies. It remains to be seen whether this is an ephemeral problem, with strong fertility selection restoring potential for outcrossing over generations. PMID:22865285

  8. Connectivity patterns and key non–breeding areas of white–throated bluethroat (Luscinia svecica European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizaga, J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using ring recovery data from the EURING databank, the aims of this study were: (1 to identify the chief migration and wintering areas of white–throated bluethroat European subspecies, L. s. namnetum, L. s. cyanecula and L. s. azuricollis, (2 to evaluate the degree of connectivity between breeding and non–breeding regions and determine the migration patterns of each subspecies, and (3 to evaluate whether recovery data are sufficient to answer the previous questions adequately. Most of the recoveries were obtained during the autumn migration period (n = 155, 68.9%, followed by winter (n = 49, 21.8% and spring (n = 21, 9.3%. For L. s. azuricollis, we did not find any ring recoveries at more than 100 km in autumn or spring, and there were none at all in winter. All analyses thus relate to L. s. cyanecula and L. s. namnetum. Both subspecies move across a NE–SW axis from their breeding to their wintering areas within the circum–Mediterranean region, mainly in Iberia, following population–specific parallel migration routes. L. s. namnetum mainly uses the Atlantic coastal marshes from France to south–western Iberia, where the chief wintering areas are found. L. s. cyanecula, however, uses both Atlantic and Mediterranean wetlands in autumn, but only those in the Mediterranean in spring, thus giving rise to a loop–migration pattern. Telescopic migration was demonstrated for L. s. cyanecula. Recovery data were insufficient to identify in detail the entire wintering range for all white–throated bluethroat European populations. Technologies such as the use of geolocators will play a relevant role in this scenario

  9. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús eFernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in those initial founders. Traditionally base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during ten generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  10. Complete breeding failures in ivory gull following unusual rainy storms in North Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Yannic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural catastrophic events such as heavy rainfall and windstorms may induce drastic decreases in breeding success of animal populations. We report the impacts of summer rainfalls on the reproductive success of ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea in north-east Greenland. On two occasions, at Amdrup Land in July 2009 and at Station Nord in July 2011, we observed massive ivory gull breeding failures following violent rainfall and windstorms that hit the colonies. In each colony, all of the breeding birds abandoned their eggs or chicks during the storm. Juvenile mortality was close to 100% at Amdrup Land in 2009 and 100% at Station Nord in 2011. Our results show that strong winds associated with heavy rain directly affected the reproductive success of some Arctic bird species. Such extreme weather events may become more common with climate change and represent a new potential factor affecting ivory gull breeding success in the High Arctic.

  11. Climate-driven fluctuation of a wild bird population over the past half millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef-Daenzer, B.; Luterbacher, J.; Nuber, M.; Rutishauser, Th.; Winkel, W.

    2009-04-01

    Mechanisms underlying climate-driven changes in ecosystem structure and function are poorly understood because hardly any ecological records start before the recent warming phase. We analyse an exceptional 100-year record of the great tit population (Parus major) and habitat phenology in Switzerland, and model climate-driven population fluctuations since AD 1500. Additional to high plasticity of the system, we find a significant influence of the large-scale atmospheric circulation (North-Atlantic Oscillation) on fitness-relevant life history traits and population dynamics. The multidecadal circulation impact resulted in low fecundity and population minima during the ‘Maunder Minimum' (1650-1720) and the Little Ice Age Type Event I (1810-1850), whereas the warming since 1975 is related with the highest productivity since 1500 and an unprecedented increase of the population.

  12. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.

  13. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  14. Effective population size of an indigenous Swiss cattle breed estimated from linkage disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective population size is an important parameter for the assessment of genetic diversity within a livestock population and its development over time. If pedigree information is not available, linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis might offer an alternative perspective for the estimation of effecti...

  15. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  16. Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge : Population Estimates of Colonial Birds : 1987 - 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum discusses the results of population estimates for Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge within the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. The report...

  17. Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge : Population Estimates of Colonial Birds : 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum discusses the results of population estimates for Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge within the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. The report...

  18. Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge : Population Estimates of Colonial Birds : 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum discusses the results of population estimates for Anaho Island National Wildlife Refuge within the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area. The report...

  19. A Mathematical Model for Singly-Peaked Population Processes from Breeding to Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Huzimura, R; Huzimura, Ryoitiro; Matsuyama, Toyoki

    1999-01-01

    When a small number of individuals of organism of single species is confined in a closed space with limited amount of indispensable resources, their breading may start initially under suitable conditions, and after peaking, the population should go extinct as the resources are exhausted. Assuming that the carrying capacity of the environment is a function of resource amount, a mathematical model describing such pattern of population change is obtained. An application of this model to typical population records, that of deer herds by Scheffer (1951) and O'Roke and Hamerstrome (1948), yields estimations of the initial amount of indispensable food and its availability or nutritional efficiency which were previously unspecified.

  20. Trading up: the fitness consequences of divorce in monogamous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Radersma, Reinder; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-11-01

    Social and genetic mating systems play an important role in natural and sexual selection, as well as in the dynamics of populations. In socially monogamous species different genetic mating patterns appear when individuals mate outside the breeding pair within a breeding season (extra-pair mating) or when they change partners between two breeding seasons (widowing or divorce). Divorce can be defined as having occurred when two previously paired individuals are alive during the next breeding season and at least one of them has re-mated with a new partner. In socially monogamous birds divorce is widespread, but it is not clear whether it is a behavioural adaptation to improve the quality of a mating decision or whether, alternatively, it results as a non-selected consequence of other processes: existing studies suggest a heterogeneous set of results with respect to this central question. This heterogeneity could result from a number of factors, ranging from the methodological approaches used, to population- or species-specific characters. In this review we use phylogenetic meta-analyses to assess the evidence that divorce is adaptive (in terms of breeding success) across 64 species of socially monogamous birds. Second, we explore biological and methodological reasons for the heterogeneity in the results of previous studies. Results of our analyses supported the hypothesis that divorce is, in general, an adaptive behavioural strategy as: (1) divorce is triggered by relatively low breeding success; (2) there is a positive change in breeding success as a result of divorce. More specifically, while controlling for methodological moderators, we show that: (i) earlier stages of breeding are better predictors of divorce than later stages (r = 0.231; 95% CI: 0.061-0.391 for clutch size; similar for laying date); (ii) females benefited from divorce more than males in terms of increasing breeding success between successive breeding attempts, with different stages of the

  1. The influence of eastern North American autumnal migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) on continuously breeding resident monarch populations in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Amy; Brower, Lincoln P

    2009-07-01

    In Florida, the eastern North American population of the monarch butterfly exhibits geographic variability in population structure and dynamics. This includes the occurrence of migrants throughout the peninsula during the autumnal migration, occasional overwintering clusters that form along the Gulf Coast, remigrants from Mexico that breed in north-central Florida during the spring, and what have been assumed to be year-round, resident breeding populations in southern Florida. The work reported here focused on two monarch populations west of Miami and addressed four questions: Are there permanent resident populations of monarchs in southern Florida? Do these breed continuously throughout the year? Do they receive northern monarchs moving south during the autumn migration? Do they receive overwintered monarchs returning via Cuba or the Yucatan during the spring remigration from the Mexican overwintering area? Monthly collections and counts of spermatophores in the bursa copulatrices of females established that a resident population of continuously breeding monarchs exists year-round in southern Florida. It was determined through cardenolide fingerprinting that most of the butterflies had bred on the local southern Florida milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica. During the autumn migration period, however, some monarchs had fed on the northern milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. It appears that instead of migrating to Mexico, these individuals travel south through peninsular Florida, break diapause, mate with and become incorporated into the resident breeding populations. None of the monarchs captured in spring had the A. syriaca cardenolide fingerprint, which is evidence against the southern Florida populations receiving overwintered remigrants from Cuba, Central America or Mexico. PMID:19579046

  2. Environmental and genetic determinants of innovativeness in a natural population of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, John L; Cole, Ella F; Reed, Thomas E; Morand-Ferron, Julie

    2016-03-19

    Much of the evidence for the idea that individuals differ in their propensity to innovate and solve new problems has come from studies on captive primates. Increasingly, behavioural ecologists are studying innovativeness in wild populations, and uncovering links with functional behaviour and fitness-related traits. The relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in driving this variation, however, remains unknown. Here, we present the results of the first large-scale study to examine a range of causal factors underlying innovative problem-solving performance (PSP) among 831 great tits (Parus major) temporarily taken into captivity. Analyses show that PSP in this population: (i) was linked to a variety of individual factors, including age, personality and natal origin (immigrant or local-born); (ii) was influenced by natal environment, because individuals had a lower PSP when born in poor-quality habitat, or where local population density was high, leading to cohort effects. Links with many of the individual and environmental factors were present only in some years. In addition, PSP (iii) had little or no measurable heritability, as estimated by a Bayesian animal model; and (iv) was not influenced by maternal effects. Despite previous reports of links between PSP and a range of functional traits in this population, the analyses here suggest that innovativeness had weak if any evolutionary potential. Instead most individual variation was caused by phenotypic plasticity driven by links with other behavioural traits and by environmentally mediated developmental stress. Heritability estimates are population, time and context specific, however, and more studies are needed to determine the generality of these effects. Our results shed light on the causes of innovativeness within populations, and add to the debate on the relative importance of genetic and environmental factors in driving phenotypic variation within populations. PMID:26926275

  3. Birds protected by national legislation show improved population trends in Eastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Schleuning, M.; Burfield, I. J.; Báldi, A.; Böhning-Gaese, K.; Devictor, V.; Fernández-García, J. M.; Hořák, D.; Van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Hnatyna, O.; Reif, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 172, April (2014), s. 109-116. ISSN 0006-3207 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation effectiveness * Ecological trait * Environmental legislation * Global change * Life history strategy * Population growth rate Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  4. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    OpenAIRE

    Raimo Virkkala; Ari Rajasärkkä

    2012-01-01

    A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of comm...

  5. Does stress response predict return rate in a migratory bird species? A study of American redstarts and their non-breeding habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Angelier, Frédéric; Holberton, Rebecca L; Marra, Peter P.

    2009-01-01

    In vertebrates, the adrenocortical stress response activates an emergency life-history stage, which is thought to promote survival by helping individuals escape life-threatening situations. Although the adrenocortical stress response promotes many behavioural and physiological changes, it remains unclear whether this stress response actually translates into higher survival in wild vertebrates. We measured the adrenocortical stress response of non-breeding American redstarts (Setophaga ruticil...

  6. Survival of Coelaenomenodera lameensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Relation to the Physical Characteristics of Different Oil Palm (Elaeis sp.) Breeding Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ollivier, L.; Flori, A.; Coffi, A.; Cros, D.; Glitho, I.; Nodichao, L.

    2015-01-01

    The edibility of different Elaeis sp. breeding populations present in Benin was tested for the leaf miner Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a major oil palm pest in Africa. Experiments carried out in sleeves revealed the oviposition capacities of females and the mortality rates for the different developmental stages by comparing the populations found on two breeding populations of Elaeis oleifera (HBK) Cortes, four of Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and four (E. guineensis × E. oleifera) × E. guineensis backcrosses. Females laid their eggs similarly on all breeding populations, with a preference for the E. guineensis La Mé origin. The average hatching rate reached 80% for the La Mé origin as opposed to 28% for the Deli origin. The mortality rates for the larval instars were greater on E. oleifera, on certain backcrosses and on the Deli origin of E. guineensis. Development at the second- and third- larval instars was the most affected, with a mortality rate of three to five times greater than that seen on La Mé. Epidermis and cuticle measurements indicated which breeding populations were suitable or unsuitable for the development of C. lameensis. E. guineensis, with its thin epidermis (12 µm) and cuticle (2 µm), proved to be highly susceptible to C. lameensis attacks. On the other hand, E. oleifera, which is very resistant, exhibited a thicker epidermis (17 µm) and cuticle (4 µm). The breeding populations were thus classified according to the positive or negative influence they exerted on the insect’s egg laying and feeding. RÉSUMÉ. La comestibilité de différents matériels végétaux d’Elaeis sp. présents au Bénin est testée pour Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), important ravageur du palmier à huile en Afrique. Des expérimentations en manchons ont permis de déterminer les capacités d’oviposition des femelles et les taux de mortalité des différents stades de d

  7. Filling the gaps: Using count survey data to predict bird density distribution patterns and estimate population sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Sierdsema, H.; Loon, van, E.E.

    2004-01-01

    Birds play an increasingly prominent role in politics, nature conservation and nature management. As a consequence, up-to-date and reliable spatial estimates of bird distributions over large areas are in high demand. The requested bird distribution maps are however not easily obtained. Intensive fieldwork over a spatially dense observation network requires a large effort by hundreds or thousands of volunteers, and is only feasible once in every few decades. Therefore, to create distribution a...

  8. Forms of density regulation and (quasi-) stationary distributions of population sizes in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Saether, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Grotan, Vidar; Bregnballe, Thomas; Both, Christiaan; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Leivits, Agu; Wright, Jonathan; Moller, Anders Pape; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Grøtan, Vidar; Møller, Anders Pape; Vucetich, John

    2008-01-01

    The theta-logistic model of density regulation is an especially flexible class of density regulation models where different forms of non-linear density regulation can be expressed by only one parameter, theta. Estimating the parameters of the theta-logistic model is, however, challenging. This is mainly due to the need for information concerning population growth at low densities as well as data on fluctuations around the carrying capacity K in order to estimate the strength of density regula...

  9. Low genetic differentiation in a sedentary bird: house sparrow population genetics in a contiguous landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Kekkonen, J; Seppä, P.; Hanski, I K; Jensen, H; Väisänen, R A; Brommer, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The house sparrow Passer domesticus has been declining in abundance in many localities, including Finland. We studied the genetic diversity and differentiation of the house sparrow populations across Finland in the 1980s, at the onset of the species' decline in abundance. We genotyped 472 adult males (the less dispersive sex) from 13 locations in Finland (covering a range of 400 × 800 km) and one in Sweden (Stockholm) for 13 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Our analysis of Finnish ringing ...

  10. Maternal effects as mediators for climate change : mechanisms and consequences on birds populations

    OpenAIRE

    Vaugoyeau, Marie

    2015-01-01

    In global changes context, the transformation of rural or natural area into urban area is well studied. At once cause and consequence of global changes, urbanization induces high selections pressures on populations and ecosystems. Factors such as habitat destruction, temperature, luminosity and soil permeability increase diminish biodiversity in town. Environmental characteristics influence phenotypes and survival of organisms. Parents can modulate environmental influence on young or future a...

  11. Public Availability of a Genotyped Segregating Population May Foster Marker Assisted Breeding (MAB) and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Discovery: An Example Using Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, James F.; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S.; Bassil, Nahla V.; Stegmeir, Travis; Cai, Lichun; Finn, Chad E.; Van de Weg, Eric; Weebadde, Cholani K.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped, and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid strawberry that can be used by other breeding programs to economically find and tag useful genes for MAB. A pseudo test cross population between two wild species of Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (FVC 11) was generated and evaluated for a set of phenotypic traits. A total of 106 individuals in the FVC 11 were genotyped for 29,251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) utilizing a commercially available, genome-wide scanning platform (Affymetrix Axiom IStraw90TW). The marker trait associations were deduced using TASSEL software. The FVC 11 population segregating for daughters per mother, inflorescence number, inflorescence height, crown production, flower number, fruit size, yield, internal color, soluble solids, fruit firmness, and plant vigor. Coefficients of variations ranged from 10% for fruit firmness to 68% for daughters per mother, indicating an underlying quantitative inheritance for each trait. A total of 2,474 SNPs were found to be polymorphic in FVC 11 and strong marker trait associations were observed for vigor, daughters per mother, yield and fruit weight. These data indicate that FVC 11 can be used as a reference population for quantitative trait loci detection and subsequent MAB across different breeding programs and geographical locations.

  12. Public Availability of a Genotyped Segregating Population May Foster Marker Assisted Breeding (MAB) and Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Discovery: An Example Using Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, James F; Sooriyapathirana, Suneth S; Bassil, Nahla V; Stegmeir, Travis; Cai, Lichun; Finn, Chad E; Van de Weg, Eric; Weebadde, Cholani K

    2016-01-01

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped, and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid strawberry that can be used by other breeding programs to economically find and tag useful genes for MAB. A pseudo test cross population between two wild species of Fragaria virginiana and F. chiloensis (FVC 11) was generated and evaluated for a set of phenotypic traits. A total of 106 individuals in the FVC 11 were genotyped for 29,251 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) utilizing a commercially available, genome-wide scanning platform (Affymetrix Axiom IStraw90(TW)). The marker trait associations were deduced using TASSEL software. The FVC 11 population segregating for daughters per mother, inflorescence number, inflorescence height, crown production, flower number, fruit size, yield, internal color, soluble solids, fruit firmness, and plant vigor. Coefficients of variations ranged from 10% for fruit firmness to 68% for daughters per mother, indicating an underlying quantitative inheritance for each trait. A total of 2,474 SNPs were found to be polymorphic in FVC 11 and strong marker trait associations were observed for vigor, daughters per mother, yield and fruit weight. These data indicate that FVC 11 can be used as a reference population for quantitative trait loci detection and subsequent MAB across different breeding programs and geographical locations. PMID:27242825

  13. Stability of genetic variance and covariance for reproductive characters in the face of climate change in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garant, Dany; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Kruuk, Loeske E B; Sheldon, Ben C

    2008-01-01

    Global warming has had numerous effects on populations of animals and plants, with many species in temperate regions experiencing environmental change at unprecedented rates. Populations with low potential for adaptive evolutionary change and plasticity will have little chance of persistence in the face of environmental change. Assessment of the potential for adaptive evolution requires the estimation of quantitative genetic parameters, but it is as yet unclear what impact, if any, global warming will have on the expression of genetic variances and covariances. Here we assess the impact of a changing climate on the genetic architecture underlying three reproductive traits in a wild bird population. We use a large, long-term, data set collected on great tits (Parus major) in Wytham Woods, Oxford, and an 'animal model' approach to quantify the heritability of, and genetic correlations among, laying date, clutch size and egg mass during two periods with contrasting temperature conditions over a 40-year period (1965-1988 [cooler] vs. 1989-2004 [warmer]). We found significant additive genetic variance and heritability for all traits under both temperature regimes. We also found significant negative genetic covariances and correlations between clutch size and egg weight during both periods, and among laying date and clutch size in the colder years only. The overall G matrix comparison among periods, however, showed only a minor difference among periods, thus suggesting that genotype by environment interactions are negligible in this context. Our results therefore suggest that despite substantial changes in temperature and in mean laying date phenotype over the last decades, and despite the large sample sizes available, we are unable to detect any significant change in the genetic architecture of the reproductive traits studied. PMID:18173500

  14. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  15. Disentangling the effect of genes, the environment and chance on sex ratio variation in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Erik; Heinrich, Franziska; Koller, Ursina; Sardell, Rebecca J; Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F

    2011-10-01

    Sex ratio theory proposes that the equal sex ratio typically observed in birds and mammals is the result of natural selection. However, in species with chromosomal sex determination, the same 1 : 1 sex ratio is expected under random Mendelian segregation. Here, we present an analysis of 14 years of sex ratio data for a population of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) on Mandarte Island, at the nestling stage and at independence from parental care. We test for the presence of variance in sex ratio over and above the binomial variance expected under Mendelian segregation, and thereby quantify the potential for selection to shape sex ratio. Furthermore, if sex ratio variation is to be shaped by selection, we expect some of this extra-binomial variation to have a genetic basis. Despite ample statistical power, we find no evidence for the existence of either genetic or environmentally induced variation in sex ratio, in the nest or at independence. Instead, the sex ratio variation observed matches that expected under random Mendelian segregation. Using one of the best datasets of its kind, we conclude that female song sparrows do not, and perhaps cannot, adjust the sex of their offspring. We discuss the implications of this finding and make suggestions for future research. PMID:21345862

  16. Influence of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on the population structure of a sea lion breeding colony in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasago-Germán, Bernardo; Pérez-Lezama, Edgar L.; Chávez, Ernesto A.; García-Morales, Ricardo

    2015-03-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon has a significant influence on Pacific marine ecosystems from primary trophic levels to top predators that cause fluctuations in their populations. Based on this fact we analyzed the sea lion Zalophus californianus population structure variability using censuses performed from 1979 to 2004 in Los Islotes breeding colony located at La Paz Bay as well as concomitant the ENSO phenomenon variability. To discriminate variations in the population structure not ascribable to the population attributes, a virtual population was created and compared to the census population. The residuals obtained from this comparison were correlated with the MEI (Multivariate ENSO Index) and BEST (Bivariate ENSO Time Series) indices, descriptors of the ENSO variability. The results showed that the population structure is an adequate descriptor of the conditions of the population instead of the abundance, and the total population is affected by the ENSO. The adult, subadult and pup male groups were the most sensitive groups to this phenomenon due to their intrinsic development and behavior. Likewise the BEST index is a better descriptor than the MEI index of the ENSO influence in the region where the breeding colony Los Islotes resides. Therefore we demonstrate in this work that changes caused by the ENSO not directly affect the sea lion due to its homeothermic capacity but affects the habitat where this organism performs its biological functions, producing behavioral changes in the population.

  17. Experimental evolution of an RNA virus in wild birds: evidence for host-dependent impacts on population structure and competitive fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Grubaugh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within hosts, RNA viruses form populations that are genetically and phenotypically complex. Heterogeneity in RNA virus genomes arises due to error-prone replication and is reduced by stochastic and selective mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Defining how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations is critical because it can inform treatment paradigms and enhance control efforts. We allowed West Nile virus (WNV to replicate in wild-caught American crows, house sparrows and American robins to assess how natural selection shapes RNA virus populations in ecologically relevant hosts that differ in susceptibility to virus-induced mortality. After five sequential passages in each bird species, we examined the phenotype and population diversity of WNV through fitness competition assays and next generation sequencing. We demonstrate that fitness gains occur in a species-specific manner, with the greatest replicative fitness gains in robin-passaged WNV and the least in WNV passaged in crows. Sequencing data revealed that intrahost WNV populations were strongly influenced by purifying selection and the overall complexity of the viral populations was similar among passaged hosts. However, the selective pressures that control WNV populations seem to be bird species-dependent. Specifically, crow-passaged WNV populations contained the most unique mutations (~1.7× more than sparrows, ~3.4× more than robins and defective genomes (~1.4× greater than sparrows, ~2.7× greater than robins, but the lowest average mutation frequency (about equal to sparrows, ~2.6× lower than robins. Therefore, our data suggest that WNV replication in the most disease-susceptible bird species is positively associated with virus mutational tolerance, likely via complementation, and negatively associated with the strength of selection. These differences in genetic composition most likely have distinct phenotypic consequences for the virus populations. Taken together

  18. Climate change and the demographic demise of a hoarding bird living on the edge

    OpenAIRE

    Waite, Thomas A; Strickland, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Population declines along the lower-latitude edge of a species' range may be diagnostic of climate change. We report evidence that climate change has contributed to deteriorating reproductive success in a rapidly declining population of the grey jay (Perisoreus canadensis) at the southern edge of its range. This non-migratory bird of boreal and subalpine forest lives on permanent territories, where it hoards enormous amounts of food for winter and then breeds very early, under still-wintry co...

  19. Biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for all species and subspecies of Australian bird

    OpenAIRE

    Garnett, Stephen T.; Duursma, Daisy E.; Ehmke, Glenn; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Stewart, Alistair; Szabo, Judit K.; Weston, Michael A; Bennett, Simon; Crowley, Gabriel M.; Drynan, David; Dutson, Guy; Fitzherbert, Kate; Donald C Franklin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a dataset of biological, ecological, conservation and legal information for every species and subspecies of Australian bird, 2056 taxa or populations in total. Version 1 contains 230 fields grouped under the following headings: Taxonomy & nomenclature, Phylogeny, Australian population status, Conservation status, Legal status, Distribution, Morphology, Habitat, Food, Behaviour, Breeding, Mobility and Climate metrics. It is envisaged that the dataset will be updated periodically w...

  20. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  1. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and...

  2. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla A; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-10-22

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-level approach, individual-level responses to variation in the social environment remain largely unstudied. Here, we explore carry-over effects on future mating decisions of the social environment in which the initial mating decision occurred. Using detailed data on the winter social networks of great tits, we tested whether the probability of subsequent divorce, a year later, could be predicted by measures of the social environment at the time of pairing. We found that males that had a lower proportion of female associates, and whose partner ranked lower among these, as well as inexperienced breeders, were more likely to divorce after breeding. We found no evidence that a female's social environment influenced the probability of divorce. Our findings highlight the importance of the social environment that individuals experience during initial pair formation on later pairing outcomes, and demonstrate that such effects can be delayed. Exploring these extended effects of the social environment can yield valuable insights into processes and selective pressures acting upon the mating strategies that individuals adopt. PMID:26468239

  3. Phylogeographical approaches to assessing demographic connectivity between breeding and overwintering regions in a Nearctic-Neotropical warbler (Wilsonia pusilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Clegg, S M; Lovette, I J; Holder, K R; Girman, D J; Milá, B; Wade, P; Smith, T B

    2002-09-01

    We characterized the pattern and magnitude of phylogeographical variation among breeding populations of a long-distance migratory bird, the Wilson's warbler (Wilsonia pusilla), and used this information to assess the utility of mtDNA markers for assaying demographic connectivity between breeding and overwintering regions. We found a complex pattern of population differentiation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation among populations across the breeding range. Individuals from eastern North America were differentiated from western individuals and the eastern haplotypes formed a distinct, well-supported cluster. The more diverse western group contained haplotype clusters with significant geographical structuring, but there was also broad mixing of haplotype groups such that no haplotype groups were population specific and the predominance of rare haplotypes limited the utility of frequency-based assignment techniques. Nonetheless, the existence of geographically diagnosable eastern vs. western haplotypes enabled us to characterize the distribution of these two groups across 14 overwintering locations. Western haplotypes were present at much higher frequencies than eastern haplotypes at most overwintering sites. Application of this mtDNA-based method of linking breeding and overwintering populations on a finer geographical scale was precluded by the absence of population-specific markers and by insufficient haplotype sorting among western breeding populations. Our results suggest that because migratory species such as the Wilson's warbler likely experienced extensive gene flow among regional breeding populations, molecular markers will have the greatest utility for characterizing breeding-overwintering connectivity at a broad geographical scale. PMID:12207712

  4. 50 CFR 15.24 - Permits for cooperative breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permits for cooperative breeding. 15.24... PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.24 Permits for cooperative breeding. (a) Application requirements for permits for cooperative breeding....

  5. Clock gene variation is associated with breeding phenology and maybe under directional selection in the migratory barn swallow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Caprioli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In diverse taxa, photoperiodic responses that cause seasonal physiological and behavioural shifts are controlled by genes, including the vertebrate Clock orthologues, that encode for circadian oscillator mechanisms. While the genetic network behind circadian rhythms is well described, relatively few reports exist of the phenological consequences of and selection on Clock genes in the wild. Here, we investigated variation in breeding phenology in relation to Clock genetic diversity in a long-distance migratory bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a sample of 922 adult barn swallows from a single population breeding in Italy we found one very common (Q(7 and three rare (Q(5, Q(6, Q(8 length variants of a functionally significant polyglutamine repeat. Rare (2.9% Q(7/Q(8 heterozygous females, but not males, bred significantly later than common (91.5% Q(7/Q(7 females, consistent with the expectation that 'long' alleles cause late breeding, as observed in a resident population of another bird species. Because breeding date depends on arrival date from migration, present results suggest that the association between breeding date and Clock might be mediated by migration phenology. In addition, fecundity selection appears to be operating against Q(7/Q(8 because late migrating/breeding swallows have fewer clutches per season, and late breeding has additional negative selection effects via reduced offspring longevity. Genotype frequencies varied marginally non-significantly with age, as Q(7/Q(8 frequency showed a 4-fold reduction in old individuals. This result suggests negative viability selection against Q(7/Q(8, possibly mediated by costs of late breeding. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study of migratory birds showing an association between breeding phenology and Clock genotype and suggesting that negative selection occurs on a phenologically deviant genotype. Low polymorphism at Clock may

  6. 藏鹀的自然历史、威胁和保护%Study on the Tibetan Bunting: Distribution, Population,Breeding Information and Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    居·扎西桑俄; 果洛·周杰

    2013-01-01

    Tibetan Bunting (Emberiza koslowi) is a poorly known bird endemic to eastern Tibetan Plateau. In order to understand its distribution, population and life history, since 2005 a six-year long observation has been conducted around Baiyu of Jiuzhi County, Golok Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province. Results show that the distribution range of Tibetan Bunting is around 3 500 - 4 700 meters above sea level and mainly in Yushu and Golok of Qinghai as well as a small region in A' ba of Sichuan. Compared with previous knowledge, this range is at a higher altitude, and more northeast and restricted. Using line transect method, a stable population of 18 -33 individuals has been identified in a 7. 4 km study site. Besides, nesting, breeding and agonistic behaviors of this group are described in detail. Major threats posed on Tibetan Bunting are found to be predation by carnivores, food insufficiency during winter and eggs being trampled by livestock. Since long-term monitoring has been conducted, we find that the population has been stabilizing through establishing community conserved area and working with local herdsmen on targeted conservation actions.%藏鹀(Emberiza koslowi)是我国青藏高原东部的特有珍稀鸟种,目前关于它的资料非常匮乏.为了解藏鹀的分布、数量和基本生活史特征,促进对于该物种的有效保护,自2005年起以青海省果洛州久治县白玉乡为中心对藏鹀进行了持续6年的观察,并针对其面临的威胁采取了相应的保护措施.结果显示,藏鹀主要分布在青海的玉树、果洛和四川的阿坝一带海拔3 500~4 700 m范围内的适宜栖息地,该分布区比原有认知更靠东北,更为狭小且海拔更高.用样线法开展的藏鹀数量监测,在7.4 km2的调查范围内记录到一个18 ~33只的稳定种群.此外,还对藏鹀的筑巢、育雏和争斗等行为进行了详细描述.食肉动物的捕食、冬季食物缺乏和牲畜踩踏鸟卵是藏鹀面

  7. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and the US using simple sequence repeat markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Khera, Pawan; Huang, Bingyan; Yuan, Mei; Katam, Ramesh; Zhuang, Weijian; Harris-Shultz, Karen; Moore, Kim M; Culbreath, Albert K; Zhang, Xinyou; Varshney, Rajeev K; Xie, Lianhui; Guo, Baozhu

    2016-05-01

    Cultivated peanut is grown worldwide as rich-source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for cultivar improvement. The objectives of this study were to develop highly informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from different breeding programs in China, India and the US. A total of 111 SSR markers were selected for this study, resulting in a total of 472 alleles. The mean values of gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.480 and 0.429, respectively. Country-wise analysis revealed that alleles per locus in three countries were similar. The mean gene diversity in the US, China and India was 0.363, 0.489 and 0.47 with an average PIC of 0.323, 0.43 and 0.412, respectively. Genetic analysis using the STRUCTURE divided these peanut lines into two populations (P1, P2), which was consistent with the dendrogram based on genetic distance (G1, G2) and the clustering of principal component analysis. The groupings were related to peanut market types and the geographic origin with a few admixtures. The results could be used by breeding programs to assess the genetic diversity of breeding materials to broaden the genetic base and for molecular genetics studies. PMID:26178804

  8. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from China, India and the US using simple sequence repeat markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Wang; Xinyou Zhang; Rajeev K. Varshney; Lianhui Xie; Baozhu Guo; Pawan Khera; Bingyan Huang; Mei Yuan; Ramesh Katam; Weijian Zhuang; Karen Harris-Shultz; Kim M. Moore; Albert K. Culbreath

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated peanut is grown worldwide as rich-source of oil and protein. A broad genetic base is needed for cultivar improvement. The objectives of this study were to develop highly informative simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of peanut cultivars and breeding lines from different breeding programs in China, India and the US. A total of 111 SSR markers were selected for this study, resulting in a total of 472 alleles. The mean values of gene diversity and polymorphic information content (PIC) were 0.480 and 0.429, respectively. Country-wise analysis revealed that alleles per locus in three countries were similar. The mean gene diversity in the US, China and India was 0.363, 0.489 and 0.47 with an average PIC of 0.323, 0.43 and 0.412, respectively. Genetic analysis using the STRUCTURE divided these peanut lines into two populations (P1, P2), which was consistent with the dendro-gram based on genetic distance (G1, G2) and the clustering of principal component analysis. The groupings were related to peanut market types and the geographic origin with a few admixtures. The results could be used by breeding programs to assess the genetic diversity of breeding materials to broaden the genetic base and for molecular genetics studies.

  9. The Effects of Both Recent and Long-Term Selection and Genetic Drift Are Readily Evident in North American Barley Breeding Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Poets

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Barley was introduced to North America ∼400 yr ago but adaptation to modern production environments is more recent. Comparisons of allele frequencies among growth habits and spike (inflorescence types in North America indicate that significant genetic differentiation has accumulated in a relatively short evolutionary time span. Allele frequency differentiation is greatest among barley with two-row vs. six-row spikes, followed by spring vs. winter growth habit. Large changes in allele frequency among breeding programs suggest a major contribution of genetic drift and linked selection on genetic variation. Despite this, comparisons of 3613 modern North American cultivated barley breeding lines that differ for spike-type and growth habit permit the discovery of 142 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP outliers putatively linked to targets of selection. For example, SNPs within the Cbf4, Ppd-H1, and Vrn-H1 loci, which have previously been associated with agronomically adaptive phenotypes, are identified as outliers. Analysis of extended haplotype sharing identifies genomic regions shared within and among breeding populations, suggestive of a number of genomic regions subject to recent selection. Finally, we are able to identify recent bouts of gene flow between breeding populations that could point to the sharing of agronomically adaptive variation. These results are supported by pedigrees and breeders’ understanding of germplasm sharing.

  10. The relationship between the fluctuations of bird populations and the salinities of ponds in South San Francisco Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a bi-monthly census of salinities and bird numbers taken in the salt evaporation ponds on the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. A...

  11. Why birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ferrer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Island faunas have played central roles in the development of evolutionary biology and ecology. Birds are among the most studied organisms on islands, in part because of their dispersal powers linked to migration. Even so, we lack of information about differences in the movement ecology of island versus mainland populations of birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a new general pattern indicating that large birds with deferred sexual maturity are sedentary on islands, and that they become so even when they are migratory on the mainland. Density-dependent variation in the age at first breeding affects the survivorship of insular populations and this, in turn, affects the movement ecology of large birds. Because density-dependent variation in the age of first breeding is critical to the long-term survival of small isolated populations of long-lived species, migratory forms can successfully colonize islands only if they become sedentary once there. Analyses of the movement ecology of continental and insular populations of 314 species of raptors, 113 species of Ciconiiformes and 136 species of passerines, along with individual-based population simulations confirm this prediction. CONCLUSIONS: This finding has several consequences for speciation, colonization and survival of small isolated population of species with deferred sexual maturity.

  12. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Somveille

    Full Text Available Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective.

  13. Mapping global diversity patterns for migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somveille, Marius; Manica, Andrea; Butchart, Stuart H M; Rodrigues, Ana S L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly one in five bird species has separate breeding and overwintering distributions, and the regular migrations of these species cause a substantial seasonal redistribution of avian diversity across the world. However, despite its ecological importance, bird migration has been largely ignored in studies of global avian biodiversity, with few studies having addressed it from a macroecological perspective. Here, we analyse a dataset on the global distribution of the world's birds in order to examine global spatial patterns in the diversity of migratory species, including: the seasonal variation in overall species diversity due to migration; the contribution of migratory birds to local bird diversity; and the distribution of narrow-range and threatened migratory birds. Our analyses reveal a striking asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, evident in all of the patterns investigated. The highest migratory bird diversity was found in the Northern Hemisphere, with high inter-continental turnover in species composition between breeding and non-breeding seasons, and extensive regions (at high latitudes) where migratory birds constitute the majority of the local avifauna. Threatened migratory birds are concentrated mainly in Central and Southern Asia, whereas narrow-range migratory species are mainly found in Central America, the Himalayas and Patagonia. Overall, global patterns in the diversity of migratory birds indicate that bird migration is mainly a Northern Hemisphere phenomenon. The asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres could not have easily been predicted from the combined results of regional scale studies, highlighting the importance of a global perspective. PMID:23951037

  14. Longer ice-free seasons increase the risk of nest depredation by polar bears for colonial breeding birds in the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, H Grant; Smith, Paul A; Gaston, Anthony J; Forbes, Mark R

    2014-03-22

    Northern polar regions have warmed more than other parts of the globe potentially amplifying the effects of climate change on biological communities. Ice-free seasons are becoming longer in many areas, which has reduced the time available to polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to hunt for seals and hampered bears' ability to meet their energetic demands. In this study, we examined polar bears' use of an ancillary prey resource, eggs of colonial nesting birds, in relation to diminishing sea ice coverage in a low latitude region of the Canadian Arctic. Long-term monitoring reveals that bear incursions onto common eider (Somateria mollissima) and thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) nesting colonies have increased greater than sevenfold since the 1980s and that there is an inverse correlation between ice season length and bear presence. In surveys encompassing more than 1000 km of coastline during years of record low ice coverage (2010-2012), we encountered bears or bear sign on 34% of eider colonies and estimated greater egg loss as a consequence of depredation by bears than by more customary nest predators, such as foxes and gulls. Our findings demonstrate how changes in abiotic conditions caused by climate change have altered predator-prey dynamics and are leading to cascading ecological impacts in Arctic ecosystems. PMID:24500172

  15. Looking after your partner: sentinel behaviour in a socially monogamous bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Mainwaring

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural selection favours those individuals with effective anti-predator defences. The presence of sentinels is known to be an effective form of defence amongst stable groups of individuals within cooperative and polygynous breeding systems. However, the presence of sentinels in the more prevalent socially monogamous breeding systems remains overlooked as an important benefit of such partnerships. Here, we describe a study in which we examined the presence and effectiveness of sentinels in a wild population of the socially monogamous zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata. We found that when experimentally approached by a human observer during incubation, birds flushed from their nests at significantly greater distances when their reproductive partner was acting as a sentinel than when the partner was absent. The distance at which birds flushed was not influenced by the approach direction of the human observer, the gender of the incubating bird, the presence of conspecifics, the habitat type or the size of the breeding colony. Our results indicate that sentinels are an effective anti-predator defence amongst socially monogamous birds, and may represent a neglected benefit of the formation of stable social partnerships in birds. We suggest that whilst recent work has focused on the sexual conflicts that occur between males and females in socially monogamous pairs, we should not lose sight of the benefits that individuals may gain from their partner.

  16. Radionuclides and the birds at Ravenglass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, V P

    1991-01-01

    Since 1983, concern has been expressed about the apparent decline in numbers of birds in the Ravenglass estuary in west Cumbria, particularly of the black-headed gull colony on the Drigg dunes, and suggestions have been made that this decline might be due to excessive radiation in the birds' food and their general environment. Twelve species of marine invertebrates from Ravenglass, most of them known to be important foods for birds, were analysed, and further samples were taken from sites along the west Cumbrian coast. None of these samples showed excessive contamination with any of the radionuclides analysed. Analysis of a sample of bird carcasses from the areas showed oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) and shelduck (Tadorna tadorna) to have some of the highest concentrations of (137)Cs in their tissues; yet their breeding success and populations were not affected. Black-headed gulls, on the other hand, were found to be feeding mainly inland, and were the least contaminated with radionuclides of all the birds at Ravenglass, yet this species and its breeding success were in decline. Calculations of the total dose equivalent rate to the whole body of the most contaminated black-headed gull amounted to 9.8 x 10(-4) mSvh(-1) (approximately equal to 8.4 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1), whole body absorbed dose rate), and the background exposure dose was of the order of 8.3 x 10(-4) mGy h(-1). As a minimum chronic dose of 1000 mGy day(-1) has been found necessary to retard growth of nestling birds, and 9600 mGy over 20 days of incubation to cause the death of 50% of embryos in black-headed gulls' eggs, the concentrations of radionuclides in the foods, body tissues and general environment were at least three orders of magnitude too low to have had any effect. The more likely cause of the desertion of the gullery was the combination of an uncontrolled fox population, the severest outbreak of myxomatosis amongst the rabbits since 1954 and the driest May-July period on record, all

  17. A brief report on the illegal cage-bird trade in southern Florida: a potentially serious negative impact on the eastern population of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, P.W., Jr.; Manfredi, L.; Padura, M.

    2006-01-01

    Populations of Painted Bunting (Passerina ciris) have been declining annually over the past 35 years. A cursory survey indicates that illegal trapping of Painted Buntings for a black market cage-bird trade is widespread in southeastern Florida. Coupled with other negative factors confronting the eastern population, the trapping of buntings for the cagebird trade may, in time, produce dire results for this native songbird. Law enforcement personnel need to continue to monitor the illegal activity of trapping native passerines for the local songbird market and to continue to arrest those who support it.

  18. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin LU, Ran HUO, Yang LI, Wenbo LIAO, Chen WANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau, during 2008 and 2009. In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground. First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood. Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days. Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD, 3-8 and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young. At the population level, brood sex ratio did not differ from 1:1. The birds are a territory-living resident, with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46 in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67 in yearlings. Pairs were socially monogamous, of which 23% (9 of 40 contained one and sometimes two male helpers, most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders. The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6: 751–757, 2011].

  19. Breeding ecology of ground tits in northeastern Tibetan plateau, with special reference to cooperative breeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Ran HUO; Yang LI; Wenbo LIAO; Chen WANG

    2011-01-01

    Data on breeding ecology of a color-band marked population of the ground tit Parus humilis were collected in north Qinghai on the Tibetan plateau,during 2008 and 2009.In spring the birds excavated 0.8-3.2 m long nesting burrows under the ground.First-egg laying occurred between late April and late June during which a pair produced one brood.Incubation was done by female alone for 15-16 days and nestling-feeding by both sexes and helpers in any for 23-25 days.Average brood size at fledging was 5.8 (± 1.4 SD,3-8) and all the 27 observed nesting attempts fledged at least one young.At the population level,brood sex ratio did not differ from 1∶1.The birds are a territory-living resident,with annual resight rates being 48% (22 of 46) in adult breeders and 10% (7 of 67) in yearlings.Pairs were socially monogamous,of which 23% (9 of 40) contained one and sometimes two male helpers,most likely being philopatric sons of the breeders.The formation of cooperative groups is similar to the population in central Tibet but differs from that in south Guansu where breeding ground tits exhibit a high level of annual turnover [Current Zoology 57 (6):751-757,2011].

  20. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  1. Who are we feeding? Asymmetric individual use of surplus food resources in an insular population of the endangered Egyptian vulture Neophron percnopterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Sophie García-Heras

    Full Text Available Supplementary feeding stations, or "vulture restaurants", are common conservation management tools. While a number of studies have investigated the consequences of surplus food on the population dynamics of scavengers, relatively little is known about the effects of such practices at the individual level. Within the long-term monitored breeding population of Canarian Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis we investigated individual bird's patterns of use of a supplementary feeding station at Fuerteventura (Canary Islands, over the course of breeding (2001, 2002; 2004-2011 and non-breeding seasons (2000-2010. Our results show that during the breeding season the individual use of the supplementary feeding station was inversely related to the distance to the breeding territory, which suggests the existence of central-place foraging constraints. In addition, larger birds of poor body-condition and individuals that ultimately failed to fledge young were detected more frequently at the feeding station. During the non-breeding season, and because most breeding birds abandoned the breeding territories, the overall abundance of Egyptian vultures at the feeding station grew. Moreover, the only variable increasing the probability of presence of individuals was poor body condition so that birds with lower wing residual visited the feeding station more frequently. Supplementary feeding may benefit individuals who would otherwise have been subject to selective pressures. From our results it follows that this conservation strategy must be used with caution because it can have consequences on an individual level and thus potentially affect the viability of endangered populations.

  2. ON CORRELATING BIRD MIGRATION TRAJECTORY WITH CLIMATE CHANGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oleinik, Janaina; de Macedo, Jose Antonio Fernandes; Yuanjian, Wang Zufferey

    2009-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to affect bird migration in several aspects including timing changes, breeding and migration orientation. The correlation analysis of several climate conditions (e.g. temperature, wind, humidity, etc) and bird migration trajectory is the key for explaining bird behavior during migration. Moreover, the resulting correlation can be used for predicting new bird behavior according to climate changes. In this paper we propose an integrated solution for correlating bird...

  3. Genetic Diversity of Old Chicken Breeds Kept in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the genetic variation of five local chicken breeds reared in Poland. Twenty-seven microsatellite markers were investigated in 138 birds belonging to five breeds: Miniature Cochin (MCO, Gold Italian (GI, Green Legged Partridge (GLP, Silver Italian (SI and White Leghorn (WL. One hundred eighty five alleles were detected in the overall population, with a mean number of 6.85 ± 3.32 alleles per locus. For the local breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from a minimum of 0.287 to a maximum of 0.458 and from 0.397 to 0.499 for the GI and SI breeds, respectively. The overall population heterozygote deficiency was 0.430, the average Wright’s inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.061 and the heterozygote deficiency due to breed subdivision was 0.393. Wright’s fixation index was slightly positive for all breeds excluding MCO (FIS = -0.476 and the estimated molecular inbreeding (fij within breed ranged from 0.296 (GLP and SI to 0.361 (WL evidencing limited coancestry. Mean allelic richness, obtained with rarefaction method based on sixteen observations, was 2.12 being the WL the less variable (1.79. Tomiuk and Loeschcke’s DTL genetic distance values were used to draw a neighbornet network which separated the cluster made of MCO and GLP from the cluster of GI, WL and SI. The results arising from our microsatellites analysis represent a starting point for the valorization of these local Polish chicken breeds for monitoring and preserving their genetic variability.

  4. ECOLOGY OF NON-BREEDING AND BREEDING CRESTED CARACARAS (CARACARA CHERIWAY) IN FLORIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, James Fitzgerald

    2010-01-01

    Like many species, Floridaâ s population of Northern Crested Caracaras (Caracara cheriway, hereafter â caracaraâ ) is likely declining due to loss of breeding habitat. Consequently, management-oriented restrictions on landscape modification are applied where breeding occurs, but management rarely is extended beyond breeding areas. Focusing management on breeding areas can be effective if all caracaras occupy breeding areas, all breeding areas are detected, and no intermittent breeding oc...

  5. Invasive alien birds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning; Nyegaard, Timme

    2015-01-01

    Avian Introduced Alien Species (IAS) constitute a threat to the integrity of native biodiversity, the economy and human health, so here we briefly review some of the problems posed by such species around the world in relation to such bird species in Denmark. A new European Union Regulation...... show the importance of mechanisms such as DOF’s (Dansk Ornitologisk Forening, BirdLife Denmark) Atlas project, Common Bird Census (breeding and wintering species) and DOFbasen to contribute data on the current geographical and numerical distribution of the few serious alien avian species already...

  6. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marcel E.; Perdeck, Albert C.; van Balen, Johan H.; Both, Christiaan

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season

  7. Abundance-area relationships in bird assemblages along an Afrotropical elevational gradient: space limitation in montane forest selects for higher population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Michal; Fjeldså, Jon; Sedláček, Ondřej; Motombi, Francis Njie; Djomo Nana, Eric; Mudrová, Karolína; Hořák, David

    2016-05-01

    The usual positive inter-specific relationship between range size and abundance of local populations can have notable exceptions in Afrotropical montane areas, where range-restricted bird species are unusually abundant. We tested how the area occupied locally by passerines and their geographic range size relate to local abundances along a tropical elevational gradient of Mt Cameroon, West-Central Africa. Data on bird assemblages were collected at six forested elevations (350, 650, 1100, 1500, 1850 m, 2200 m a.s.l.) using a standardised point count at 16 locations per elevation. Elevational ranges of birds were compiled from published sources and their geographic range sizes were determined as the occupancy of 1° x 1° grid cells. The observed relationship between local abundance and geographic range size within the entire passerine assemblage on Mt Cameroon disagrees with the most frequently reported positive pattern. However, the patterns differ among elevations, with positive trends of the abundance-range size relationship in lowland changing to negative trends towards higher elevations. Interestingly, the total assemblage abundances do not differ much among elevations and population size estimates of species occupying different parts of the gradient remain relatively constant. These patterns are caused by relatively high abundances of montane species, which might be a result of long-term ecological specialization and/or competitive release in species-poor montane locations and possibly facilitated by an extinction filter. Our data suggest that montane species' abilities to maintain dense populations might compensate for less area available near mountain tops and help these populations to circumvent extinction. PMID:26801494

  8. Population trends of central European montane birds provide evidence for adverse impacts of climate change on high-altitude species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flousek, J.; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, J.; Reif, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2015), e0139465. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Elevational range shifts * Life-history traits * Arrival date * Boreal birds * Habitat loss * Biodiversity * Declines Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. Metals, Parasites, and Environmental Conditions Affecting Breeding Populations of Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in Northern Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMali, Heather M; Trauth, Stanley E; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is indigenous to northern Arkansas, and several breeding sites are known to exist in the region. Spotted salamanders (n = 17) were collected and examined for parasites and only three females harbored nematodes (Physaloptera spp.). Chronic aquatic bioassays were conducted using water collected from eight breeding ponds during different hydroperiod events. No lethal or sublethal effects were measured in Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, decreased growth and survival were seen in Pimephales promelas. Aqueous, sediment, and salamander hepatic samples were analyzed for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Metal analysis revealed possible increased metal exposure following precipitation, with greatest metal concentrations measured in sediment samples. Hepatic metal concentrations were similar in parasitized and non-parasitized individuals, and greatest Pb concentrations were measured following normal precipitation events. Determining environmental stressors of amphibians, especially during their breeding and subsequent larval life stage, is imperative to improve species conservation. PMID:26886425

  10. Ecological Sustainability of Birds in Boreal Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Venier; Mikko Mönkkönen; Robert Howe; Pekka Helle; JoAnn Hanowski; Gerald Niemi; Daniel Welsh

    1998-01-01

    We review characteristics of birds in boreal forests in the context of their ecological sustainability under both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. We identify the underlying ecological factors associated with boreal bird populations and their variability, review the interactions between boreal bird populations and disturbance, and describe some tools on how boreal bird populations may be conserved in the future. The boreal system has historically been an area with extensive disturbance...

  11. Christmas Island birds returning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  12. Population trends and management opportunities for neotropical migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.; Peterjohn, B.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey shows that certain Neotropical migrant songbird populations have been declining over the past 26 years. Among them are forest birds that require extensive forest on the breeding grounds and also forested habitats on tropical wintering grounds. Other species have shown significant declines only since the early 1980's. Birds with broader habitat tolerance, such as those that winter commonly in agricultural and early-successional habitats as well as primary forest, show fewer consistent declines. Several grassland species have also been declining for more than two decades. Populations of many other Neotropical migrants have been stable or increasing over these periods. Examples of 26-year population trends are given. A dozen recommendations are given for managing nesting habitat for Neotropical migrants.

  13. Geographic variation in morphology of Alaska-breeding Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) is not maintained on their nonbreeding grounds in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, J.R.; Battley, Phil F.; Potter, M.A.; Ruthrauff, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Among scolopacid shorebirds, Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica) have unusually high intra- and intersexual differences in size and breeding plumage. Despite historical evidence for population structure among Alaska-breeding Bar-tailed Godwits (L. l. baueri), no thorough analysis, or comparison with the population's nonbreeding distribution, has been undertaken. We used live captures, field photography, museum specimens, and individuals tracked from New Zealand to describe geographic variation in size and plumage within the Alaska breeding range. We found a north-south cline in body size in Alaska, in which the smallest individuals of each sex occurred at the highest latitudes. Extent of male breeding plumage (proportion of nonbreeding contour feathers replaced) also increased with latitude, but female breeding plumage was most extensive at mid-latitudes. This population structure was not maintained in the nonbreeding season: morphometrics of captured birds and timing of migratory departures indicated that individuals from a wide range of breeding latitudes occur in each region and site in New Zealand. Links among morphology, phenology, and breeding location suggest the possibility of distinct Alaska breeding populations that mix freely in the nonbreeding season, and also imply that the strongest selection for size occurs in the breeding season. ?? 2011 The American Ornithologists' Union.

  14. Optimal moult strategies in migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Barta, Zoltán; Mcnamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I; Weber, Thomas P.; Hedenström, Anders; Feró, Orsolya

    2007-01-01

    Avian migration, which involves billions of birds flying vast distances, is known to influence all aspects of avian life. Here we investigate how birds fit moult into an annual cycle determined by the need to migrate. Large variation exists in moulting patterns in relation to migration: for instance, moult can occur after breeding in the summer or after arrival in the wintering quarters. Here we use an optimal annual routine model to investigate why this variation exists. The modelled bird's ...

  15. A Continent-Wide Migratory Divide in North American Breeding Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hobson

    Full Text Available Populations of most North American aerial insectivores have undergone steep population declines over the past 40 years but the relative importance of factors operating on breeding, wintering, or stopover sites remains unknown. We used archival light-level geolocators to track the phenology, movements and winter locations of barn swallows (Hirdundo rustica; n = 27 from populations across North America to determine their migratory connectivity. We identified an east-west continental migratory divide for barn swallows with birds from western regions (Washington State, USA (n = 8 and Saskatchewan, Canada (n = 5 traveling shorter distances to wintering areas ranging from Oregon to northern Colombia than eastern populations (Ontario (n = 3 and New Brunswick (n = 10, Canada which wintered in South America south of the Amazon basin. A single swallow from a stable population in Alabama shared a similar migration route to eastern barn swallows but wintered farther north in northeast Brazil indicating a potential leap frog pattern migratory among eastern birds. Six of 9 (67% birds from the two eastern populations and Alabama underwent a loop migration west of fall migration routes including around the Gulf of Mexico travelling a mean of 2,224 km and 722 km longer on spring migration, respectively. Longer migration distances, including the requirement to cross the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico and subsequent shorter sedentary wintering periods, may exacerbate declines for populations breeding in northeastern North America.

  16. Background Pathological Changes in Minipigs: A Comparison of the Incidence and Nature among Different Breeds and Populations of Minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helke, Kristi L; Nelson, Keith N; Sargeant, Aaron M; Jacob, Binod; McKeag, Sean; Haruna, Julius; Vemireddi, Vimala; Greeley, Melanie; Brocksmith, Derek; Navratil, Nicole; Stricker-Krongrad, Alain; Hollinger, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Swine, especially the miniature swine or minipigs, are increasingly being used in preclinical safety assessment of small molecules, biopharmaceutical agents, and medical devices as an alternate nonrodent species. Although swine have been used extensively in biomedical research, there is a paucity of information in the current literature detailing the incidence of background lesions and differences in incidence between commonly used breeds. This article is a collaborative effort between multiple organizations to define and document lesions found in the common breeds of minipigs used for toxicological risk assessment in North America (NA) and the European Union (EU). We retrospectively assessed 10 years of historical control data from several institutions located in NA and EU, covering the period of 2004-2015. Here we report the background lesions with consideration of breed and geographical location. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting spontaneous background lesions in commonly used breeds of swine in both NA and EU. This report serves as a resource to pathologists and will aid in interpretation of findings and differentiation of background from test article-related changes. PMID:26534940

  17. Genome-wide candidate regions for selective sweeps revealed through massive parallel sequencing of DNA across ten turkey populations

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J. W. M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Blomberg, L.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat-type bird. Characterizing genetic variation in populations of domesticated species and associating these variation patterns with the evolution, domestication, and selective breeding is critical for understanding the dynamics of genomic change in these species. Intense selective breeding and population bottlenecks are expected to leave signatures in the genome of domesticate...

  18. 50 CFR 15.42 - List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false List of foreign qualifying breeding... OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Qualifying Facilities Breeding Exotic Birds in Captivity § 15.42 List of foreign qualifying breeding facilities....

  19. Population trends of grassland birds in North America are linked to the prevalence of an agricultural epizootic in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nocera, Joseph J.; Koslowsky, Hannah M.

    2011-01-01

    Globalization of trade has dramatic socioeconomic effects, and, intuitively, significant ecological effects should follow. However, few quantitative examples exist of the interrelationship of globalization, socioeconomics, and ecological patterns. We present a striking illustration of a cascade in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; “mad cow disease”) outbreaks in Europe exerted pressure on global beef markets, subsequently affecting North American hayfields and grassland bird popula...

  20. Testosterone in tropical birds: effects of environmental and social factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Moore, Ignacio T; Scheuerlein, Alexander; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Grafen, Alan; Wingfield, John C

    2004-09-01

    Previous investigations suggest that male tropical birds have lower plasma testosterone concentrations than northern latitude species. To test whether this generalization is valid, we analyzed all currently available plasma testosterone data of tropical birds. We focused on peak breeding testosterone levels using phylogenetic and conventional statistics. Explanatory variables considered were social mating system, type of territoriality, breeding season length, and altitude. On average, tropical birds had lower mean peak testosterone levels than northern temperate birds. However, in several tropical species, testosterone levels were well within the range of northern latitude birds. Without controlling for phylogeny, breeding season length, type of territoriality, and altitude explained a significant proportion of the variance in testosterone levels. The shorter the breeding season, the higher the testosterone levels. Tropical birds that defend a breeding season territory had higher testosterone levels than birds that were year-round territorial or colonial, and testosterone levels were positively correlated with altitude. When controlling for phylogeny, only breeding season length predicted testosterone levels. In conclusion, we propose to refine previous notions of low plasma testosterone levels in tropical birds: short breeding seasons and perhaps environmental conditions at high altitudes precipitate conditions under which high testosterone levels are beneficial in the tropics. PMID:15478088

  1. Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds - combining annual and decadal time scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Thorup, Kasper;

    2016-01-01

    investigate the recent impact of multiple environmental changes on European farmland birds, here focusing on climate change and land use change. We analyze more than 800 time series from 18 countries spanning the past two decades. Analysis of long-term population growth rates documents simultaneous responses...... driving long-term climate induced change. In particular, we find that birds are affected by winter, spring, and summer conditions depending on the distinct breeding phenology that corresponds to their migratory strategy. Birds in general benefit from higher temperatures or higher primary productivity...... that can be attributed to both climate change and land-use change, including long-term increases in populations of hot-dwelling species and declines in long-distance migrants and farmland specialists. In contrast, analysis of annual growth rates yield novel insights into the potential mechanisms...

  2. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  3. Blood lead concentrations in Alaskan tundra swans: linking breeding and wintering areas with satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Franson, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus) like many waterfowl species are susceptible to lead (Pb) poisoning, and Pb-induced mortality has been reported from many areas of their wintering range. Little is known however about Pb levels throughout the annual cycle of tundra swans, especially during summer when birds are on remote northern breeding areas where they are less likely to be exposed to anthropogenic sources of Pb. Our objective was to document summer Pb levels in tundra swans throughout their breeding range in Alaska to determine if there were population-specific differences in blood Pb concentrations that might pose a threat to swans and to humans that may consume them. We measured blood Pb concentrations in tundra swans at five locations in Alaska, representing birds that winter in both the Pacific Flyway and Atlantic Flyway. We also marked swans at each location with satellite transmitters and coded neck bands, to identify staging and wintering sites and determine if winter site use correlated with summer Pb concentrations. Blood Pb levels were generally low (Blood Pb levels varied significantly across the five breeding areas, with highest concentrations in birds on the North Slope of Alaska (wintering in the Atlantic Flyway), and lowest in birds from the lower Alaska Peninsula that rarely migrate south for winter.

  4. Public support for conserving bird species runs counter to climate change impacts on their distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hedemark Lundhede

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that global climate change will alter the spatiotemporal occurrences and abundances of many species at continental scales. This will have implications for efficient conservation of biodiversity. We investigate if the general public in Denmark are willing to pay for the preservation of birds potentially immigrating and establishing breeding populations due to climate change to the same extent that they are for native species populations currently breeding in Denmark, but potentially emigrating due to climate change. We find that Danish citizens are willing to pay much more for the conservation of birds currently native to Denmark, than for bird species moving into the country--even when they are informed about the potential range shifts associated with climate change. The only exception is when immigrating species populations are under pressure at European level. Furthermore, people believing climate change to be man-made and people more knowledgeable about birds tended to have higher WTP for conservation of native species, relative to other people, whereas their preferences for conserving immigrant species generally resembled those of other people. Conservation investments rely heavily on public funding and hence on public support. Our results suggest that cross-country coordination of conservation efforts under climate change will be challenging in terms of achieving an appropriate balance between cost-effectiveness in adaptation and the concerns of a general public who seem mostly worried about protecting currently-native species.

  5. Populations of migratory bird species that did not show a phenological response to climate change are declining

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Anders Pape; Rubolini, Diego; Lehikoinen, Esa

    2008-01-01

    Recent rapid climatic changes are associated with dramatic changes in phenology of plants and animals, with optimal timing of reproduction advancing considerably in the northern hemisphere. However, some species may not have advanced their timing of breeding sufficiently to continue reproducing optimally relative to the occurrence of peak food availability, thus becoming mismatched compared with their food sources. The degree of mismatch may differ among species, and species with greater mism...

  6. Unexpected high PCB and total DDT levels in the breeding population of red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana National Park, south-western Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gómara, B.; González, María José; Baos, Raquel; Hiraldo, F.; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorines (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in the declining red kite (Milvus milvus L.) population breeding in the Doñana National Park (DNP), south-western Spain. Analyses were performed in addled eggs collected between 1999 and 2001. DDE concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 33.5 μg/g ww, representing more than 86% of the total DDTs. Of the samples studied, 50% showed DDE levels above those associated with reproductive...

  7. An ESS model for divorce strategies in birds

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, J M

    1999-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of divorce. Arguments are couched in terms of birds, but should be applicable to other groups of organisms. We model a population in which there is a range of both male and female qualities, and decisions on whether to divorce are made by both members of a breeding pair. The reproductive success of a pair is additive in male and female qualities in the baseline case, but we also consider the effect of quality interactions. The availability of new mates d...

  8. Recruitment in a Colorado population of big brown bats: Breeding probabilities, litter size, and first-year survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Reynolds, C.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We used markrecapture estimation techniques and radiography to test hypotheses about 3 important aspects of recruitment in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado: adult breeding probabilities, litter size, and 1st-year survival of young. We marked 2,968 females with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags at multiple sites during 2001-2005 and based our assessments on direct recaptures (breeding probabilities) and passive detection with automated PIT tag readers (1st-year survival). We interpreted our data in relation to hypotheses regarding demographic influences of bat age, roost, and effects of years with unusual environmental conditions: extreme drought (2002) and arrival of a West Nile virus epizootic (2003). Conditional breeding probabilities at 6 roosts sampled in 2002-2005 were estimated as 0.64 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.530.73) in 1-year-old females, but were consistently high (95% CI = 0.940.96) and did not vary by roost, year, or prior year breeding status in older adults. Mean litter size was 1.11 (95% CI = 1.051.17), based on examination of 112 pregnant females by radiography. Litter size was not higher in older or larger females and was similar to results of other studies in western North America despite wide variation in latitude. First-year survival was estimated as 0.67 (95% CI = 0.610.73) for weaned females at 5 maternity roosts over 5 consecutive years, was lower than adult survival (0.79; 95% CI = 0.770.81), and varied by roost. Based on model selection criteria, strong evidence exists for complex roost and year effects on 1st-year survival. First-year survival was lowest in bats born during the drought year. Juvenile females that did not return to roosts as 1-year-olds had lower body condition indices in late summer of their natal year than those known to survive. ?? 2009 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. 50 CFR 15.26 - Approval of cooperative breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of cooperative breeding programs... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS WILD BIRD CONSERVATION ACT Permits and Approval of Cooperative Breeding Programs § 15.26 Approval of cooperative breeding programs. Upon receipt of a complete application, the...

  10. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  11. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seavy, Nathaniel E; Humple, Diana L; Cormier, Renée L; Gardali, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010). We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33%) was similar to that of control birds (39%), but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines. PMID:22506055

  12. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel E Seavy

    Full Text Available The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010. We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33% was similar to that of control birds (39%, but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines.

  13. The Effects of Supplementary Food on the Breeding Performance of Eurasian Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus; Implications for Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafidis, James O; Vaughan, Ian P; Jones, T Hefin; Facey, Richard J; Parry, Rob; Thomas, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate variation can drive population changes requires information linking climate, local conditions, trophic resources, behaviour and demography. Climate change alters the seasonal pattern of emergence and abundance of invertebrate populations, which may have important consequences for the breeding performance and population change of insectivorous birds. In this study, we examine the role of food availability in driving behavioural changes in an insectivorous migratory songbird; the Eurasian reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. We use a feeding experiment to examine the effect of increased food supply on different components of breeding behaviour and first-brood productivity, over three breeding seasons (2012-2014). Reed warblers respond to food-supplementation by advancing their laying date by up to 5.6 days. Incubation periods are shorter in supplemented groups during the warmest mean spring temperatures. Nestling growth rates are increased in nests provisioned by supplemented parents. In addition, nest predation is reduced, possibly because supplemented adults spend more time at the nest and faster nestling growth reduces the period of vulnerability of eggs and nestlings to predators (and brood parasites). The net effect of these changes is to advance the fledging completion date and to increase the overall productivity of the first brood for supplemented birds. European populations of reed warblers are currently increasing; our results suggest that advancing spring phenology, leading to increased food availability early in the breeding season, could account for this change by facilitating higher productivity. Furthermore, the earlier brood completion potentially allows multiple breeding attempts. This study identifies the likely trophic and behavioural mechanisms by which climate-driven changes in invertebrate phenology and abundance may lead to changes in breeding phenology, nest survival and net reproductive

  14. Promising trend of in situ breeding of Oriental White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis in Raigad District, Maharashtra, India: conservation implications for re-introduction of ex situ populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pande

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The population of Gyps vultures crashed at an alarming rate in India, from 85% since 1985-86 to 0% in 1997-99. There are sporadic records of sightings, wild breeding and captive breeding of Gyps and Neophron Vultures from 2005 to 2010 from various parts of India. We noticed continued, uninterrupted successful nesting of Oriental White-rumped Vultures Gyps bengalensis in their natural habitats in Raigad District, Maharashtra from 2004 to 2011. Their breeding population steadily increased from 10 pairs in 2004-2005 to 22 pairs in 2010-2011 and the nesting success steadily increased from 30% in 2004-2005 to 70% in 2010-2011. We feel that the naturally breeding populations are a must for successful re-introduction of the juvenile captive-bred vultures in the wild, and both in situ and ex situ breeding of vultures should be coordinated till the vulture population increases to an acceptable level and stabilizes in the Indian subcontinent. Identification of natural active nest sites is the foremost requirement for safeguarding the breeding of the Oriental White-rumped Vultures in private land by winning peoples participation.

  15. Birding 2.0: Citizen Science and Effective Monitoring in the Web 2.0 World

    OpenAIRE

    Wiersma, Yolanda F.

    2010-01-01

    The amateur birding community has a long and proud tradition of contributing to bird surveys and bird atlases. Coordinated activities such as Breeding Bird Atlases and the Christmas Bird Count are examples of "citizen science" projects. With the advent of technology, Web 2.0 sites such as eBird have been developed to facilitate online sharing of data and thus increase the potential for real-time monitoring. However, as recently articulated in an editorial in this journal and elsewhe...

  16. Bird predation by tawny owls ( Strix aluco L.) and its effect on the reproductive performance of tits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasvári, Lajos; Hegyi, Zoltán

    1998-11-01

    The density of great tit Parus major L. and blue tit Parus caeruleus L. was artificially increased by placing nest-box colonies for these species in the vicinity of the nests of breeding tawny owls during 1993-1997. Bird prey composition in the owl nests, the proportion of parents disappearing from the breeding tit populations and the reproductive performance of the widowed parents were analysed. The frequency of predation on tits by tawny owls was greater in areas where tit density had been artificially increased. Owls preyed more on tits during the feeding period of owlets than during the incubation period and more in years when snow covered the ground during the incubation period than when it did not. Mortality due to predation was male biased and more females lost their mates in populations breeding near tawny owl nests. Reproductive performance of the widowed parents was lower and their body weights were lighter at the end of the nestling period than those found in birds rearing youngs with their mates. Predation by owls increased the between-year turnover in the breeding tit population: widowed parents did not return to the nesting site for the next breeding season.

  17. Persistence of accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values over generations in layer chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rohan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The predictive ability of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV originates both from associations between high-density markers and QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and from pedigree information. Thus, GEBV are expected to provide more persistent accuracy over successive generations than breeding values estimated using pedigree-based methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV in a closed population of layer chickens and to quantify their persistence over five successive generations using marker or pedigree information. Methods The training data consisted of 16 traits and 777 genotyped animals from two generations of a brown-egg layer breeding line, 295 of which had individual phenotype records, while others had phenotypes on 2,738 non-genotyped relatives, or similar data accumulated over up to five generations. Validation data included phenotyped and genotyped birds from five subsequent generations (on average 306 birds/generation. Birds were genotyped for 23,356 segregating SNP. Animal models using genomic or pedigree relationship matrices and Bayesian model averaging methods were used for training analyses. Accuracy was evaluated as the correlation between EBV and phenotype in validation divided by the square root of trait heritability. Results Pedigree relationships in outbred populations are reduced by 50% at each meiosis, therefore accuracy is expected to decrease by the square root of 0.5 every generation, as observed for pedigree-based EBV (Estimated Breeding Values. In contrast the GEBV accuracy was more persistent, although the drop in accuracy was substantial in the first generation. Traits that were considered to be influenced by fewer QTL and to have a higher heritability maintained a higher GEBV accuracy over generations. In conclusion, GEBV capture information beyond pedigree relationships, but retraining every generation is recommended for genomic selection in closed breeding

  18. Habitat size and bird community management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.H.; Robbins, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the results in the literature that show the effect of area of forest on nesting migratory bird species, and to present the results of additional field work that we have conducted in forest habitats in western Maryland. These results indicate the area sensitivity of many long distance migrants. Because 80 to 95 percent of the breeding birds in the northeastern deciduous forest are neotropical migrants, the changes in bird species composition as a result of forest fragmentation can be immense. Management strategies based on habitat size are suggested to assist in maintaining communities of nesting migratory birds.

  19. Mercury concentrations in fish-eating birds from the Pinchi Lake area in relation to productivity and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weech, S.A. [Minnow Environmental Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Scheuhammer, T.M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)]|[Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre

    2006-07-01

    A known bird breeding area along the Pinchi fault in central British Columbia is a source of geologic mercury (Hg) in the form of cinnabar. Lakes with a range of sediment Hg concentrations are also present. This study examined the extent to which inorganic Hg from local geologic sources is methylated and incorporated into the food chain of birds feeding on fishes. The possible toxic effects of natural and mining-related Hg releases on local piscivorous breeding bird populations were also studied. Bald eagles and red-necked grebes were monitored from 2000 to 2002 in an effort to determine if increased Hg concentrations were affecting reproductive success and productivity. Fish tissues were collected from rainbow trout and northern pike minnow to determine if Hg levels were elevated. Eagles breeding on 5 lakes were sampled for blood- and feather-Hg concentrations. Red-necked grebe eggs were also collected. All samples were analyzed for total Hg. It was shown that Hg does not appear to have any obvious adverse effects on reproduction. Concentrations of Hg in all grebe eggs were below 0.5 {mu}g.g wet weight, the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for Hg developmental toxicity in birds. Although the level of Hg in tissues of Pinchi Lake birds was elevated, the birds were in excellent condition and showed similar reproductive success and productivity to reference populations. This study showed that concurrent tissue sampling and population monitoring can provide a helpful way to prove or refute findings that may indicate a potential contaminant effect on local wildlife. 27 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. Bird guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Dana M.

    2010-03-02

    The bird guard provides a device to protect electrical insulators comprising a central shaft; a clamp attached to an end of the shaft to secure the device to a transmission tower; a top and bottom cover to shield transmission tower insulators; and bearings to allow the guard to rotate in order to frighten birds away from the insulators.

  1. Monitoring Forsmark-Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  2. Spatiotemporal Distributions of Migratory Birds: Patchy Models with Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Wu, Jianhong

    2010-01-01

    We derive and analyze a mathematical model for the spatiotemporal distribution of a migratory bird species. The birds have specific sites for breeding and winter feeding, and usually several stopover sites along the migration route, and therefore a patch model is the natural choice. However, we also model the journeys of the birds along the flyways, and this is achieved using a continuous space model of reaction-advection type. In this way proper account is taken of flight times and in-flight mortalities which may vary from sector to sector, and this information is featured in the ordinary differential equations for the populations on the patches through the values of the time delays and the model coefficients. The seasonality of the phenomenon is accommodated by having periodic migration and birth rates. The central result of the paper is a very general theorem on the threshold dynamics, obtained using recent results on discrete monotone dynamical systems, for birth functions which are subhomogeneous. For such functions, depending on the spectral radius of a certain operator, either there is a globally attracting periodic solution, or the bird population becomes extinct. Evaluation of the spectral radius is difficult, so we also present, for the particular case of just one stopover site on the migration route, a verifiable sufficient condition for extinction or survival in the form of an attractive periodic solution. This threshold is illustrated numerically using data from the U.S. Geological Survey on the bar-headed goose and its migration to India from its main breeding sites around Lake Qinghai and Mongolia.

  3. Every partridge counts, successful techniques used in the captive conservation breeding programme for wild grey partridge in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckley, K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1998 and 2001 the last remaining wild grey partridge (Perdix perdix population in Ireland faced imminent extinction with an estimated spring population of 4–6 pairs, and an autumn population of 22–24 birds. A captive breeding programme began in 2002 with two pairs of grey partridge. In the most successful year in 2010, 39 pairs produced a total of 510 chicks. Average chick survival rate was 65.13%. At 88.9 the highest chick survival rate was achieved in 2011. Chick survival of parent–reared birds in captivity is defined by the number of juveniles surviving at age six weeks: similar to estimations used for wild populations of grey partridge. Family coveys were released in late summer to early autumn. In most instances the entire family cohort was released as one unit. However, in coveys of twenty or above, an average of five parent–reared poults were held back as breeding stock for the following year. In early spring of the following year, birds held back were paired with single males or females trapped from the wild. The techniques we used were traditional and labour intensive but highly effective. We recommend that other grey partridge recovery projects should consider captive breeding using the methods employed in this programme to compliment other game management methods used.

  4. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mammals. However, it does not include poultry, chickens, turkeys, pigeons, geese, other birds, fish, frogs... as breeding cattle. It is the business practice of this particular taxpayer to breed the offspring...

  6. Breeding biology and feeding habits of seabirds of Sitkalidak Strait, 1977-1978: Annual report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Breeding chronology for all bird species was essentially the same for 1977 and 1978. The number of breeding kittiwakes, gulls and terns of both species declined in...

  7. Trends in the breeding population of Adelie penguins in the Ross Sea, 1981-2012: a coincidence of climate and resource extraction effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil O'B Lyver

    Full Text Available Measurements of the size of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae colonies of the southern Ross Sea are among the longest biologic time series in the Antarctic. We present an assessment of recent annual variation and trends in abundance and growth rates of these colonies, adding to the published record not updated for more than two decades. High angle oblique aerial photographic surveys of colonies were acquired and penguins counted for the breeding seasons 1981-2012. In the last four years the numbers of Adélie penguins in the Ross and Beaufort Island colonies (southern Ross Sea metapopulation reached their highest levels since aerial counts began in 1981. Results indicated that 855,625 pairs of Adélie penguins established breeding territories in the western Ross Sea, with just over a quarter (28% of those in the southern portion, constituting a semi-isolated metapopulation (three colonies on Ross Island, one on nearby Beaufort Island. The southern population had a negative per capita growth rate of -0.019 during 1981-2000, followed by a positive per capita growth rate of 0.067 for 2001-2012. Colony growth rates for this metapopulation showed striking synchrony through time, indicating that large-scale factors influenced their annual growth. In contrast to the increased colony sizes in the southern population, the patterns of change among colonies of the northern Ross Sea were difficult to characterize. Trends were similar to southern colonies until the mid-1990s, after which the signal was lost owing to significantly reduced frequency of surveys. Both climate factors and recovery of whale populations likely played roles in the trends among southern colonies until 2000, after which depletion of another trophic competitor, the Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni, may explain the sharp increasing trend evident since then.

  8. Populations of larvae of Anopheles spp. in natural breeding sites in Western Venezuela, an area of refractory malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Eliana

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been un dertaken into on the diversity and relative abundance of larvae of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus spp. in 22 permanent or temporary pools in an area of 70 km² in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuela Andes, between the mountains and the plains, an area in which malaria is refractory and A. nuñeztovari is present. Twelve species were identified, the most frequent, abundant and sympatric being A. triannulatus, A. albitarsis, A. nuñeztovari, A. oswaldoi and A. strodei. The samples from the permanent pools showed greater diversity of species and greater numbers of larvae than the samples from the temporary pools. The existence of the same larval associations in pools of other localities in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuelan Andes suggests the possibility of the making an ecological map of the breeding sites of A. nuñeztovari and for these anophelines in a region extending for 430 km.

  9. Populations of larvae of Anopheles spp. in natural breeding sites in Western Venezuela, an area of refractory malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rojas

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been un dertaken into on the diversity and relative abundance of larvae of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus spp. in 22 permanent or temporary pools in an area of 70 km² in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuela Andes, between the mountains and the plains, an area in which malaria is refractory and A. nuñeztovari is present. Twelve species were identified, the most frequent, abundant and sympatric being A. triannulatus, A. albitarsis, A. nuñeztovari, A. oswaldoi and A. strodei. The samples from the permanent pools showed greater diversity of species and greater numbers of larvae than the samples from the temporary pools. The existence of the same larval associations in pools of other localities in the eastern piedmont of the Venezuelan Andes suggests the possibility of the making an ecological map of the breeding sites of A. nuñeztovari and for these anophelines in a region extending for 430 km.

  10. Talking Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海文

    2005-01-01

    Many students of Englishthink thatlearning a new languageis very difficult.N ow think howdifficultitis to learn English whenyour brain is only the size of abird's brain。That is what som ebirds can do.M any different kinds of birdscan copy the sounds of lan-guage.A frican gray parrots are thebirds bestknown for this.Every D ecem ber in London,the N ationalCage and A viary BirdShow tries to find the best“talkbird in the world.O ne bird nam edPrudle stood outam ong the“talk-ing birds by winning this prizeevery...

  11. Preserving species populations in the boreal zone in a changing climate: contrasting trends of bird species groups in a protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimo Virkkala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A protected area network should ensure the maintenance of biodiversity. Because of climate change, species ranges are expected to move polewards, causing further demand for the protected area network to be efficient in preserving biota. We compared population changes of different bird species groups according to their habitat preferences in boreal protected areas in Finland on the basis of large-scale censuses carried out in 1981–1999 and in 2000–2009. Population densities of common forest habitat generalists remained the same between the two periods, while densities of species of conservation concern showed contrasting trends: species preferring old-growth forests increased, but those living in mires and wetlands, and species of Arctic mountains decreased. These trends are most probably connected with climate change, but successional changes in protected areas and regional habitat alteration should also be taken into account. Of species preferring old-growth forests, a larger proportion are southern than among species of mires and wetlands, or of Arctic mountains, most or all of which, respectively, had a northerly distribution. In general, northern species have decreased and southern increased with the exception of northern species of old-growth forests which had not declined. On the other hand, bird species of mires and wetlands decreased also in the northernmost protected areas although mires had not been drained in the region in contrast with southern and central Finland thus indicating that regional-scale direct habitat loss did not cause the decline of these species in the north. It is suggested that climate change effects on species in natural boreal and Arctic habitats most probably are habitat-specific with large differences in response times and susceptibility.

  12. Grazing intensity effects on the breeding avifauna of North Dakota native grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrud, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A breeding bird census and plant survey was conducted on 180 samples of lightly, moderately, and heavily grazed and hayed native grasslands in North Dakota in 1974. The ten most important cover plants on each of eight major physiographic landforms in three of the four regions (the Agassiz Lake Plain excluded) overlapped so extensively that only 19 species were involved: 13 grasses or sedges, four forbs, one shrub, and one clubmoss. Bird densities were generally highest in (i) regions and landforms containing numerous natural basin wetlands, (ii) flatter, glaciated landforms containing more fertile soils, and (iii) landforms of greater relief and high habitat heterogeneity. Avian species richness tended to decrease with increased grazing intensity, but total bird density increased due to higher populations of a few species, and hayland that had been mowed and raked during the previous growing season was highly attractive to some species.

  13. Limited population structure, genetic drift and bottlenecks characterise an endangered bird species in a dynamic, fire-prone ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Brown

    Full Text Available Fire is a major disturbance process in many ecosystems world-wide, resulting in spatially and temporally dynamic landscapes. For populations occupying such environments, fire-induced landscape change is likely to influence population processes, and genetic patterns and structure among populations. The Mallee Emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is an endangered passerine whose global distribution is confined to fire-prone, semi-arid mallee shrublands in south-eastern Australia. This species, with poor capacity for dispersal, has undergone a precipitous reduction in distribution and numbers in recent decades. We used genetic analyses of 11 length-variable, nuclear loci to examine population structure and processes within this species, across its global range. Populations of the Mallee Emu-wren exhibited a low to moderate level of genetic diversity, and evidence of bottlenecks and genetic drift. Bayesian clustering methods revealed weak genetic population structure across the species' range. The direct effects of large fires, together with associated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of suitable habitat, have the potential to cause population bottlenecks, serial local extinctions and subsequent recolonisation, all of which may interact to erode and homogenise genetic diversity in this species. Movement among temporally and spatially shifting habitat, appears to maintain long-term genetic connectivity. A plausible explanation for the observed genetic patterns is that, following extensive fires, recolonisation exceeds in-situ survival as the primary driver of population recovery in this species. These findings suggest that dynamic, fire-dominated landscapes can drive genetic homogenisation of populations of species with low-mobility and specialised habitat that otherwise would be expected to show strongly structured populations. Such effects must be considered when formulating management actions to conserve species in fire-prone systems.

  14. Important bird areas: South Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Andrew; Croxall, John P.; Poncet, Sally; Anthony R Martin; Burton, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The mountainous island of South Georgia, situated in the cold but productive waters of the Southern Ocean, is one of the world’s most important seabird islands. It is estimated that over 100 million individual seabirds are based there, and that there may have been an order of magnitude more before the introduction of rats. South Georgia has 29 species of breeding bird, and is the world’s most important breeding site for six species (Macaroni Penguin Eudyptes chrysolophus, Grey-headed Albatros...

  15. Genetic network and breeding patterns of a sicklefin lemon shark (Negaprion acutidens population in the Society Islands, French Polynesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Mourier

    Full Text Available Human pressures have put many top predator populations at risk of extinction. Recent years have seen alarming declines in sharks worldwide, while their resilience remains poorly understood. Studying the ecology of small populations of marine predators is a priority to better understand their ability to withstand anthropogenic and environmental stressors. In the present study, we monitored a naturally small island population of 40 adult sicklefin lemon sharks in Moorea, French Polynesia over 5 years. We reconstructed the genetic relationships among individuals and determined the population's mating system. The genetic network illustrates that all individuals, except one, are interconnected at least through one first order genetic relationship. While this species developed a clear inbreeding avoidance strategy involving dispersal and migration, the small population size, low number of breeders, and the fragmented environment characterizing these tropical islands, limits its complete effectiveness.

  16. Parameters in the estimation of the most suitable F2 population size in conventional maize (Zea mays L. breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delić Nenad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to observe differences among four sizes of the F2 populations (100, 200, 300 and 500 plants on the basis of test-crosses for grain yield according to the average values of the populations, genetic and phenotypic variances, genotypic and phenotypic coefficients of variations and broad-sense heritability. The values of genetic variance did not significantly differ over population sizes according to all possible comparisons, including the comparison of values obtained for the phenotypic variance. Furthermore, the values of broadsense heritability (67.8%-69% did not significantly vary over different F2 population sizes. Genetic variability of the observed progenies, as a principal prerequisite of successful selection, was at the satisfactory level in all population sizes.

  17. Seasonal Patterns in Hydrogen Isotopes of Claws from Breeding Wood-Warblers (Parulidae: Utility for Estimating Migratory Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Fraser

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in many species of migratory birds has focused attention on the extent of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering populations. Stable-hydrogen isotope (δD analysis of feathers is a useful technique for measuring connectivity, but is constrained by features of molt location and timing. Claws are metabolically inert, keratinous tissues that grow continuously and can be sampled at any point in the annual cycle, thus providing potentially useful clues about an individual's previous movements. However, variation in the rate at which claws incorporate local δD values is not well described. We measured δD values in claws of two species of Neotropical-Nearctic migrant wood-warblers (Golden-winged Warbler and Cerulean Warbler breeding in eastern Ontario, Canada to investigate the rate of δD change through the breeding season and the utility of claw δD values for estimating migratory origins. δD values of claw tips from 66 different individuals, each sampled once during the breeding season, showed an average change of -0.3‰ to -0.4‰ per day in the direction of the expected local Ontario value. There were no significant sex or species differences in the rate of change. These results suggest δD values of claw tips in Parulids may reflect those of the non-breeding area for 3–7 weeks after arrival on the breeding grounds, and are useful estimators of non-breeding migratory origin. Our results also suggest that these species may leave the breeding ground before claw tips fully incorporate a local δD signature, as claws sampled at the end of the breeding season did not match locally grown feather and claw δD values. This is the first study to examine the seasonal rate of the change in δD values of claws in long-distance, insectivorous, migratory birds.

  18. Estimating the mercury exposure dose in a population of migratory bird hunters in the St. Lawrence River region, Quebec, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Lawrence River hunters (Quebec, Canada) are exposed to the pollutants, especially mercury, that contaminate birds and fish. However, the health risks of this have remained unclear because of a lack of information about the hunters' duck, geese, and sportfish consumption habits. A nutritional survey was set up to characterize waterfowl and sportfish consumption in St. Lawrence River duck hunters and to estimate their daily exposure to mercury. During the winter of 2000, 512 hunters selected from the Canadian Wildlife Service database completed a self-administered questionnaire. Daily exposure to contaminants was measured using data from the Canadian Wildlife Service (waterfowl) and available data on St. Lawrence River sportfish. The annual average consumption was 7.5 meals of ducks and geese and 8.7 meals of sportfish. The daily exposure to mercury related to waterfowl consumption was below the Canadian tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 0.47 μg/kg body wt/day for all participants. The daily mercury intake associated with fish consumption was greater than the TDI in 2 duck hunters. The daily exposure to mercury was higher than the TDI in 4 participants when both waterfowl and fish consumption were combined. Our results suggest that fish consumption (especially freshwater fish) represents the main source of exposure to pollutants in duck hunters

  19. DNA Barcoding of Birds at a Migratory Hotspot in Eastern Turkey Highlights Continental Phylogeographic Relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Bilgin

    Full Text Available The combination of habitat loss, climate change, direct persecution, introduced species and other components of the global environmental crisis has resulted in a rapid loss of biodiversity, including species, population and genetic diversity. Birds, which inhabit a wide spectrum of different habitat types, are particularly sensitive to and indicative of environmental changes. The Caucasus endemic bird area, part of which covers northeastern Turkey, is one of the world's key regions harboring a unique bird community threatened with habitat loss. More than 75% of all bird species native to Turkey have been recorded in this region, in particular along the Kars-Iğdır migratory corridor, stopover, wintering and breeding sites along the Aras River, whose wetlands harbor at least 264 bird species. In this study, DNA barcoding technique was used for evaluating the genetic diversity of land bird species of Aras River Bird Paradise at the confluence of Aras River and Iğdır Plains key biodiversity areas. Seventy three COI sequences from 33 common species and 26 different genera were newly generated and used along with 301 sequences that were retrieved from the Barcoding of Life Database (BOLD. Using the sequences obtained in this study, we made global phylogeographic comparisons to define four categories of species, based on barcoding suitability, intraspecific divergence and taxonomy. Our findings indicate that the landbird community of northeastern Turkey has a genetical signature mostly typical of northern Palearctic bird communities while harboring some unique variations. The study also provides a good example of how DNA barcoding can build upon its primary mission of species identification and use available data to integrate genetic variation investigated at the local scale into a global framework. However, the rich bird community of the Aras River wetlands is highly threatened with the imminent construction of the Tuzluca Dam by the government.

  20. Threatened bird species; 1 : 1 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapacious birds are the most threatened animals of Slovakia. Selected species are significant indicators of the state of the environment. Red kite (Milvus milvus) is the critically endangered species and the last 15 - 20 pairs are breeding in Slovakia now. White-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicilla) nested in the basin of the Danube River until 1964. It was only after 34 years that two pairs of white-tailed eagle have successfully bred in the floodplain of the Danube River. Short-toed eagle (Circaettus gallicus), only 20-30 pairs are breeding in the eastern part of Slovakia. Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the species most threatened by theft of eggs for its use in falconry and in different holdings. Eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) - about 30 to 40 pairs is breeding now in Slovakia. Spreading of the bird species is processed based in the data provided by the Group for Protection of Rapacious Birds. (author)

  1. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations. PMID:27231647

  2. Count trends for migratory Bald Eagles reveal differences between two populations at a spring site along the Lake Ontario shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The recovery of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucophalus), after DDT and other organochlorine insecticides were banned in the United States, can be regarded as one of the most iconic success stories resulting from the Endangered Species Act. Interest remains high in the recovery and growth of the Bald Eagle population. Common to evaluating growth and recovery rates are counts at nesting sites and analyses of individuals fledged per season. But this is merely one snapshot that ignores survival rates as eagles grow to maturity. By analyzing indices from migration counts, we get a different snapshot better reflecting the survival of young birds. Different populations of Bald Eagles breed at different sites at different times of the year. Typical migration count analyses do not separate the populations. A separation of two distinct populations can be achieved at spring count sites by taking advantage of the tendency for northern summer breeding birds to migrate north in spring earlier than southern winter breeding birds who disperse north later in spring. In this paper I analyze migratory indices at a spring site along Lake Ontario. The analysis shows that eagles considered to be primarily of the northern summer breeding population showed an estimated growth rate of 5.3 ± 0.85% (SE) per year with 49% of eagles tallied in adult plumage, whereas the migrants considered to be primarily of the southern breeding population had an estimated growth rate of 14.0 ± 1.79% with only 22% in adult plumage. Together these results argue that the populations of southern breeding Bald Eagles are growing at a substantially higher rate than northern breeding eagles. These findings suggest that aggregate population indices for a species at migration counting sites can sometimes obscure important differences among separate populations at any given site and that separating counts by time period can be a useful way to check for differences among sub-populations. PMID:27231647

  3. Census techniques and methods for monitoring population trends and reproductive success of marine birds: A preliminary annotated bibliography draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This draft biography draws together 79 published and unpublished sources which are helpful in designing and conducting monitoring population trends and reproductive...

  4. Reproduction performances of a synthetic rabbit line and rabbits of of local populations in Algeria, in 2 breeding locations

    OpenAIRE

    Nacira Zerrouki; Francois Lebas; Malika Gacem; Ibtissem Meftah; Gérard Bolet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the production of a synthetic line (Syn) of rabbits to that of 2 local Algerian populations (W and Loc). The Syn line was obtained from the crossbreeding of a well adapted local population frequently used in Algerian familial farms (Loc) with a more productive French strain. The W population is maintained by a public cooperative and is used mainly in Kabylia region; it is called “white” because of its albino phenotype. Rabbits were placed under the same ex...

  5. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds

    OpenAIRE

    Farine, Damien R.; Firth, Josh A.; Aplin, Lucy M.; Crates, Ross A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R.; Milligan, Nicole D.; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals...

  6. MtDNA genetic diversity and population history of a dwindling raptorial bird, the red kite (Milvus milvus)

    OpenAIRE

    Roques, Séverine; Negro, Juan J.

    2005-01-01

    The red kite (Milvus milvus) occurs in a relatively small area in the southwestern Palearctic region, with population strongholds in Central Europe. Following strong human persecutions at the beginning of the 20th century, populations have receded, particularly in peripheral areas and islands. In order to describe and compare levels of genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns throughout its entire distribution in Europe, sequence variation of a 357 bps part of the mitochondrial...

  7. Assessing the regional impacts of increased energy maize cultivation on farmland birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karoline; Glemnitz, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The increasing cultivation of energy crops in Germany substantially affects the habitat function of agricultural landscapes. Precise ex ante evaluations regarding the impacts of this cultivation on farmland bird populations are rare. The objective of this paper was to implement a methodology to assess the regional impacts of increasing energy maize cultivation on the habitat quality of agricultural lands for farmland birds. We selected five farmland bird indicator species with varying habitat demands. Using a crop suitability modelling approach, we analysed the availability of potential habitat areas according to different land use scenarios for a real landscape in Northeast Germany. The model was based on crop architecture, cultivation period, and landscape preconditions. Our results showed that the habitat suitability of different crops varied between bird species, and scenario calculations revealed an increase and a decrease in the size of the potential breeding and feeding habitats, respectively. The effects observed in scenario 1 (increased energy maize by 15%) were not reproduced in all cases in scenario 2 (increased energy maize by 30%). Spatial aggregation of energy maize resulted in a negative effect for some species. Changes in the composition of the farmland bird communities, the negative effects on farmland bird species limited in distribution and spread and the relevance of the type of agricultural land use being replaced by energy crops are also discussed. In conclusion, we suggest a trade-off between biodiversity and energy targets by identifying biodiversity-friendly energy cropping systems. PMID:24323319

  8. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had production for the family (86.44%) or as pet or hobby birds (42.27%). The backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds. PMID:22856180

  9. Variation in the structure of bird nests between northern Manitoba and southeastern Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla A Crossman

    Full Text Available Traits that converge in appearance under similar environmental conditions among phylogenetically independent lineages are thought to represent adaptations to local environments. We tested for convergence in nest morphology and composition of birds breeding in two ecologically different locations in Canada: Churchill in northern Manitoba and Elgin in southeastern Ontario. We examined nests from four families of passerine birds (Turdidae: Turdus, Parulidae: Dendroica, Emberizidae: Passerculus and Fringillidae: Carduelis where closely related populations or species breed in both locations. Nests of American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches had heavier nest masses, and tended to have thicker nest-walls, in northern Manitoba compared with conspecifics or congenerics breeding in southeastern Ontario. Together, all species showed evidence for wider internal and external nest-cup diameters in northern Manitoba, while individual species showed varying patterns for internal nest-cup and external nest depths. American Robins, Yellow Warblers, and Carduelis finches in northern Manitoba achieved heavier nest masses in different ways. American Robins increased all materials in similar proportions, and Yellow Warblers and Common Redpolls used greater amounts of select materials. While changes in nest composition vary uniquely for each species, the pattern of larger nests in northern Manitoba compared to southeastern Ontario in three of our four phylogenetically-independent comparisons suggests that birds are adapting to similar selective pressures between locations.

  10. Drivers of climate change impacts on bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Higgins, James W; Eglington, Sarah M; Martay, Blaise; Chamberlain, Dan E

    2015-07-01

    Climate change is reported to have caused widespread changes to species' populations and ecological communities. Warming has been associated with population declines in long-distance migrants and habitat specialists, and increases in southerly distributed species. However, the specific climatic drivers behind these changes remain undescribed. We analysed annual fluctuations in the abundance of 59 breeding bird species in England over 45 years to test the effect of monthly temperature and precipitation means upon population trends. Strong positive correlations between population growth and both winter and breeding season temperature were identified for resident and short-distance migrants. Lagged correlations between population growth and summer temperature and precipitation identified for the first time a widespread negative impact of hot, dry summer weather. Resident populations appeared to increase following wet autumns. Populations of long-distance migrants were negatively affected by May temperature, consistent with a potential negative effect of phenological mismatch upon breeding success. There was evidence for some nonlinear relationships between monthly weather variables and population growth. Habitat specialists and cold-associated species showed consistently more negative effects of higher temperatures than habitat generalists and southerly distributed species associated with warm temperatures. Results suggest that previously reported changes in community composition represent the accumulated effects of spring and summer warming. Long-term population trends were more significantly correlated with species' sensitivity to temperature than precipitation, suggesting that warming has had a greater impact on population trends than changes in precipitation. Months where there had been the greatest warming were the most influential drivers of long-term change. There was also evidence that species with the greatest sensitivity to extremes of precipitation have

  11. Effects of point-source PCB contamination on breeding performance and post-fledging survival in the dipper Cinclus cinclus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, S J; Tyler, S J; Jüttner, I

    2000-12-01

    Despite widespread information on the incidence and biochemical effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in birds, field studies of effects on population processes are still scarce. This is particularly so in passerines. We therefore assessed breeding performance and post-fledging survival in dippers, Cinclus cinclus, breeding along the Afon Mule, a Welsh river where previous work indicated locally elevated PCB concentrations. We hypothesised that marked toxicological effects, including endocrine disruption, would be detectable as altered clutch-size, hatching success, nest success, brood-size, post-fledging survival or recruitment to the breeding population. Congener-specific analysis of PCBs in failed and deserted dipper eggs during 1990-93 revealed that geometric mean concentrations were four to 20 times higher along the Mule than elsewhere in Wales, UK. PCB signatures also varied highly significantly from other locations, with congeners 138, 153 and 180 dominant at the contaminated site, but 118 or 170 more frequent in eggs elsewhere. Subsequent analysis of surface runoff confirmed a small breaker's yard as a point source. Neither laying dates, clutch-sizes, brood-sizes, nest failure nor hatching failure along the contaminated Mule (n=46 breeding attempts and 218 eggs) differed significantly from dippers along adjacent reference rivers (n=82 breeding attempts and 315 eggs) or Welsh rivers as a whole (n=332 breeding attempts and 1534 eggs). Subsequent recaptures of breeding dippers ringed initially as nestlings were nearly identical between the Mule (7.7% of 182 nestlings), the reference set (7.5% of 323 nestlings) and all other Welsh rivers (7.3% of 2821 nestlings). These data illustrate the value of congener-specific analysis of bird's eggs in indicating local PCB sources. The data show also that PCBs can occur in dipper eggs at total concentrations of 0.49 (geometric mean)-1.29 (upper quartile) microg g(-1) wet mass without effects on breeding performance

  12. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  13. History and current status of Red-footed Falcon population size and conservation activities in Voivodina

    OpenAIRE

    Barna Krisztián

    2015-01-01

    The Red-footed Falcon population in Voivodina shows a considerable decrease on a large temporal scale, however due to recent conservation measures, it seems to be stable in the past six years. Here I present the history of population estimates and results of partial surveys that have been carried out since 1909. I also show the details and results of conservation efforts recently implemented in the region. Recovery records of individually colour ringed birds indicate that the population breed...

  14. Strong genetic structure among coral populations within a conservation priority region, the Bird's Head Seascape (Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig John Starger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are widely considered to be one of the best strategies available for protecting species diversity and ecosystem processes in marine environments. While data on connectivity and genetic structure of marine populations are critical to designing appropriately sized and spaced networks of MPAs, such data are rarely available. This study examines genetic structure in reef-building corals from Papua and West Papua, Indonesia, one of the most biodiverse and least disturbed coral reef regions in the world. We focused on two common reef-building corals, Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus 1758 and Seriatopora hystrix (family: Pocilloporidae, from three regions under different management regimes: Teluk Cenderawasih, Raja Ampat, and southwest Papua. Analyses of molecular variance, assignment tests, and genetical bandwidth mapping based on microsatellite variation revealed significant genetic structure in both species, although there were no clear regional filters to gene flow among regions. Overall, P. damicornis populations were less structured (FST = 0.139, p < 0.00001 than S. hystrix (FST = 0.357, p < 0.00001. Despite occurring in one of the most pristine marine habitats in Indonesia, populations of both species showed evidence of recent declines. Furthermore, exclusion of individual populations from connectivity analyses resulted in marked increases in self-recruitment. Maintaining connectivity within and among regions of Eastern Indonesia will require coral conservation on the local scales and regional networks of MPAs. 

  15. Carry-over effects of the social environment on future divorce probability in a wild bird population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Culina, Antica; Hinde, Camilla; Sheldon, B.C.

    2015-01-01

    Initial mate choice and re-mating strategies (infidelity and divorce) influence individual fitness. Both of these should be influenced by the social environment, which determines the number and availability of potential partners. While most studies looking at this relationship take a population-l

  16. Formação e estrutura populacional do eqüino Brasileiro de Hipismo Formation and population structure of the Brasileiro de Hipismo horse breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.G. Dias

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se dados do Stud Book Brasileiro do Cavalo de Hipismo, da Associação Brasileira de Criadores do Cavalo de Hipismo (ABCCH, correspondentes a julho de 1977 a setembro de 1998. O arquivo final continha 19.303 eqüinos, 11.508 da raça Brasileira de Hipismo (BH e 7.795 de raças formadoras. Distribuição de freqüência, medidas de tendência central e de dispersão por criador, proprietário, sexo, tipo de registro, estado do nascimento, raça formadora, cruzamento utilizado na formação e coeficiente de endogamia foram estabelecidas para os efetivos da raça BH. Foram também calculados número da geração de cada animal, intervalo de gerações (anos e tamanho efetivo da população (Ne. Vinte raças foram utilizadas na formação do BH, sendo as principais: BH (22,5%, animais sem genealogia conhecida (21,9%, PSI (15,0%, Hanoverana (8,1%, Westfalen (5,2%, Holsteiner (4,8% e Trakehner (4,1%. Registros foram feitos em 14 estados da Federação, 76% deles em São Paulo. Número máximo de gerações encontrado foi de 3,12 (um animal, 59,7% dos animais na geração base e 24,1% na geração 1,5. O intervalo médio de gerações foi de 9,9 anos, 10,4 para garanhões e 9,3 para éguas. O Ne foi de 253 animais e os coeficientes de endogamia observado e esperado foram próximos de zero.Data from Brasileiro de Hipismo Stud Book, collected by the breed Association (ABCCH, from July 1977 to September 1998 were analyzed. Final data set included 19,303 animals, 11,508 Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH and 7,795 of other foundation breeds. Data were analyzed for frequency, central tendency and range of variation according to owner, breeder, sex, type of registration, county and state of birth and foundation breeds. The frequency of crosses using foundation breeds and inbreeding coefficient according to year of birth and sex were estimated. Generation number for each animal, generation interval and effective population size (Ne were calculated. Among

  17. The relationship between sea surface temperature and population change of Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo breeding near Disko Bay, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, C.R.; Boertmann, David; Gremillet, D.;

    2011-01-01

    Arctic seas have warmed and sea ice has retreated. This has resulted in range contraction and population declines in some species, but it could potentially be a boon for others. Great Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo have a partially wettable plumage and seem poorly suited to foraging in Arctic wat...

  18. Breeding and moulting locations and migration patterns of the Atlantic population of Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri as determined from satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.; Bustnes, J.O.; Systad, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the spring, summer, autumn, and early winter distribution, migration routes, and timing of migration of the Atlantic population of Steller's eiders Polysticta stelleri. Satellite transmitters were implanted in 20 eiders captured in April 2001 at Vads??, Norway, and their locations were determined from 5 May 2001 to 6 February 2002. Regions where birds concentrated from spring until returning to wintering areas included coastal waters from western Finnmark, Norway, to the eastern Taymyr Peninsula, Russia. Novaya Zemlya, Russia, particularly the Mollera Bay region, was used extensively during spring staging, moult, and autumn staging; regions of the Kola, Kanin, and Gydanskiy peninsulas, Russia, were used extensively during spring and moult migrations. Steller's eiders migrated across the Barents and Kara seas and along the Kara Sea and Kola Peninsula coastal waters to nesting, moulting, and wintering areas. The majority of marked eiders (9 of 15) were flightless in near-shore waters along the west side of Novaya Zemlya. Eiders were also flightless in northern Norway and along the Kanin and at Kola Peninsula coasts. We compare and contrast natural history characteristics of the Atlantic and Pacific populations and discuss evolutionary and ecological factors influencing their distribution. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  19. Short communication: Improving accuracy of predicting breeding values in Brazilian Holstein population by adding data from Nordic and French Holstein populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Lund, M S; Zhang, Q; Costa, C N; Ducrocq, V; Su, G

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the improvement of prediction reliabilities for 3 production traits in Brazilian Holsteins that had no genotype information by adding information from Nordic and French Holstein bulls that had genotypes. The estimated across-country genetic correlations (ranging from 0.604 to 0.726) indicated that an important genotype by environment interaction exists between Brazilian and Nordic (or Nordic and French) populations. Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian genotyped bulls were greatly increased by including data of Nordic and French bulls, and a 2-trait single-step genomic BLUP performed much better than the corresponding pedigree-based BLUP. However, only a minor improvement in prediction reliabilities was observed in nongenotyped Brazilian cows. The results indicate that although there is a large genotype by environment interaction, inclusion of a foreign reference population can improve accuracy of genetic evaluation for the Brazilian Holstein population. However, a Brazilian reference population is necessary to obtain a more accurate genomic evaluation. PMID:27040784

  20. Climate change leads to decreasing bird migration distances

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Marcel E; Perdeck, Albert C.; Van Balen, Johan H; Both, Christiaan

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change has led to warmer winters in NW Europe, shortening the distance between suitable overwintering areas and the breeding areas of many bird species. Here we show that winter recovery distances have decreased over the past seven decades, for birds ringed during the breeding season in the Netherlands between 1932 and 2004. Of the 24 species included in the analysis, we found in 12 a significant decrease of the distance to the wintering site. Species from dry, open areas short...

  1. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  2. Partitioning the sources of demographic variation reveals density-dependent nest predation in an island bird population

    OpenAIRE

    Sofaer, Helen R; Sillett, T Scott; Langin, Kathryn M.; Morrison, Scott A.; CAMERON K. GHALAMBOR

    2014-01-01

    Ecological factors often shape demography through multiple mechanisms, making it difficult to identify the sources of demographic variation. In particular, conspecific density can influence both the strength of competition and the predation rate, but density-dependent competition has received more attention, particularly among terrestrial vertebrates and in island populations. A better understanding of how both competition and predation contribute to density-dependent variation in fecundity c...

  3. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations: a case study from automated tracking of wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farine, Damien R; Firth, Josh A; Aplin, Lucy M; Crates, Ross A; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J; Hinde, Camilla A; Kidd, Lindall R; Milligan, Nicole D; Psorakis, Ioannis; Radersma, Reinder; Verhelst, Brecht; Voelkl, Bernhard; Sheldon, Ben C

    2015-04-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a framework using null models to identify the social and spatial patterns that contribute to phenotypic structure in a wild population of songbirds. We used automated technologies to track 1053 individuals that formed 73 737 groups from which we inferred a social network. Our framework identified that both social and spatial drivers contributed to assortment in the network. In particular, groups had a more even sex ratio than expected and exhibited a consistent age structure that suggested local association preferences, such as preferential attachment or avoidance. By contrast, recent immigrants were spatially partitioned from locally born individuals, suggesting differential dispersal strategies by phenotype. Our results highlight how different scales of social decision-making, ranging from post-natal dispersal settlement to fission-fusion dynamics, can interact to drive phenotypic structure in animal populations. PMID:26064644

  4. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne C. Shelton; William F. Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recur...

  5. Recurrent Selection and Participatory Plant Breeding for Improvement of Two Organic Open-Pollinated Sweet Corn ( Zea mays L.) Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Adrienne C. Shelton; William F. Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recur...

  6. ATTEMPTS FOR OPTIMIZATION THE GENETIC IMPROVEMENT ACTIONS IN HORSE POPULATIONS OF NONIUS VARIETY AND ARDENNES BREED FROM THE IZVIN STUD, TIMIŞ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. DRONCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches were carried out on horse populations of Nonius variety and Ardennes breedfrom Izvin Stud, farm that belongs to the Forestry Direction Timiş. In Romania, Noniusvariety built up at the Mezohegyes Stud in Hungary was imported at Bonţida and Ruşeţu inyear 1920. In year 1940, the two types of Nonius were blended and were raised together atthe Parţa Stud, called later Pădureni Stud. There stayed until year 1967 when the horsepopulation was moved to the Izvin Stud, where is raised together with the Ardennes horseimported from Hungary as well. The aim of the present study was to attempt to optimize thegenetic improvement actions of the horse population from Nonius variety and Ardennesbreed raised at the Izvin Stud. For Nonius variety the main genetic improvement objectiveswere set up as being the improvement of the reproduction traits, correction of the gait inhorses, increasing the energetic capacity, temperament and nervous impulse, as well asother conformation traits. For the Ardennes breed the main genetic improvement objectiveswere considered to be the increase of the constitutional strength, correction of the gait andimprovement of the reproduction indices. The study was ended with a number ofconclusions and recommendations.

  7. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  8. Reproduction performances of a synthetic rabbit line and rabbits of of local populations in Algeria, in 2 breeding locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Zerrouki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the production of a synthetic line (Syn of rabbits to that of 2 local Algerian populations (W and Loc. The Syn line was obtained from the crossbreeding of a well adapted local population frequently used in Algerian familial farms (Loc with a more productive French strain. The W population is maintained by a public cooperative and is used mainly in Kabylia region; it is called “white” because of its albino phenotype. Rabbits were placed under the same experimental conditions in 2 rabbitries of a state technical institute. In Baba Ali (Algiers, 50 does of each genotype were raised during 2 yr. In Lamtar (Sidi Bel Abbes, 30 does of the Syn line and 30 of Loc population were compared during 16 mo of production. Natural mating was used 10-11 d after parturition. Kits were weaned at 33-35 d. Litter size and litter weights were measured at birth and weaning. In both locations Syn dams were heavier than those of the other genotypes: (3616, 3464 and 3305 g for Syn, W and Loc in Baba Ali, and 3592 and 3173 for Syn and Loc in Lamtar; P<0.001. The observed litter sizes showed a superiority (P<0.001 of the Syn line compared to W and Loc does at birth time (8.76, 6.78 and 6.19 for Syn, W and Loc in Baba Ali, and 8.02 and 5.90 for Syn and Loc in Lamtar and at weaning (6.85, 5.83 and 5.44 for Syn, W and Loc in Baba Ali, and 6.61 and 5.15 for Syn and Loc in Lamtar; P<0.001. Most probably as a consequence of the important difference in litter sizes, average individual weight at weaning was weaker for the synthetic line than for the Loc population: 543 vs. 563 g in Baba Ali and 561 vs. 621 g in Lamtar. For the W population in Baba Ali, the weaning weight was similar to that of the Loc population: 565 vs. 563 g. There were no genotype×season interactions which changed the genotypes ranking, and the Syn line performances were more regular from one season to the other than those of the 2 other genotypes

  9. Western Alaska ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  10. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  11. Evaluating release alternatives for a long-lived bird species under uncertainty about long-term demographic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Converse, Sarah J.; Folk, Martin J.; Runge, Michael C.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The release of animals to reestablish an extirpated population is a decision problem that is often attended by considerable uncertainty about the probability of success. Annual releases of captive-reared juvenile Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) were begun in 1993 in central Florida, USA, to establish a breeding, non-migratory population. Over a 12-year period, 286 birds were released, but by 2004, the introduced flock had produced only four wild-fledged birds. Consequently, releases were halted over managers' concerns about the performance of the released flock and uncertainty about the efficacy of further releases. We used data on marked, released birds to develop predictive models for addressing whether releases should be resumed, and if so, under what schedule. To examine the outcome of different release scenarios, we simulated the survival and productivity of individual female birds under a baseline model that recognized age and breeding-class structure and which incorporated empirically estimated stochastic elements. As data on wild-fledged birds from captive-reared parents were sparse, a key uncertainty that confronts release decision-making is whether captive-reared birds and their offspring share the same vital rates. Therefore, we used data on the only population of wild Whooping Cranes in existence to construct two alternatives to the baseline model. The probability of population persistence was highly sensitive to the choice of these three models. Under the baseline model, extirpation of the population was nearly certain under any scenario of resumed releases. In contrast, the model based on estimates from wild birds projected a high probability of persistence under any release scenario, including cessation of releases. Therefore, belief in either of these models suggests that further releases are an ineffective use of resources. In the third model, which simulated a population Allee effect, population persistence was sensitive to the release decision

  12. Systematic temporal patterns in the relationship between housing development and forest bird biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Radeloff, Volker C; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Wood, Eric M; Stewart, Susan I; Hammer, Roger B

    2014-10-01

    As people encroach increasingly on natural areas, one question is how this affects avian biodiversity. The answer to this is partly scale-dependent. At broad scales, human populations and biodiversity concentrate in the same areas and are positively associated, but at local scales people and biodiversity are negatively associated with biodiversity. We investigated whether there is also a systematic temporal trend in the relationship between bird biodiversity and housing development. We used linear regression to examine associations between forest bird species richness and housing growth in the conterminous United States over 30 years. Our data sources were the North American Breeding Bird Survey and the 2000 decennial U.S. Census. In the 9 largest forested ecoregions, housing density increased continually over time. Across the conterminous United States, the association between bird species richness and housing density was positive for virtually all guilds except ground nesting birds. We found a systematic trajectory of declining bird species richness as housing increased through time. In more recently developed ecoregions, where housing density was still low, the association with bird species richness was neutral or positive. In ecoregions that were developed earlier and where housing density was highest, the association of housing density with bird species richness for most guilds was negative and grew stronger with advancing decades. We propose that in general the relationship between human settlement and biodiversity over time unfolds as a 2-phase process. The first phase is apparently innocuous; associations are positive due to coincidence of low-density housing with high biodiversity. The second phase is highly detrimental to biodiversity, and increases in housing density are associated with biodiversity losses. The long-term effect on biodiversity depends on the final housing density. This general pattern can help unify our understanding of the relationship

  13. Grassland bird responses to land management in the largest remaining tallgrass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmig, Corina J; Jensen, William E; With, Kimberly A

    2009-04-01

    Extensive habitat loss and changing agricultural practices have caused widespread declines in grassland birds throughout North America. The Flint Hills of Kansas and Oklahoma--the largest remaining tallgrass prairie--is important for grassland bird conservation despite supporting a major cattle industry. In 2004 and 2005, we assessed the community, population, and demographic responses of grassland birds to the predominant management practices (grazing, burning, and haying) of the region, including grasslands restored under the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). We targeted 3 species at the core of this avian community: the Dickcissel (Spiza americana), Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), and Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna). Bird diversity was higher in native prairie hayfields and grazed pastures than CRP fields, which were dominated by Dickcissels. Although Dickcissel density was highest in CRP, their nest success was highest and nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Moluthrus ater) lowest in unburned hayfields (in 2004). Conversely, Grasshopper Sparrow density was highest in grazed pastures, but their nest success was lowest in these pastures and highest in burned hayfields, where cowbird parasitism was also lowest (in 2004). Management did not influence density and nest survival of Eastern Meadowlarks, which were uniformly low across the region. Nest success was extremely low (5-12%) for all 3 species in 2005, perhaps because of a record spring drought. Although the CRP has benefited grassland birds in agricultural landscapes, these areas may have lower habitat value in the context of native prairie. Hayfields may provide beneficial habitat for some grassland birds in the Flint Hills because they are mowed later in the breeding season than elsewhere in the Midwest. Widespread grazing and annual burning have homogenized habitat-and thus grassland-bird responses-across the Flint Hills. Diversification of management practices could increase

  14. Genetic diversity and structure of livestock breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    This thesis addresses the genetic characterisation of livestock breeds, a key aspect of the long-term future breed preservation and, thus, of primary interest for animal breeders and management in the industry. First, the genetic diversity and structure of breeds were investigated. The application of individual-based population genetic approaches at characterising genetic structure was assessed using the British pig breeds. All approaches, except for Principle Component Anal...

  15. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  16. Inheritance patterns and identification of microsatellite markers linked to the rice blast resistance in BC2F1 population of rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gous Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The BC2F1 population was derived from a cross between rice variety, MR219 (susceptible to blast and Pongsu Seribu 1 (resistant to blast. The objectives of this research were to know the inheritance pattern of blast resistance and to identify the linked markers associated with blast resistance in BC2F1 population. Sixteen microsatellite markers were found as polymorphic between the parents related to blast resistant genes (Pi-genes. Among the selected blast resistant linked markers, two markers RM6836 and RM8225 showed expected testcross ratio (1:1 for single-gene model in the BC2F1 population with the association between resistant and susceptible progeny. A total of 333-BC2F1 plants were challenged with the most virulent pathotype P7.2 of Magnaporthe oryzae. Chi-square (χ2 analysis for phenotypic segregation in single-gene model showed goodness of fit (P = 0.4463 to the expected segregation ratio (1:1. In marker segregation analysis, two polymorphic markers (RM6836 and RM8225 clearly showed goodness of fit to the expected segregation testcross ratio (1:1 for the single-gene model. The marker RM8225 and RM6836 showed significant R2 values higher than 10 for the trait of the blast lesions degree (BLD. The positions of RM6836 and RM8225 markers on rice chromosome 6 and the distance between these two markers is 0.2 cM. We conclude that single dominant gene control the blast resistance in Pongsu Seribu 1 located on chromosome 6, which is linked to RM8225 and RM6836 microsatellite markers. This information could be useful in marker-assisted selection for blast resistance in rice breeding involving Pongsu Seribu 1.

  17. Repeatability of nest morphology in African weaver birds

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Patrick T.; Hansell, Mike; Borello, Wendy D.; Healy, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that birds build nests according to a genetic 'template', little influenced by learning or memory. One way to confirm the role of genetics in nest building is to assess the repeatability of nest morphology with repeated nest attempts. Solitary weaver birds, which build multiple nests in a single breeding season, are a useful group with which to do this. Here we show that repeatability of nest morphology was low, but significant, in male Southern Masked weaver birds and...

  18. Repeatability of nest morphology in African weaver birds

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Patrick T.; Hansell, Mike; Borello, Wendy D.; Healy, Susan D.

    2009-01-01

    It is generally assumed that birds build nests according to a genetic 'template', little influenced by learning or memory. One way to confirm the role of genetics in nest building is to assess the repeatability of nest morphology with repeated nest attempts. Solitary weaver birds, which build multiple nests in a single breeding season, are a useful group with which to do this. Here we show that repeatability of nest morphology was low, but significant, in male Southern Masked weaver birds and...

  19. Effects of demolition and beach clean-up operations on birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    1988-07-01

    Coastal lands are increasingly exposed to disturbances from demolition, beach clean-up, and construction for development. Although data exist concerning the effects of investigators on breeding populations, little information is available for migrant populations. I investigated the effects of demolition and beach clean-up on resident and migrant birds on a coastal mudflat in New Jersey. A year's censusing before work initiation was used to determine when demolition and clean-up would affect the least number of birds. Work activity on and along the beach was from 15 October to 15 November 1985. The overall population size was lower in 1985 compared to the same period in 1984, although the drop in numbers was not due solely to human disturbance. Human work activity influenced avian distribution along the mudflat: birds moved farther along the beach and out onto the mudflat when activity began, and moved back onto the mudflat when activity ceased. For gulls, foraging efficiency was lowered when work began and did not return to previous levels until 60-90 min after work began. Gulls that moved farther out on the mudflat had significantly lower foraging efficiencies than did those that remained close to the beach. Efforts to mitigate the adverse effects on birds by restricting human activity to a 100 m stretch of beach at any one time succeeded in significantly reducing adverse effects and in allowing birds some space to rest and feed.

  20. Birds and wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Rowena

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Climate change, perhaps more accurately described as climate disruption, is considered to be a major long-term threat to biodiversity, with a high probability that the underlying cause is due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy is an important component of a programme of measures to combat further climate change, to include improved energy efficiency and demand management. Wind energy is the most advanced renewable energy source and is a global industry onshore and, increasingly, offshore. However, as with any form of energy generation, wind energy also has potential environmental costs which have to be balanced against benefits. The environmental impacts on birds derive from the following: collision risk, in particular from the moving rotor blades; displacement arising from disturbance during construction, operation or decommissioning; habitat loss or change leading to alteration of food availability; barrier effects leading to deviation of long distance migratory flights or disruption of local flights between feeding, nesting, and roosting/loafing locations. Not all species of birds, or individuals within a species, are equally susceptible to negative interactions with wind turbines, and neither are the population consequences of impacts equivalent. Of greatest concern are bird species of conservation concern that exhibit behaviours that place them at risk of an adverse impact, notably when that impact leads to a reduction in population size that is unlikely to be compensated for. In particular, cumulative impacts arising from multiple wind farms or wind farms in combination with other developments are of concern. There has been a welcome increase in research effort and peer-reviewed publications on the subject of birds and wind energy in recent years. Increasing our understanding of impacts is essential to delivering possible solutions and this paper reviews current knowledge for birds. (Author)