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Sample records for breeding approach based

  1. Reverse breeding: a novel breeding approach based on engineered meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, R.; Dun, van K.P.M.; Snoo, de B.; Berg, van den M.; Lelivelt, C.L.C.; Voermans, W.; Woudenberg, L.; Wit, de J.P.C.; Reinink, K.; Schut, J.W.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Wijnker, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Reverse breeding (RB) is a novel plant breeding technique designed to directly produce parental lines for any heterozygous plant, one of the most sought after goals in plant breeding. RB generates perfectly complementing homozygous parental lines through engineered meiosis. The method is based on re

  2. Domestic dogs and cancer research: a breed-based genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian W; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2014-01-01

    Domestic dogs are unique from other animal models of cancer in that they generally experience spontaneous disease. In addition, most types of cancer observed in humans are found in dogs, suggesting that canines may be an informative system for the study of cancer genetics. Domestic dogs are divided into over 175 breeds, with members of each breed sharing significant phenotypes. The breed barrier enhances the utility of the model, especially for genetic studies where small numbers of genes are hypothesized to account for the breed cancer susceptibility. These facts, combined with recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies allows for an unrivaled ability to use pet dog populations to find often subtle mutations that promote cancer susceptibility and progression in dogs as a whole. The meticulous record keeping associated with dog breeding makes the model still more powerful, as it facilitates both association analysis and family-based linkage studies. Key to the success of these studies is their cooperative nature, with owners, scientists, veterinarians and breed clubs working together to avoid the cost and unpopularity of developing captive populations. In this article we explore these principals and advocate for colony-free, genetic studies that will enhance our ability to diagnose and treat cancer in dogs and humans alike.

  3. Germplasm and breeding research of tea plant based on DNA marker approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage worldwide.Tea production contributes greatly to the economy and the job opportunities for many countries in Asia and Africa.Meanwhile,the germplasm of tea,with a huge potential for the future of the whole tea industry,is presently one of the most valuable and fundamental materials for tea breeding and tea biotechnology.DNA molecular markers have been proven to be robust and valuable approaches in the studies of genetic diversity and variation,molecular identification,molecular phylogenetics,genetic stability and integrity of tea germplasm,and the genetic linkage map for breeding of tea.In this paper,a brief prospect on the molecular marker studies of tea has been summarized.The purpose is to provide an effective way for undertaking a massive tea germplasm appraisal and evaluation,to develop new applicable and cheap DNA markers,to establish a high density genetic linkage map and analyze the agronomically important QTLs,and finally,to facilitate the marker assisted early selection and shorten breeding procedures in tea.

  4. Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Bannasch

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.

  5. Biotechnological approach in crop improvement by mutation breeding in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeranto, H.; Sobrizal; Sutarto, Ismiyati; Manurung, Simon; Mastrizal [National Nuclear Energy Agency, Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2002-02-01

    Mutation breeding has become a proven method of improving crop varieties. Most research on plant mutation breeding in Indonesia is carried out at the Center for Research and Development of Isotope and Radiation Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). Nowadays, a biotechnological approach has been incorporated in some mutation breeding researches in order to improve crop cultivars. This approach is simply based on cellular totipotency, or the ability to regenerate whole, flowering plants from isolated organs, pieces of tissue, individual cells, and protoplasts. Tissue culture technique has bee extensively used for micro propagation of disease-free plants. Other usage of this technique involves in various steps of the breeding process such as germplasm preservation, clonal propagation, and distant hybridization. Mutation breeding combined with tissue culture technique has made a significant contribution in inducing plant genetic variation, by improving selection technology, and by accelerating breeding time as for that by using anther or pollen culture. In Indonesia, research on mutation breeding combined with tissue culture techniques has been practiced in different crop species including rice, ginger, banana, sorghum etc. Specially in rice, a research on identification of DNA markers linked to blast disease resistance is now still progressing. A compiled report from some research activities is presented in this paper. (author)

  6. Pedigree genotyping: a new pedigree-based approach of QTL identification and allele mining by exploiting breeding material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.; Voorrips, R.E.; Finkers, H.J.; Kodde, L.P.; Meulenbroek, E.J.; Jansen, J.; Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To date, molecular markers have been made available for many economically important traits. Unfortunately, lack of knowledge of their allelic variation hampers their full exploitation in commercial breeding programs. These markers have usually been identified in one single cross. Consequently, only

  7. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  8. Community-based livestock breeding programmes: essentials and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J P; Rischkowsky, B; Haile, A; Philipsson, J; Mwai, O; Besbes, B; Valle Zárate, A; Tibbo, M; Mirkena, T; Duguma, G; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2015-04-01

    Breeding programmes described as community-based (CBBP) typically relate to low-input systems with farmers having a common interest to improve and share their genetic resources. CBBPs are more frequent with keepers of small ruminants, in particular smallholders of local breeds, than with cattle, pigs or chickens with which farmers may have easier access to alternative programmes. Constraints that limit the adoption of conventional breeding technologies in low-input systems cover a range of organizational and technical aspects. The analysis of 8 CBBPs located in countries of Latin-America, Africa and Asia highlights the importance of bottom-up approaches and involvement of local institutions in the planning and implementation stages. The analysis also reveals a high dependence of these programmes on organizational, technical and financial support. Completely self-sustained CBBPs seem to be difficult to realize. There is a need to implement and document formal socio-economic evaluations of CBBPs to provide governments and other development agencies with the information necessary for creating sustainable CBBPs at larger scales.

  9. Genomics, Physiology, and Molecular Breeding Approaches for Improving Salt Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Horie, Tomoaki

    2017-02-22

    Salt stress reduces land and water productivity and contributes to poverty and food insecurity. Increased salinization caused by human practices and climate change is progressively reducing agriculture productivity despite escalating calls for more food. Plant responses to salt stress are fairly well understood, involving numerous critical processes that are each controlled by multiple genes. Knowledge of the critical mechanisms controlling salt uptake and exclusion from functioning tissues, signaling of salt stress, and the arsenal of protective metabolites is advancing. However, little progress has been made in developing salt-tolerant varieties of crop species using standard (but slow) breeding approaches. The genetic diversity available within cultivated crops and their wild relatives provides rich sources for trait and gene discovery that has yet to be sufficiently utilized. Transforming this knowledge into modern approaches using genomics and molecular tools for precision breeding will accelerate the development of tolerant cultivars and help sustain food production. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 68 is April 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  10. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    , the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...... no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however...

  11. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Lassen, J.; Haas, de Y.

    2015-01-01

    The expanding world human population will require greater food production within the constraints of increasing societal pressure to minimize the resulting impact on the environment. Breeding goals in the past have achieved substantial gains in environmental load per unit product produced, despite no

  12. Analysis on potential approaches to utilize genic male sterility in plant hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xinqi; Yuan Longping; Xiao Jinhua; Xie fangming

    2005-01-01

    @@ The exploitation of plant heterosis is an effective approach to increasing the food production. The heterotic hybrid varieties in major crops such as rice,cotton, and wheat can show more than 20% yield advantage over best conventional ones under the same cultivation conditions. The difficulties in breeding elite male sterile lines and the inconveniences for commercial hybrid seed production are hampering the development of hybrid crops breeding.

  13. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeuwijk, Fred A; Boer, Martin; Totir, L Radu; Bink, Marco; Wright, Deanne; Winkler, Christopher R; Podlich, Dean; Boldman, Keith; Baumgarten, Andy; Smalley, Matt; Arbelbide, Martin; ter Braak, Cajo J F; Cooper, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed by Parisseaux and Bernardo (2004) as a starting point. The original single-point approach is extended to a multi-point approach that facilitates interval mapping procedures. For computational and conceptual reasons, we partition the full set of relationships from founders to parents of hybrids into two types of relations by defining so-called intermediate founders. QTL effects are defined in terms of those intermediate founders. Marker based identity by descent relationships between intermediate founders define structuring matrices for the QTL effects that change along the genome. The dimension of the vector of QTL effects is reduced by the fact that there are fewer intermediate founders than parents. Furthermore, additional reduction in the number of QTL effects follows from the identification of founder groups by various algorithms. As a result, we obtain a powerful mixed model based statistical framework to identify QTLs in genetic backgrounds relevant to the elite germplasm of a commercial breeding program. The identification of such QTLs will provide the foundation for effective marker assisted and genome wide selection strategies. Analyses of an example data set show that QTLs are primarily identified in different heterotic groups and point to complementation of additive QTL effects as an important factor in hybrid performance.

  14. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  15. Identification of smallholder farmers and pastoralists' preferences for sheep breeding traits: choice model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, G; Mirkena, T; Haile, A; Okeyo, A M; Tibbo, M; Rischkowsky, B; Sölkner, J; Wurzinger, M

    2011-12-01

    homogeneous preferences were investigated. In the pastoral production system, attention was given to coat color of both breeding rams and ewes, favoring brown and white colors over black. Ram libido influenced producers' decisions in Bonga, Horro and Menz areas. The influence of milk yield and twinning on respondents' decision making was high in Afar and Horro, respectively. Breeders in all areas attempt to combine production and reproduction traits as well as they can in order to maximize benefits from their sheep. The elicited measurable objective traits were used to design alternative community-based sheep breeding plans for the four indigenous sheep breeds in their production environments that have been implemented since.

  16. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  17. Conservation priorities for Ethiopian sheep breeds combining threat status, breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windig Jack J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prioritizing livestock breeds for conservation needs to incorporate both genetic and non-genetic aspects important for the survival of the breeds. Here, we apply a maximum-utility-strategy to prioritize 14 traditional Ethiopian sheep breeds based on their threat status, contributions to farmer livelihoods (current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity. Contributions of the breeds to genetic diversity were quantified using Eding's marker-estimated kinship approaches. Non-genetic aspects included threats (e.g. low population size, low preferences by farmers and current merits (economic, ecological and cultural merits. Threat analysis identified eight of the 14 breeds as threatened. Analysis of current merits showed that sub-alpine and arid-lowland breeds contribute most to farmer livelihoods in comparison to other breeds. The highest contribution to the genetic diversity conserved was from the Simien breed. Simien showed high between-breed (low between-breed kinship = 0.04 as well as high within-breed diversity (low within-breed kinship = 0.09 and high HE = 0.73 and allelic richness = 6.83. We combined the results on threat status, current breed merits and contributions to genetic diversity to produce a ranking of the 14 breeds for conservation purposes. Our results balance the trade-offs between conserving breeds as insurance against future uncertainties and current sustainable utilization. The ranking of breeds provides a basis for conservation strategies for Ethiopian sheep and contributes to a regional or global conservation plan.

  18. The differentiation of camel breeds based on meat measurements using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions.

  19. Integrated control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs using a bioactive feed × breed approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, S; Isensee, A; Maurer, V; Perler, E; Drewek, A; Heckendorn, F

    2013-12-06

    Forages rich in condensed tannins have repeatedly shown potential to reduce gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep. Similarly, several breeds of sheep have shown a relative resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). We hypothesised that additive or even synergic effects may arise from the combination of a relatively resistant breed and a diet rich in condensed tannins. In study I, 160 lambs of the native Red Engadine Sheep (RES) and 113 lambs of the Swiss White Alpine sheep (SWA) were artificially infected with GIN and subsequently grazed for 52 days. The lambs were then distributed to 2 groups for a 14-day experimental feeding period. One group received a diet with a proportion of 55% sainfoin and was compared to a control group on the basis of faecal egg counts (FEC). In study II, 25 RES and 27 SWA lambs grazed infectious pastures for 37 days and were subsequently fed for 13 consecutive days with approximately 100% sainfoin or control forage. In addition to the FEC determination at the start and the end of the experimental feeding, the 52 lambs in study II were slaughtered and necropsied to determine their worm burden. FEC at the end of the feeding period were significantly lower in sainfoin fed lambs compared to controls in study I (pnematode genera found in the sacrificed lambs of study II were Haemonchus spp., Teladorsagia spp., Nematodirus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Overall, RES had a significantly lower Haemonchus spp. (p=0.035) and Trichostrongylus spp. (p=0.003) worm burden compared to SWA. Regardless of breed, sainfoin feeding significantly reduced Teladorsagia spp. (p=0.049) and Nematodirus spp. (p<0.001) worm burden. Although, we could not demonstrate additive or synergic effects when using an integrated breed × sainfoin approach, the finding that a proportion of only 55% sainfoin in the diet led to a lower FEC compared to controls is important with respect to the implementation on producing farms.

  20. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alice Kujur; Maneesha S Saxena; Deepak Bajaj; Laxmi; Swarup K Parida

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world’s food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of high-yielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern –omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  1. DNA Microarray as Part of a Genomic-Assisted Breeding Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Bowra, Steve

    2010-01-01

    . tissue/pathway specific approaches using an example of focused microarray and how it follows predicted changes during grain development. We describe of an extension of the study to field grown material and conclude that such an approach is able to interpret differences in the gene expression profiles......In the struggle to achieve global food security, crop breeding retains an important role in crop production. A current trend is the diversification of the aims of crop production, to include an increased awareness of aspects and consequences of food quality. The added emphasis on food and feed...... and practical significances, fold changes, validation and possible additional regulatory mechanisms in gene expression. The subject of the fourth section is the applications of DNA microarrays to study of global gene expression during grain filling in monocot crops, especially barley. We compare large arrays vs...

  2. An Efficient Approach of Creating New Genetic Resources in Hybrid Rice Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@It is more and more important to create new genetic resources in hybrid rice breedding by using the tertiary and the forth gene pool through biotechnologic methods after the success of the utilization of inter-subspecific heterosis. We have established a simple procedure which is modified from that of Pena to transfer exogenous DAN into rice. When the recipient plant has undergone meiosis, exogenous DNA is injected into the upermost internode of a stem, the position just under the panicle base. In the next generation (D1), variants are found at a rate from 10-3to 10-1.

  3. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  4. Identifying western yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat with a dual modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Hatten, James R.; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    The western population of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) was recently listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yellow-billed cuckoo conservation efforts require the identification of features and area requirements associated with high quality, riparian forest habitat at spatial scales that range from nest microhabitat to landscape, as well as lower-suitability areas that can be enhanced or restored. Spatially explicit models inform conservation efforts by increasing ecological understanding of a target species, especially at landscape scales. Previous yellow-billed cuckoo modelling efforts derived plant-community maps from aerial photography, an expensive and oftentimes inconsistent approach. Satellite models can remotely map vegetation features (e.g., vegetation density, heterogeneity in vegetation density or structure) across large areas with near perfect repeatability, but they usually cannot identify plant communities. We used aerial photos and satellite imagery, and a hierarchical spatial scale approach, to identify yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat along the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. Aerial-photo and satellite models identified several key features associated with yellow-billed cuckoo breeding locations: (1) a 4.5 ha core area of dense cottonwood-willow vegetation, (2) a large native, heterogeneously dense forest (72 ha) around the core area, and (3) moderately rough topography. The odds of yellow-billed cuckoo occurrence decreased rapidly as the amount of tamarisk cover increased or when cottonwood-willow vegetation was limited. We achieved model accuracies of 75–80% in the project area the following year after updating the imagery and location data. The two model types had very similar probability maps, largely predicting the same areas as high quality habitat. While each model provided unique information, a dual-modelling approach provided a more complete picture of yellow-billed cuckoo habitat

  5. Genetic diversity within and among four South European native horse breeds based on microsatellite DNA analysis: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, A; Jugo, B M; Mériaux, J C; Iriondo, M; Mazón, L I; Aguirre, A I; Vicario, A; Estomba, A

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, genetic analyses of diversity and differentiation were performed on four Basque-Navarrese semiferal native horse breeds. In total, 417 animals were genotyped for 12 microsatellite markers. Mean heterozygosity was higher than in other horse breeds, surely as a consequence of management. Although the population size of some of these breeds has declined appreciably in the past century, no genetic bottleneck was detected in any of the breeds, possibly because it was not narrow enough to be detectable. In the phylogenetic tree, the Jaca Navarra breed was very similar to the Pottoka, but appeared to stand in an intermediate position between this and the meat breeds. Assuming that Pottoka is the breed less affected by admixture, the others gradually distanced themselves from it through varying influences from outside breeds, among other factors. In a comparative study with other breeds, the French breeds Ardanais, Comtois, and Breton were the closest to the four native breeds. Three different approaches for evaluating the distribution of genetic diversity were applied. The high intrabreed variability of Euskal Herriko Mendiko Zaldia (EHMZ) was pointed out in these analyses. In our opinion, cultural, economic, and scientific factors should also be considered in the management of these horse breeds.

  6. Kinship-based management strategies for captive breeding programs when pedigrees are unknown or uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Andrea S; Ivy, Jamie A

    2014-01-01

    Zoo-based captive breeding programs typically rely on accurate pedigrees to maintain long-term population genetic diversity and prevent close inbreeding. For many mixed-sex captive populations, it is difficult to assign parentage of offspring with certainty without conducting DNA-based parentage analyses. Using the demographic parameters of a North American captive population of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 2 kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies were modeled for their performance in handling pedigrees with varying degrees of parentage uncertainty. We also compared these strategies with 2 nonkinship-based methods. Pedigrees simulated under different management strategies were compared for their long-term ability to maintain gene diversity (GD) and avoid inbreeding. For the Arabian oryx, results indicate that recording multiple possible parents instead of removing the unknown genomic portion of the pedigree can more efficiently utilize all animals available for breeding without compromising GD and inbreeding avoidance. Both kinship-based breeding-pair selection strategies significantly outperformed the nonkinship-based strategies.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  8. Mixed model approaches for the identification of QTLs within a maize hybrid breeding program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Boer, M.; Totir, L.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Wright, D.; Winkler, C.; Podlich, D.; Boldman, K.; Baumgarten, R.; Smalley, M.; Arbelbide, M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cooper, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two outlines for mixed model based approaches to quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in existing maize hybrid selection programs are presented: a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) and a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The methods use the in-silico-mapping procedure developed

  9. Objectives and approaches in the breeding of perennial legumes for use in temporary pasturelands

    OpenAIRE

    Naydenova G.; Hristova Ts.; Aleksiev Y.

    2013-01-01

    Legumes are the major element of grassland ecosystem, on which the forage quality depends. Breeding of pasture varieties in perennial legumes firstly aims at achieving tolerance and persistence of the legume component in the pasture. In species having low natural grazing tolerance (lucerne and red clover) it is necessary to conduct breeding for biological, morphological and physiological characteristics, directly related to grazing tolerance. In the species...

  10. Relationship between the metabolite profile and technological properties of bovine milk from two dairy breeds elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundekilde, Ulrik Kræmer; Frederiksen, Pernille Dorthea; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Larsen, Lotte Bach; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2011-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the metabolite profile of milk and important technological properties by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The metabolomics approach was introduced for the metabolic profiling of a set of milk samples from two dairy breeds representing a wide span in coagulation properties. The milk metabolite profiles obtained by proton and carbon NMR spectroscopy could be correlated to breed and, more interestingly, also with the coagulation profile, as established by traditional methods by using principal component analysis (PCA). The metabolites responsible for the separation into breed could mainly be ascribed to carnitine and lactose, whereas the metabolites varying in the samples with respect to coagulation properties included citrate, choline, carnitine, and lactose. The results found in the present study demonstrated a promising potential of NMR-based metabolomics for a rapid analysis and classification of milk samples, both of which are useful for the dairy industry.

  11. [Research on discrimination method of tomato via space mutation breeding based on spectroscopy technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jia-Hui; Shao, Yong-Ni; He, Yong; Li, Duo; Feng, Pan; Zhu, Jia-Jin

    2009-11-01

    In order to quickly analyze varieties of tomato via space mutation breeding with near infrared spectra, firstly, principal component analysis was used to analyze the clustering of tomato leaf samples, and then abundant spectral data were compressed by wavelet transform and the model was built with radial basis function neural network, which offered a quantitative analysis of tomato varieties discrimination. The model regarded the compressed data as the input of neural network input vectors and the training process speeded up. One hundred and five leaf samples of CK, M1 and M2 were selected randomly to build the training model, and forty five samples formed the prediction set. The discrimination rate of 97.8% was achieved by this method. It offered a new approach to the fast discrimination of varieties of tomato via space mutation breeding.

  12. Genetic diversity of eleven European pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulley Jean-Louis

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A set of eleven pig breeds originating from six European countries, and including a small sample of wild pigs, was chosen for this study of genetic diversity. Diversity was evaluated on the basis of 18 microsatellite markers typed over a total of 483 DNA samples collected. Average breed heterozygosity varied from 0.35 to 0.60. Genotypic frequencies generally agreed with Hardy-Weinberg expectations, apart from the German Landrace and Schwäbisch-Hällisches breeds, which showed significantly reduced heterozygosity. Breed differentiation was significant as shown by the high among-breed fixation index (overall FST = 0.27, and confirmed by the clustering based on the genetic distances between individuals, which grouped essentially all individuals in 11 clusters corresponding to the 11 breeds. The genetic distances between breeds were first used to construct phylogenetic trees. The trees indicated that a genetic drift model might explain the divergence of the two German breeds, but no reliable phylogeny could be inferred among the remaining breeds. The same distances were also used to measure the global diversity of the set of breeds considered, and to evaluate the marginal loss of diversity attached to each breed. In that respect, the French Basque breed appeared to be the most "unique" in the set considered. This study, which remains to be extended to a larger set of European breeds, indicates that using genetic distances between breeds of farm animals in a classical taxonomic approach may not give clear resolution, but points to their usefulness in a prospective evaluation of diversity.

  13. Genomics-assisted breeding in fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Hiroyoshi; Minamikawa, Mai F; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Ishimori, Motoyuki; Hayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in genomic analysis technologies have opened up new avenues to promote the efficiency of plant breeding. Novel genomics-based approaches for plant breeding and genetics research, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS), are useful, especially in fruit tree breeding. The breeding of fruit trees is hindered by their long generation time, large plant size, long juvenile phase, and the necessity to wait for the physiological maturity of the plant to assess the marketable product (fruit). In this article, we describe the potential of genomics-assisted breeding, which uses these novel genomics-based approaches, to break through these barriers in conventional fruit tree breeding. We first introduce the molecular marker systems and whole-genome sequence data that are available for fruit tree breeding. Next we introduce the statistical methods for biparental linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping as well as GWAS and GS. We then review QTL mapping, GWAS, and GS studies conducted on fruit trees. We also review novel technologies for rapid generation advancement. Finally, we note the future prospects of genomics-assisted fruit tree breeding and problems that need to be overcome in the breeding.

  14. A two step Bayesian approach for genomic prediction of breeding values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi Shariati, Mohammad; Sørensen, Peter; Janss, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Background: In genomic models that assign an individual variance to each marker, the contribution of one marker to the posterior distribution of the marker variance is only one degree of freedom (df), which introduces many variance parameters with only little information per variance parameter...... of predicted breeding values. However, the accuracies of predicted breeding values were lower than Bayesian methods with marker specific variances. Conclusions: Grouping markers is less flexible than allowing each marker to have a specific marker variance but, by grouping, the power to estimate marker...

  15. Participatory definition of breeding objectives and selection indexes for sheep breeding in traditional systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected

  16. Genetic variability of the Bracco Italiano dog breed based on microsatellite polimorphysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Presciuttini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bracco Italiano is one of the oldest breeds of Italian pointing dogs, used for hunting ever since Renaissance times. After the Second World War it was included among the breeds officially recorded by the ENCI (the Italian Cynological Club, and since 1970 more than 23,000 animals have been registered; there are currently approximately 750 births per year. In this paper, we present the breed characterization of the population at the molecular level using 21 STR markers from the panels recommended for the 2006, 2008 and 2010 ISAG canine comparison test. Number of alleles, allele frequencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium among loci, genetic similarity, genetic distances and molecular co-ancestry-based parameters were calculated. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 9 (mean 6.43 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.44 to 0.81 (mean 0.64. There was a high genetic similarity within the whole population (0.455 showing the great homogeneity of the sampled animals, as confirmed also by the small kinship distance (0.336, by the high values of the self molecular coancestry (0.703 and of the inbreeding coefficient (0.406. These results suggest the need for a careful genetic management of the population in order to avoid the risk of an excessive increase in the inbreeding level which would result in significant inbreeding depression and in significant loss of genetic variation.

  17. Estimation of the genetic diversity in tetraploid alfalfa populations based on RAPD markers for breeding purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Nevena; Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Barac, Goran; Baburski, Aleksandar; Seccareccia, Ivana; Milic, Dragan; Katic, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon's information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm.

  18. Recent approaches of fish breeding /Abordagens recentes do melhoramento genético de peixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Costa Filho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoThis review aims at addressing the main issues related to genetic improvement applied to fish species with zootechnical potential, such as selection, genetic parameters and use of biotechnology as well as address the importance of this area of study for the expansion of aquaculture and its development trend. Fish breeding is one of the most important areas of study for fish production development. Important techniques are applied in order to advance genetic progress in fish breeding (e.g., individual selection, genetic parameters estimation and the use of biotechnology. Traditional breeding in fish farming has been conducted mainly through biometric analysis, which helps in choosing selection criteria and in the assessment of genetic parameters such as heritability and correlations between interesting traits. The use of biotechnology in fish breeding has been successful; it is an important strategy that allows breeding results to be achieved faster, although at a greater cost than traditional breeding. Fish breeding in Brazil is currently in its initial stages; however, it is a field with great growth expectations, and there is still significant research to be conducted in this area.AbstractEsta revisão tem como objetivo a abordagem dos principais aspectos relacionados ao melhoramento genético aplicado em espécies de peixes com potencial zootécnico, tais como seleção, parâmetros genéticos e utilização da biotecnologia, bem como abordar a importância desta área de estudos para a ampliação da aquicultura e sua tendência de desenvolvimento. O melhoramento genético é uma das áreas prioritárias de estudo para o desenvolvimento da produção de peixes. Assim, importantes técnicas são aplicadas visando à obtenção de progresso genético no melhoramento de peixes, como por exemplo, a seleção individual, a estimativa de parâmetros genéticos e o uso da biotecnologia. O melhoramento genético tradicional na piscicultura tem

  19. A direct comparison of remote sensing approaches for high-throughput phenotyping in plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tattaris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle, with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT and a vegetation index (NDVI, to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30-100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5-1m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 x 2.4 m due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency.

  20. A Direct Comparison of Remote Sensing Approaches for High-Throughput Phenotyping in Plant Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattaris, Maria; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Chapman, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing (RS) of plant canopies permits non-intrusive, high-throughput monitoring of plant physiological characteristics. This study compared three RS approaches using a low flying UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), with that of proximal sensing, and satellite-based imagery. Two physiological traits were considered, canopy temperature (CT) and a vegetation index (NDVI), to determine the most viable approaches for large scale crop genetic improvement. The UAV-based platform achieves plot-level resolution while measuring several hundred plots in one mission via high-resolution thermal and multispectral imagery measured at altitudes of 30–100 m. The satellite measures multispectral imagery from an altitude of 770 km. Information was compared with proximal measurements using IR thermometers and an NDVI sensor at a distance of 0.5–1 m above plots. For robust comparisons, CT and NDVI were assessed on panels of elite cultivars under irrigated and drought conditions, in different thermal regimes, and on un-adapted genetic resources under water deficit. Correlations between airborne data and yield/biomass at maturity were generally higher than equivalent proximal correlations. NDVI was derived from high-resolution satellite imagery for only larger sized plots (8.5 × 2.4 m) due to restricted pixel density. Results support use of UAV-based RS techniques for high-throughput phenotyping for both precision and efficiency. PMID:27536304

  1. A Practical Approach for Designing Breeding Groups to Maximize Genetic Diversity in a Large Colony of Captive Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Amanda; Raboin, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    Limited guidance is available on practical approaches for maintaining genetic diversity in large NHP colonies that support biomedical research, despite the fact that reduced diversity in these colonies is likely to compromise the application of findings in NHP to human disease. In particular, constraints related to simultaneously housing, breeding, and providing ongoing veterinary care for thousands of animals with a highly complex social structure creates unique challenges for genetic management in these colonies. Because the composition of new breeding groups is a critical component of genetic management, here we outline a 3-stage protocol for forming new breeding groups of NHP that is aimed at maximizing genetic diversity in the face of frequent restrictions on age, sex, and numbers of animals per breeding group. As an example application of this protocol, we describe optimal combinations of rhesus macaques from an analysis of candidate animals available for breeding in July 2013, selected from among the approximately 4000 macaques maintained at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. In addition, a simulation study to explore the genetic diversity in breeding groups formed by using this protocol, indicated an approximate 10-fold higher genome uniqueness, 50% lower mean kinship, and an 84-fold lower mean inbreeding coefficient among potential offspring within groups, when compared with a suboptimal group design. We conclude that this protocol provides a practical and effective approach to breeding group design for colony managers who want to prevent the loss of genetic diversity in large, semiisolated NHP colonies.

  2. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Shahzad; Tripathi, Nagesh K; Faruque, Fazlay S; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Kitamoto, Asanobu; Souris, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  3. Mapping urban and peri-urban breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes using a fuzzy analytical hierarchical process based on climatic and physical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Sarfraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of dengue fever depends mainly on the availability of favourable breeding sites for its mosquito vectors around human dwellings. To investigate if the various factors influencing breeding habitats can be mapped from space, dengue indices, such as the container index, the house index and the Breteau index, were calculated from Ministry of Public health data collected three times annually in Phitsanulok, Thailand between 2009 and 2011. The most influential factors were found to be temperature, humidity, rainfall, population density, elevation and land cover. Models were worked out using parameters mostly derived from freely available satellite images and fuzzy logic software with parameter synchronisation and a predication algorithm based on data mining and the Decision Tree method. The models developed were found to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate additional parameters and sampling data that might improve prediction of favourable breeding hotspots. The algorithm applied can not only be used for the prediction of near real-time scenarios with respect to dengue, but can also be applied for monitoring other diseases influenced by environmental and climatic factors. The multi-criteria model presented is a cost-effective way of identifying outbreak hotspots and early warning systems lend themselves for development based on this strategy. The proposed approach demonstrates the successful utilisation of remotely sensed images to map mosquito breeding habitats.

  4. Broiler breeding : breeding goals, selection schemes and the usefulness of local breeds for China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, X.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation considers three aspects of broiler breeding: definition of breeding goals, selection schemes for specialized lines, and the usefulness of local breeds for China. Economic values in broiler breeding were derived based on a deterministic model. A systematic design for the application

  5. Estimation of the Genetic Diversity in Tetraploid Alfalfa Populations Based on RAPD Markers for Breeding Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Katic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is an autotetraploid, allogamous and heterozygous forage legume, whose varieties are synthetic populations. Due to the complex nature of the species, information about genetic diversity of germplasm used in any alfalfa breeding program is most beneficial. The genetic diversity of five alfalfa varieties, involved in progeny tests at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, was characterized based on RAPD markers. A total of 60 primers were screened, out of which 17 were selected for the analysis of genetic diversity. A total of 156 polymorphic bands were generated, with 10.6 bands per primer. Number and percentage of polymorphic loci, effective number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and Shannon’s information index were used to estimate genetic variation. Variety Zuzana had the highest values for all tested parameters, exhibiting the highest level of variation, whereas variety RSI 20 exhibited the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that 88.39% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intra-varietal variance. The cluster analysis for individual samples and varieties revealed differences in their population structures: variety Zuzana showed a very high level of genetic variation, Banat and Ghareh were divided in subpopulations, while Pecy and RSI 20 were relatively uniform. Ways of exploiting the investigated germplasm in the breeding programs are suggested in this paper, depending on their population structure and diversity. The RAPD analysis shows potential to be applied in analysis of parental populations in semi-hybrid alfalfa breeding program in both, development of new homogenous germplasm, and identification of promising, complementary germplasm.

  6. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

  7. Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding and breeds

    OpenAIRE

    I. Kohler-Rollefson

    2004-01-01

    Indigenous knowledge of animal breeding (IK-AB) includes concepts and practices used to influence the genetic composition of herds. Indigenous selection is often based on preferences based on physical characteristics, vigor, social and economic insurance. This issue paper summarizes the value of indigenous knowledge and local breeds to achieve agricultural sustainability. Links to IK-AB information are also provided. Available in SANREM office, ES

  8. Genomic predictions based on a joint reference population for the Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L; Heringstad, B; Su, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Meuwissen, T H E; Svendsen, M; Grove, H; Nielsen, U S; Lund, M S

    2014-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare accuracies of imputation and genomic predictions based on single and joint reference populations for Norwegian Red (NRF) and a composite breed (DFS) consisting of Danish Red, Finnish Ayrshire, and Swedish Red. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for NRF consisted of 2 data sets: one including 25,000 markers (NRF25K) and the other including 50,000 markers (NRF50K). The NRF25K data set had 2,572 bulls, and the NRF50K data set had 1,128 bulls. Four hundred forty-two bulls were genotyped in both data sets (double-genotyped bulls). The DFS data set (DSF50K) included 50,000 markers of 13,472 individuals, of which around 4,700 were progeny-tested bulls. The NRF25K data set was imputed to 50,000 density using the software Beagle. The average error rate for the imputation of NRF25K decreased slightly from 0.023 to 0.021, and the correlation between observed and imputed genotypes changed from 0.935 to 0.936 when comparing the NRF50K reference and the NRF50K-DFS50K joint reference imputations. A genomic BLUP (GBLUP) model and a Bayesian 4-component mixture model were used to predict genomic breeding values for the NRF and DFS bulls based on the single and joint NRF and DFS reference populations. In the multiple population predictions, accuracies of genomic breeding values increased for the 3 production traits (milk, fat, and protein yields) for both NRF and DFS. Accuracies increased by 6 and 1.3 percentage points, on average, for the NRF and DFS bulls, respectively, using the GBLUP model, and by 9.3 and 1.3 percentage points, on average, using the Bayesian 4-component mixture model. However, accuracies for health or reproduction traits did not increase from the multiple population predictions. Among the 3 DFS populations, Swedish Red gained most in accuracies from the multiple population predictions, presumably because Swedish Red has a closer genetic relationship with NRF than Danish Red and Finnish Ayrshire. The Bayesian 4

  9. An Expert-Based Assessment Model for Evaluating Habitat Suitability of Pond-Breeding Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ruoh Juang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Farm ponds are important habitats for amphibians, birds, and other wildlife. In Taiwan, artificial ponds were originally created on farmlands for irrigation purposes and the needs of the domestic water supply. Although pond creation is a typical farming practice, it also provides habitats for pond-breeding amphibians. Thus, it is essential to understand the current status of habitats and their vulnerability regarding urgent conservation needs for target species. Günther’s frog (Hylarana guentheri, a pond-breeding amphibian, has a high sensitivity towards surrounding environmental changes, and can be used as an indicator species to assess habitat suitability. The purpose of this study is to establish a systematic framework to assess the habitat suitability of pond-breeding amphibians by using Günther’s frog as a pilot-study species. First, we collected frog survey data from Chiayi, Taiwan, from winter 2013 to spring 2015, and investigated the present status of the environmental conditions around the ponds. Next, expert questionnaires and the fuzzy Delphi method were applied to establish the hierarchical evaluation criteria regarding the habitat suitability assessment. Four indicators: the aquatic environments of farm ponds; the terrestrial environments around ponds; landscape connectivity; and the conservation perceptions of the residents, were determined as first-layer factors in the assessment criteria, while ten other indicators were defined as second-layer factors. Based on the established assessment criteria, we performed in situ habitat suitability evaluations on 69 selected sites and surveyed the perceptions of the residents using questionnaires. Results revealed that 19% of locations were rich in frog species with a high habitat suitability. However, 67% of locations showed signs of habitat degradation, which may imply a higher need in practicing habitat improvement or restoration. The Kappa value was 0.6061, which indicated a high

  10. Microsatellite based genetic structure of regional transboundary Istrian sheep breed populations in Croatia and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gutierrez-Gil

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian dairy sheep is a local breed essential for the identity and development of the Northern- Adriatic karstic region through high-quality products, primarily the hard sheep artisanal cheese. Border changes fragmented the initial Istrian dairy sheep population in three genetically isolated sub-populations in Italy (1000 animals, Slovenia (1150 animals and Croatia (2500 animals. Due to the drastic reduction of their population sizes and fragmentation, the populations in Croatia and Slovenia are included in governmentally supported conservation programs. The initial subpopulation in Italy was restored after near extinction with stock from Slovenia, and is used today in meat production. The aim of this study was to provide an initial understanding of the current genetic structure and distribution of the genetic variability that exists in Istrian sheep by analysing individuals sampled in two regional groups of Istrian sheep from Croatia and Slovenia. Cres island sheep and Lika pramenka sheep were used as out-groups for comparison. Genetic differentiation was analysed using factorial correspondence analysis and structure clustering over 26 microsatellite loci for a total of 104 sheep belonging to three breeds from Croatia and Slovenia. Factorial correspondence analysis and clustering-based structure analysis both showed three distinct populations: Lika pramenka sheep, Cres island sheep and Istrian sheep. We did not find a marked genetic divergence of the regional groups of Istrian sheep. Istrian sheep regional group from Slovenia showed lower genetic variability compared to the one from Croatia. Variability and structure information obtained in this study considered alongside with socio-cultural-contexts and economic goals for the Istrian sheep reared in Croatia and Slovenia indicate that the cross-border exchange of genetic material of animals carrying private alleles among populations would maintain these alleles at low frequencies and minimize

  11. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45 ° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropinreleasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, these PGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  12. Synchronization of ovulation in goats using prostaglandin F2α based protocols during the breeding season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Simões

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this review was to describe the feasibility of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)based protocols used as a tool for ovulation synchronization in cycling goats. There is a reproductive seasonality in small ruminants. However, from latitudes 45° towards equator, the intensity of anoestrus progressively decreases and tends to disappear in local breeds. Consequently, PGF2α or their synthetic analogues as luteolytic substances can assume a great importance in reproductive management of flocks from these regions. However, a single or double (9–11 days apart)PGF2α administration provokes a good induction but a moderate synchronization of ovulations if timed artificial insemination is considered, and a significant short oestrous cycle can occur with detrimental effects on fertility rate when compared with conventional progesterone-based protocols. In order to minimize this constraint, some gonadotropin-releasing hormone-PGF2α-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Ovsynch)-based protocols and their modifications, manipulating the dominant follicles and corpora lutea, were successfully tested in goats. Similar to cows, thesePGF2α based protocols seem to be a promising and more cost-effective tool for reproductive management in cycling goats.

  13. RNA Interference (RNAi) Induced Gene Silencing: A Promising Approach of Hi-Tech Plant Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Adnan; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Kim, Chang-Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising gene regulatory approach in functional genomics that has significant impact on crop improvement which permits down-regulation in gene expression with greater precise manner without affecting the expression of other genes. RNAi mechanism is expedited by small molecules of interfering RNA to suppress a gene of interest effectively. RNAi has also been exploited in plants for resistance against pathogens, insect/pest, nematodes, and virus that cause significant economic losses. Keeping beside the significance in the genome integrity maintenance as well as growth and development, RNAi induced gene syntheses are vital in plant stress management. Modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. This novel approach opens new avenues for crop improvement by developing disease resistant, abiotic or biotic stress tolerant, and high yielding elite varieties.

  14. A questionnaire-based study of gestation, parturition and neonatal mortality in pedigree breeding cats in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, Andrew H; Rogers, Katherine; Henley, William E; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; May, Julia M; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Bessant, Claire

    2006-06-01

    This study was based on a convenience-sampling questionnaire study of pedigree cat breeding in the UK. Data were collated for the births of 1,056 litters from 14 different pedigree breeds and 942 different households. Significant relationships between various outcomes and relevant predictors were assessed by multiple linear regression or logistic regression as appropriate. The overall mean gestation length of 65.1 days varied significantly between the breeds (Ppregnancies resulted in a caesarean section, with a higher risk associated with smaller litter sizes (P=0.002). Although the frequency of caesarean sections varied from 0 to 18.5% between individual breeds, breed itself was not shown to have a significant independent effect on this likelihood. A mean of 7.2% of all the kittens were stillborn, which varied according to breed (P=0.0003), and the risk of a stillborn kitten increased with litter size (P=0.0001), and with the presence of congenital defects in the litter (P=0.0002). The mean kitten mortality between birth and 8 weeks of age was 9.1%, and the majority of these occurred in the first week of life. Parturition intervals varied widely. The duration of first stage of labour was less than 2h in 82.9% of cats. The interval between the birth of the first and last kitten was less than 6h in 85.7%, but more than 48 h in three cats. A maximum of 48 h was recorded between the births of individual kittens in unassisted deliveries.

  15. Effect of predictor traits on accuracy of genomic breeding values for feed intake based on a limited cow reference population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pszczola, M; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Wall, E; Strabel, T; Calus, M P L

    2013-11-01

    The genomic breeding value accuracy of scarcely recorded traits is low because of the limited number of phenotypic observations. One solution to increase the breeding value accuracy is to use predictor traits. This study investigated the impact of recording additional phenotypic observations for predictor traits on reference and evaluated animals on the genomic breeding value accuracy for a scarcely recorded trait. The scarcely recorded trait was dry matter intake (DMI, n = 869) and the predictor traits were fat-protein-corrected milk (FPCM, n = 1520) and live weight (LW, n = 1309). All phenotyped animals were genotyped and originated from research farms in Ireland, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Multi-trait REML was used to simultaneously estimate variance components and breeding values for DMI using available predictors. In addition, analyses using only pedigree relationships were performed. Breeding value accuracy was assessed through cross-validation (CV) and prediction error variance (PEV). CV groups (n = 7) were defined by splitting animals across genetic lines and management groups within country. With no additional traits recorded for the evaluated animals, both CV- and PEV-based accuracies for DMI were substantially higher for genomic than for pedigree analyses (CV: max. 0.26 for pedigree and 0.33 for genomic analyses; PEV: max. 0.45 and 0.52, respectively). With additional traits available, the differences between pedigree and genomic accuracies diminished. With additional recording for FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased from 0.26 to 0.47 for CV and from 0.45 to 0.48 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased from 0.33 to 0.50 for CV and from 0.52 to 0.53 for PEV. With additional recording for LW instead of FPCM, pedigree accuracies increased to 0.54 for CV and to 0.61 for PEV. Genomic accuracies increased to 0.57 for CV and to 0.60 for PEV. With both FPCM and LW available for evaluated animals, accuracy was highest (0.62 for CV and 0.61 for PEV in

  16. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in local cattle breeds of Senegal based on autosomal microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndèye Penda Ndiaye

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In Senegal, uncontrolled cross-breeding of cattle breeds and changes in production systems are assumed to lead to an increase of gene flow between populations. This might constitute a relevant threat to livestock improvement. Therewith, this study was carried out to assess the current genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationships of the four native Senegalese cattle breeds (Gobra zebu, Maure zebu, Djakoré, and N’Dama. Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 120 unrelated animals collected from three agro-ecological areas of Senegal according to their phenotypic traits. Genotyping was done using 11 specific highly polymorphic microsatellite makers recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The basic measures of genetic variation and phylogenetic trees were computed using bioinformatics’ software. Results: A total of 115 alleles were identified with a number of alleles (Na at one locus ranging from 6 to 16. All loci were polymorphic with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.76. The mean allelic richness (Rs lay within the narrow range of 5.14 in N’Dama taurine to 6.10 in Gobra zebu. While, the expected heterozygosity (HE per breed was high in general with an overall mean of 0.76±0.04. Generally, the heterozygote deficiency (FIS of 0.073±0.026 was relatively due to inbreeding among these cattle breeds or the occurrence of population substructure. The high values of allelic and gene diversity showed that Senegalese native cattle breeds represented an important reservoir of genetic variation. The genetic distances and clustering trees concluded that the N’Dama cattle were most distinct among the investigated cattle populations. So, the principal component analyses showed qualitatively that there was an intensive genetic admixture between the Gobra zebu and Maure zebu breeds. Conclusions: The broad genetic diversity in Senegalese cattle breeds will allow for greater opportunities for improvement of

  17. A pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars based on fluorescence in situ hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Gerelchimeg; Sun, Mingju; Lv, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Li, Hui; Wang, Juan; Li, Lu; Liu, Zhongfeng; Zheng, Zhong; He, Wenteng; Kong, Qingran; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    For efficient transgenic herd expansion, only the transgenic animals that possess the ability to transmit transgene into next generation are considered for breeding. However, for transgenic pig, practically lacking a pre-breeding screening program, time, labor and money is always wasted to maintain non-transgenic pigs, low or null transgenic transmission pigs and the related fruitless gestations. Developing a pre-breeding screening program would make the transgenic herd expansion more economical and efficient. In this technical report, we proposed a three-step pre-breeding screening program for transgenic boars simply through combining the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay with the common pre-breeding screening workflow. In the first step of screening, combined with general transgenic phenotype analysis, FISH is used to identify transgenic boars. In the second step of screening, combined with conventional semen test, FISH is used to detect transgenic sperm, thus to identify the individuals producing high quality semen and transgenic sperm. In the third step of screening, FISH is used to assess the in vitro fertilization embryos, thus finally to identify the individuals with the ability to produce transgenic embryos. By this three-step screening, the non-transgenic boars and boars with no ability to produce transgenic sperm or transgenic embryos would be eliminated; therefore only those boars could produce transgenic offspring are maintained and used for breeding and herd expansion. It is the first time a systematic pre-breeding screening program is proposed for transgenic pigs. This program might also be applied in other transgenic large animals, and provide an economical and efficient strategy for herd expansion.

  18. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Magdalena; Calvo, Jorge H; Martínez, Marta; Marcos-Carcavilla, Ane; Cuevas, Javier; González, Carmen; Jurado, Juan J; de Tejada, Paloma Díez

    2009-01-01

    Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008) consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08) mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will facilitate the

  19. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered Spanish Guadarrama goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Juan J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessing genetic biodiversity and population structure of minor breeds through the information provided by neutral molecular markers, allows determination of their extinction risk and to design strategies for their management and conservation. Analysis of microsatellite loci is known to be highly informative in the reconstruction of the historical processes underlying the evolution and differentiation of animal populations. Guadarrama goat is a threatened Spanish breed which actual census (2008 consists of 3057 females and 203 males distributed in 22 populations more or less isolated. The aim of this work is to study the genetic status of this breed through the analysis of molecular data from 10 microsatellites typed in historic and actual live animals. Results The mean expected heterozygosity across loci within populations ranged from 0.62 to 0.77. Genetic differentiation measures were moderate, with a mean FST of 0.074, GST of 0.081 and RST of 0.085. Percentages of variation among and within populations were 7.5 and 92.5, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses pointed out a population subdivision in 16 clusters, however, no correlation between geographical distances and genetic differences was found. Management factors such as the limited exchange of animals between farmers (estimated gene flow Nm = 3.08 mostly due to sanitary and social constraints could be the major causes affecting Guadarrama goat population subdivision. Conclusion Genetic diversity measures revealed a good status of biodiversity in the Guadarrama goat breed. Since diseases are the first cause affecting the census in this breed, population subdivision would be an advantage for its conservation. However, to maintain private alleles present at low frequencies in such small populations minimizing the inbreeding rate, it would necessitate some mating designs of animals carrying such alleles among populations. The systematic use of molecular markers will

  20. A new versatile database created for geneticists and breeders to link molecular and phenotypic data in perennial crops: the AppleBreed DataBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antofie, A.; Lateur, M.; Oger, R.; Patocchi, A.; Durel, C.E.; Weg, van de W.E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: AppleBreed DataBase (DB) aims to store genotypic and phenotypic data from multiple pedigree verified plant populations (crosses, breeding selections and commercial cultivars) so that they are easily accessible for geneticists and breeders. It will help in elucidating the genetics of econo

  1. In Vitro Mutagenesis - Alternate Approach to Breeding of Gossypium hirsutum L.%离体诱变一种附加的陆地棉育种方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. MUTHUSAMY; N. JAYABALAN

    2002-01-01

    @@ Mutations are possibly the only source of creating heritable variability in all biological system and, many useful mutants in plants have been released for commercial cultivation across the world. To-date throughout the world about 2252 mutants have been officially registered in the FAO/IAEA mutant varieties data base (MVD) of plant breeding and genetics sections.According to Maluszynski et al.

  2. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSWANHADI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oktavia F, Lasminingsih M, Kuswanhadi. 2011. Selection of parent trees for Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis breeding based on RAPD analysis. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 124-129. The parent trees’ clones usually originate from the previous generation having the potential of high production with better agronomical characters. Although, phenotype characters can determine the genetic variability among accessions, they are highly sensitive to environmental factors, so it is often difficult to identify the difference between closely related clones. The genetic variability or phylogenetic relationships among rubber clones can be analysis using RAPD method, and based on the result, the parent trees can be selected. This research was aimed to analyze the genetic distance among rubber clones using RAPD method. Analysis was conducted on 45 rubber clones with 12 random primers. Pair-wise comparisons of unique and shared polymorphic amplification products were used to generate similarity coefficients. These coefficients were employed to construct a dendogram by using an Unweighted Pair-Group Method with Arithmetical Averages (UPGMA. The amplification of genomic DNA from 45 clones yielded 2408 DNA fragments, ranging in size from 250 bp to 3000 bp. The range of genetic similarity matrix was very wide (59.18%-94.23%. It indicated that most of the clones have a low level of polymorphism. The lowest genetic similarity (59,18% was found between RRIC 110 and AVROS 352 clones, while the highest (94.23% was between IRR 41 and IRR 42 clones. Cluster analysis showed that 45 clones of rubber were divided into two groups, the biggest group consisted of 30 clones, while the other one consisted of 15 clones with a genetic similarity value of 0,73.

  3. A proposed selection index for feedlot profitability based on estimated breeding values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, R R; van der Westhuizen, J

    2009-04-22

    It is generally accepted that feed intake and growth (gain) are the most important economic components when calculating profitability in a growth test or feedlot. We developed a single post-weaning growth (feedlot) index based on the economic values of different components. Variance components, heritabilities and genetic correlations for and between initial weight (IW), final weight (FW), feed intake (FI), and shoulder height (SHD) were estimated by multitrait restricted maximum likelihood procedures. The estimated breeding values (EBVs) and the economic values for IW, FW and FI were used in a selection index to estimate a post-weaning or feedlot profitability value. Heritabilities for IW, FW, FI, and SHD were 0.41, 0.40, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. The highest genetic correlations were 0.78 (between IW and FW) and 0.70 (between FI and FW). EBVs were used in a selection index to calculate a single economical value for each animal. This economic value is an indication of the gross profitability value or the gross test value (GTV) of the animal in a post-weaning growth test. GTVs varied between -R192.17 and R231.38 with an average of R9.31 and a standard deviation of R39.96. The Pearson correlations between EBVs (for production and efficiency traits) and GTV ranged from -0.51 to 0.68. The lowest correlation (closest to zero) was 0.26 between the Kleiber ratio and GTV. Correlations of 0.68 and -0.51 were estimated between average daily gain and GTV and feed conversion ratio and GTV, respectively. These results showed that it is possible to select for GTV. The selection index can benefit feedlotting in selecting offspring of bulls with high GTVs to maximize profitability.

  4. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...... positive welfare effects associated with breeding might be maximised. Further studies are needed to establish an evidence base about how stressful or painful various breeding procedures are for the animals involved, and what the lifetime welfare implications of ARTs are for future animal generations....

  5. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  6. Harnessing Diversity in Wheat to Enhance Grain Yield, Climate Resilience, Disease and Insect Pest Resistance and Nutrition Through Conventional and Modern Breeding Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Suchismita; Rutkoski, Jessica E.; Velu, Govindan; Singh, Pawan K.; Crespo-Herrera, Leonardo A.; Guzmán, Carlos; Bhavani, Sridhar; Lan, Caixia; He, Xinyao; Singh, Ravi P.

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in population growth and consumption patterns continue to increase the demand for wheat, a key cereal for global food security. Further, multiple abiotic challenges due to climate change and evolving pathogen and pests pose a major concern for increasing wheat production globally. Triticeae species comprising of primary, secondary, and tertiary gene pools represent a rich source of genetic diversity in wheat. The conventional breeding strategies of direct hybridization, backcrossing and selection have successfully introgressed a number of desirable traits associated with grain yield, adaptation to abiotic stresses, disease resistance, and bio-fortification of wheat varieties. However, it is time consuming to incorporate genes conferring tolerance/resistance to multiple stresses in a single wheat variety by conventional approaches due to limitations in screening methods and the lower probabilities of combining desirable alleles. Efforts on developing innovative breeding strategies, novel tools and utilizing genetic diversity for new genes/alleles are essential to improve productivity, reduce vulnerability to diseases and pests and enhance nutritional quality. New technologies of high-throughput phenotyping, genome sequencing and genomic selection are promising approaches to maximize progeny screening and selection to accelerate the genetic gains in breeding more productive varieties. Use of cisgenic techniques to transfer beneficial alleles and their combinations within related species also offer great promise especially to achieve durable rust resistance. PMID:27458472

  7. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor; Colchero, Fernando; Pearce-Kelly, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red Lis...

  8. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Sulandari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available he Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA D-loop segment was PCR amplified and subsequently sequenced for a total of 335 individuals from Indonesian native chicken. The individuals were drawn from sixteen populations of native chicken and three individuals of green jungle fowls (Gallus varius. Indonesian native chicken populations were: Pelung Sembawa, PL (n = 18, Pelung Cianjur, PLC (n = 29 and Arab Silver, ARS (n=30, Cemani, CM (n = 32, Gaok, GA (n = 7, Kedu Hitam, KDH (n = 11, Wareng, T & TW (n = 10, Cemani, CMP (n = 2, Kedu, KD (n=26, Kedu Putih, KDP (n = 15, Sentul Jatiwangi, STJ (n = 27, Ayam Kate, KT (n = 29, Ayam Sentul, STC (n = 15, Arab Golden, ARG (n = 26, Ayam Merawang, MR (n = 28, Kedu Putih Jatiwangi, KDPJ (n=6 and Kapas, KPS (n = 21. Green jungle fowls were: two individuals from Flores island (FL5 and FL57 and one individual (BD42 from Sumbawa island. The sequences of the first 530 nucleotides were used for analysis. Eighty two haplotypes were identified from 78 polymorphic sites for the 335 individuals. Seventy nine haplotypes were identified in native chicken from 57 polymorphic sites while three were of jungle fowls. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Indonesian native chicken can be grouped into five clades (Clade I, II, IIIc, IIId and IV of the previously identified seven clades (Clade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IIIc, IIId and IV in Asian domestic chicken. Haplotypes CM10 and CM32 fall to a different category while STC12 is also on its own. Interestingly STC12 clusters together with Gallus gallus gallus (GenBank accession No. SULANDARI et al. Analysis of genetic relationship among Indonesian native chicken breeds based on 335 D-loop sequences 296 AB007720. When CM10 (same as CM14, CM32 and STC12 were removed, 77 haplotypes of domestic chicken were identified from 53 polymorphic sites. All the green jungle fowls are clustered to one clade of their own. The clades of domestic chicken are: Clade I which has three haplotypes, Clade II has 52

  9. Blood metabolites and hormone-based programmed breeding treatments in anovular lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zarkouny, S Z; Shaaban, M M; Stevenson, J S

    2011-12-01

    The objectives were to (1) compare blood metabolites and reproductive outcomes in lactating dairy cows not inseminated before (early) and after (late) 100 d in milk (DIM) because of prolonged anovulation or anestrus; and (2) evaluate reproductive responses of cows ≤100 DIM to GnRH+PGF(2α) treatments after a fixed-time artificial insemination (AI; Ovsynch) or after induced estrus (Select Synch). In blood samples collected before initiating hormone-based breeding programs, anovular cows ≤ 100 DIM had the greatest serum total protein and globulin concentrations and the lowest tri-iodothyronine concentrations. Anovular and ovular cows >100 DIM had the greatest serum urea concentrations. Ovaries in cows (n=40) >100 DIM were examined by transrectal ultrasonography, and those without a detectable corpus luteum (CL; anovular) were given GnRH and then PGF(2α) 7 d later (Select Synch), whereas cows with a CL (ovular) were given 2 PGF(2α) injections 12 d apart. Cows were inseminated at observed estrus after the second or only PGF(2α) injection. More ovular (79%; 15/19) than anovular cows (24%; 5/21) were detected in estrus. No differences were detected between ovular and anovular cows in DIM at first AI, conception rate to first AI, cumulative pregnancy rates, number of services per conception, or days open. Cows (n=93) ≤100 DIM were assigned randomly to 3 treatments: (1) control (n=20) AI at estrus; (2) GnRH and then PGF(2α) on 7d (Select Synch; n=42) and monitored for signs of estrus for 5d and AI accordingly; or (3) 2 GnRH injections 9 d apart with PGF(2α) given 48 h before second GnRH injection and AI at 16h after the second GnRH injection (Ovsynch; n=31). Among cows ≤100 DIM, controls had more days to first service (149±16 d) than Select Synch cows (117±7 d). Ovsynch cows had the fewest days to first service (84±10 d) compared with control (149±16 d) and Select Synch (117±7 d) cows. Conception rates in control (25%) and Select Synch (26.2%) cows did

  10. Connectivity of wood thrush breeding, wintering, and migration sites based on range-wide tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Calandra Q; McKinnon, Emily A; Fraser, Kevin C; Macpherson, Maggie P; Casbourn, Garth; Friesen, Lyle; Marra, Peter P; Studds, Colin; Ryder, T Brandt; Diggs, Nora E; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-02-01

    Many migratory animals are experiencing rapid population declines, but migration data with the geographic scope and resolution to quantify the complex network of movements between breeding and nonbreeding regions are often lacking. Determining the most frequently used migration routes and nonbreeding regions for a species is critical for understanding population dynamics and making effective conservation decisions. We tracked the migration of individual Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) (n = 102) from across their range with light-level geolocators and, for the first time, quantified migration routes and wintering regions for distinct breeding populations. We identified regional and species-level migratory connectivity networks for this declining songbird by combining our tracking results with range-wide breeding abundance estimates and forest cover data. More than 50% of the species occupied the eastern wintering range (Honduras to Costa Rica), a region that includes only one-third of all wintering habitat and that is undergoing intensive deforestation. We estimated that half of all Wood Thrushes in North America migrate south through Florida in fall, whereas in spring approximately 73% funnel northward through a narrow span along the central U.S. Gulf Coast (88-93°W). Identifying migratory networks is a critical step for conservation of songbirds and we demonstrated with Wood Thrushes how it can highlight conservation hotspots for regional populations and species as a whole.

  11. Hybrid breeding of Pampa-cytoplasmic triticale based on crosses with rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapiński, Bogusław

    2014-01-01

    The first series of field experiments with triticale F1 hybrids from 2009 confirmed usefulness of the rye 'Pampa' cytoplasmic system of mass crossing control in hexaploid (2n = 42 = AABBRR) winter triticale. The level of fertility restoration in 30 F1 hybrids varied within a range of 35.1% - 91.3%. However, the top F1 yield has not exceeded 92% of the check cultivar 'Moderato'. In the next series of field experiments with four winter F1 hybrids from 2012 the best yield reached 102% of the 'Moderato' standard and the fertility restoration index ranged between 16.7% and 100%. The top yielding F1 combination was produced using a male line derived from a cross with a restorer line from rye hybrid breeding. It supports the idea of using rye hybrid breeding as a source of variation in hybrid breeding of triticale. The advanced rye lines, representing well established complementary gene pools, show not only high potential for heterosis, but also high level of compensation for negative side effects of the 'Pampa' cytoplasm on plant vigor, which seems important in triticale. The gene flow from rye female and male gene pools to those of hexaploid triticale is facilitated with tetraploid triticale x diploid rye crosses. Numerous triploid F1 hybrids with relatively high fertility are produced, which are able to set seed after spontaneous pollination with hexaploid triticale.

  12. Defining desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding objective using analytic hierarchy process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Distributing animals from a single breeding program to a global market may not satisfy all producers, as they may differ in market objectives and farming environments. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to estimate preferences, which can be aggregated to consensus preference values using weighted goal programming (WGP). The aim of this study was to use an AHP-WGP based approach to derive desired genetic gains for rainbow trout breeding, and to study whether breeding trait preferences va...

  13. Haplotype Based Genome-Enabled Prediction of Traits Across Nordic Red Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Rosa, G J M;

    SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training.......1% higher reliability than with the individual SNP approach in mastitis. This work gives evidence that predictions using haploblocks along with a combined training population of dairy cattle, may improve prediction accuracy of important traits in the individual populations........ Predictions were performed under a Bayesian approach comparing a GBLUP and a mixture model. In general, predictions were more reliable when using haploblocks instead of individual SNPs as predictors. The Danish Red cattle presented the largest benefit in predictive ability from haploblocks, achieving 5...

  14. Form-based Approaches vs. Task-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Talebi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating whether task-based approaches bear any superiority to that of more traditional ones evident in presentation-practice- and production phase .to fulfill the purpose of the study, the participants within the age range of 11-19, took part in the study. Following a pretest, treatment, and a posttest, the obtained data was analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to examine the effects of the variables. The results of the analysis showed that participants in the PPP group did significantly better in the grammar recognition of the posttest than that of the task group. However, their counterparts in the task group gained better scores in the writing section of the test .this research study provided evidence in support of task proponents' claim in the merit of task-based activity in raising learners' implicit knowledge claiming to play the primary role in spontaneous speech.Keywords: Task-based language teaching, PPP model, focus on form, focus on meaning

  15. SOYBEAN - MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book Soybean: Molecular Aspects of Breeding focuses recent progress in our understanding of the genetics and molecular biology of soybean. This book is divided into four parts and contains 22 chapters. Part I, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology focuses advances in molecular biology and laboratory procedures that have been developed recently to manipulate DNA. Part II, Breeding for abiotic stress covers proteomics approaches form as a powerful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of the plant responses to various types of abiotic stresses. Part III, Breeding for biotic stress addresses issues related to application of molecular based strategies in order to increase soybean resistance to various biotic factors. Part IV, Recent Technology reviews recent technologies into the realm of soybean monitoring, processing and product use. While the information accumulated in this book is of primary interest for plant breeders, valuable insights are also offered to agronomists, molecular biologists, physiologists, plant pathologists, food scientists and students. The book is a result of efforts made by many experts from different countries (USA, Japan, Croatia, Serbia, China, Canada, Malawi, Iran, Hong Kong, Brasil, Mexico.

  16. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  17. Ontology Partitioning: Clustering Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Setti Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The semantic web goal is to share and integrate data across different domains and organizations. The knowledge representations of semantic data are made possible by ontology. As the usage of semantic web increases, construction of the semantic web ontologies is also increased. Moreover, due to the monolithic nature of the ontology various semantic web operations like query answering, data sharing, data matching, data reuse and data integration become more complicated as the size of ontology increases. Partitioning the ontology is the key solution to handle this scalability issue. In this work, we propose a revision and an enhancement of K-means clustering algorithm based on a new semantic similarity measure for partitioning given ontology into high quality modules. The results show that our approach produces meaningful clusters than the traditional algorithm of K-means.

  18. Contribution of Plant Breeding Efforts to the Safety of the Cereal-based Food Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zoltán (B)edo; Mariann Rakszegi; László Láng; Peter Shewry

    2006-01-01

    @@ A comprehensive food safety strategy requires the establishment of a farm-to-fork traceability system, which allows each step in the food chain to be followed and identified. This policy requires a multidisciplinary scientific approach including the wide range of technological knowledge necessary to maintain the safety of the whole food chain. With the introduction of the sustainability concept considerable changes have taken place in food production.New priorities have been raised nowadays due to increasing concern for environmental protection and healthy food production. These new priorities, which have led to the agricultural sector developing a more multifunctional character,are based on new social demands in relation to food production, where the essential criteria are to provide nutritious foodstuffs free of dangerous substances and to use environment-friendly technologies which ensure sustainability.

  19. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  20. Materiality in a Practice-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to provide an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Design/methodology/approach: The overview is theoretically generated and is based on the anthology Knowing in Organizations: A Practice-based Approach edited by Nicolini, Gherardi and Yanow. The…

  1. Breeding kennel management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, S

    1992-09-01

    Veterinarians and dog breeders should work together to establish protocols for health care and breeding management that are based on sound scientific principles as well as practical systems. These protocols should involve bitches, stud dogs, and puppies. Tantamount importance must be placed on record keeping so that problems may be identified and solved before they are irreversible.

  2. Genetic architecture and bottleneck analyses of Salem Black goat breed based on microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thiruvenkadan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken in Salem Black goat population for genetic analysis at molecular level to exploit the breed for planning sustainable improvement, conservation and utilization, which subsequently can improve the livelihood of its stakeholders. Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples of 50 unrelated Salem Black goats with typical phenotypic features in several villages in the breeding tract and the genetic characterization and bottleneck analysis in Salem Black goat was done using 25 microsatellite markers as recommended by the Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, Italy. The basic measures of genetic variation were computed using bioinformatic software. To evaluate the Salem Black goats for mutation drift equilibrium, three tests were performed under three different mutation models, viz., infinite allele model (IAM, stepwise mutation model (SMM and two-phase model (TPM and the observed gene diversity (He and expected equilibrium gene diversity (Heq were estimated under different models of microsatellite evolution. Results: The study revealed that the observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH10, ILSTS008 to 17 (BM64444 with a total of 213 alleles and mean of 10.14±0.83 alleles across loci. The overall observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, inbreeding estimate and polymorphism information content values were 0.631±0.041, 0.820±0.024, 0.233±0.044 and 0.786±0.023 respectively indicating high genetic diversity. The average observed gene diversities (He pooled over different markers was 0.829±0.024 and the average expected gene diversities under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 0.769±0.026, 0.808±0.024 and 0.837±0.020 respectively. The number of loci found to exhibit gene diversity excess under IAM, TPM and SMM models were 18, 17 and 12 respectively. Conclusion: All the three statistical tests, viz., sign test, standardized differences test and Wilcoxon sign rank test, revealed

  3. Progress Towards Genetics and Breeding for Minor Genes Based Resistance to Ug99 and Other Rusts in CIMMYT High-Yielding Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet

    2014-01-01

    Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the

  4. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús eFernández

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in those initial founders. Traditionally base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during ten generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  5. Optimizing the creation of base populations for aquaculture breeding programs using phenotypic and genomic data and its consequences on genetic progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Jesús; Toro, Miguel Á; Sonesson, Anna K; Villanueva, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The success of an aquaculture breeding program critically depends on the way in which the base population of breeders is constructed since all the genetic variability for the traits included originally in the breeding goal as well as those to be included in the future is contained in the initial founders. Traditionally, base populations were created from a number of wild strains by sampling equal numbers from each strain. However, for some aquaculture species improved strains are already available and, therefore, mean phenotypic values for economically important traits can be used as a criterion to optimize the sampling when creating base populations. Also, the increasing availability of genome-wide genotype information in aquaculture species could help to refine the estimation of relationships within and between candidate strains and, thus, to optimize the percentage of individuals to be sampled from each strain. This study explores the advantages of using phenotypic and genome-wide information when constructing base populations for aquaculture breeding programs in terms of initial and subsequent trait performance and genetic diversity level. Results show that a compromise solution between diversity and performance can be found when creating base populations. Up to 6% higher levels of phenotypic performance can be achieved at the same level of global diversity in the base population by optimizing the selection of breeders instead of sampling equal numbers from each strain. The higher performance observed in the base population persisted during 10 generations of phenotypic selection applied in the subsequent breeding program.

  6. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Dalia A; Colchero, Fernando; Gusset, Markus; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Byers, Onnie; Flesness, Nate; Browne, Robert K; Jones, Owen R

    2013-01-01

    Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs) is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23%) terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  7. Zoos through the lens of the IUCN Red List: a global metapopulation approach to support conservation breeding programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia A Conde

    Full Text Available Given current extinction trends, the number of species requiring conservation breeding programs (CBPs is likely to increase dramatically. To inform CBP policies for threatened terrestrial vertebrates, we evaluated the number and representation of threatened vertebrate species on the IUCN Red List held in the ISIS zoo network and estimated the complexity of their management as metapopulations. Our results show that 695 of the 3,955 (23% terrestrial vertebrate species in ISIS zoos are threatened. Only two of the 59 taxonomic orders show a higher proportion of threatened species in ISIS zoos than would be expected if species were selected at random. In addition, for most taxa, the management of a zoo metapopulation of more than 250 individuals will require the coordination of a cluster of 11 to 24 ISIS zoos within a radius of 2,000 km. Thus, in the zoo network, the representation of species that may require CBPs is currently low and the spatial distribution of these zoo populations makes management difficult. Although the zoo community may have the will and the logistical potential to contribute to conservation actions, including CBPs, to do so will require greater collaboration between zoos and other institutions, alongside the development of international agreements that facilitate cross-border movement of zoo animals. To maximize the effectiveness of integrated conservation actions that include CBPs, it is fundamental that the non-zoo conservation community acknowledges and integrates the expertise and facilities of zoos where it can be helpful.

  8. A recursive method for computing expected kinship and inbreeding in complex and dynamic breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzenstock, F; Ytournel, F; Simianer, H

    2013-02-01

    In many livestock breeding programmes, the development of inbreeding is of critical importance. Thus, the assessment of the expected development of inbreeding should be an essential element in the design of breeding programmes. We propose a new method to deterministically predict the rate of inbreeding based on the gene-flow method in well-defined complex and dynamic breeding programmes. In the suggested approach, a breeding programme has to be structured in homogeneous age-sex-groups, so called cohorts, with a defined origin of genes. Starting from an initial setup (usually an unrelated and non-inbred base population), transition rules to calculate the kinship within and between cohorts originating from reproduction or ageing, respectively, are defined. Using this approach recursively provides the expected development of kinship within and between all cohorts over time, which can be combined into average kinships for the whole population or defined subsets. From these quantities, relevant parameters like the inbreeding rate or the effective population size are easily derived. We illustrate the method with a simple static example breeding programme in sheep. Based on this reference breeding programme, we demonstrate the use of our approach for dynamic breeding programmes, in which cohort sizes or vectors of gene origin change over time: here, we model the situation of exponential population growth and a bottleneck situation, respectively. The suggested approach does not account for the effect of selection on the development of inbreeding, but ideas to overcome this limitation are discussed.

  9. Diversity of pea (Pisum sativum) accessions based on morphological data for sustainable field pea breeding in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, I; Espósito, M A; Almirón, P; Cravero, V P; Cointry, E L

    2011-10-31

    We characterized 13 accessions of dry peas of different origins from various growing regions in Argentina, based on three replications of 20 plants cultivated in 2009 and 2010 in a greenhouse, with the objective of selecting those with favorable characteristics for use in breeding programs. Significant differences were found for length and width of stipule and pod, length of the internodes and leaflets, plant height, total number of nodes, number of nodes at the first pod, number of days to flowering and to harvest, number of pods and seeds per pod, 100-seed weight and grain diameter, demonstrating a high degree of genetic variability. Phenotypic correlation analysis demonstrated that large pods produced more seeds per pod, but the seed weight decreased. Plants with smaller number of nodes in the first pod were more productive. Estimates of genotypic correlation coefficients indicated a strong inherent association among the different traits. Clustering methods grouped the accessions into five clusters. Cluster 5 included two accessions and showed the highest values for length and width of stipules (4.9 and 4.5 cm, respectively), length of leaflets (7.43 cm) and days to flowering (122.6), while cluster 3, with one accession, and cluster 4, with two accessions, showed the highest values for number of seeds per pod (3.78 and 4.39), number of pods per plant (5.33 and 5.70), length of pods (5.54 and 5.72 cm), and width of pods (1.21 and 1.20 cm, respectively). We conclude that accessions in clusters 3 and 4 would be useful for crosses with other cultivars in pea breeding programs.

  10. Model based feature fusion approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwering, P.B.W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years different sensor data fusion approaches have been analyzed and evaluated in the field of mine detection. In various studies comparisons have been made between different techniques. Although claims can be made for advantages for using certain techniques, until now there has been no si

  11. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches.

  12. Cost-benefit Analysis of Scale Pig Breeding in Shandong Province Based on Modified Entropy Weight-TOPSIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; ZHANG; Shimin; SUN

    2014-01-01

    According to the relevant statistical data in National Agricultural cost-benefit Data Compilation(2001- 2013),we use the modified entropy weight- TOPSIS model to research the cost-benefit status of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province from the perspective of comparing it with that of the entire country and 9 other main pig producing areas. The results show that compared with the national average,the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is lower,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is significantly improved; the cost-benefit ratio of small scale pig breeding in Shandong Province is basically the same as that in 9 other main pig producing areas,while the cost-benefit ratio of medium scale and large scale pig breeding is higher; the output value of main products and the purchase price of piglet are two major bottlenecks restricting the cost-benefit improvement of scale pig breeding in Shandong Province.

  13. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10...

  14. Appreciation of the Mammary Gland Health Status Based on the Quality Traits of Milk Obtained from Friesian - Black Spotted Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore Onaciu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives in dairy cows exploitation is to guarantee food security and safety of the population, a desideratum achieved through better milk quality and better control of production in all aspects imposed by the health and welfare of animals from which milk is obtained. The purpose of this sciencific paper is to highlight the status of mammary gland health in a population of Friesian-Black Spotted breed based on the main traits of milk quality, with particular reference to somatic cell counts as the main indicator of subclinical mastitis. The research was conducted in 2014 within the farm S.C. “Modern Farm” S.R.L., located in Jucu village. The individual analysis of Holstein Friesian milked cows was performed, the main indicators of milk production were analysed both quantitatively, based on production obtained daily, and especially qualitatively, based on seven controls with individual sampling from all milked cows at the date of control. Qualitative analysis of 1,391 milk samples highlighted the fact that the somatic cell count in milk obtained from cattle included in this study  recorded an average value of 390.54 ± 11.16 cells/ml x 103 with the variability between controls of 314.94 ± 28.93 and 482.36 ± 91.12 cells/ml x 103. Regarding the fat content, the average values was 4.19%, 3.63% for protein content, a pH value of 6.56 and the values of  urea was 20.09 mg/dl. Individual analysis also revealed some cows with subclinical mastitis, which were milked separately, verified and monitored supplementarily in order to reestablish udder health and to prevent the occurrence of clinical mastitis, which can compromise the mammary gland.

  15. Fragment-based approaches to enzyme inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulli, Alessio; Abell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have provided a new paradigm for small-molecule drug discovery. The methodology is complementary to high-throughput screening approaches, starting from fragments of low molecular complexity and high ligand efficiency, and building up to more potent inhibitors. The approach, which depends heavily on a number of biophysical techniques, is now being taken up by more groups in both industry and academia. This article describes key aspects of the process and highlights re...

  16. Strategy and Opportunity for The Development of Duck Breeding Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hardy Prasetyo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of duck farming requires the availability of good quality breeding stocks commercially in order to improve productivity and efficiency . Presently, there is no commercial duck breeding farm which can produce good quality breeding stocks . This article presents information on alternatives in developing duck breeding farm, particularly for layer ducks . There are two alternative approaches in duck breeding farms : (1 Group breeding farm, which belongs to duck farmers' group, as part of a group production system, and (2 Commercial breeding farm, by an individual private company/Semi-Government Institution in a commercial scale and particularly for export market . A good breeding farm requires appropriate systems for selection and mating of the animals in order to guarantee the quality of the breeding stocks being produced . A breeding farm must be economically and technically feasible as an economic entity, so that economic analysis and marketing must be prepared seriously.

  17. The productivity of various pure breed and cross breed of imported pigs during lactation period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamuara Aritonang

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to evaluate the productivity of pure breeds and cross breeds of imported pigs. Sixteen strains of pigs with five best sows were selected based on litter size and birth weight on the second parity. The results of the study showed that the pure breed performance was better than the cross breeds, as shown by the litter size, birth and weaned weight, less mortality, better mothering ability and better feed efficiency. Between pure breed, the Landrace and Yorkshire were better than other sows and between the cross breed, the LH and YL performed better than other crossbreeds. It is recommended that the pure breed especially Landrace and Yorkshire and LH and YL of cross breed are better than others

  18. [Breeding of Actinobacillus succiniogenes mutants with improved succinate production based on metabolic flux analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lijun; Li, Xingjiang; Jiang, Shaotong; Wei, Zhaojun; Chen, Xiaohui; Cai, Licheng; Wang, Hefeng; Jiang, Jijun

    2008-09-01

    It is very important to obtain high yield mutant strains on the base of metabolic flux analysis of Actinobacillus succinogenes S.JST for the industrial bioconversion of succinic acid. The metabolic pathway was analized at first and the flux of the metabolic networks was calculated by matrix. In order to decrease acetic acid flux, the strains mutated by soft X-ray of synchronous radiation were screened on the plates with high concentration of fluoroacetic acid. For decreasing the metabolic flux of ethanol the site-directed mutagenesis was carried out for the reduction of alcohol dehydrogenase(Adh) specific activity. Then the enzyme activity determination and the gene sequence analysis of the mutant strain was compared with those of the parent strain. Metabolic flux analysis of the parent strain indicated that the flux of succinic acid was 1.78(mmol/g/h) and that the flux of acetic acid and ethanol were 0.60 (mmol/g/h) and 1.04( mmol/g/h), respectively. Meanwhile the metabolic pathway analysis showed that the ethanol metabolism enhanced the lacking of H electron donor during the synthesis of succinic acid and that the succinic acid flux was weakened by the metabolism of byproducts ethanol and acetic acid. Compared with the parent strain, the acetic acid flux of anti-fluoroacetic mutant strain S.JST1 was 0.024 (mmol/g/h), decreasing by 96%. Then the enzyme determination showed that the specific activity unit of phosphotransacetylase(Pta) decreased from 602 to 74 and a mutated site was founded in the pta gene of the mutant strain S.JST1. Compared with that of the parent strain S.JST1 the ethanol flux of adh-site-directed mutant strain S.JST2 was 0.020 (mmol/g/h), decreasing by 98%. Then the enzyme determination showed that the specific activity unit of Adh decreased from 585 to 62 and the yield of end product succinic acid was 65.7 (g/L). The interdiction of Adh and Pta decreased the metabolism of byproducts and the H electron donor was well balanced, thus the succinic

  19. A programmable approach to revising knowledge bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Shangmin; DAI Guozhong; LI Wei

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a programmable approach to revising knowledge bases consisting of clauses. Some theorems and lemmas are shown in order to give procedures for generating maximally consistent subsets. Then a complete procedure and an incomplete procedure for generating the maximal consistent subsets are presented, and the correctness of the procedures is also shown. Furthermore, a way to implement knowledge base revision is presented, and a prototype system is introduced. Compared with related works, the main characteristic of our approach is that the approach can be implemented by a computer program.

  20. A Pyramid Breeding of Eight Grain-yield Related Quantitative Trait Loci Based on Marker-assistant and Phenotype Selection in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zong; Ahong Wang; Lu Wang; Guohua Liang; Minghong Gu; Tao Sang; Bin Han

    2012-01-01

    1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield.In our previous study,eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs).In this study,we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs),and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs.The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11.We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS).This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24QTLs at a tingle hybridization without massive cross work.This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding.

  1. Anopheline (Diptera:Culicidae) breeding in a traditional tank-based village ecosystem in north central Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amerasinghe, F P; Konradsen, F; Fonseka, K T;

    1997-01-01

    A 13-mo survey of immature anopheline mosquitoes breeding in surface water habitats was done at Mahameegaswewa village within the Huruluwewa watershed in north central Sri Lanka as part of a multidisciplinary study on malaria epidemiology. The watershed is representative of the ancient small tank...

  2. Teaching writing through genre-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu, Tuan Trong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is an endeavour to examine the impact of genre-based approach on students’ writing performance as well as students’ attitudes towards the implementation of genre-based approach in writing learning. Research findings reveal that most of the students gained the control over the key features of the required recount genre in terms of social purposes, language features and schematic structure. The necessity and usefulness of the application of teaching-learning cycle into learning the recount genre was predominantly recognized among students

  3. Application of a PCR-based approach to identify sex in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Banko, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The application of molecular techniques to conservation genetics issues can provide important guidance criteria for management of endangered species. The results from this study establish that PCR-based approaches for sex determination developed in other bird species (Griffiths and Tiwari 1995; Griffiths et al. 1996, 1998; Ellegren 1996) can be applied with a high degree of confidence to at least four species of Hawaiian honeycreepers. This provides a rapid, reliable method with which population managers can optimize sex ratios within populations of endangered species that are subject to artificial manipulation through captive breeding programmes or geographic translocation.

  4. Development of a platform for breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on an SSSL library in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziju; Lu, Qing; Luan, Xin; Ouyang, Lian; Guo, Jie; Liang, Jiayan; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Wenjuan; Wang, Shaokui; Zeng, Ruizhen; Liu, Ziqiang; Zhang, Zemin; Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-12-01

    Exploitation of the heterosis of hybrid rice has shown great success in the improvement of rice yields. However, few genotypes exhibit strong restoration ability as effective restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the development of hybrid rice. In this study, we developed a platform for the breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on a library of chromosomal single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in the Huajingxian74 (HJX74) genetic background. The target genes for breeding by design, Rf3(4) and Rf4(4), which are associated with a strong restoration ability, and gs3, gw8, Wx(g1) and Alk, which are associated with good grain quality, were selected from the HJX74 SSSL library. Through pyramiding of the target genes, a restorer line, H121R, was developed. The H121R line was then improved regarding blast resistance by pyramiding of the qBLAST11 gene. Hence, a new restorer line with blast resistance, H131R, was developed. The platform involving the Rf3(4) and Rf4(4) restorer genes would be used for the continuous improvement of restorer lines through breeding by design in rice.

  5. Immune based computer virus detection approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.

  6. Ecosystem based approaches to climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Jensen, Anne; Termansen, Mette

    This report analyses the prospects and barriers of applying ecosystem based approaches systematically to climate adaptation in urban areas, taking the case of green roofs in Copenhagen Municipality. It looks at planning aspects of green roofs in Copenhagen as well as citizen views and preferences...

  7. Ugi-based approaches to quinoxaline libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, Jhonny; El Maatougui, Abdelaziz; García-Mera, Xerardo; Sotelo, Eddy

    2014-08-11

    An expedient and concise Ugi-based unified approach for the rapid assembly of quinoxaline frameworks has been developed. This convergent and versatile method uses readily available commercial reagents, does not require advanced intermediates, and exhibits excellent bond-forming efficiency, thus exemplifying the operationally simple synthesis of quinoxaline libraries.

  8. Comparison between genomic predictions using daughter yield deviation and conventional estimated breeding value as response variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Zhang, Y;

    2010-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions using conventional estimated breeding values (EBV) and daughter yield deviations (DYD) as response variables based on simulated data. Eight scenarios were simulated in regard to heritability (0.05 and 0.30), number of daughters per sire (30, 100, and unequal......), the EBV and DYD approaches provided similar genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) reliabilities, except for scenarios with unequal numbers of daughters and half of sires without genotype, for which the EBV approach was superior to the DYD approach (by 1.2 and 2.4%). Using a Bayesian mixture prior model...

  9. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gricius, Gediminas; Drungilas, Darius; Andziulis, Arunas; Dzemydiene, Dale; Voznak, Miroslav; Kurmis, Mindaugas; Jakovlev, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys), which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information. PMID:26345197

  10. Advanced Approach of Multiagent Based Buoy Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Gricius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a hydrometeorological information system is faced with great data flows, but the data levels are often excessive, depending on the observed region of the water. The paper presents advanced buoy communication technologies based on multiagent interaction and data exchange between several monitoring system nodes. The proposed management of buoy communication is based on a clustering algorithm, which enables the performance of the hydrometeorological information system to be enhanced. The experiment is based on the design and analysis of the inexpensive but reliable Baltic Sea autonomous monitoring network (buoys, which would be able to continuously monitor and collect temperature, waviness, and other required data. The proposed approach of multiagent based buoy communication enables all the data from the costal-based station to be monitored with limited transition speed by setting different tasks for the agent-based buoy system according to the clustering information.

  11. Surgical approaches for tongue base schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Binbin; Zhu, Songsong; Qiao, Yang; Ye, Weimin; Maimaiti, Abdikerimjian; Hu, Jingzhou; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign nerve sheath tumor originating from Schwann cells. They are well circumscribed and rarely infiltrate and metastasize. Schwannomas of the head and neck commonly occur in the tongue followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, and mandible. Tongue base schwannomas could extend to the pharyngeal cavity or the floor of the mouse, and it is difficult to differentiate between tumors of the lingual, hypoglossal, and glossopharyngeal nerves.Surgical treatment of tongue base schwannomas is difficult because of limited operative exposure. Although mandibulotomy with lip splitting could obtain good exposure, surgeons might strike a balance between exposure obtaining and morbidity following because there are intricate neurovascular anatomical relationships in this region, and mandibulotomy with lip splitting would cause significant morbidity. Surgical approach options are important for tongue base schwannoma removal. From March 2008 to March 2010, 8 patients were clinically and pathologically diagnosed with tongue base schwannomas in our department, and all underwent surgical treatment. In our experience, transoral approach was used for tongue base schwannomas extending to the floor of the mouse and suprahyroid pharyngotomy approach for those extending to the pharyngeal cavity. Follow-up was made until now. One patient who experienced transoral excision still experienced numbness in the region of the lateral tongue tip, and the other 7 patients had no postoperative long-term complications.

  12. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  13. Managing projects a team-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Karen A

    2010-01-01

    Students today are likely to be assigned to project teams or to be project managers almost immediately in their first job. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach was written for a wide range of stakeholders, including project managers, project team members, support personnel, functional mangers who provide resources for projects, project customers (and customer representatives), project sponsors, project subcontractors, and anyone who plays a role in the project delivery process. The need for project management is on the rise as product life cycles compress, demand for IT systems increases, and business takes on an increasingly global character. This book adds to the project management knowledge base in a way that fills an unmet need—it shows how teams can apply many of the standard project management tools, as well as several tools that are relatively new to the field. Managing Projects: A Team-Based Approach offers the academic rigor found in most textbooks along with the practical attributes often foun...

  14. Analysis of the Factors Influencing Breeding Record Establishment of Sheep-raising Households or Farms Based on Logit-ISM:Based on 849 Questionnaires from 17 Cities in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiping; ZHU; Shimin; SUN; Limin; HAN

    2015-01-01

    Breeding record is an important way to implement standardized sheep raising,trace major sheep raising epidemic information and ensure the quality and safety of products for sheep-raising households or farms.Based on 849 questionnaires from 17 cities of Shandong Province,the paper firstly used the binary discrete model of Logit to analyze the factors influencing the establishing behavior of breeding records of sheep-raising households or farms and then used the ISM model to explain the relationship and hierarchy of each influencing factor.The result showed that seven factors including the education level of the deciders,farming scale,fixed number of farming years,degree of specialization,support of the government,whether to join the industrialization organization and the recognition of the breeding records have a significant impact on the establishing behavior of breeding records of the sheep-raising households or farms.Among them,the support of the government and the recognition of breeding records are the surface direct factors,degree of specialization and whether to join the industrialization organization are the middle indirect factors,the education level of the deciders,the farming scale and the fixed number of farming years are deep source factors.

  15. An Approach to Programming Based on Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Savinov, Alexandr

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to programming which generalizes object-oriented programming. It is based on using a new programming construct, called concept, which generalizes classes. Concept is defined as a pair of two classes: one reference class and one object class. Each concept has a parent concept which is specified using inclusion relation generalizing inheritance. We describe several important mechanisms such as reference resolution, context stack, dual methods and life-cycle management, inheritance and polymorphism. This approach to programming is positioned as a new programming paradigm and therefore we formulate its main principles and rules.

  16. A network approach based on cliques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadigas, I. S.; Pereira, H. B. B.

    2013-05-01

    The characterization of complex networks is a procedure that is currently found in several research studies. Nevertheless, few studies present a discussion on networks in which the basic element is a clique. In this paper, we propose an approach based on a network of cliques. This approach consists not only of a set of new indices to capture the properties of a network of cliques but also of a method to characterize complex networks of cliques (i.e., some of the parameters are proposed to characterize the small-world phenomenon in networks of cliques). The results obtained are consistent with results from classical methods used to characterize complex networks.

  17. Cisgenesis, a new tool for traditional plant breeding, should be exempted from the regulation on genetically modified organisms in a step by step approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Schouten, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Modern potato breeding requires over 100,000 seedlings per new variety. Main reasons are (1) the increasing number of traits that have to be combined in this tetraploid vegetatively propagated crop, and (2) an increasing number of traits (e.g., resistance to biotic stress) originates from wild speci

  18. Analysis of Plant Breeding on Hadoop and Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangxi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of crop breeding technology is one of the important means of computer-assisted breeding techniques which have huge data, high dimensions, and a lot of unstructured data. We propose a crop breeding data analysis platform on Spark. The platform consists of Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS and cluster based on memory iterative components. With this cluster, we achieve crop breeding large data analysis tasks in parallel through API provided by Spark. By experiments and tests of Indica and Japonica rice traits, plant breeding analysis platform can significantly improve the breeding of big data analysis speed, reducing the workload of concurrent programming.

  19. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...

  20. Materiality in a practice-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object-oriented a......The paper provides an overview of the vocabulary for materiality which is used by practice-based approaches to organizational knowing. Common terms for materiality are 'artifact' and 'object'. The interaction between social and material realities is grasped as several processes: object......-oriented activity, symbolization, embodiment, performance, alignment and mediation. Material artifacts both stabilize and destabilize organizational action. They may ensure coordination, communication, and control, but they may also create disturbance and conflict....

  1. TILLING in forage grasses for gene discovery and breeding improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, Chloe; Yates, Steven; Ruckle, Michael; Nay, Michelle; Studer, Bruno

    2016-09-25

    Mutation breeding has a long-standing history and in some major crop species, many of the most important cultivars have their origin in germplasm generated by mutation induction. For almost two decades, methods for TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) have been established in model plant species such as Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.), enabling the functional analysis of genes. Recent advances in mutation detection by second generation sequencing technology have brought its utility to major crop species. However, it has remained difficult to apply similar approaches in forage and turf grasses, mainly due to their outbreeding nature maintained by an efficient self-incompatibility system. Starting with a description of the extent to which traditional mutagenesis methods have contributed to crop yield increase in the past, this review focuses on technological approaches to implement TILLING-based strategies for the improvement of forage grass breeding through forward and reverse genetics. We present first results from TILLING in allogamous forage grasses for traits such as stress tolerance and evaluate prospects for rapid implementation of beneficial alleles to forage grass breeding. In conclusion, large-scale induced mutation resources, used for forward genetic screens, constitute a valuable tool to increase the genetic diversity for breeding and can be generated with relatively small investments in forage grasses. Furthermore, large libraries of sequenced mutations can be readily established, providing enhanced opportunities to discover mutations in genes controlling traits of agricultural importance and to study gene functions by reverse genetics.

  2. Stem cell-based approaches in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsiadis, T A; Orsini, G.; Jimenez-Rojo, L

    2015-01-01

    Repair of dental pulp and periodontal lesions remains a major clinical challenge. Classical dental treatments require the use of specialised tissue-adapted materials with still questionable efficacy and durability. Stem cell-based therapeutic approaches could offer an attractive alternative in dentistry since they can promise physiologically improved structural and functional outcomes. These therapies necessitate a sufficient number of specific stem cell populations for implantation. Dental m...

  3. An Approach to Programming Based on Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Savinov, Alexandr

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to programming which generalizes object-oriented programming. It is based on using a new programming construct, called concept, which generalizes classes. Concept is defined as a pair of two classes: one reference class and one object class. Each concept has a parent concept which is specified using inclusion relation generalizing inheritance. We describe several important mechanisms such as reference resolution, context stack, dual methods and life-cy...

  4. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  5. Tourism Planning: A Case Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khalid Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the tourism marketing and attraction strategies adopted by various countries. A case study based approach is adopted in this study. On the basis of investigation of tourism development strategies adopted by various countries, suggestions are also made at the end. These suggestions are aimed to increase visitors our tourists’ base in a country. These suggestions can be used by any country to increase visitors or tourists. Future directions are also given at the end.

  6. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  7. Matched filter based iterative adaptive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Ramesh; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Li, Zhengzheng; Blake, William

    2016-05-01

    Matched Filter sidelobes from diversified LPI waveform design and sensor resolution are two important considerations in radars and active sensors in general. Matched Filter sidelobes can potentially mask weaker targets, and low sensor resolution not only causes a high margin of error but also limits sensing in target-rich environment/ sector. The improvement in those factors, in part, concern with the transmitted waveform and consequently pulse compression techniques. An adaptive pulse compression algorithm is hence desired that can mitigate the aforementioned limitations. A new Matched Filter based Iterative Adaptive Approach, MF-IAA, as an extension to traditional Iterative Adaptive Approach, IAA, has been developed. MF-IAA takes its input as the Matched Filter output. The motivation here is to facilitate implementation of Iterative Adaptive Approach without disrupting the processing chain of traditional Matched Filter. Similar to IAA, MF-IAA is a user parameter free, iterative, weighted least square based spectral identification algorithm. This work focuses on the implementation of MF-IAA. The feasibility of MF-IAA is studied using a realistic airborne radar simulator as well as actual measured airborne radar data. The performance of MF-IAA is measured with different test waveforms, and different Signal-to-Noise (SNR) levels. In addition, Range-Doppler super-resolution using MF-IAA is investigated. Sidelobe reduction as well as super-resolution enhancement is validated. The robustness of MF-IAA with respect to different LPI waveforms and SNR levels is also demonstrated.

  8. Biotechnology in maize breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Drinić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important economic crops and the best studied and most tractable genetic system among monocots. The development of biotechnology has led to a great increase in our knowledge of maize genetics and understanding of the structure and behaviour of maize genomes. Conventional breeding practices can now be complemented by a number of new and powerful techniques. Some of these often referred to as molecular methods, enable scientists to see the layout of the entire genome of any organism and to select plants with preferred characteristics by "reading" at the molecular level, saving precious time and resources. DNA markers have provided valuable tools in various analyses ranging from phylogenetic analysis to the positional cloning of genes. Application of molecular markers for genetic studies of maize include: assessment of genetic variability and characterization of germ plasm, identification and fingerprinting of genotypes, estimation of genetic distance, detection of monogamic and quantitative trait loci, marker assisted selection, identification of sequence of useful candidate genes, etc. The development of high-density molecular maps which has been facilitated by PCR-based markers, have made the mapping and tagging of almost any trait possible and serve as bases for marker assisted selection. Sequencing of maize genomes would help to elucidate gene function, gene regulation and their expression. Modern biotechnology also includes an array of tools for introducing or deieting a particular gene or genes to produce plants with novel traits. Development of informatics and biotechnology are resulted in bioinformatic as well as in expansion of microarrey technique. Modern biotechnologies could complement and improve the efficiency of traditional selection and breeding techniques to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. Prevalence of porcine endogenous retrovirus in Chinese pig breeds and in patients treated with a porcine liver cell-based bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Zheng Liu; Evangelos Dalakas

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) in various pig breeds raised in China including Chinese experimental mini-pigs by PERV-reverse transcriptase (PERV-RT enzyme). Moreover, the potential for infection of PERV was investigated in patients treated with a bioreactor based on porcine liver cells (n = 3).METHODS: Pig serum, liver and musde cell-free supematants were collected from various Chinese pig breeds. Porcine hepatocytes were isolated with a two-step perfusion method. Three patients with acute or chronic liver failure were treated with a bioartificial liver support system (BALSS) for 8-12 h and serum samples were collected from the patients before, immediately after and 30 d after treatment.RESULTS: The activities of PERV-RT enzyme in pig liver and muscle cell-free supernatants were higher than in normal human controls. PERV-TR enzyme activity did not increase in patients before and after 1 mo of treatment.PERV-RT activities were not significantly different when compared with pre-treatment group (1.544±0.155576), the post-treatment groups (1.501±0.053507, 1.461±0.033808 and 1.6006667±0.01963 for 0, 14 and 30 d post-treatment,respectively, P>0.05), and normal control group (1.440±1.0641, P>0.05). RT enzyme activity in Chinese experimental mini-pigs was higher than in normal human control group (1.440±1.0641 U/mL, P0.05) when compared with the pig breeds except in the muscle supernatants. All the samples including muscle and liver cell supernatants from the Chinese mini-experimental pigs and the four domestic Chinese pig breeds contained PERVs.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the risk of PERV infection through BALSS containing porcine liver cells without immunosuppressants may be quite low. Although there were PERVs in Chinese experimental mini-pigs and porcine liver cell culture suspensions, we did not find any evidence of persistent PERV infection in patients treated with this porcine hepatocyte-based bioartificial

  10. Cosine-Based Clustering Algorithm Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. H. Lubbad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to many applications need the management of spatial data; clustering large spatial databases is an important problem which tries to find the densely populated regions in the feature space to be used in data mining, knowledge discovery, or efficient information retrieval. A good clustering approach should be efficient and detect clusters of arbitrary shapes. It must be insensitive to the outliers (noise and the order of input data. In this paper Cosine Cluster is proposed based on cosine transformation, which satisfies all the above requirements. Using multi-resolution property of cosine transforms, arbitrary shape clusters can be effectively identified at different degrees of accuracy. Cosine Cluster is also approved to be highly efficient in terms of time complexity. Experimental results on very large data sets are presented, which show the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed approach compared to other recent clustering methods.

  11. RISK BASED TESTING A Fuzzy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochin Sharma

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Earlier Testers used to concentrate on only functionality, usability or performance sort of testing. Many of these derived by the customer’s desire or need. Same thing was with the risk based testing. If an application used to be real time based or crucial in terms or national security or economic then it was considered to be a risk based testing candidate. But business of individual has equalimportance for the people. Hence now risked based scenario and testing is a must do strategy. But based on the various factors how will you decide when an event or activity is under risk and should be treated on priority based. In real time projects many activities cannot be decided as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ criteria. For example in a project if any one person is left out of 10 members’ team. It cannot be treated as crucial, but if 5 members left within short span of time. This 50% breakdown in work force definitely be consider as critical, so here we can wave a red (priority signal. So fuzzy approach can be consider as an important deal with respect of risk management

  12. Solving Operator Equation Based on Expansion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aminataei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, researchers usually use spectral and pseudospectral methods for only numerical approximation of ordinary and partial differential equations and also based on polynomial basis. But the principal importance of this paper is to develop the expansion approach based on general basis functions (in particular case polynomial basis for solving general operator equations, wherein the particular cases of our development are integral equations, ordinary differential equations, difference equations, partial differential equations, and fractional differential equations. In other words, this paper presents the expansion approach for solving general operator equations in the form Lu+Nu=g(x,x∈Γ, with respect to boundary condition Bu=λ, where L, N and B are linear, nonlinear, and boundary operators, respectively, related to a suitable Hilbert space, Γ is the domain of approximation, λ is an arbitrary constant, and g(x∈L2(Γ is an arbitrary function. Also the other importance of this paper is to introduce the general version of pseudospectral method based on general interpolation problem. Finally some experiments show the accuracy of our development and the error analysis is presented in L2(Γ norm.

  13. Neutronic Comparison of Tritium-Breeding Performance of Candidate Tritium-Breeding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑善良; 吴宜灿

    2003-01-01

    Tritium self-sustainment, which will meet the fuel requirement of fusion reactor, isone of the key issues of fusion power development. The tritium breeding performances of varioustritium-breeding materials are compared based on a series of neutronics calculations using three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron-photon transport code MCNP/4C with the IAEA FENDL-2data library. The effects of the dimensions of the tritium-breeding zone and the enrichment of 6Lion Tritium Breeding Ratio (TBR) are analyzed. The effects of Be as a neutron multiplier on TBRare also calculated.

  14. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland and extensive (upland production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity. Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001, leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001. While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001. Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  15. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun

    2015-02-01

    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  16. Creative teaching an evidence-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...

  17. New trends in plant breeding - example of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Jegor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean breeding and selection is a continual process designed to increase yield levels and improve resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soybean breeders have been successful in producing a large number of varieties using conventional breeding methods, the Single Seed Descent method in particular. In recent decades, with the increased use of genetic transformations, backcrossing is more frequent though the only trait that has been commercialized is glyphosate tolerance. Physiological breeding poses a particular challenge, as well as phenotyping and development of useful criteria and techniques suitable for plant breeding. Using modern remote sensing techniques provides great opportunity for collecting a large amount of physiological data in real environment, which is necessary for physiological breeding. Molecular based plant breeding methods and techniques are a conceptual part of any serious breeding program. Among those methods, the most extensively used is marker-assisted selection, as a supplement to conventional breeding methods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31022

  18. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus induced by a viral vector based on Citrus leaf blotch virus: a new tool for genetics and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Karelia; Agüero, Jesús; Vives, María C; Aleza, Pablo; Pina, José A; Moreno, Pedro; Navarro, Luis; Guerri, José

    2016-10-01

    The long juvenile period of citrus trees (often more than 6 years) has hindered genetic improvement by traditional breeding methods and genetic studies. In this work, we have developed a biotechnology tool to promote transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in juvenile citrus plants by expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana or citrus FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes using a Citrus leaf blotch virus-based vector (clbvINpr-AtFT and clbvINpr-CiFT, respectively). Citrus plants of different genotypes graft inoculated with either of these vectors started flowering within 4-6 months, with no alteration of the plant architecture, leaf, flower or fruit morphology in comparison with noninoculated adult plants. The vector did not integrate in or recombine with the plant genome nor was it pollen or vector transmissible, albeit seed transmission at low rate was detected. The clbvINpr-AtFT is very stable, and flowering was observed over a period of at least 5 years. Precocious flowering of juvenile citrus plants after vector infection provides a helpful and safe tool to dramatically speed up genetic studies and breeding programmes.

  19. Molecular breeding of allergy vaccines and antiallergic cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnonen, J

    2000-03-01

    Molecular breeding, also called DNA shuffling, is a technology that enables the generation of large libraries of novel genes and vectors, from which improved variants can be selected based on functional properties. In a common format, it involves recursive recombination and mutation, performed by random fragmentation of related DNA sequences, followed by reassembly of the fragments in a self-priming polymerase chain reaction. As in natural evolution, the technique takes advantage of crossovers, deletions, insertions, inversions and point mutations of genes to generate large pools of related sequences. Molecular breeding can be used to generate improved variants of proteins used as therapeutics, such as vaccine antigens, growth factors and immunomodulatory molecules. Moreover, the technology can be applied to evolve entire viruses or vectors, including DNA vaccines. Cytokines downregulating allergic immune responses and allergens are attractive targets for evolution by molecular breeding. This review describes approaches to generate chimeric allergens with T cell epitopes from multiple allergen homologues, while reducing the recognition by preexisting IgE. In addition, the results and applications of molecular breeding in the evolution of improved antiallergic cytokines are discussed.

  20. From phenotyping towards breeding strategies: using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers to improve meat quality in an endangered pig breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, A D M; Yin, T; König von Borstel, U U; Rübesam, K; Kuhn, B; König, S

    2015-06-01

    In endangered and local pig breeds of small population sizes, production has to focus on alternative niche markets with an emphasis on specific product and meat quality traits to achieve economic competiveness. For designing breeding strategies on meat quality, an adequate performance testing scheme focussing on phenotyped selection candidates is required. For the endangered German pig breed 'Bunte Bentheimer' (BB), no breeding program has been designed until now, and no performance testing scheme has been implemented. For local breeds, mainly reared in small-scale production systems, a performance test based on in vivo indicator traits might be a promising alternative in order to increase genetic gain for meat quality traits. Hence, the main objective of this study was to design and evaluate breeding strategies for the improvement of meat quality within the BB breed using in vivo indicator traits and genetic markers. The in vivo indicator trait was backfat thickness measured by ultrasound (BFiv), and genetic markers were allele variants at the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) locus. In total, 1116 records of production and meat quality traits were collected, including 613 in vivo ultrasound measurements and 713 carcass and meat quality records. Additionally, 700 pigs were genotyped at the RYR1 locus. Data were used (1) to estimate genetic (co)variance components for production and meat quality traits, (2) to estimate allele substitution effects at the RYR1 locus using a selective genotyping approach and (3) to evaluate breeding strategies on meat quality by combining results from quantitative-genetic and molecular-genetic approaches. Heritability for the production trait BFiv was 0.27, and 0.48 for backfat thickness measured on carcass. Estimated heritabilities for meat quality traits ranged from 0.14 for meat brightness to 0.78 for the intramuscular fat content (IMF). Genetic correlations between BFiv and IMF were higher than estimates based on carcass backfat

  1. Maternal genealogical patterns of chicken breeds sampled in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyimo, C M; Weigend, A; Msoffe, P L; Hocking, P M; Simianer, H; Weigend, S

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the maternal genealogical pattern of chicken breeds sampled in Europe. Sequence polymorphisms of 1256 chickens of the hypervariable region (D-loop) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were used. Median-joining networks were constructed to establish evolutionary relationships among mtDNA haplotypes of chickens, which included a wide range of breeds with different origin and history. Chicken breeds which have had their roots in Europe for more than 3000 years were categorized by their founding regions, encompassing Mediterranean type, East European type and Northwest European type. Breeds which were introduced to Europe from Asia since the mid-19th century were classified as Asian type, and breeds based on crossbreeding between Asian breeds and European breeds were classified as Intermediate type. The last group, Game birds, included fighting birds from Asia. The classification of mtDNA haplotypes was based on Liu et al.'s (2006) nomenclature. Haplogroup E was the predominant clade among the European chicken breeds. The results showed, on average, the highest number of haplotypes, highest haplotype diversity, and highest nucleotide diversity for Asian type breeds, followed by Intermediate type chickens. East European and Northwest European breeds had lower haplotype and nucleotide diversity compared to Mediterranean, Intermediate, Game and Asian type breeds. Results of our study support earlier findings that chicken breeds sampled in Europe have their roots in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia. This is consistent with historical and archaeological evidence of chicken migration routes to Europe.

  2. Peptide Based Radiopharmaceuticals: Specific Construct Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, P; Rhodes, B A; Sharma, S S

    1997-10-21

    The objective of this project was to develop receptor based peptides for diagnostic imaging and therapy. A series of peptides related to cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and immune regulation were designed for radiolabeling with 99mTc and evaluated in animal models as potential diagnostic imaging agents for various disease conditions such as thrombus (clot), acute kidney failure, and inflection/inflammation imaging. The peptides for this project were designed by the industrial partner, Palatin Technologies, (formerly Rhomed, Inc.) using various peptide design approaches including a newly developed rational computer assisted drug design (CADD) approach termed MIDAS (Metal ion Induced Distinctive Array of Structures). In this approach, the biological function domain and the 99mTc complexing domain are fused together so that structurally these domains are indistinguishable. This approach allows construction of conformationally rigid metallo-peptide molecules (similar to cyclic peptides) that are metabolically stable in-vivo. All the newly designed peptides were screened in various in vitro receptor binding and functional assays to identify a lead compound. The lead compounds were formulated in a one-step 99mTc labeling kit form which were studied by BNL for detailed in-vivo imaging using various animals models of human disease. Two main peptides usingMIDAS approach evolved and were investigated: RGD peptide for acute renal failure and an immunomodulatory peptide derived from tuftsin (RMT-1) for infection/inflammation imaging. Various RGD based metallopeptides were designed, synthesized and assayed for their efficacy in inhibiting ADP-induced human platelet aggregation. Most of these peptides displayed biological activity in the 1-100 µM range. Based on previous work by others, RGD-I and RGD-II were evaluated in animal models of acute renal failure. These earlier studies showed that after acute ischemic injury the renal cortex displays

  3. New approaches in diffraction based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Vanoppen, P.; Jak, M.; v. d. Zouw, G.; Cramer, H.; Nooitgedagt, T.; v. d. Laan, H.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements for on-product overlay, focus and CD uniformity continue to tighten in order to support the demands of 10nm and 7nm nodes. This results in the need for simultaneously accurate, robust and dense metrology data as input for closed-loop control solutions thereby enabling wafer-level control and high order corrections. In addition the use of opaque materials and stringent design rules drive the need for expansion of the available measurement wavelengths and metrology target design space. Diffraction based optical metrology has been established as the leading methodology for integrated as well as standalone optical metrology for overlay, focus and CD monitoring and control in state of the art chip manufacturing. We are presenting the new approaches to diffraction based optical metrology designed to meet the processing diffraction based metrology signals. In this paper we will present the new detection principle and its impact on key performance characteristics of overlay and focus measurements. We will also describe the wide range of applications of a newly introduced increased measurement spot size, enabling significant improvements to accuracy and process robustness of overlay and focus measurements. With the YS350E the optical CD measurement capability is also extended, to 10x10μm2 targets. We will discuss the performance and value of small targets in after-develop and after-etch applications.

  4. Toxidrome-based Approach to Common Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mégarbane

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning remains a major cause of hospital admission into the emergency department and intensive care unit. Proper diagnosis is the cornerstone for optimal management of poisoned patients. Since the definitive analytical confirmation of the nature of the toxicant involved in the poisoning cannot be rapidly obtained in the majority of healthcare facilities, diagnosis relies on the medical history and the rigorous clinical examination of the patients well as results of the routine biological tests and the electrocardiogram. Identification of the toxidromes addresses not only the correct diagnosis but also rules out other differential diagnoses. Despite no definitive predictive value, this clinical approach facilitates making decision on empirical treatments and emergent antidotes. Pharmacodynamic tests using specific antidotes including naloxone for opioids and flumazenil for benzodiazepines and its analogues are also helpful to assess the final diagnosis in comatose patients. The objective of this article is to review the toxidrome-based approach to common poisonings before toxicological analysis enables the confirmation of the initially suspected toxic etiology.

  5. Age Classification Based On Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pullela. SVVSR Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a new age classification method by integrating the features derived from Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM with a new structural approach derived from four distinct LBP's (4-DLBP on a 3 x 3 image. The present paper derived four distinct patterns called Left Diagonal (LD, Right diagonal (RD, vertical centre (VC and horizontal centre (HC LBP's. For all the LBP's the central pixel value of the 3 x 3 neighbourhood is significant. That is the reason in the present research LBP values are evaluated by comparing all 9 pixels of the 3 x 3 neighbourhood with the average value of the neighbourhood. The four distinct LBP's are grouped into two distinct LBP's. Based on these two distinct LBP's GLCM is computed and features are evaluated to classify the human age into four age groups i.e: Child (0-15, Young adult (16-30, Middle aged adult (31-50 and senior adult (>50. The co-occurrence features extracted from the 4-DLBP provides complete texture information about an image which is useful for classification. The proposed 4-DLBP reduces the size of the LBP from 6561 to 79 in the case of original texture spectrum and 2020 to 79 in the case of Fuzzy Texture approach.

  6. Numerical study of regional environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lihong; Bai, Yu

    2013-09-01

    In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance, this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City, Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta, and computes the environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city, as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods. On the basis of the computations, this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing, and assess the environmental impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry. The results of our study indicate that, the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen, and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus. A comparison between our research findings and the existing farming scale in Putian reveals that, in certain parts of the city, ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees. Specifically, Chengxiang District is severely overburdened, Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening, Licheng District is virtually overburdened, and Xiuyu, Xianyou, and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.

  7. Numerical study of regional environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming based on planting-breeding balance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Peng; Yu Bai

    2013-01-01

    In consideration of the need to maintain planting-breeding balance,this article examines the capacity of the soil in Putian City,Fujian Province to absorb livestock and poultry excreta,and computes the environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry farming (ECCLPF) in each district of the city in terms of the fertility characteristics of the soil in the city,as well as its mix of crops cultivated and farming methods.On the basis of the computations,this work proceeds to classify the alarm grades of the city's environmental carrying capacity for livestock and poultry framing,and assess the environmental impact of the livestock and poultry farming industry.The results of our study indicate that,the city's ECCLPF ranges from 8.27 to 23.23 heads per ha when computed on the basis of nitrogen,and from 5.79 to 24.53 heads per ha when computed on the basis of phosphorus.A comparison between our research findings and the existing fanning scale in Putian reveals that,in certain parts of the city,ECCLPF is overburdened to varying degrees.Specifically,Chengxiang District is severely overburdened,Hanjiang District and Meizhou Island have a level of overburdening between virtual overburdening and significant overburdening,Licheng District is virtually overburdened,and Xiuyu,Xianyou,and Bei'an Districts have not exceeded their environmental carrying capacity and therefore have varying levels of potential for growth.

  8. Nanotechnology-based approaches in anticancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Shakil, Shazi; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Kamal, Mohammad A

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand, because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems. The most common cancer treatments are restricted to chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. Moreover, the early recognition and treatment of cancer remains a technological bottleneck. There is an urgent need to develop new and innovative technologies that could help to delineate tumor margins, identify residual tumor cells and micrometastases, and determine whether a tumor has been completely removed or not. Nanotechnology has witnessed significant progress in the past few decades, and its effect is widespread nowadays in every field. Nanoparticles can be modified in numerous ways to prolong circulation, enhance drug localization, increase drug efficacy, and potentially decrease chances of multidrug resistance by the use of nanotechnology. Recently, research in the field of cancer nanotechnology has made remarkable advances. The present review summarizes the application of various nanotechnology-based approaches towards the diagnostics and therapeutics of cancer.

  9. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  10. Linear systems a measurement based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Mohsenizadeh, D N

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents recent results obtained on the analysis, synthesis and design of systems described by linear equations. It is well known that linear equations arise in most branches of science and engineering as well as social, biological and economic systems. The novelty of this approach is that no models of the system are assumed to be available, nor are they required. Instead, a few measurements made on the system can be processed strategically to directly extract design values that meet specifications without constructing a model of the system, implicitly or explicitly. These new concepts are illustrated by applying them to linear DC and AC circuits, mechanical, civil and hydraulic systems, signal flow block diagrams and control systems. These applications are preliminary and suggest many open problems. The results presented in this brief are the latest effort in this direction and the authors hope these will lead to attractive alternatives to model-based design of engineering and other systems.

  11. Sepsis management: An evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Muhammad Akbar; Shahzad, Hira; Jamil, Bushra; Hussain, Erfan

    2016-03-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) guidelines have outlined an early goal directed therapy (EGDT) which demonstrates a standardized approach to ensure prompt and effective management of sepsis. Having said that, there are barriers associated with the application of evidence-based practice, which often lead to an overall poorer adherence to guidelines. Considering the global burden of disease, data from low- to middle-income countries is scarce. Asia is the largest continent but most Asian countries do not have a well-developed healthcare system and compliance rates to resuscitation and management bundles are as low as 7.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Intensive care units are not adequately equipped and financial concerns limit implementation of expensive treatment strategies. Healthcare policy-makers should be notified in order to alleviate financial restrictions and ensure delivery of standard care to septic patients.

  12. Breeding objectives and economic values for traits of low input family-based beef cattle production system in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Laske

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to define breeding objectives and derive economic weights for production traits in family-based beef cattle systems, assess the sensitivity of these weights to changes in market and husbandry indicators and estimate the expected genetic changes in the selection criteria proposed. Based on data from the production systems, farms revenues and expenses, obtained from interviews and meetings with producers, a bioeconomic model was derived, relating biological traits of animals with the financial result of the production system based on calf-crop, selling male calves and culling cows for finishing. Traits considered in the model as breeding goals were weaning rate, weaning weight and cow weight. The economic weights, obtained by the partial derivative of the bioeconomic model with respect to the trait in question, assessed on the average value of the remaining traits, were R$ 73.21% for weaning rate, R$ 17.07/kg for weaning weight and R$ 4.75/kg for cow weight. An index for joint selection of these three criteria would allocate 89.5% of importance to weaning rate, 6.9% for weaning weight and 3.6% for cow weight. In this way, for every R$ 100.00 of genetic gain in this index, there would be an increase of 1.4% in weaning rate, but with reduction of 0.004 kg in weaning weight and 0.665 kg in cow weight due to negative genetic association between these traits. The proposed index and the relative importance identified for the economic traits can guide the selection decisions of smallholders, both in the choice of their animals and in the acquisition of bulls, cumulatively increasing the productivity of their herds.

  13. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  14. Birds - Breeding [ds60

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This data set provides access to information gathered on annual breeding bird surveys in California using a map layer developed by the Department. This data layer...

  15. Garlic breeding system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Kamenetsky, R.; Féréol, L.; Barandiaran, X.; Rabinowitch, H.D.; Chovelon, V.; Kik, C.

    2007-01-01

    This review outlines innovative methods for garlic breeding improvement and discusses the techniques used to increase variation like mutagenesis and in vitro techniques, as well as the current developments in florogenesis, sexual hybridization, genetic transformation and mass propagation. Sexual ste

  16. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  17. LINE CONSTRUCTION OF NONIUS BREED IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mlyneková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays breeding has become the problem often solved in European states and it has been paid much attention by breeding organizations. In terms of hippology as well as some urgent requirements from the side of nonius breeders we have focussed on this particular breed especially from the reason of its further survival and development in Slovakia. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the growth indicators as well as the achievement level of the stallions since 1927 to the present. Based on our research of the nonius body lines we can state that at present there are 3 stallions that are followers of the N VIII horse line founder. In general, there are 12 stallions that are active within this breed in Slovakia. It was statistically confirmed that this particular breed grew much stronger through the goal-directed breeding work, improved nutrition as well as the immediate breeding site. It was quite complicated to evaluate the performance tests because the individual indicators were significantly influenced by the subjective views of the commitee members performing the evaluation. The next factor which prevents the objective evaluation is the fact that in the period up to 1979, the performance tests were valued by the 100 point system and from the year 1980 by the 10 point system. That is why we take the performance test results into account only as supplemental ones, which can provide a kind of amendment to the observed biological parameters.

  18. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  19. Simulation Modeling in Plant Breeding: Principles and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-kang; Wolfgang H Pfeiffer

    2007-01-01

    Conventional plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection and breeder's experience, therefore the breeding efficiency is low and the predictions are inaccurate. Along with the fast development in molecular biology and biotechnology, a large amount of biological data is available for genetic studies of important breeding traits in plants,which in turn allows the conduction of genotypic selection in the breeding process. However, gene information has not been effectively used in crop improvement because of the lack of appropriate tools. The simulation approach can utilize the vast and diverse genetic information, predict the cross performance, and compare different selection methods. Thus,the best performing crosses and effective breeding strategies can be identified. QuLine is a computer tool capable of defining a range, from simple to complex genetic models, and simulating breeding processes for developing final advanced lines. On the basis of the results from simulation experiments, breeders can optimize their breeding methodology and greatly improve the breeding efficiency. In this article, the underlying principles of simulation modeling in crop enhancement is initially introduced, following which several applications of QuLine are summarized, by comparing the different selection strategies, the precision parental selection, using known gene information, and the design approach in breeding. Breeding simulation allows the definition of complicated genetic models consisting of multiple alleles, pleiotropy, epistasis, and genes, by environment interaction, and provides a useful tool for breeders, to efficiently use the wide spectrum of genetic data and information available.

  20. Neural networks for predicting breeding values and genetic gains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabi Nunes Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis using Artificial Neural Networks has been described as an approach in the decision-making process that, although incipient, has been reported as presenting high potential for use in animal and plant breeding. In this study, we introduce the procedure of using the expanded data set for training the network. Wealso proposed using statistical parameters to estimate the breeding value of genotypes in simulated scenarios, in addition to the mean phenotypic value in a feed-forward back propagation multilayer perceptron network. After evaluating artificial neural network configurations, our results showed its superiority to estimates based on linear models, as well as its applicability in the genetic value prediction process. The results further indicated the good generalization performance of the neural network model in several additional validation experiments.

  1. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments

    OpenAIRE

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial at...

  2. Breeding, genetic and genomic of citrus for disease resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos A. Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the citriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Brazil, it is based on a small number of varieties. This fact has contributed for the vulnerability of the culture regarding the phytosanitary problems. A higher number of varieties/genotypes with potential for commercial growing, either for the industry or fresh market, has been one of the main objectives of citrus breeding programs. The genetic breeding of citrus has improved, in the last decades, due to the possibility of an association between biotechnological tools and classical methods of breeding. The use of molecular markers for early selection of zygotic seedlings from controlled crosses resulted in the possibility of selection of a high number of new combination and, as a consequence, the establishment of a great number of hybrids in field experiments. The faster new tools are incorporated in the program, the faster is possibility to reach new genotypes that can be tested as a new variety. Good traits should be kept or incorporate, whereas bad traits have to be excluded or minimized in the new genotype. Scion and rootstock can not be considered separately, and graft compatibility, fruit quality and productivity are essential traits to be evaluated in the last stages of the program. The mapping of QTLs has favored breeding programs of several perennial species and in citrus it was possible to map several characteristics with qualitative and quantitative inheritance. The existence of linkage maps and QTLs already mapped, the development of EST and BAC library and the sequencing of the Citrus complete genome altogether make very demanding and urgent the exploration of such data to launch a wider genetic study of citrus. The rising of information on genome of several organisms has opened new approaches looking for integration between breeding, genetic and genome. Genome assisted selection (GAS involves more than gene or complete genome sequencing and is becoming

  3. Breeding programmes for smallholder sheep farming systems: II. Optimization of cooperative village breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; van Arendonk, J A M; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; Rischkowsky, B; Dessie, T; Mwai, A O

    2014-10-01

    A simulation study was conducted to optimize a cooperative village-based sheep breeding scheme for Menz sheep of Ethiopia. Genetic gains and profits were estimated under nine levels of farmers' participation and three scenarios of controlled breeding achieved in the breeding programme, as well as under three cooperative flock sizes, ewe to ram mating ratios and durations of ram use for breeding. Under fully controlled breeding, that is, when there is no gene flow between participating (P) and non-participating (NP) flocks, profits ranged from Birr 36.9 at 90% of participation to Birr 21.3 at 10% of participation. However, genetic progress was not affected adversely. When there was gene flow from the NP to P flocks, profits declined from Birr 28.6 to Birr -3.7 as participation declined from 90 to 10%. Under the two-way gene flow model (i.e. when P and NP flocks are herded mixed in communal grazing areas), NP flocks benefited from the genetic gain achieved in the P flocks, but the benefits declined sharply when participation declined beyond 60%. Our results indicate that a cooperative breeding group can be established with as low as 600 breeding ewes mated at a ratio of 45 ewes to one ram, and the rams being used for breeding for a period of two years. This study showed that farmer cooperation is crucial to effect genetic improvement under smallholder low-input sheep farming systems.

  4. Concurrency-based approaches to parallel programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, L.V.; Chrisochoides, N.; Kohl, J.; Yelick, K.

    1995-01-01

    The inevitable transition to parallel programming can be facilitated by appropriate tools, including languages and libraries. After describing the needs of applications developers, this paper presents three specific approaches aimed at development of efficient and reusable parallel software for irregular and dynamic-structured problems. A salient feature of all three approaches in their exploitation of concurrency within a processor. Benefits of individual approaches such as these can be leveraged by an interoperability environment which permits modules written using different approaches to co-exist in single applications.

  5. Establishment of Production Breeding Base of High Grade Beef Cattle and Calf Cultivation%高档肉牛生产繁育基地的建立与犊牛培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高飞涛; 褚万文; 马文武; 杨晓春

    2012-01-01

    文章从肉牛品种选择、杂交改良、科学饲养及管理等方面论述了高档肉牛生产繁育基地的建立,旨在给行业生产提供技术资料。%The article discussed the establishment of production breeding base of high grade beef cattle from the aspects of breed selection, crossbreeding improvement, and scientific feeding and management so as to provide technical information for the industry production.

  6. Breeding-assisted genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Jesse

    2015-04-01

    The revolution of inexpensive sequencing has ushered in an unprecedented age of genomics. The promise of using this technology to accelerate plant breeding is being realized with a vision of genomics-assisted breeding that will lead to rapid genetic gain for expensive and difficult traits. The reality is now that robust phenotypic data is an increasing limiting resource to complement the current wealth of genomic information. While genomics has been hailed as the discipline to fundamentally change the scope of plant breeding, a more symbiotic relationship is likely to emerge. In the context of developing and evaluating large populations needed for functional genomics, none excel in this area more than plant breeders. While genetic studies have long relied on dedicated, well-structured populations, the resources dedicated to these populations in the context of readily available, inexpensive genotyping is making this philosophy less tractable relative to directly focusing functional genomics on material in breeding programs. Through shifting effort for basic genomic studies from dedicated structured populations, to capturing the entire scope of genetic determinants in breeding lines, we can move towards not only furthering our understanding of functional genomics in plants, but also rapidly improving crops for increased food security, availability and nutrition.

  7. IPTV inter-destination synchronization: A network-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Deventer, M.O. van; Niamut, O.A.; Walraven, F.A.; Mekuria, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel network-based approach to inter-destination media synchronization. The approach meets the need for synchronization in advanced TV concepts like social TV and offers high scalability, unlike conventional end-point based approaches. The solution for interdestination media

  8. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Zong, Jie; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection.

  9. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  10. EFFECT OF BREED, SEX AND SOURCE WITHIN BREED ON THE HEAMATOGICAL PARAMETERS OF THE NIGERIAN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. OKONKWO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of breed, sex and source within breed, together with their interactions on the haematological parameters of Nigerian goats were studied using 81 goats (comprising 9 males and 18 females per breed, objective being to characterize and outline the differences and similarities between the breeds in blood parameters. The goats were derived from different geo-ecological zones in the country based on the areas of preponderance of each breed. The breeds studied were: the Sahel goat (SG, Red Sokoto goat (RSG, and West African Dwarf goat (WADG and hematological values obtained per breed were: 22.52±1.48, 23.04±3.56, and 29.22±4.76 (%PCV; 7.52±0.50, 7.82±1.25 and 9.48±1.60 (g/dl Hb; 2.71±0.23, 3.09±0.64, and 4.10±0.42 (x1012/l RBC; 11.94±1.10, 11.32±2.03 and 9.23±0.63 (x109cells/l WBC, and 83.22±1.67, 76.72±2.30 and 73.34±3.40 (x106/mm3 MCV, respectively. Significant differences (P0.05 for all the breeds. The WADGs were superior to the RSGs and SGs in PCV, Hb, and RBC counts, but lower in WBC counts and MCV. The SGs were similar in most of the haematological profiles examined, irrespective of geo-ecological distance, indicating homogeneity of the breed. The sahelian goat breed also outscored other breeds in MCV, showing that the breed has greater propensity to transport oxygen and in situation occasioning oxygen starvation, the breed survives better. This explains the reason for the survival of the breed in arid and semi-arid zone. Gender has no effect on the MCV and the values of 83.22±1.67x106/mm3, 76.72±2.30x106/mm3 and 73.34±3.40x106/mm3 were observed for the SG, RSG, and WADG, respectively.

  11. A discourse based approach in text-based machine translation

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical research based approach to ellipsis resolution in machine translation. Moreover, the formula of discourse is applied in order to resolve ellipses. The validity of the discourse formula is analyzed by applying it to the real world text i.e. newspaper fragments. The source text is converted into mono-sentential discourses where complex discourses require further dissection either directly into primitive discourses or first into compound discourses and later into primitive ones. The procedure of dissection needs further improvement i.e. discovering as many primitive discourse forms as possible [1]. This work is further improvement to the concepts presented by Khan (Khan, 1995). Likewise, an attempt has been made to investigate new primitive discourses i.e. patterns from the given text.

  12. A Constructivist Approach to Rule Bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sileno, G.; Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Loiseau, S.; Filipe, J.; Duval, B.; van den Herik, J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a set of algorithms for the conversion of rule bases between priority-based and constraint-based representations. Inspired by research in precedential reasoning in law, such algorithms can be used for the analysis of a rule base, and for the study of the impact of the introduction

  13. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: II. Process efficiency in event pyramiding and trait fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ting; Sun, Xiaochun; Mumm, Rita H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple trait integration (MTI) is a multi-step process of converting an elite variety/hybrid for value-added traits (e.g. transgenic events) through backcross breeding. From a breeding standpoint, MTI involves four steps: single event introgression, event pyramiding, trait fixation, and version testing. This study explores the feasibility of marker-aided backcross conversion of a target maize hybrid for 15 transgenic events in the light of the overall goal of MTI of recovering equivalent performance in the finished hybrid conversion along with reliable expression of the value-added traits. Using the results to optimize single event introgression (Peng et al. Optimized breeding strategies for multiple trait integration: I. Minimizing linkage drag in single event introgression. Mol Breed, 2013) which produced single event conversions of recurrent parents (RPs) with ≤8 cM of residual non-recurrent parent (NRP) germplasm with ~1 cM of NRP germplasm in the 20 cM regions flanking the event, this study focused on optimizing process efficiency in the second and third steps in MTI: event pyramiding and trait fixation. Using computer simulation and probability theory, we aimed to (1) fit an optimal breeding strategy for pyramiding of eight events into the female RP and seven in the male RP, and (2) identify optimal breeding strategies for trait fixation to create a 'finished' conversion of each RP homozygous for all events. In addition, next-generation seed needs were taken into account for a practical approach to process efficiency. Building on work by Ishii and Yonezawa (Optimization of the marker-based procedures for pyramiding genes from multiple donor lines: I. Schedule of crossing between the donor lines. Crop Sci 47:537-546, 2007a), a symmetric crossing schedule for event pyramiding was devised for stacking eight (seven) events in a given RP. Options for trait fixation breeding strategies considered selfing and doubled haploid approaches to achieve homozygosity

  14. A novel approach to search for identity by descent in small samples of patients and controls from the same mendelian breeding unit: a pilot study on myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, S; Robledo, R; Beggs, W; Feola, G; Parodo, C; Rinaldi, A; Contu, L; Dana, D; Stambolian, D; Siniscalco, M

    2001-01-01

    Autosomal dominant high myopia, a genetic disorder already mapped to region 18p11.31, is common in Carloforte (Sardinia, Italy), an isolated village of 8,000 inhabitants descending from a founder group of 300 in the early 1700s. Fifteen myopic propositi and 36 normal controls were selected for not having ancestors in common at least up to the grandparental generation, although still descendants of the original founders. All subjects were genotyped for 14 markers located on autosome 18 at a resolution of about 10 cM. Allelic distributions were found to be similar at all tested loci in propositi and controls, except for the candidate marker D18S63 known to segregate in close linkage association with high myopia. In particular, the frequency of allele 85 among the propositi was almost double that of the controls (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.037). The association is more striking when the frequency of the genotype 85/85 in the two groups is compared (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.005). This conclusion was further evaluated through a bootstrap analysis by computing the overall probability of the observed data under the null hypothesis (i.e. no difference between the two groups in frequency distributions for the chromosome 18 markers). Again, marker D18S63 was found to have a sample probability lower than 0.004, which is significant at the 0.05 level after correcting for simultaneous testing of multiple loci. The study demonstrates the efficiency of our novel strategy to detect identity by descent (IBD) in small numbers of patients and controls when they are both part of well-defined Mendelian breeding units (MBUs). The iterative application of our strategy in separate MBUs is expected to become the method of choice to evaluate the ever-growing number of reported associations between candidate genes and multifactorial traits and diseases.

  15. Empirical Analysis of the Typical Breeding Pattern of Clam in Hongdao Town and the Preliminary Estimates of Costs and Benefits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; YANG; Shijun; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey data about clam breeding farmers in Hongdao Town in August 2011,this paper analyzes the production and operation of typical clam breeding pattern,and estimates the costs and benefits. Through the analysis of operation conditions and economic conditions of Hongdao clam breeding,this paper aims to explore a more reasonable and effective breeding pattern so as to reduce breeding costs and market risks,and increase breeding farmers’ income.

  16. Travelling to breed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, RJ; Fox, AD; Stahl, J

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, investigation of the dynamics of avian migration has been heavily biased towards the autumn return trip to the wintering quarters. Since the migratory prelude to breeding has direct fitness consequences, the European Science Foundation recently redressed the balance and sponsored a wo

  17. Penguin breeding in Edinburgh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillespie, T.H.; F.R.S.E.,; F.Z.S.,

    1939-01-01

    The Scottish National Zoological Park at Edinburgh has been notably successful in keeping and breeding penguins. It is happy in possessing as a friend and benefactor, Mr Theodore E. Salvesen, head of the firm of Christian Salvesen & Co., Leith, to whose interest and generosity it owes the great numb

  18. Model Mapping Approach Based on Ontology Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkui Hou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The mapping relations between different models are the foundation for model transformation in model-driven software development. On the basis of ontology semantics, model mappings between different levels are classified by using structural semantics of modeling languages. The general definition process for mapping relations is explored, and the principles of structure mapping are proposed subsequently. The approach is further illustrated by the mapping relations from class model of object oriented modeling language to the C programming codes. The application research shows that the approach provides a theoretical guidance for the realization of model mapping, and thus can make an effective support to model-driven software development

  19. Abstract algebra an inquiry based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, Jonathan K; Sundstrom, Ted

    2013-01-01

    ""This book arose from the authors' approach to teaching abstract algebra. They place an emphasis on active learning and on developing students' intuition through their investigation of examples. … The text is organized in such a way that it is possible to begin with either rings or groups.""-Florentina Chirtes, Zentralblatt MATH 1295

  20. 基于小区育种的收获机智能测产系统%Intelligent yield monitoring system of harvester based on plot breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽清; 尚书旗; 王延耀; 白皓然; 岳丹松

    2012-01-01

    目前,中国境内大部分育种单位产量测试主要采用人工抽检方式完成,劳动强度大,工作效率低,测试数据的质量与发达国家所采用的测产系统相距甚远.为解决这一问题,该文设计研制了一种基于小区育种的收获机测产系统.该测产系统包括上位机和下位机两部分.下位机采用美国TI公司的MSP430单片机,通过粮食水分传感器,重量传感器,环境温湿度传感器,GPS模块,获取收获机的产量、粮食水分含量、环境温湿度及GPS地理位置等信息.上位机采用能够运行MCGS组态软件的嵌入式触摸屏作为人机交互界面.下上位机通过RS-232串口及Modbus协议实现通讯,完成数据的传输.该系统可以自动实现地块号与产量相关数据的准确对应关系,并利用U盘实现海量数据的导入、导出等数据管理功能.并利用虚拟试验验证了该收获机测产系统方案正确和可行,并且可明显提高育种测产的工作效率和数据的准确性.%At present,most domestic breeding companies in China still adopt the artificial check way to finish the measurement of production which leads to labour-intensive and low working efficiency and makes the quality of test data far from the data quality of yield monitor system adopted by developed countries.To solve this problem,a kind of harvester yield monitoring system was designed based on the plot breeding which mainly includes host computer part and slave computer part.The single chip of MSP430 from TI company was applied on slave computer,which can acquire the information such as the productivity of harvester,grain moisture content,environmental temperature,environmental humidity and the GPS with the measurement unit such as grain moisture sensor,gravity sensor,temperature sensor,humidity sensor,and the GPS module.The host computer took the embedded touch panel as the human-computer interface which can run MCGS software.The host computer and slave computer

  1. An eigenvector based approach to neutrino mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal; Houet, E

    2013-01-01

    We propose a model-independent analysis of the neutrino mass matrix through an expansion in terms of the eigenvectors defining the lepton mixing matrix, which we show can be parametrized as small perturbations of the tribimaximal mixing eigenvectors. This approach proves to be powerful and convenient for some aspects of lepton mixing, in particular when studying the sensitivity of the mass matrix elements to departures from their tribimaximal form. In terms of the eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small departures determined by data. By implementing this approach to cases when the neutrino masses originate from different mechanisms, we show that the experimentally observed structure arises very naturally. We thus claim that the observed deviations from the tribimaximal mixing pattern might be interpreted as a possible hint of a ``hybrid'' nature of the neutrino mass matrix.

  2. Evaluating a Pivot-Based Approach for Bilingual Lexicon Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed.

  3. Parallel Graph Transformation based on Merged Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Aouat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graph transformation is one of the key concepts in graph grammar. In order to accelerate the graph transformation, the concept of parallel graph transformation has been proposed by different tools such as AGG tool. The theory of parallel graph transformation used by AGG just allows clarifying the concepts of conflict and dependency between the transformation rules. This work proposes an approach of parallel graph transformations which enables dependent transformation rules to be executed in parallel.

  4. Supraorbital eyebrow approach to skull base lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Yvens Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our experience with a supraorbital eyebrow minicraniotomy. This technique is suitable to lesions situated in the region of the anterior fossa, suprasellar cisterns, parasellar region and Sylvian fissure. A 50 mm incision in the eyebrow and a supraorbital minicraniotomy is performed. Sixteem patients harboring different lesions were operated on with good postoperative and cosmetic results. We conclude that this approach is safe and useful in selected cases.

  5. Identifying malaria vector breeding habitats with remote sensing data and terrain-based landscape indices in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiff Clive

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria, caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in southern Zambia. In the Mapanza Chiefdom, where transmission is seasonal, Anopheles arabiensis is the dominant malaria vector. The ability to predict larval habitats can help focus control measures. Methods A survey was conducted in March-April 2007, at the end of the rainy season, to identify and map locations of water pooling and the occurrence anopheline larval habitats; this was repeated in October 2007 at the end of the dry season and in March-April 2008 during the next rainy season. Logistic regression and generalized linear mixed modeling were applied to assess the predictive value of terrain-based landscape indices along with LandSat imagery to identify aquatic habitats and, especially, those with anopheline mosquito larvae. Results Approximately two hundred aquatic habitat sites were identified with 69 percent positive for anopheline mosquitoes. Nine species of anopheline mosquitoes were identified, of which, 19% were An. arabiensis. Terrain-based landscape indices combined with LandSat predicted sites with water, sites with anopheline mosquitoes and sites specifically with An. arabiensis. These models were especially successful at ruling out potential locations, but had limited ability in predicting which anopheline species inhabited aquatic sites. Terrain indices derived from 90 meter Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation data (DEM were better at predicting water drainage patterns and characterizing the landscape than those derived from 30 m Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER DEM. Conclusions The low number of aquatic habitats available and the ability to locate the limited number of aquatic habitat locations for surveillance, especially those containing anopheline larvae, suggest that larval control maybe a cost-effective control measure in the fight

  6. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Ventura, Ricardo Vieira; Seleguim Chud, Tatiane Cristina; Bernardes, Priscila Arrigucci; Santos, Daniel Jordan de Abreu; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; de Alencar, Maurício Mello; Mudadu, Maurício de Alvarenga; Zanella, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius Gualberto Barbosa; Li, Changxi; Schenkel, Flavio Schramm; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais—37.5% Zebu) and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais—34.4% Zebu) cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH), Nelore (NE), and Indubrasil (IB) breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA), 763 (NE), 338 (CH), and 37 (IB). The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:28182737

  7. A polyhedral approach to computing border bases

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Border bases can be considered to be the natural extension of Gr\\"obner bases that have several advantages. Unfortunately, to date the classical border basis algorithm relies on (degree-compatible) term orderings and implicitly on reduced Gr\\"obner bases. We adapt the classical border basis algorithm to allow for calculating border bases for arbitrary degree-compatible order ideals, which is \\emph{independent} from term orderings. Moreover, the algorithm also supports calculating degree-compatible order ideals with \\emph{preference} on contained elements, even though finding a preferred order ideal is NP-hard. Effectively we retain degree-compatibility only to successively extend our computation degree-by-degree. The adaptation is based on our polyhedral characterization: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. This establishes a crucial connection between the ideal and the combinatorial structure of the associated factor spaces.

  8. Repeat breeding: Incidence, risk factors and diagnosis in buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Saraswat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeat breeding in buffaloes was evaluated in terms of incidence, risk factors and diagnosis. The incidence of repeat breeding is low in buffaloes however in different studies the incidence varied from 0.70% to 30%. Because of seasonal suppression of fertility repeat breeding in buffaloes should be limited to the breeding season. Spring and winter calving, first parity, peri-parturient disease and lactation are significant risk factors for repeat breeding in buffaloes. The etiologies of repeat breeding in buffaloes can be failure of fertilization and early embryonic deaths. Only a few of causes of failure of fertilization have been identified in buffaloes. Ovulatory disturbances and ovarian cysts are uncommon in buffaloes and cysts have poor clinical manifestation. Endometritis is the common female cause of fertilization failures in buffaloes whereas poor semen quality and improper insemination are the bull side factors for fertilization failures. Early embryonic deaths are common in buffaloes mated/inseminated during the end of the breeding season due to a low luteal progesterone however embryonic deaths occur late (<25 days in buffaloes. Diagnostic approaches for repeat breeding include vaginoscopic and transrectal examination and uterine cytology for genital health. More precise evaluations of the ovarian and uterine function can be obtained by ultrasonographic and hysteroscopic examinations performed sequentially however, precise diagnosis of the cause of repeat breeding seems difficult.

  9. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF, for providing graphical user interface (GUI to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection.

  10. A Task-based Approach to Materials Development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976).

  11. A strength-based approach to teacher professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Rosanne; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teache

  12. A strength-based approach to teacher professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A J; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teache

  13. Thinning based Antialiasing Approach for Visual Saliency of Digital Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rukundo, O.

    2015-01-01

    A thinning based approach for spatial antialiasing (TAA) has been proposed for visual saliency of digital images. This TAA approach is based on edge-matting and digital compositing strategies. Prior to edgematting the image edges are detected using ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm and then th

  14. EFL Reading Instruction: Communicative Task-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Harison Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overarching framework of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) reading instructional approach reflected in an EFL secondary school curriculum in Malaysia. Based on such analysis, a comparison was made if Communicative Task-Based Language is the overarching instructional approach for the Malaysian EFL…

  15. A Task-based Approach to Materials Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nunan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this chapter is to present a task-based approach to materials development. In the first part of the chapter, I sketch out the evolution of task based language teaching, drawing on a distinction between synthetic and analytical approaches to syllabus design first articulated by Wilkins (1976.

  16. A Strength-Based Approach to Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Rosanne C.; Korthagen, Fred A. J.; Attema-Noordewier, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Based on positive psychology, self-determination theory and a perspective on teacher quality, this study proposes and examines a strength-based approach to teacher professional development. A mixed method pre-test/post-test design was adopted to study perceived outcomes of the approach for 93 teachers of six primary schools in the Netherlands and…

  17. Antirandom Testing: A Distance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Hui Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random testing requires each test to be selected randomly regardless of the tests previously applied. This paper introduces the concept of antirandom testing where each test applied is chosen such that its total distance from all previous tests is maximum. This spans the test vector space to the maximum extent possible for a given number of vectors. An algorithm for generating antirandom tests is presented. Compared with traditional pseudorandom testing, antirandom testing is found to be very effective when a high-fault coverage needs to be achieved with a limited number of test vectors. The superiority of the new approach is even more significant for testing bridging faults.

  18. Isolation breeds naivety: island living robs Australian varanid lizards of toad-toxin immunity via four-base-pair mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Mun, Hee-chang; Conigrave, Arthur D; Bray, Alessandra; Osterkamp, Jens; Halling, Petter; Madsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction to the toad-free Australian continent cane toads (Bufo marinus) have caused a dramatic increase in naïve varanid mortality when these large lizards attempt to feed on this toxic amphibian. In contrast Asian-African varanids, which have coevolved with toads, are resistant to toad toxin. Toad toxins, such as Bufalin target the H1-H2 domain of the α(1) subunit of the sodium-potassium-ATPase enzyme. Sequencing of this domain revealed identical nucleotide sequences in four Asian as well as in three African varanids, and identical sequences in all 11 Australian varanids. However, compared to the Asian-African varanids, the Australian varanids showed four-base-pair substitutions, resulting in the alteration in three of the 12 amino acids representing the H1-H2 domain. The phenotypic effect of the substitutions was investigated in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells stably transfected with the Australian and the Asian-African H1-H2 domains. The transfections resulted in an approximate 3000-fold reduction in resistance to Bufalin in the Australian HEK293 cells compared to the Asian-African HEK293 cells, demonstrating the critical role of this minor mutation in providing Bufalin resistance. Our study hence presents a clear link between genotype and phenotype, a critical step in understanding the evolution of phenotypic diversity.

  19. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  20. Efficient indica and japonica rice identification based on the InDel molecular method: Its implication in rice breeding and evolutionary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Rong Lu; Xingxing Cai; Xin Jin

    2009-01-01

    An efficient molecular method for the accurate and efficient identification of indica and japonica rice was created based on the poly-morphisms of insertion/deletion (InDel) DNA fragments obtained from the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) to the entire genomic sequences of indica (93-11) and japonica rice (Nipponbare). The 45 InDel loci were validated experimentally by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in 44 typical indica and japonica rice varieties, including 93-11 and Nipponbare. A neutrality test of the data matrix generated from electrophoretic banding patterns of various InDel loci indicated that 34 InDel loci were strongly associated with the differentiation of indica and japonica rice. More extensive analyses involving cultivated rice varieties from 11 Asian countries, and 12 wild Oryza species with various origins confirmed that indica and japonica characteristics could accurately be determined via calculating the average frequency of indica- or japonica-specific alleles on different InDel loci across the rice genome. This method was named as the "InDel molecular index" that combines molecular and statistical methods in determining the indica and japonica characteristics of rice varieties. Compared with the traditional methods based essentially on morphology, the InDel molecular index provides a very accurate, rapid, simple, and efficient method for identifying indica and japonica rice. In addition, the InDel index can be used to determine indica or japonica characteristics of wild Oryza species, which largely extends the utility of this method. The InDel molecular index provides a new tool for the effective selection of appropriate indica or japonica rice germplasm in rice breeding. It also offers a novel model for the study of the origin, evolution, and genetic differentiation of indica and japonica rice adapted to various environmental changes.

  1. A model-based multisensor data fusion knowledge management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    A variety of approaches exist for combining data from multiple sensors. The model-based approach combines data based on its support for or refutation of elements of the model which in turn can be used to evaluate an experimental thesis. This paper presents a collection of algorithms for mapping various types of sensor data onto a thesis-based model and evaluating the truth or falsity of the thesis, based on the model. The use of this approach for autonomously arriving at findings and for prioritizing data are considered. Techniques for updating the model (instead of arriving at a true/false assertion) are also discussed.

  2. A New Text Location Approach Based Wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang

    2002-01-01

    With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method based wavelet is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.

  3. Evolutionary algorithm based configuration interaction approach

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic configuration interaction method based on evolutionary algorithm is designed as an affordable approximation to full configuration interaction (FCI). The algorithm comprises of initiation, propagation and termination steps, where the propagation step is performed with cloning, mutation and cross-over, taking inspiration from genetic algorithm. We have tested its accuracy in 1D Hubbard problem and a molecular system (symmetric bond breaking of water molecule). We have tested two different fitness functions based on energy of the determinants and the CI coefficients of determinants. We find that the absolute value of CI coefficients is a more suitable fitness function when combined with a fixed selection scheme.

  4. Web Based ‘C’ IDE: Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravanthi Emani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A Web based environment has been designed to execute C programs without explicitly installing any compilers on the machine, thus addressing the concerns of portability and accessibility. Theenvironment runs on a Linux server, uses password authentication and provides each user with separate project directories to store all his programs. These can be accessed and modified by the respective useronly. The entered code can be compiled and executed easily without using licensed software for the same. This saves installation time as well as memory of the client machine. The configuration of the machineneed not be an issue as the system is web based and thus platform independent.

  5. Face Recognition Based on Nonlinear Feature Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimad E.A. Abusham

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction techniques are widely used to reduce the complexity high dimensional data. Nonlinear feature extraction via Locally Linear Embedding (LLE has attracted much attention due to their high performance. In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for face recognition to address the challenging task of recognition using integration of nonlinear dimensional reduction Locally Linear Embedding integrated with Local Fisher Discriminant Analysis (LFDA to improve the discriminating power of the extracted features by maximize between-class while within-class local structure is preserved. Extensive experimentation performed on the CMU-PIE database indicates that the proposed methodology outperforms Benchmark methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Fisher Discrimination Analysis (FDA. The results showed that 95% of recognition rate could be obtained using our proposed method.

  6. 基于BLUP计算的山鸡育种分析管理软件开发%Development of a Pheasant Breeding Analysis and Management System Based on BLUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆雪林; 周洪钧; 高杨; 袁红艳; 赵乐乐; 梁永军

    2015-01-01

    The market of pheasant production has been increasing during the past three decades.However ,the current technology of pheasant breeding can not meet the requirement of growing pheasant market.Especially there has no any software to analyze and manage pheasant breed-ing.Thus ,a system is developed on nature of pheasant growing and breeding under practical requirements.Based on C/S model ,cloud platform and the latest.net ,the system is able to manage all traceable breeding data more safely and efficiently.Meanwhile ,it can highly calculate breeding values and aggregate values on a large quantity using BLUP estimation.Breeding of core pheasant group is on the basis of the aggregate values with pedigree ,siblings and individual as a unit.Then auto-apolegamy can be easily obtained among core pheasant group by their coeffi-cient of genetic relationship ,which will significantly increase the efficiency of breeding.%近30年来 ,我国山鸡市场越来越大 ,生产量也在不断增长 ,但山鸡育种水平与产业发展不相符 ,育种计算方面到目前为止还没有一个比较成熟的育种分析管理软件系统.本系统是根据山鸡生长和繁育特性 ,结合山鸡育种实际设计开发的一款山鸡育种分析管理软件.该软件系统基于C/S架构、利用先进的云平台大数据技术和最新的.net软件技术开发而成 ,实现了安全高效管理育种数据及所有数据信息的可追溯性 ,同时 ,也可完成大量山鸡生产性状育种值及各种综合育种值的最佳线性无偏预测高效计算.利用综合育种值 ,以山鸡家系、同胞和个体为单位 ,进行核心群的继代选留 ,选留后 ,核心群山鸡根据亲缘关系系数进行自动选配 ,大大提高了育种工作效率.

  7. Algebraic Verification Method for SEREs Properties via Groebner Bases Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient solution using computer algebra system to perform linear temporal properties verification for synchronous digital systems. The method is essentially based on both Groebner bases approaches and symbolic simulation. A mechanism for constructing canonical polynomial set based symbolic representations for both circuit descriptions and assertions is studied. We then present a complete checking algorithm framework based on these algebraic representations by using Groebner bases. The computational experience result in this work shows that the algebraic approach is a quite competitive checking method and will be a useful supplement to the existent verification methods based on simulation.

  8. One Piece Orbitozygomatic Approach Based on the Sphenoid Ridge Keyhole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiriev, Toma; Poulsgaard, Lars; Fugleholm, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge was exami......The one-piece orbitozygomatic (OZ) approach is traditionally based on the McCarty keyhole. Here, we present the use of the sphenoid ridge keyhole and its possible advantages as a keyhole for the one-piece OZ approach. Using transillumination technique the osteology of the sphenoid ridge...

  9. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  10. SLAM - Based Approach to Dynamic Ship Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wrobel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dynamically positioned vessels, used by offshore industry, use not only satellite navigation but also different positioning systems, often referred to as reference' systems. Most of them use multiple technical devices located outside the vessel which creates some problems with their accessibility and performance. In this paper, a basic concept of reference system independent from any external device is presented, basing on hydroacoustics and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM method. Theoretical analysis of its operability is also performed.

  11. Nanotechnology-Based Approach in Tuberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyaz, Md. Kausar; Das, Shilpi

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is the second most fatal infectious disease after AIDS, caused by bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Prolonged treatment, high pill burden, low compliance, and stiff administration schedules are factors that are responsible for emergence of MDR and XDR cases of tuberculosis. Till date, only BCG vaccine is available which is ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, which is the most common form of disease. Various unique antibodies have been developed to overcome drug resistance, reduce the treatment regimen, and elevate the compliance to treatment. Therefore, we need an effective and robust system to subdue technological drawbacks and improve the effectiveness of therapeutic drugs which still remains a major challenge for pharmaceutical technology. Nanoparticle-based ideology has shown convincing treatment and promising outcomes for chronic infectious diseases. Different types of nanocarriers have been evaluated as promising drug delivery systems for various administration routes. Controlled and sustained release of drugs is one of the advantages of nanoparticle-based antituberculosis drugs over free drug. It also reduces the dosage frequency and resolves the difficulty of low poor compliance. This paper reviews various nanotechnology-based therapies which can be used for the treatment of TB. PMID:28210505

  12. Media approach to gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011. An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „whistle blower“ role - media are the main source of information on cases, dimensions and forms of gender based violence. Also the worse moments of media reporting in the mentioned period are presented - when the violence was justified or when reality is deformed by presenting these cases as romantic love stories. For example, in 2010 the worst was reporting on the „Pajčin/Kapisoda“ case, while in 2011 it was the „Ponjiger“ case. In the end, the author also warned on the worrysome fact of sudden dissapearance of media reports on partners’ murdering their wives after the last such report published in mid-october 2011, which could mean that now we have a new problem of diminished freedom of media.

  13. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambulwa, Moses C; Meegahakumbura, Muditha K; Kamunya, Samson; Muchugi, Alice; Möller, Michael; Liu, Jie; Xu, Jian-Chu; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Africa is one of the key centers of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing, and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships, and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries of Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (H S) estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica, respectively, as well as an admixed "mosaic" group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with a high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centers corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA), and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK). Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centers, TRFCA, and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents

  14. Application of site and haplotype-frequency based approaches for detecting selection signatures in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Selection signatures' delimit regions of the genome that are, or have been, functionally important and have therefore been under either natural or artificial selection. In this study, two different and complementary methods--integrated Haplotype Homozygosity Score (|iHS| and population differentiation index (FST--were applied to identify traces of decades of intensive artificial selection for traits of economic importance in modern cattle. Results We scanned the genome of a diverse set of dairy and beef breeds from Germany, Canada and Australia genotyped with a 50 K SNP panel. Across breeds, a total of 109 extreme |iHS| values exceeded the empirical threshold level of 5% with 19, 27, 9, 10 and 17 outliers in Holstein, Brown Swiss, Australian Angus, Hereford and Simmental, respectively. Annotating the regions harboring clustered |iHS| signals revealed a panel of interesting candidate genes like SPATA17, MGAT1, PGRMC2 and ACTC1, COL23A1, MATN2, respectively, in the context of reproduction and muscle formation. In a further step, a new Bayesian FST-based approach was applied with a set of geographically separated populations including Holstein, Brown Swiss, Simmental, North American Angus and Piedmontese for detecting differentiated loci. In total, 127 regions exceeding the 2.5 per cent threshold of the empirical posterior distribution were identified as extremely differentiated. In a substantial number (56 out of 127 cases the extreme FST values were found to be positioned in poor gene content regions which deviated significantly (p ST values were found in regions of some relevant genes such as SMCP and FGF1. Conclusions Overall, 236 regions putatively subject to recent positive selection in the cattle genome were detected. Both |iHS| and FST suggested selection in the vicinity of the Sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5 gene on BTA18. This region was recently reported to be a major QTL with strong effects on productive life

  15. A New Text Location Approach Based Wavelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihua Li; Zhen Fang; Shuozhong Wang

    2002-01-01

    With the advancement of content-based retrieval technology, the importance of semantics for text information contained in images attracts many researchers. An algorithm which will automatically locate the textual regions in the input image will facilitate the retrieving task, and the optical character recognizer can then be applied to only those regions of the image which contain text. In this paper a new text location method is described, which can be used to locate textual regions from complex image and video frame. Experimental results show that the textual regions in image can be located effectively and quickly.

  16. Workflow-based approaches to neuroimaging analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissell, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain images requires a complex sequence of data processing steps to proceed from raw image data to the final statistical tests. Neuroimaging researchers have begun to apply workflow-based computing techniques to automate data analysis tasks. This chapter discusses eight major components of workflow management systems (WFMSs): the workflow description language, editor, task modules, data access, verification, client, engine, and provenance, and their implementation in the Fiswidgets neuroimaging workflow system. Neuroinformatics challenges involved in applying workflow techniques in the domain of neuroimaging are discussed.

  17. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six Euro

  18. Ethics education for health professionals: a values based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, Rosemary; Lees, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    It is now widely accepted that ethics is an essential part of educating health professionals. Despite a clear mandate to educators, there are differing approaches, in particular, how and where ethics is positioned in training programmes, underpinning philosophies and optimal modes of assessment. This paper explores varying practices and argues for a values based approach to ethics education. It then explores the possibility of using a web-based technology, the Values Exchange, to facilitate a values based approach. It uses the findings of a small scale study to signal the potential of the Values Exchange for engaging, meaningful and applied ethics education.

  19. Development of Circular Economy of Characteristic Breeding Industry in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve characteristic,high-quality,high-efficiency,low-consumption,healthy and intensive breeding,we use the ecology method to analyze the status quo of development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,from advantages in resources,industrial development,characteristic breeding,and standardized construction.There are some problems existing in the development of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi:prominent contradiction among human,land and grain;outdated breeding mode;low comprehensive utilization rate of resources;increasingly deteriorating ecological environment.We put forth the following recommendations:based on the ecological and economic principles,introducing"reduce,reuse,recycle"idea of circular economy;striving to choose the development pattern of circular economy adapting to local resource characteristics,planting and breeding habits;in terms of realization path,paying close attention to construction of standardized breeding farm,cultivation of organic fertilizer industry,infrastructure construction,environmental law enforcement,and other parts;reinforcing the policy guidance,adjusting and optimizing industrial structure,strengthening scientific and technological innovation,and advancing industrialization management,to promote steady development of circular economy of characteristic breeding industry in Guangxi,and accelerate the process of rejuvenating province by breeding industry,enriching the people and building up Guangxi.

  20. Similarity-Based Approaches to Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, L

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents two similarity-based approaches to sparse data problems. The first approach is to build soft, hierarchical clusters: soft, because each event belongs to each cluster with some probability; hierarchical, because cluster centroids are iteratively split to model finer distinctions. Our second approach is a nearest-neighbor approach: instead of calculating a centroid for each class, as in the hierarchical clustering approach, we in essence build a cluster around each word. We compare several such nearest-neighbor approaches on a word sense disambiguation task and find that as a whole, their performance is far superior to that of standard methods. In another set of experiments, we show that using estimation techniques based on the nearest-neighbor model enables us to achieve perplexity reductions of more than 20 percent over standard techniques in the prediction of low-frequency events, and statistically significant speech recognition error-rate reduction.

  1. Dictionary based Approach to Edge Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Nitish

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection is a very essential part of image processing, as quality and accuracy of detection determines the success of further processing. We have developed a new self learning technique for edge detection using dictionary comprised of eigenfilters constructed using features of the input image. The dictionary based method eliminates the need of pre or post processing of the image and accounts for noise, blurriness, class of image and variation of illumination during the detection process itself. Since, this method depends on the characteristics of the image, the new technique can detect edges more accurately and capture greater detail than existing algorithms such as Sobel, Prewitt Laplacian of Gaussian, Canny method etc which use generic filters and operators. We have demonstrated its application on various classes of images such as text, face, barcodes, traffic and cell images. An application of this technique to cell counting in a microscopic image is also presented.

  2. An Event Based Approach To Situational Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashish, Naveen; Mehrotra, Sharad; Venkatasubramanian, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    Many application domains require representing interrelated real-world activities and/or evolving physical phenomena. In the crisis response domain, for instance, one may be interested in representing the state of the unfolding crisis (e.g., forest fire), the progress of the response activities such as evacuation and traffic control, and the state of the crisis site(s). Such a situation representation can then be used to support a multitude of applications including situation monitoring, analysis, and planning. In this paper, we make a case for an event based representation of situations where events are defined to be domain-specific significant occurrences in space and time. We argue that events offer a unifying and powerful abstraction to building situational awareness applications. We identify challenges in building an Event Management System (EMS) for which traditional data and knowledge management systems prove to be limited and suggest possible directions and technologies to address the challenges.

  3. Ameliorated GA approach for base station planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andong; Sun, Hongyue; Wu, Xiaomin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at locating base station (BS) rationally to satisfy the most customs by using the least BSs. An ameliorated GA is proposed to search for the optimum solution. In the algorithm, we mesh the area to be planned according to least overlap length derived from coverage radius, bring into isometric grid encoding method to represent BS distribution as well as its number and develop select, crossover and mutation operators to serve our unique necessity. We also construct our comprehensive object function after synthesizing coverage ratio, overlap ratio, population and geographical conditions. Finally, after importing an electronic map of the area to be planned, a recommended strategy draft would be exported correspondingly. We eventually import HongKong, China to simulate and yield a satisfactory solution.

  4. Evaluation of charge breeding options for EURISOL

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, P; Lamy, T; Marie-Jeanne, M; Kester, O; Wenander, F

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive study of charge breeding techniques for the most ambitious ISOL-facility project, EURISOL, is presented here. It is based on results obtained during the past years at CERN-ISOLDE and LPSC Grenoble with charge breeders of both ECR and EBIS types.

  5. [Management of large marine ecosystem based on ecosystem approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jian-song

    2011-09-01

    Large marine ecosystem (LME) is a large area of ocean characterized by distinct oceanology and ecology. Its natural characteristics require management based on ecosystem approach. A series of international treaties and regulations definitely or indirectly support that it should adopt ecosystem approach to manage LME to achieve the sustainable utilization of marine resources. In practices, some countries such as Canada, Australia, and U.S.A. have adopted ecosystem-based approach to manage their oceans, and some international organizations such as global environment fund committee have carried out a number of LME programs based on ecosystem approach. Aiming at the sustainable development of their fisheries, the regional organizations such as Caribbean Community have established regional fisheries mechanism. However, the adoption of ecosystem approach to manage LME is not only a scientific and legal issue, but also a political matter largely depending on the political will and the mutual cooperation degree of related countries.

  6. Addition of a breeding database in the Genome Database for Rosaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Kate; Jung, Sook; Lee, Taein; Brutcher, Lisa; Cho, Ilhyung; Peace, Cameron; Main, Dorrie

    2013-01-01

    Breeding programs produce large datasets that require efficient management systems to keep track of performance, pedigree, geographical and image-based data. With the development of DNA-based screening technologies, more breeding programs perform genotyping in addition to phenotyping for performance evaluation. The integration of breeding data with other genomic and genetic data is instrumental for the refinement of marker-assisted breeding tools, enhances genetic understanding of important c...

  7. Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches (I)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2012-01-01

    1. Introduction In this chapter we will be investigating three more approaches that make communication central: content-based instruction, task-based instruction, and the participatory approach. The approaches we examine in this chapter do not begin with functions, or approaches we examine in this chapter don't begin with functions, or indeed, any other language items. Instead, they give priority to process over predetermined linguistic content. In these approaches rather than "learning to use English",

  8. Enuresis in children: a case based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Drew C; Seehusen, Dean A; Bode, David V

    2014-10-15

    Enuresis is defined as intermittent urinary incontinence during sleep in a child at least five years of age. Approximately 5% to 10% of all seven-year-olds have enuresis, and an estimated 5 to 7 million children in the United States have enuresis. The pathophysiology of primary nocturnal enuresis involves the inability to awaken from sleep in response to a full bladder, coupled with excessive nighttime urine production or a decreased functional capacity of the bladder. Initial evaluation should include a history, physical examination, and urinalysis. Several conditions, such as constipation, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, chronic kidney disease, and psychiatric disorders, are associated with enuresis. If identified, these conditions should be evaluated and treated. Treatment of primary monosymptomatic enuresis (i.e., the only symptom is nocturnal bed-wetting in a child who has never been dry) begins with counseling the child and parents on effective behavioral modifications. First-line treatments for enuresis include bed alarm therapy and desmopressin. The choice of therapy is based on the child's age and nighttime voiding patterns, and the desires of the child and family. Referral to a pediatric urologist is indicated for children with primary enuresis refractory to standard and combination therapies, and for children with some secondary causes of enuresis, including urinary tract malformations, recurrent urinary tract infections, or neurologic disorders.

  9. Cognitive neuroscience of creativity: EEG based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Narayanan

    2007-05-01

    Cognitive neuroscience of creativity has been extensively studied using non-invasive electrical recordings from the scalp called electroencephalograms (EEGs) and event related potentials (ERPs). The paper discusses major aspects of performing research using EEG/ERP based experiments including the recording of the signals, removing noise, estimating ERP signals, and signal analysis for better understanding of the neural correlates of processes involved in creativity. Important factors to be kept in mind to record clean EEG signal in creativity research are discussed. The recorded EEG signal can be corrupted by various sources of noise and methodologies to handle the presence of unwanted artifacts and filtering noise are presented followed by methods to estimate ERPs from the EEG signals from multiple trials. The EEG and ERP signals are further analyzed using various techniques including spectral analysis, coherence analysis, and non-linear signal analysis. These analysis techniques provide a way to understand the spatial activations and temporal development of large scale electrical activity in the brain during creative tasks. The use of this methodology will further enhance our understanding the processes neural and cognitive processes involved in creativity.

  10. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin eColeman-Derr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions.

  11. Building the crops of tomorrow: advantages of symbiont-based approaches to improving abiotic stress tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman-Derr, Devin [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2014-06-06

    The exponential growth in world population is feeding a steadily increasing global need for arable farmland, a resource that is already in high demand. This trend has led to increased farming on subprime arid and semi-arid lands, where limited availability of water and a host of environmental stresses often severely reduce crop productivity. The conventional approach to mitigating the abiotic stresses associated with arid climes is to breed for stress-tolerant cultivars, a time and labor intensive venture that often neglects the complex ecological context of the soil environment in which the crop is grown. In recent years, studies have attempted to identify microbial symbionts capable of conferring the same stress-tolerance to their plant hosts, and new developments in genomic technologies have greatly facilitated such research. Here in this paper, we highlight many of the advantages of these symbiont-based approaches and argue in favor of the broader recognition of crop species as ecological niches for a diverse community of microorganisms that function in concert with their plant hosts and each other to thrive under fluctuating environmental conditions

  12. Simulation-Based Constructivist Approach for Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reflect the leadership strategies that may arise using a constructivist approach based on organizational learning. This approach involved the use of simulations that focused on ethical tensions in school principals' daily experiences, and the development of codes of ethical conduct to reduce these tensions. The…

  13. A Semantics-Based Approach to Retrieving Biomedical Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Zambach, Sine

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to representing, organising, and accessing conceptual content of biomedical texts using a formal ontology. The ontology is based on UMLS resources supplemented with domain ontologies developed in the project. The approach introduces the notion of ‘generative...

  14. Exploiting genomic knowledge in optimising molecular breeding programmes: algorithms from evolutionary computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Steve; Knowles, Joshua; Kell, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have addressed directly the question of quantifying the benefits to be had from using molecular genetic markers in experimental breeding programmes (e.g. for improved crops and livestock), nor the question of which organisms should be mated with each other to best effect. We argue that this requires in silico modelling, an approach for which there is a large literature in the field of evolutionary computation (EC), but which has not really been applied in this way to experimental breeding programmes. EC seeks to optimise measurable outcomes (phenotypic fitnesses) by optimising in silico the mutation, recombination and selection regimes that are used. We review some of the approaches from EC, and compare experimentally, using a biologically relevant in silico landscape, some algorithms that have knowledge of where they are in the (genotypic) search space (G-algorithms) with some (albeit well-tuned ones) that do not (F-algorithms). For the present kinds of landscapes, F- and G-algorithms were broadly comparable in quality and effectiveness, although we recognise that the G-algorithms were not equipped with any 'prior knowledge' of epistatic pathway interactions. This use of algorithms based on machine learning has important implications for the optimisation of experimental breeding programmes in the post-genomic era when we shall potentially have access to the full genome sequence of every organism in a breeding population. The non-proprietary code that we have used is made freely available (via Supplementary information).

  15. Exploiting genomic knowledge in optimising molecular breeding programmes: algorithms from evolutionary computing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O'Hagan

    Full Text Available Comparatively few studies have addressed directly the question of quantifying the benefits to be had from using molecular genetic markers in experimental breeding programmes (e.g. for improved crops and livestock, nor the question of which organisms should be mated with each other to best effect. We argue that this requires in silico modelling, an approach for which there is a large literature in the field of evolutionary computation (EC, but which has not really been applied in this way to experimental breeding programmes. EC seeks to optimise measurable outcomes (phenotypic fitnesses by optimising in silico the mutation, recombination and selection regimes that are used. We review some of the approaches from EC, and compare experimentally, using a biologically relevant in silico landscape, some algorithms that have knowledge of where they are in the (genotypic search space (G-algorithms with some (albeit well-tuned ones that do not (F-algorithms. For the present kinds of landscapes, F- and G-algorithms were broadly comparable in quality and effectiveness, although we recognise that the G-algorithms were not equipped with any 'prior knowledge' of epistatic pathway interactions. This use of algorithms based on machine learning has important implications for the optimisation of experimental breeding programmes in the post-genomic era when we shall potentially have access to the full genome sequence of every organism in a breeding population. The non-proprietary code that we have used is made freely available (via Supplementary information.

  16. Signatures of diversifying selection in European pig breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wilkinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following domestication, livestock breeds have experienced intense selection pressures for the development of desirable traits. This has resulted in a large diversity of breeds that display variation in many phenotypic traits, such as coat colour, muscle composition, early maturity, growth rate, body size, reproduction, and behaviour. To better understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, the genomes of 13 traditional and commercial European pig breeds were scanned for signatures of diversifying selection using the Porcine60K SNP chip, applying a between-population (differentiation approach. Signatures of diversifying selection between breeds were found in genomic regions associated with traits related to breed standard criteria, such as coat colour and ear morphology. Amino acid differences in the EDNRB gene appear to be associated with one of these signatures, and variation in the KITLG gene may be associated with another. Other selection signals were found in genomic regions including QTLs and genes associated with production traits such as reproduction, growth, and fat deposition. Some selection signatures were associated with regions showing evidence of introgression from Asian breeds. When the European breeds were compared with wild boar, genomic regions with high levels of differentiation harboured genes related to bone formation, growth, and fat deposition.

  17. Model Construct Based Enterprise Model Architecture and Its Modeling Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In order to support enterprise integration, a kind of model construct based enterprise model architecture and its modeling approach are studied in this paper. First, the structural makeup and internal relationships of enterprise model architecture are discussed. Then, the concept of reusable model construct (MC) which belongs to the control view and can help to derive other views is proposed. The modeling approach based on model construct consists of three steps, reference model architecture synthesis, enterprise model customization, system design and implementation. According to MC based modeling approach a case study with the background of one-kind-product machinery manufacturing enterprises is illustrated. It is shown that proposal model construct based enterprise model architecture and modeling approach are practical and efficient.

  18. A New Detection Approach Based on the Maximum Entropy Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Xiaomei; XIANG Guang; YU Ge; LI Xiaohua

    2006-01-01

    The maximum entropy model was introduced and a new intrusion detection approach based on the maximum entropy model was proposed. The vector space model was adopted for data presentation. The minimal entropy partitioning method was utilized for attribute discretization. Experiments on the KDD CUP 1999 standard data set were designed and the experimental results were shown. The receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve analysis approach was utilized to analyze the experimental results. The analysis results show that the proposed approach is comparable to those based on support vector machine(SVM) and outperforms those based on C4.5 and Naive Bayes classifiers. According to the overall evaluation result, the proposed approach is a little better than those based on SVM.

  19. CAGE BREEDING OF WARM WATER FRESHWATER FISH SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, Croatia became actively involved in the contemporary trend of breeding fish in floating cages. In addition to various species of marine fishes, breeding was attempted with trout, carp, catfish, cisco and salmon. Of the above freshwater fish species, specific standards were established only for the cage breeding of rainbow trout. Cage breeding of the remaining species remained at the level of occasional attempts, with more of an experimental than a commercial character. The regular attempts to master this technique for cage breeding of warm water freshwater fish species were aimed at achieving the known benefits of such breeding, such as simplicity of implementing technological measures, easier establishment of the breeding system, simpler manipulation, the possibility of denser colonies per unit volume with a high level of production, easier adaptations to market conditions and fewer initial structural investments. Despite the many advantages, the main reasons for the lack of greater implementation of the cage breeding technology for warm water species of freshwater fish include problems in obtaining the appropriate category and quantity of healthy fry, the specificity and applicability of physical and chemical properties of the recipients and human error. In evaluating the advantages and disadvantages, the final decision on the justification of cage breeding for individual warm water freshwater species must be based on both biological and economic factors. Based on the knowledge of cage breeding acquired to date, the rule for virtually all intensive breeding systems is that it is only recommended for those species with high market demand and a high market price. The technology that demands nutrition with highly concentrated feed and other production expenditures is costly, and is therefore not profitable with less expensive fish species. Furthermore, production must be market oriented, i.e. the appropriate market research measures

  20. Evaluating a Focus-Based Approach to Anaphora Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, S; Gaizauskas, R J; Azzam, Saliha; Humphreys, Kevin; Gaizauskas, Robert

    1998-01-01

    We present an approach to anaphora resolution based on a focusing algorithm, and implemented within an existing MUC (Message Understanding Conference) Information Extraction system, allowing quantitative evaluation against a substantial corpus of annotated real-world texts. Extensions to the basic focusing mechanism can be easily tested, resulting in refinements to the mechanism and resolution rules. Results are compared with the results of a simpler heuristic-based approach.

  1. An ecosystem-based fisheries assessment and forecasting approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chang Ik

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive ecosystem-based approach is required to holistically assess, forecast and manage fisheries resources and their associated habitats by considering ecological interactions of target species with predators, competitors, and prey species, interactions between fishes and their habitats, and the effects of fishing on these processes. A pragmatic ecosystem-based approach was developed for the assessment of fisheries resources involving three management objectives: sustainability, bio...

  2. Radiation mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hi Sup; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1998-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced technical knowledge for the selection of better mutants, some of the crops were irradiated and the mutation rate, the survival rate and the method for selction of a mutant were studied. Furthermore, this study aimed to obtain basic data applicable to the development of genetic resources by evaluation and analysis the specific character for selection of the superior mutant and its plant breeding. 1. selection of the mutant with a superior resistance against environment in the principal crops 1) New varieties of mutant rices such as Wonpyeongbyeo, Wongwangbyeo, Winmibyeo, and heogseon chalbeyeo (sticky forma) were registered in the national variety list and made an application to crop variety protection right. They are under review now. 2) We also keep on studying on the number of a grain of 8 lines of excellent mutant rice for the purpose of improvement of breeding . 3) We selected 3 lines which have a resistance to pod and stem blight in large soybean, 31 lines with small grain size and higher yield, 112 lines of soybean of cooking, 7 lines of low lipoxygenase content, and 12 lines with decreased phytic acid content by 20 % compared to the previous level. 2. Selection of advanced Mugunwha (Rose of Sharon) mutant 1) Bagseul, a new variety of mutant, was developed and 30 plantlets of it are being proliferated. 2) Fifty-three lines of a mutant having a various morphologies were selected.

  3. A Programmable Approach to Maintenance of a Finite Knowledge Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN ShangMin(栾尚敏); DAI GuoZhong(戴国忠); LI Wei(李未)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a programmable method of revising a finite clause set. We first present a procedure whose formal parameters are a consistent clause set Γ and a clause A and whose output is a set of minimal subsets of Γ which are inconsistent with A. The maximal consistent subsets can be generated from all minimal inconsistent subsets. We develop a prototype system based on the above procedure, and discuss the implementation of knowledge base maintenance. At last, we compare the approach presented in this paper with other related approaches. The main characteristic of the approach is that it can be implemented by a computer program.

  4. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  5. Content-based, Task-based, and Participatory Approaches (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diane Larsen-Freeman

    2012-01-01

    4. Participatory Approach Although it originated in the early sixties with the work of Paulo Freire, and therefore antedates modern versions of content-based and task-based approaches, it was not until the 1980s that the participatory approach started being widely discussed in the language teaching literature.

  6. Integrating Ontological Data Sources Using Viewpoints-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Boulkroun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the development of Internet and intranets, information integration from various data sources becomes increasingly important and more challenging issue. Recently, the trend in data integration has favored the semantic integration using ontologies. However, the existing ontology-based approaches do not support the aspect of data multi-representations, which is important in the development of multi-user applications. The motivation of this paper is to address a novel semantic integration approach based on ontologies and viewpoints paradigms. This contribution combines the advantages of existing ontology-based integration approaches while avoiding their drawbacks. The proposed integration approach is evaluated using query processing. Profiles are introduced to offer answers to users according to their viewpoints and choices.

  7. Local fractal dimension based approaches for colonic polyp classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Michael; Tamaki, Toru; Tanaka, Shinji; Uhl, Andreas; Wimmer, Georg; Yoshida, Shigeto

    2015-12-01

    This work introduces texture analysis methods that are based on computing the local fractal dimension (LFD; or also called the local density function) and applies them for colonic polyp classification. The methods are tested on 8 HD-endoscopic image databases, where each database is acquired using different imaging modalities (Pentax's i-Scan technology combined with or without staining the mucosa) and on a zoom-endoscopic image database using narrow band imaging. In this paper, we present three novel extensions to a LFD based approach. These extensions additionally extract shape and/or gradient information of the image to enhance the discriminativity of the original approach. To compare the results of the LFD based approaches with the results of other approaches, five state of the art approaches for colonic polyp classification are applied to the employed databases. Experiments show that LFD based approaches are well suited for colonic polyp classification, especially the three proposed extensions. The three proposed extensions are the best performing methods or at least among the best performing methods for each of the employed databases. The methods are additionally tested by means of a public texture image database, the UIUCtex database. With this database, the viewpoint invariance of the methods is assessed, an important features for the employed endoscopic image databases. Results imply that most of the LFD based methods are more viewpoint invariant than the other methods. However, the shape, size and orientation adapted LFD approaches (which are especially designed to enhance the viewpoint invariance) are in general not more viewpoint invariant than the other LFD based approaches.

  8. Applied Genetics and Genomics in Alfalfa Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Charles Brummer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., a perennial and outcrossing species, is a widely planted forage legume for hay, pasture and silage throughout the world. Currently, alfalfa breeding relies on recurrent phenotypic selection, but alternatives incorporating molecular marker assisted breeding could enhance genetic gain per unit time and per unit cost, and accelerate alfalfa improvement. Many major quantitative trait loci (QTL related to agronomic traits have been identified by family-based QTL mapping, but in relatively large genomic regions. Candidate genes elucidated from model species have helped to identify some potential causal loci in alfalfa mapping and breeding population for specific traits. Recently, high throughput sequencing technologies, coupled with advanced bioinformatics tools, have been used to identify large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in alfalfa, which are being developed into markers. These markers will facilitate fine mapping of quantitative traits and genome wide association mapping of agronomic traits and further advanced breeding strategies for alfalfa, such as marker-assisted selection and genomic selection. Based on ideas from the literature, we suggest several ways to improve selection in alfalfa including (1 diversity selection and paternity testing, (2 introgression of QTL and (3 genomic selection.

  9. Does genomic selection have a future in plant breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding largely depends on phenotypic selection in plots and only for some, often disease-resistance-related traits, uses genetic markers. The more recently developed concept of genomic selection, using a black box approach with no need of prior knowledge about the effect or function of individual markers, has also been proposed as a great opportunity for plant breeding. Several empirical and theoretical studies have focused on the possibility to implement this as a novel molecular method across various species. Although we do not question the potential of genomic selection in general, in this Opinion, we emphasize that genomic selection approaches from dairy cattle breeding cannot be easily applied to complex plant breeding.

  10. A Comparison of Filter-based Approaches for Model-based Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Model-based prognostics approaches use domain knowledge about a system and its failure modes through the use of physics-based models. Model-based prognosis is...

  11. Knowledge-based biomedical word sense disambiguation: comparison of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Alan R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD algorithms attempt to select the proper sense of ambiguous terms in text. Resources like the UMLS provide a reference thesaurus to be used to annotate the biomedical literature. Statistical learning approaches have produced good results, but the size of the UMLS makes the production of training data infeasible to cover all the domain. Methods We present research on existing WSD approaches based on knowledge bases, which complement the studies performed on statistical learning. We compare four approaches which rely on the UMLS Metathesaurus as the source of knowledge. The first approach compares the overlap of the context of the ambiguous word to the candidate senses based on a representation built out of the definitions, synonyms and related terms. The second approach collects training data for each of the candidate senses to perform WSD based on queries built using monosemous synonyms and related terms. These queries are used to retrieve MEDLINE citations. Then, a machine learning approach is trained on this corpus. The third approach is a graph-based method which exploits the structure of the Metathesaurus network of relations to perform unsupervised WSD. This approach ranks nodes in the graph according to their relative structural importance. The last approach uses the semantic types assigned to the concepts in the Metathesaurus to perform WSD. The context of the ambiguous word and semantic types of the candidate concepts are mapped to Journal Descriptors. These mappings are compared to decide among the candidate concepts. Results are provided estimating accuracy of the different methods on the WSD test collection available from the NLM. Conclusions We have found that the last approach achieves better results compared to the other methods. The graph-based approach, using the structure of the Metathesaurus network to estimate the relevance of the Metathesaurus concepts, does not perform well

  12. Integration of Task-Based Approaches in a TESOL Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Under task-based language teaching (TBLT), language learners engage in purposeful, problem-oriented, and outcome-driven tasks that are comparable to real-world activities. This qualitative case study discusses the integration of a task-based approach into a TESOL course in a language teacher education program in Taiwan with regard to 39…

  13. Assessing a New Approach to Class-Based Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Matthew N.

    2011-01-01

    In November, 2008, Colorado and Nebraska voted on amendments that sought to end race-based affirmative action at public universities. In anticipation of the vote, Colorado's flagship public institution--The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU)--explored statistical approaches to support class-based affirmative action. This paper details CU's…

  14. A SEMINAR-DISCUSSION-BASED APPROACH TOWARD LINGUISTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎勇

    2002-01-01

    In this article, based on the experience of many years of teaching Linguistics courses to undergraduates, postgraduates and in-service teacher trainees, we argue that taking a seminar-discussion-based approach is a better way to achieve students' full involvement and understanding.

  15. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  16. System identification based approach to dynamic weighing revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Meller, Michał; Pietrzak, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic weighing, i.e., weighing of objects in motion, without stopping them on the weighing platform, allows one to increase the rate of operation of automatic weighing systems, used in industrial production processes, without compromising their accuracy. Since the classical identification-based approach to dynamic weighing, based on the second-order mass-spring-damper model of the weighing system, does not yield satisfactory results when applied to conveyor belt type checkweighers, several extensions of this technique are examined. Experiments confirm that when appropriately modified the identification-based approach becomes a reliable tool for dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers.

  17. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon; Joy, Margalida; Sanz Pascua, Albina; Blasco, Isabel; Ripoll, Guillermo; Álvarez Rodríguez, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-...

  18. Public research in plant breeding and intellectual property rights: a new call for new institutional policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripp, R.; Eaton, D.J.F.; Louwaars, N.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of using intellectual property rights (IPRs) in public sector breeding, and the potential impact on breeding strategies and on the costs and benefits. The paper is based on a study on the impact of IPRs in the breeding industry in developing countries. There are three

  19. Characteristics important for organic breeding of vegetable crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic The Institute for Vegetable Crops possesses a rich germplasm collection of vegetables, utilized as gene resource for breeding specific traits. Onion and garlic breeding programs are based on chemical composition improvement. There are programs for identification and use of genotypes characterized by high tolerance to economically important diseases. Special attention is paid to breeding cucumber and tomato lines tolerant to late blight. As a result, late blight tolerant pickling cucumber line, as well as late blight tolerant tomato lines and hybrids are realized. Research on bean drought stress tolerance is initiated. Lettuce breeding program including research on spontaneous flora is started and interspecies hybrids were observed as possible genetic variability source. It is important to have access to a broad range of vegetable genotypes in order to meet the needs of organic agriculture production. Appreciating the concept of sustainable agriculture, it is important to introduce organic agriculture programs in breeding institutions.

  20. Potato breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de H.

    1953-01-01

    A remarkable feature of potato breeding in the Netherlands is the great number of private breeders who have concentrated their efforts on the improvement of the potato. The author calls attention to some circumstances and measures that have made potato breeding attractive in the Netherlands

  1. A Brief Introduction of Task-based Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹

    2012-01-01

    The task-based language teaching approach is one of the syllabus models that have been proposed in the last twenty years or so. Task-based syllabus represent a particular realization of communicative language teaching. Task-based teaching/learning helps develop students’ communicative competence, enabling them to communicate effectively in real communicating world and engage in interaction. The most active element in the process of the task-based teaching is the learner’ creativity. By exploiting this kind of creativity, learning can be made significantly more efficient and more interesting. It is well-known that the task-based teaching/learning have a rich potential for promoting successful second language learning than the traditional teaching/learning. Task-based approach is reflected not only in China but also in some other countries, such as America, Canada, Singapore, Hong Kong and son on.

  2. Breeding return times and abundance in capture-recapture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, Shirley; Baker, Edward; Scribner, Kim

    2013-12-01

    For many long-lived animal species, individuals do not breed every year, and are often not accessible during non-breeding periods. Individuals exhibit site fidelity if they return to the same breeding colony or spawning ground when they breed. If capture and recapture is only possible at the breeding site, temporary emigration models are used to allow for only a subset of the animals being present in any given year. Most temporary emigration models require the use of the robust sampling design, and their focus is usually on probabilities of annual survival and of transition between breeding and non-breeding states. We use lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) data from a closed population where only a simple (one sample per year) sampling scheme is possible, and we also wish to estimate abundance as well as sex-specific survival and breeding return time probabilities. By adding return time parameters to the Schwarz-Arnason version of the Jolly-Seber model, we have developed a new likelihood-based model which yields plausible estimates of abundance, survival, transition and return time parameters. An important new finding from investigation of the model is the overestimation of abundance if a Jolly-Seber model is used when Markovian temporary emigration is present.

  3. An Integrated Approach for Creating Service-Based Interactive Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Marius; Janeiro, Jordan; Nestler, Tobias; Hübsch, Gerald; Jugel, Uwe; Preussner, André; Schill, Alexander

    While the implementation of business logic and business processes based on service-oriented architectures is well-understood and covered by existing development approaches, integrated concepts that empower users to exploit the Internet of Services to create complex interactive applications are missing. In this paper, we present an integrated approach that fills this gap. Our approach builds upon service annotations that add meta-information related to user interface generation, service dependencies, and service composition to existing service descriptions. Services can be composed visually to complex interactive applications based on these annotations without the need to write any code. The application code is generated completely from the service composition description. Our approach is able to support heterogeneous target environments ranging from client/server architectures to mobile platforms.

  4. Analysis of Kernel Approach in Fuzzy-Based Image Classifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mragank Singhal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of kernel approach in the field of fuzzy based image classification in remote sensing. The goal of image classification is to separate images according to their visual content into two or more disjoint classes. Fuzzy logic is relatively young theory. Major advantage of this theory is that it allows the natural description, in linguistic terms, of problems that should be solved rather than in terms of relationships between precise numerical values. This paper describes how remote sensing data with uncertainty are handled with fuzzy based classification using Kernel approach for land use/land cover maps generation. The introduction to fuzzification using Kernel approach provides the basis for the development of more robust approaches to the remote sensing classification problem. The kernel explicitly defines a similarity measure between two samples and implicitly represents the mapping of the input space to the feature space.

  5. A Moving Human Tracking Approach Based on Semantic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ning; FANG Bao-hong; SUN Fu-liang

    2007-01-01

    In order to deal with partical occlusion, a semantic interaction based moving human tracking approach is put forward. Firstly human is modeled as moving blobs which are described as blob descriptions. Then moving blobs are updated and verified by projecting these descriptions. The approach exploits improved fast gauss transform and chooses source and target samples to reduce compute cost. Multi-moving human can be tracked simply and part occlusion can be done well.

  6. An Eavesdropping Detecting Approach Based on Mode-Mode Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jin; ZENG Gui-Hua; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2005-01-01

    @@ We find that second-order coherence as well as a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer may provide an optimal approach for eavesdropping detection in the quantum key distribution based on two-mode squeezed'vacuum states. With this approach, eavesdropping can be easily detected without sacrificing extra secret bits as the test key. In addition, the efficiency of the quantum key distribution protocol is enhanced greatly.

  7. LMI Approach to Observer-based FD Systems Designing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟麦英; 汤兵勇; 丁·史蒂芬·先春

    2001-01-01

    Increasing the robustness to the unknown uncertainty and simultaneously enhancing the sensibility to the faults is one of the important issues considered in the fault detection development. Considering the L2-gain of residual system, this paper deals the observer-based fault detection problem. By using of H∞ control theory,an LMI approach to design fault detection observer is given. A numerical example is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  8. RESEARCH ON NEGOTIATION-BASED PARTNER SELECTION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The key problem in the construction of virtual enterprises (VEs) is how to select appropriate partners. The negotiation-based approach is proposed to support partner selection in the construction of VEs . The negotiation model is discussed from three main aspects respectively, i.e., negotiation protocol, negotiation goal and negotiation decision-making model. And the generic mathematical description of the negotiation model is formally presented. Finally, a simple example is used to validate the approach's availability.

  9. A discrete Lagrangian based direct approach to macroscopic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Saikat; Nowruzpour, Mohsen; Reddy, J. N.; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    A direct discrete Lagrangian based approach, designed at a length scale of interest, to characterize the response of a body is proposed. The main idea is to understand the dynamics of a deformable body via a Lagrangian corresponding to a coupled interaction of rigid particles in the reduced dimension. We argue that the usual practice of describing the laws of a deformable body in the continuum limit is redundant, because for most of the practical problems, analytical solutions are not available. Since continuum limit is not taken, the framework automatically relaxes the requirement of differentiability of field variables. The discrete Lagrangian based approach is illustrated by deriving an equivalent of the Euler-Bernoulli beam model. A few test examples are solved, which demonstrate that the derived non-local model predicts lower deflections in comparison to classical Euler-Bernoulli beam solutions. We have also included crack propagation in thin structures for isotropic and anisotropic cases using the Lagrangian based approach.

  10. A Variance Based Active Learning Approach for Named Entity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamed; Keyvanpour, Mohammadreza

    The cost of manually annotating corpora is one of the significant issues in many text based tasks such as text mining, semantic annotation and generally information extraction. Active Learning is an approach that deals with reduction of labeling costs. In this paper we proposed an effective active learning approach based on minimal variance that reduces manual annotation cost by using a small number of manually labeled examples. In our approach we use a confidence measure based on the model's variance that reaches a considerable accuracy for annotating entities. Conditional Random Field (CRF) is chosen as the underlying learning model due to its promising performance in many sequence labeling tasks. The experiments show that the proposed method needs considerably fewer manual labeled samples to produce a desirable result.

  11. An Open Science Approach to Gis-Based Paleoenvironment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmes, C.; Becker, D.; Verheul, J.; Yener, Y.; Zickel, M.; Bolten, A.; Bubenzer, O.; Bareth, G.

    2016-06-01

    Paleoenvironmental studies and according information (data) are abundantly published and available in the scientific record. However, GIS-based paleoenvironmental information and datasets are comparably rare. Here, we present an Open Science approach for creating GIS-based data and maps of paleoenvironments, and Open Access publishing them in a web based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), for access by the archaeology and paleoenvironment communities. We introduce an approach to gather and create GIS datasets from published non-GIS based facts and information (data), such as analogous maps, textual information or figures in scientific publications. These collected and created geo-datasets and maps are then published, including a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to facilitate scholarly reuse and citation of the data, in a web based Open Access Research Data Management Infrastructure. The geo-datasets are additionally published in an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards compliant SDI, and available for GIS integration via OGC Open Web Services (OWS).

  12. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies......’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples....... The role of the user is often confused with the role of subjectivity. Knowledge organization systems cannot be objective and must therefore, by implication, be based on some kind of subjectivity. This subjectivity should, however, be derived from collective views in discourse communities rather than...

  13. Mindfulness-based approaches: are they all the same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Alberto; Malinowski, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Mindfulness-based approaches are increasingly employed as interventions for treating a variety of psychological, psychiatric and physical problems. Such approaches include ancient Buddhist mindfulness meditations such as Vipassana and Zen meditations, modern group-based standardized meditations, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and further psychological interventions, such as dialectical behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy. We review commonalities and differences of these interventions regarding philosophical background, main techniques, aims, outcomes, neurobiology and psychological mechanisms. In sum, the currently applied mindfulness-based interventions show large differences in the way mindfulness is conceptualized and practiced. The decision to consider such practices as unitary or as distinct phenomena will probably influence the direction of future research.

  14. A cloud model-based approach for water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Liu, Dengfeng; Ding, Hao; Singh, Vijay P; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    Water quality assessment entails essentially a multi-criteria decision-making process accounting for qualitative and quantitative uncertainties and their transformation. Considering uncertainties of randomness and fuzziness in water quality evaluation, a cloud model-based assessment approach is proposed. The cognitive cloud model, derived from information science, can realize the transformation between qualitative concept and quantitative data, based on probability and statistics and fuzzy set theory. When applying the cloud model to practical assessment, three technical issues are considered before the development of a complete cloud model-based approach: (1) bilateral boundary formula with nonlinear boundary regression for parameter estimation, (2) hybrid entropy-analytic hierarchy process technique for calculation of weights, and (3) mean of repeated simulations for determining the degree of final certainty. The cloud model-based approach is tested by evaluating the eutrophication status of 12 typical lakes and reservoirs in China and comparing with other four methods, which are Scoring Index method, Variable Fuzzy Sets method, Hybrid Fuzzy and Optimal model, and Neural Networks method. The proposed approach yields information concerning membership for each water quality status which leads to the final status. The approach is found to be representative of other alternative methods and accurate.

  15. A Market-Based Approach to Multi-factory Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytelingum, Perukrishnen; Rogers, Alex; MacBeth, Douglas K.; Dutta, Partha; Stranjak, Armin; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    In this paper, we report on the design of a novel market-based approach for decentralised scheduling across multiple factories. Specifically, because of the limitations of scheduling in a centralised manner - which requires a center to have complete and perfect information for optimality and the truthful revelation of potentially commercially private preferences to that center - we advocate an informationally decentralised approach that is both agile and dynamic. In particular, this work adopts a market-based approach for decentralised scheduling by considering the different stakeholders representing different factories as self-interested, profit-motivated economic agents that trade resources for the scheduling of jobs. The overall schedule of these jobs is then an emergent behaviour of the strategic interaction of these trading agents bidding for resources in a market based on limited information and their own preferences. Using a simple (zero-intelligence) bidding strategy, we empirically demonstrate that our market-based approach achieves a lower bound efficiency of 84%. This represents a trade-off between a reasonable level of efficiency (compared to a centralised approach) and the desirable benefits of a decentralised solution.

  16. Spatial scale of local breeding habitat quality and adjustment of breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doligez, Blandine; Berthouly, Anne; Doligez, Damien; Tanner, Marion; Saladin, Verena; Bonfils, Danielle; Richner, Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Experimental studies provide evidence that, in spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, individuals track variation in breeding habitat quality to adjust breeding decisions to local conditions. However, most experiments consider environmental variation at one spatial scale only, while the ability to detect the influence of a factor depends on the scale of analysis. We show that different breeding decisions by adults are based on information about habitat quality at different spatial scales. We manipulated (increased or decreased) local breeding habitat quality through food availability and parasite prevalence at a small (territory) and a large (patch) scale simultaneously in a wild population of Great Tits (Parus major). Females laid earlier in high-quality large-scale patches, but laying date did not depend on small-scale territory quality. Conversely, offspring sex ratio was higher (i.e., biased toward males) in high-quality, small-scale territories but did not depend on large-scale patch quality. Clutch size and territory occupancy probability did not depend on our experimental manipulation of habitat quality, but territories located at the edge of patches were more likely to be occupied than central territories. These results suggest that integrating different decisions taken by breeders according to environmental variation at different spatial scales is required to understand patterns of breeding strategy adjustment.

  17. Development and application of marker-assisted reverse breeding using hybrid maize germplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yi-Xin; WANG Bao-hua; FENG Yan; LI Ping

    2015-01-01

    Humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aiming at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, whole genome sequencing and deep understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms have facilitated new plant breeding approaches to meet the chalenge of growing population, dwindling re-sources, and changing climate. Here we proposed a simple and fast molecular breeding method, marker-assisted reverse breeding (MARB), which wil revert any maize hybrid into inbred lines with any level of required similarity to its original parent lines. Since al the pericarp DNA of a hybrid is from the maternal parent, whereas one half of the embryo DNA is from the maternal parent and the other half from the paternal parent, so we ifrstly extract DNA from seed embryo and pericarp of a selected elite hybrid separately and then we derived the genotypes of the two parents with high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. The folowing marker-assisted selection was performed based on an Ilumina low-density SNP chip designed with 192 SNPs polymorphic between the two parental genotypes, which were uniformly distributed on 10 maize chromosomes. This method has the advantages of fast speed, ifxed heterotic mode, and quick recovery of beneifcial parental genotypes compared to traditional pedigree breeding using elite hybrids. Meanwhile, MARB has the advantage of not requiring sophisticated transformation and double haploid (DH) technologies over RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated reverse breeding. In addition, MARB can also be used with feed corn harvested from big farms, which is often similar to F2 populations, and the relevant transgenes in the population can be eliminated by marker-assisted selection. As a result, the whole global commercial maize hybrids can be utilized as germplasm for breeding with MARB technology. Starting with an F2 population derived from an elite hybrid, our experiment indicates that with three

  18. Breeding programs for smallholder sheep farming systems: I. Evaluation of alternative designs of breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizaw, S; Rischkowsky, B; Valle-Zárate, A; Haile, A; van Arendonk, J A M; Mwai, A O; Dessie, T

    2014-10-01

    Village- and central nucleus-based schemes were simulated and evaluated for their relative bio-economic efficiencies, using Ethiopia's Menz sheep as example. The schemes were: village-based 2-tier (Scheme-1) and 1-tier (Scheme-2) cooperative village breeding schemes, dispersed village-based nuclei scheme (Scheme-3), conventional 2-tier central nucleus-based scheme (Scheme-4), and schemes linking a central nucleus and village multiplier nuclei with selection in central nucleus (Scheme-5) or in both central and village nuclei (Scheme-6). Among village-based schemes, Scheme-1 gave the highest genetic progress, while Scheme-2 was economically the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 5.6 and a profit of Birr 37.2/ewe/year. The central nucleus schemes were more efficient than the village schemes. Scheme-4 was the most efficient with genetic gain in the breeding objective of Birr 13.5 and a profit of Birr 71.2, but is operationally more difficult as it requires a very large central nucleus. The choice between village and central nucleus-based schemes would depend on local conditions (availability of infrastructure, logistics and technical knowhow and support). Linking central nucleus with village-based nuclei (Scheme-6) would be a feasible option to overcome the operational difficulties of the conventional central nucleus scheme. If a village-based breeding program is envisaged as should be the 1st step in most low-input systems, then Scheme-2 is the most efficient. To scale out to an entire Menz breed level, Scheme-3 would be recommended.

  19. Ellipse Fitting Based Approach for Extended Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of sensors’ resolution, traditional object tracking technology, which ignores object’s physical extension, gradually becomes inappropriate. Extended object tracking (EOT technology is able to obtain more information about the object through jointly estimating both centroid’s dynamic state and physical extension of the object. Random matrix based approach is a promising method for EOT. It uses ellipse/ellipsoid to describe the physical extension of the object. In order to reduce the physical extension estimation error when object maneuvers, the relationship between ellipse/ellipsoid and symmetrical positive definite matrix is analyzed at first. On this basis, ellipse/ellipsoid fitting based approach (EFA for EOT is proposed based on the measurement model and centroid’s dynamic model of random matrix based EOT approach. Simulation results show that EFA is effective. The physical extension estimation error of EFA is lower than those of random matrix based approaches when object maneuvers. Besides, the estimation error of centroid’s dynamic state of EFA is also lower.

  20. Why breeding values estimated using familial data should not be used for genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekine, Chinyere C; Rowe, Suzanne J; Bishop, Stephen C; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2014-02-19

    In animal breeding, the genetic potential of an animal is summarized as its estimated breeding value, which is derived from its own performance as well as the performance of related individuals. Here, we illustrate why estimated breeding values are not suitable as a phenotype for genome-wide association studies. We simulated human-type and pig-type pedigrees with a range of quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects (0.5-3% of phenotypic variance) and heritabilities (0.3-0.8). We analyzed 1000 replicates of each scenario with four models: (a) a full mixed model including a polygenic effect, (b) a regression analysis using the residual of a mixed model as a trait score (so called GRAMMAR approach), (c) a regression analysis using the estimated breeding value as a trait score, and (d) a regression analysis that uses the raw phenotype as a trait score. We show that using breeding values as a trait score gives very high false-positive rates (up 14% in human pedigrees and >60% in pig pedigrees). Simulations based on a real pedigree show that additional generations of pedigree increase the type I error. Including the family relationship as a random effect provides the greatest power to detect QTL while controlling for type I error at the desired level and providing the most accurate estimates of the QTL effect. Both the use of residuals and the use of breeding values result in deflated estimates of the QTL effect. We derive the contributions of QTL effects to the breeding value and residual and show how this affects the estimates.

  1. The Process - based Approach in English Writing Class%The Process-based Approach in English Writing Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦梅

    2007-01-01

    English writing is gaining high attention and emphasis in our college syllabus. It is a complicated process of written communication. In the process, the four basic skills-speaking, reading, listening and writing are organically integrated together. This paper is about the processbased approach in English writing class and its aim to emphasize the importance of process -based approach to writing. There are four parts in this paper. I start with a brief introduction to the importance of writing. Next, I will introduce my practice in English writing class. Then I will comment on the process approach and then make a little revision.

  2. A Morphometric Survey among Three Iranian Horse Breeds with Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hosseini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three Iranian horse breeds, Turkoman, Caspian, and Kurdish, are the most important Iranian horse breeds which are well known in all around of the world because of their beauty, versatility, great stamina, and  intelligence. Phenotypic characterization was used to identify and document the diversity within and between distinct breeds, based on their observable attributes. Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 23 traits were measured in 191 purebred horses belonging to three breeds, i.e. Turkoman (70 horses, Kurdish (77 horses, and Caspian (44 horses.  Caspian breed was  sampled from the Provinces of Alborz and Gilan. Kurdish breed was sampled from the Provinces of Kurdistan, Kermanshah, and Hamadan. Turkoman breed was sampled from the Provinces of Golestan, Markazi, and Isfahan. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA was implemented. In addition, Canonical Discriminate Analysis (CDA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and Custer analysis were executed for assessing the relationship among the breeds. All statistical analysis was executed by SAS statistical program. The results of our investigation represented the breeds classification into 3 different classes (Caspian, Turkoman, and Kurdish based on different morphometrical traits. Caspian breed with smaller size in most variables was detached clearly from the others with more distance than Kurdish and Turkoman breeds. The result showed that the most variably trait for classification was Hind Hoof Length. Adaptation with different environments causes difference in morphology and difference among breeds. We can identify and classify domestic population using PCA, CDA, and cluster analysis.

  3. A multiparameter chaos control method based on OGY approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza de Paula, Aline [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 21.941.972 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ, P.O. Box 68.503 (Brazil)], E-mail: alinesp@ufrj.br; Amorim Savi, Marcelo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 21.941.972 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ, P.O. Box 68.503 (Brazil)], E-mail: savi@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2009-05-15

    Chaos control is based on the richness of responses of chaotic behavior and may be understood as the use of tiny perturbations for the stabilization of a UPO embedded in a chaotic attractor. Since one of these UPO can provide better performance than others in a particular situation the use of chaos control can make this kind of behavior to be desirable in a variety of applications. The OGY method is a discrete technique that considers small perturbations promoted in the neighborhood of the desired orbit when the trajectory crosses a specific surface, such as a Poincare section. This contribution proposes a multiparameter semi-continuous method based on OGY approach in order to control chaotic behavior. Two different approaches are possible with this method: coupled approach, where all control parameters influences system dynamics although they are not active; and uncoupled approach that is a particular case where control parameters return to the reference value when they become passive parameters. As an application of the general formulation, it is investigated a two-parameter actuation of a nonlinear pendulum control employing coupled and uncoupled approaches. Analyses are carried out considering signals that are generated by numerical integration of the mathematical model using experimentally identified parameters. Results show that the procedure can be a good alternative for chaos control since it provides a more effective UPO stabilization than the classical single-parameter approach.

  4. RosBREED: Enabling marker-assisted breeding in Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iezzoni, A.F.; Weebadde, C.; Luby, J.; Yue, C.; Weg, van de W.E.; Fazio, G.; Main, D.; Peace, C.P.; Bassil, N.V.; McFerson, J.

    2010-01-01

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including EST

  5. RosBREED: Enabling Marker-Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics research has not yet been translated into routine practical application in breeding Rosaceae fruit crops (peach, apple, strawberry, cherry, apricot, pear, raspberry, etc.). Through dedicated efforts of many researchers worldwide, a wealth of genomics resources has accumulated, including ES...

  6. Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning A Modeling-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Naser, Arab

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation and Evacuation Planning: A Modeling-Based Approach provides a new paradigm for evacuation planning strategies and techniques. Recently, evacuation planning and modeling have increasingly attracted interest among researchers as well as government officials. This interest stems from the recent catastrophic hurricanes and weather-related events that occurred in the southeastern United States (Hurricane Katrina and Rita). The evacuation methods that were in place before and during the hurricanes did not work well and resulted in thousands of deaths. This book offers insights into the methods and techniques that allow for implementing mathematical-based, simulation-based, and integrated optimization and simulation-based engineering approaches for evacuation planning. This book also: Comprehensively discusses the application of mathematical models for evacuation and intelligent transportation modeling Covers advanced methodologies in evacuation modeling and planning Discusses principles a...

  7. [Internet-based approaches in the therapy of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichter, M M; Quadflieg, N; Nisslmüller, K; Lindner, S; Voderholzer, U; Wünsch-Leiteritz, W; Osen, B; Huber, T; Zahn, S; Meermann, R; Irrgang, V; Bleichner, F

    2011-09-01

    Recent technological developments of communication media offer new approaches to diagnostic and therapeutic interactions with patients. One major development is Internet-based primary prevention in vulnerable individuals not yet suffering as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches for affected individuals based on the experiences of guided self-help through CD, DVD or bibliotherapy. The eating disorder literature shows several interesting, partly controlled and randomized, studies on bulimia nervosa, a few studies on binge eating disorder and no studies on anorexia nervosa. As part of the German Eating Disorder Network on Psychotherapy (EDNET) a 9-month Internet-based relapse prevention program for patients with anorexia nervosa after inpatient treatment was evaluated. Conception, first experiences and first results of the Internet-based relapse prevention program for anorexia nervosa are reported.

  8. User-based and Cognitive Approaches to Knowledge Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2013-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, forms of user-based and cognitive approaches to knowledge organization came to the forefront as part of the overall development in library and information science and in the broader society. The specific nature of userbased approaches is their basis in the empirical studies...... of users or the principle that users need to be involved in the construction of knowledge organization systems. It might seem obvious that user-friendly systems should be designed on user studies or user involvement, but extremely successful systems such as Apple’s iPhone, Dialog’s search system and Google......’s PageRank are not based on the empirical studies of users. In knowledge organization, the Book House System is one example of a system based on user studies. In cognitive science the important WordNet database is claimed to be based on psychological research. This article considers such examples...

  9. A New ETL Approach Based on Data Virtualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭树盛; 袁子牧; 孙傲冰; 岳强

    2015-01-01

    ETL (Extract-Transform-Load) usually includes three phases: extraction, transformation, and loading. In building data warehouse, it plays the role of data injection and is the most time-consuming activity. Thus it is necessary to improve the performance of ETL. In this paper, a new ETL approach, TEL (Transform-Extract-Load) is proposed. The TEL approach applies virtual tables to realize the transformation stage before extraction stage and loading stage, without data staging area or staging database which stores raw data extracted from each of the disparate source data systems. The TEL approach reduces the data transmission load, and improves the performance of query from access layers. Experimental results based on our proposed benchmarks show that the TEL approach is feasible and practical.

  10. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in large breed dogs: chromosomal and breed variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Understanding extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is a crucial component for successful utilization of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The extent of LD in the dog has been described based upon small marker sets in multiple breeds and studies. Understanding variation in LD on a per...

  11. A Mindfulness-Based Approach to the Treatment of Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Jason; Sholtes, David

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation has emerged as a novel approach to emotion regulation and stress reduction that has several health benefits. Preliminary work has been conducted on mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBT-I), a meditation-based program for individuals suffering from chronic sleep disturbance. This treatment integrates behavioral treatments for insomnia with the principles and practices of mindfulness meditation. A case illustration of a chronic insomnia sufferer demonstrates the app...

  12. Complexity, Networking, & Effects-Based Approaches to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    40 Figure 10. Miller’s Living Systems Model ....................................47 Figure 11. State versus Non- State Living Systems...human organizations and to apply it in an effects-based context. State and non- state living systems The model described above extrapolates quite... STATE LIVING SYSTEMS MODEL 52 Complexity, Networking, and Effects-Based Approaches to Operations The living systems model organizations such as the

  13. A chaos-based approach for information hiding security

    OpenAIRE

    Bahi, Jacques M.; Guyeux, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new framework for data hiding security. Contrary to the existing ones, the approach introduced here is not based on probability theory. In this paper, a scheme is considered as secure if its behavior is proven unpredictable. The objective of this study is to enrich the existing notions of data hiding security with a new rigorous and practicable one. This new definition of security is based on the notion of topological chaos. It could be used to reinforce the confidence...

  14. An Efficient Audio Classification Approach Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoucine Bahatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve an audio classification aimed to identify the composer, the use of adequate and relevant features is important to improve performance especially when the classification algorithm is based on support vector machines. As opposed to conventional approaches that often use timbral features based on a time-frequency representation of the musical signal using constant window, this paper deals with a new audio classification method which improves the features extraction according the Constant Q Transform (CQT approach and includes original audio features related to the musical context in which the notes appear. The enhancement done by this work is also lay on the proposal of an optimal features selection procedure which combines filter and wrapper strategies. Experimental results show the accuracy and efficiency of the adopted approach in the binary classification as well as in the multi-class classification.

  15. From equation to inequality using a function-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikios, Petros; Farmaki, Vassiliki

    2010-06-01

    This article presents features of a qualitative research study concerning the teaching and learning of school algebra using a function-based approach in a grade 8 class, of 23 students, in 26 lessons, in a state school of Athens, in the school year 2003-2004. In this article, we are interested in the inequality concept and our aim is to investigate if and how our approach could facilitate students to comprehend inequality and to solve problems related to this concept. Data analysis showed that, in order to comprehend the new concept, the students should make a transition from equation to inequality. The role of the situation context proved decisive in this transition and in making sense of involved symbols. Also, students used function representations as problem-solving strategies in problems that included inequalities. However, the extension of the function-based approach in solving an abstract equation or inequality proved problematic for the students.

  16. Future perspectives of in vitro culture and plant breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark

    2015-01-01

    Conventional breeding and plant improvement increasingly become inadequate to keep up with progression and high quality demands. Thus biotechnological techniques are more and more adopted. Initially, biotechnological tools have supported conventional breeding by in vitro culture techniques......, comprising micropropagation, speeding up multiplication and improving uniformity. Also, crossing barriers of incompatible plants have been overcome using in vitro methods and embryo rescue techniques in wide hybridization approaches. Marker-assisted breeding is employed for targeted selection of DNA...... breeding in Europe is still marginal due to investment costs, legal approval and public acceptance. As a result, natural transformation using wild type bacteria and thus avoiding recombinant DNA technology has attracted attention of ornamental plant breeders in Europe. However, during the last decades...

  17. A concept-based approach to text categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijvenaars, B.J.A.; Schuemie, M.J.; Mulligen, E.M. van; Weeber, M.; Jelier, R.; Mons, B.; Kors, J.A.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Biosemantics group (Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam) participated in the text categorization task of the Genomics Track. We followed a thesaurus-based approach, using the Collexis indexing system, in combination with a simple classification algorithm to assign a document to one of t

  18. An Evidence-Based Approach to Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on research into students' understanding, this article argues that the customary approach to introductory chemistry has created difficulties for students. Instead of being based on the notion of "solids, liquids and gases", introductory chemistry should be structured to develop the concept of a substance. The concept of a…

  19. Non-frontal model based approach to forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a non-frontal model based approach which ensures that a face recognition system always gets to compare images having similar view (or pose). This requires a virtual suspect reference set that consists of non-frontal suspect images having pose similar to the surveillance vie

  20. From Equation to Inequality Using a Function-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikios, Petros; Farmaki, Vassiliki

    2010-01-01

    This article presents features of a qualitative research study concerning the teaching and learning of school algebra using a function-based approach in a grade 8 class, of 23 students, in 26 lessons, in a state school of Athens, in the school year 2003-2004. In this article, we are interested in the inequality concept and our aim is to…

  1. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse...

  2. Knowledge-based Approach for Event Extraction from Arabic Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AL-Smadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tweets provide a continuous update on current events. However, Tweets are short, personalized and noisy, thus raises more challenges for event extraction and representation. Extracting events out of Arabic tweets is a new research domain where few examples – if any – of previous work can be found. This paper describes a knowledge-based approach for fostering event extraction out of Arabic tweets. The approach uses an unsupervised rule-based technique for event extraction and provides a named entity disambiguation of event related entities (i.e. person, organization, and location. Extracted events and their related entities are populated to the event knowledge base where tagged tweets’ entities are linked to their corresponding entities represented in the knowledge base. Proposed approach was evaluated on a dataset of 1K Arabic tweets covering different types of events (i.e. instant events and interval events. Results show that the approach has an accuracy of, 75.9% for event trigger extraction, 87.5% for event time extraction, and 97.7% for event type identification.

  3. Employers' Approaches to Work-Based Training in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillage, Jim

    1996-01-01

    The British Labour Force Survey indicates that work-based training is skewed toward service sector occupations and high-level workers. Few employers have a formal or systematic training approach. Lower-skilled, more disadvantaged workers have the least access to education and training. (SK)

  4. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Stijn; Zoet, Martijn; Versendaal, Johan; Weerd, Inge van de

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we de

  5. Training Team Problem Solving Skills: An Event-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, R. L.; Gualtieri, J. W.; Cannon-Bowers, J. A.; Salas, E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how to train teams in problem-solving skills. Topics include team training, the use of technology, instructional strategies, simulations and training, theoretical framework, and an event-based approach for training teams to perform in naturalistic environments. Contains 68 references. (Author/LRW)

  6. An Approach to Quality Estimation in Model-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Jens Peter; Koch, Peter; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to estimation of parameters for design space exploration in Model-Based Development, where synthesis of a system is done in two stages. Component qualities like space, execution time or power consumption are defined in a repository by platform dependent values. Connectors...

  7. An approach for activity-based DEVS model specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alshareef, Abdurrahman; Sarjoughian, Hessam S.; Zarrin, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    activity-based behavior modeling of parallel DEVS atomic models. We consider UML activities and actions as fundamental units of behavior modeling, especially in the presence of recent advances in the UML 2.5 specifications. We describe in detail how to approach activity modeling with a set of elemental...

  8. Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei V

    2013-04-08

    In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity we investigate the properties of graphene wire medium and graphene fishnet metamaterials and demonstrate both narrowband and broadband tunable absorbers.

  9. Graphene metamaterials based tunable terahertz absorber: effective surface conductivity approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the efficient design of functional thin-film metamaterial devices with the effective surface conductivity approach. As an example, we demonstrate a graphene based perfect absorber. After formulating the requirements to the perfect absorber in terms of surface conductivity...... we investigate the properties of graphene wire medium and graphene fishnet metamaterials and demonstrate both narrowband and broadband tunable absorbers....

  10. A sampling-based approach to probabilistic pursuit evasion

    KAUST Repository

    Mahadevan, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Probabilistic roadmaps (PRMs) are a sampling-based approach to motion-planning that encodes feasible paths through the environment using a graph created from a subset of valid positions. Prior research has shown that PRMs can be augmented with useful information to model interesting scenarios related to multi-agent interaction and coordination. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Genetic variation within the Icelandic cattle breed: assessment using microsatellites and analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Leptin and DGAT1 genes

    OpenAIRE

    Margrét Guðrún Ásbjarnardóttir 1981

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient genetic variation within domestic breeds is a crucial factor in all breeding work. It is a prerequisite for future breeding progress and is used in research and development of breeding methods at the molecular level. The present study estimates genetic variation within the Icelandic cattle breed using two approaches. The data consisted of genomic DNA samples from 100 heifers in first pregnancy collected at 45 dairy farms located in the four major dairy regions in Iceland. Fir...

  12. Variation-based approach to image segmentation Variation-based approach to image segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永平; 郑南宁; 赵荣椿

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to image segmentation is presented using a variation framework. Regarding the edge points as interpolating points and minimizing an energy functional to interpolate a smooth threshold surface it carries out the image segmentation. In order to preserve the edge information of the original image in the threshold surface, without unduly sharping the edge of the image, a non-convex energy functional is adopted. A relaxation algorithm with the property of global convergence, for solving the optimization problem, is proposed by introducing a binary energy. As a result the non-convex optimization problem is transformed into a series of convex optimization problems, and the problem of slow convergence or nonconvergence is solved. The presented method is also tested experimentally. Finally the method of determining the parameters in optimizing is also explored.   

  13. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Sutoyo

    Full Text Available Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.

  14. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut

    2016-01-01

    Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%. PMID:26928627

  15. An Efficient Soft Set-Based Approach for Conflict Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoyo, Edi; Mungad, Mungad; Hamid, Suraya; Herawan, Tutut

    2016-01-01

    Conflict analysis has been used as an important tool in economic, business, governmental and political dispute, games, management negotiations, military operations and etc. There are many mathematical formal models have been proposed to handle conflict situations and one of the most popular is rough set theory. With the ability to handle vagueness from the conflict data set, rough set theory has been successfully used. However, computational time is still an issue when determining the certainty, coverage, and strength of conflict situations. In this paper, we present an alternative approach to handle conflict situations, based on some ideas using soft set theory. The novelty of the proposed approach is that, unlike in rough set theory that uses decision rules, it is based on the concept of co-occurrence of parameters in soft set theory. We illustrate the proposed approach by means of a tutorial example of voting analysis in conflict situations. Furthermore, we elaborate the proposed approach on real world dataset of political conflict in Indonesian Parliament. We show that, the proposed approach achieves lower computational time as compared to rough set theory of up to 3.9%.

  16. Illinois’ 2000 breeding season report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the 2000 breeding season for grassland birds in Illinois. The report begins by summarizing weather conditions throughout the season and...

  17. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  18. Atlantic Flyway Breeding Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Atlantic Flyway Technical Section initiated this breeding waterfowl survey in 11 northeast states ranging from New Hampshire to Virginia.

  19. Tricolored Blackbird - Breeding [ds20

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These data come from observations of breeding tricolored blackbirds throughout their range in California. NAD27 coordinates are given in the data for each record....

  20. The cortex-based alignment approach to TMS coil positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; Frost, Martin A; de Graaf, Tom A; Graewe, Britta; Jacobs, Christianne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2014-10-01

    TMS allows noninvasive manipulation of brain activity in healthy participants and patients. The effectiveness of TMS experiments critically depends on precise TMS coil positioning, which is best for most brain areas when a frameless stereotactic system is used to target activation foci based on individual fMRI data. From a purely scientific perspective, individual fMRI-guided TMS is thus the method of choice to ensure optimal TMS efficiency. Yet, from a more practical perspective, such individual functional data are not always available, and therefore alternative TMS coil positioning approaches are often applied, for example, based on functional group data reported in Talairach coordinates. We here propose a novel method for TMS coil positioning that is based on functional group data, yet only requires individual anatomical data. We used cortex-based alignment (CBA) to transform individual anatomical data to an atlas brain that includes probabilistic group maps of two functional regions (FEF and hMT+/V5). Then, these functional group maps were back-transformed to the individual brain anatomy, preserving functional-anatomical correspondence. As a proof of principle, the resulting CBA-based functional targets in individual brain space were compared with individual FEF and hMT+/V5 hotspots as conventionally localized with individual fMRI data and with targets based on Talairach coordinates as commonly done in TMS research in case only individual anatomical data are available. The CBA-based approach significantly improved localization of functional brain areas compared with traditional Talairach-based targeting. Given the widespread availability of CBA schemes and preexisting functional group data, the proposed procedure is easy to implement and at no additional measurement costs. However, the accuracy of individual fMRI-guided TMS remains unparalleled, and the CBA-based approach should only be the method of choice when individual functional data cannot be obtained or

  1. An Ontology Based Approach to Implement the Online Recommendation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Mohanraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Every web user has different intent when accessing the information on website. The primary goal of recommendation system is to anticipate the user intent and recommend the web pages that contain user expected information. Effective recommendation of web pages involves two important challenges: accurately identifying the user intent and predict the result show that novel web usage mining method and ontological concept scoring algorithm based on website domain ontological profile helps the recommendation system imminent navigation pattern in such a way that it provides required content while users browse the predicted navigation. Approach: We present a ontology based approach to implement recommendation system that involves applying innovative web usage mining on log system to discover all possible imminent navigation patterns of current user and resolve any uncertainties in discovering the navigation pattern by applying ontological concept based similarity comparison and scoring algorithm. Results: result show that novel web usage mining method and ontological concept scoring algorithm based on website domain ontological profile helps the recommendation system to predict and present most relevant navigation pattern to users. Conclusion: our recommendation system confirms that ontology based approach should be used to ensure excellent accuracy in predicting and capturing future navigation pattern of web user.

  2. Image-Based Learning Approach Applied to Time Series Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Chimal-Eguía

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new learning approach based on time-series image information is presented. In order to implementthis new learning technique, a novel time-series input data representation is also defined. This input datarepresentation is based on information obtained by image axis division into boxes. The difference between this newinput data representation and the classical is that this technique is not time-dependent. This new information isimplemented in the new Image-Based Learning Approach (IBLA and by means of a probabilistic mechanism thislearning technique is applied to the interesting problem of time series forecasting. The experimental results indicatethat by using the methodology proposed in this article, it is possible to obtain better results than with the classicaltechniques such as artificial neuronal networks and support vector machines.

  3. A new approach toward object-based change detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Object-based change detection has been the hotspot in remote sensing image processing.A new approach toward object-based change detection is proposed.The two different temporal images are unitedly segmented using the mean shift procedure to obtain corresponding objects.Then change detection is implemented based on the integration of corresponding objects’ intensity and texture differences.Experiments are conducted on both panchromatic images and multispectral images and the results show that the integrated measure is robust with respect to illumination changes and noise.Supplementary color detection is conducted to determine whether the color of the unchanged objects changes or not when dealing with multispectral images.Some verification work is carried out to show the accuracy of the proposed approach.

  4. Colorimetry-based edge preservation approach for color image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Merugu; Jain, Kamal

    2016-07-01

    "Subpixel-based downsampling" is an approach that can implicitly enhance perceptible image resolution of a downsampled image by managing subpixel-level representation preferably with individual pixel. A subpixel-level representation for color image sample at edge region and color image representation is focused with the problem of directional filtration based on horizontal and vertical orientations using colorimetric color space with the help of saturation and desaturation pixels. A diagonal tracing algorithm and an edge preserving approach with colorimetric color space were used for color image enhancement. Since, there exist high variations at the edge regions, it could not be considered as constant or zero, and when these variations are random the need to compensate these to minimum value and then process for image representation. Finally, the results of the proposed method show much better image information as compared with traditional direct pixel-based methods with increased luminance and chrominance resolutions.

  5. EVALUATING HUMAN CAPITAL IN A KNOWLEDGE – BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoil MUSCALU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The widespread enthusiasm for a knowledge-based approach to understanding the nature of a business and the possible basis for sustained competitive advantage have renewed interest in human capital evaluation or measurement. While many attempts have been made to develop methods for measuring intellectual capital, none have been widely adopted in the business world. In the knowledge-based organizations, and generally, in the information society, human capital is recognized as the fundamental factor of overall progress, and experts agree that long-term investment in human capital has strong drive-propagation effects at the individual, organizational, national and global level. In this paper, we consider that a knowledge-based approach can offer new possibilities and answers to illustrate the importance of evaluation the human capital and knowledge assets by consistently generating added value in the business world.

  6. Mutations induced in plant breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga B, P. (Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. Inst. de Produccion y Sanidad Vegetal)

    1984-10-01

    The most significant aspects of the use of ionizing radiations in plant breeding are reviewed. Aspects such as basic principles of mutation, expression and selection in obtention of mutants, methods for using induced mutations and sucess achieved with this methodology in plant breeding are reviewed. Results obtained in a program of induced mutation on wheat for high content of protein and lysine at the Universidad Austral de Chile are presented.

  7. Practice-Based Interdisciplinary Approach and Environmental Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Kumar Datta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Interdisciplinary researchers and educators, as community members, creators of knowledge, and environmental activists and practitioners, have a responsibility to build a bridge between community practice, academic scholarship, and professional contributions aimed at establishing environmental sustainability. In this paper, I focus on an undervalued area of environmental politics, practices, and often unarticulated assumptions which underlie human–environmental relations. This article challenges interdisciplinary studies that are not connected with practice by reconfiguring the meaning of a community-based, interdisciplinary approach. Drawing from works by Foucault, Latour, and Haraway, this paper first shows how to reconfigure the meaning of an interdisciplinary approach. Second, using Bourdieu and Brightman’s ethnographic studies as a framework, the paper situates practice as central to our efforts to deconstruct and replace current interdisciplinary initiatives with a practice-based approach. Through a practice-based interdisciplinary approach (PIA, environmental educators and researchers gain an awareness of and learn to make an investment in sustainable communities. As teams of environmental researchers practising in the local community, they are meaningfully involved with the community, with each other, and with the environment.

  8. A New Acoustic Emission Sensor Based Gear Fault Detection Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junda Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce wind energy costs, prognostics and health management (PHM of wind turbine is needed to ensure the reliability and availability of wind turbines. A gearbox is an important component of a wind turbine. Therefore, developing effective gearbox fault detection tools is important to the PHM of wind turbine. In this paper, a new acoustic emission (AE sensor based gear fault detection approach is presented. This approach combines a heterodyne based frequency reduction technique with time synchronous average (TSA and spectrum kurtosis (SK to process AE sensor signals and extract features as condition indictors for gear fault detection. Heterodyne technique commonly used in communication is first employed to preprocess the AE signals before sampling. By heterodyning, the AE signal frequency is down shifted from several hundred kHz to below 50 kHz. This reduced AE signal sampling rate is comparable to that of vibration signals. The presented approach is validated using seeded gear tooth crack fault tests on a notational split torque gearbox. The approach presented in this paper is physics based and the validation results have showed that it could effectively detect the gear faults.

  9. Agent Based Approaches to Engineering Autonomous Space Software

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Louise A; Lincoln, Nicholas; Lisitsa, Alexei; Veres, Sandor M

    2010-01-01

    Current approaches to the engineering of space software such as satellite control systems are based around the development of feedback controllers using packages such as MatLab's Simulink toolbox. These provide powerful tools for engineering real time systems that adapt to changes in the environment but are limited when the controller itself needs to be adapted. We are investigating ways in which ideas from temporal logics and agent programming can be integrated with the use of such control systems to provide a more powerful layer of autonomous decision making. This paper will discuss our initial approaches to the engineering of such systems.

  10. Gilmore-Perelomov symmetry based approach to photonic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Vergara, Liliana Villanueva

    2015-01-01

    We revisit electromagnetic field propagation through tight-binding arrays of coupled photonic waveguides, with properties independent of the propagation distance, and recast it as a symmetry problem. We focus our analysis on photonic lattices with underlying symmetries given by three well-known groups, $SU(2)$, $SU(1,1)$ and Heisenberg-Weyl, to show that disperssion relations, normal states and impulse functions can be constructed following a Gilmore-Perelomov coherent state approach. Furthermore, this symmetry based approach can be followed for each an every lattice with an underlying symmetry given by a dynamical group.

  11. An Approach for Composing Services Based on Environment Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Cai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Service-oriented computing is revolutionizing the modern computing paradigms with its aim to boost software reuse and enable business agility. Under this paradigm, new services are fabricated by composing available services. The problem arises as how to effectively and efficiently compose heterogeneous services facing the high complexity of service composition. Based on environment ontology, this paper introduces a requirement-driven service composition approach. We propose the algorithms to decompose the requirement, the rules to deduct the relation between services, and the algorithm for composing service. The empirical results and the comparison with other services’ composition methodologies show that this approach is feasible and efficient.

  12. A complexity-based approach to batterer intervention programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Maldonado, Venus E; Medina-Maldonado, Rossana; Parada-Cores, Germán

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at providing opinion by adopting a complexity-based approach to coordinating nursing science and psychology concerning psycho-educational intervention for batterers regarding their partner or ex-partner. Improving both disciplines' interrelationship should facilitate implementing relevant action, thereby engendering motivation for change in participants and modifying sexist attitudes and beliefs. The document has analyzed the importance of coordinating scientific disciplines' action and defined guidelines for an approach involving intervention as well as highlighting implications for practice and research.

  13. Network Medicine: A Network-based Approach to Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiassian, Susan Dina

    With the availability of large-scale data, it is now possible to systematically study the underlying interaction maps of many complex systems in multiple disciplines. Statistical physics has a long and successful history in modeling and characterizing systems with a large number of interacting individuals. Indeed, numerous approaches that were first developed in the context of statistical physics, such as the notion of random walks and diffusion processes, have been applied successfully to study and characterize complex systems in the context of network science. Based on these tools, network science has made important contributions to our understanding of many real-world, self-organizing systems, for example in computer science, sociology and economics. Biological systems are no exception. Indeed, recent studies reflect the necessity of applying statistical and network-based approaches in order to understand complex biological systems, such as cells. In these approaches, a cell is viewed as a complex network consisting of interactions among cellular components, such as genes and proteins. Given the cellular network as a platform, machinery, functionality and failure of a cell can be studied with network-based approaches, a field known as systems biology. Here, we apply network-based approaches to explore human diseases and their associated genes within the cellular network. This dissertation is divided in three parts: (i) A systematic analysis of the connectivity patterns among disease proteins within the cellular network. The quantification of these patterns inspires the design of an algorithm which predicts a disease-specific subnetwork containing yet unknown disease associated proteins. (ii) We apply the introduced algorithm to explore the common underlying mechanism of many complex diseases. We detect a subnetwork from which inflammatory processes initiate and result in many autoimmune diseases. (iii) The last chapter of this dissertation describes the

  14. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN CATTLE BREEDS USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA REBEDEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a genetic characterization of cattle breeds in Romania based onbiochemical markers in the blood and the milk. The surveyed breeds are: RomanianBlack Spotted Cattle (BNR, Romanian Spotted Cattle (BR, Romanian Brown (Band Romanian Steppe, and the markers identified are represented by some proteins,serum transferrin (Tf, serum albumins (Al, hemoglobin (Hb respectively-from theblood and beta-lactoglobulin (βLg-from the milk. In order to determine thegenotypes in the studied populations electrophoresis was used in three differentvariations, depending on the type of the protein, and the migration substrates usedwere starch and polyacrylamide. The identified genetic structures in the individualsfrom the surveyed breeds allowed their genetic characterization based on gene andgenotype frequencies, as well as using these data in establishing the identity andpaternity of the individuals in the surveyed breeds.

  15. A novel image fusion approach based on compressive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongpeng; Liu, Zhaodong; Fang, Bin; Li, Yanxia

    2015-11-01

    Image fusion can integrate complementary and relevant information of source images captured by multiple sensors into a unitary synthetic image. The compressive sensing-based (CS) fusion approach can greatly reduce the processing speed and guarantee the quality of the fused image by integrating fewer non-zero coefficients. However, there are two main limitations in the conventional CS-based fusion approach. Firstly, directly fusing sensing measurements may bring greater uncertain results with high reconstruction error. Secondly, using single fusion rule may result in the problems of blocking artifacts and poor fidelity. In this paper, a novel image fusion approach based on CS is proposed to solve those problems. The non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) method is utilized to decompose the source images. The dual-layer Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) model is used to integrate low-pass subbands; while an edge-retention based fusion rule is proposed to fuse high-pass subbands. The sparse coefficients are fused before being measured by Gaussian matrix. The fused image is accurately reconstructed by Compressive Sampling Matched Pursuit algorithm (CoSaMP). Experimental results demonstrate that the fused image contains abundant detailed contents and preserves the saliency structure. These also indicate that our proposed method achieves better visual quality than the current state-of-the-art methods.

  16. Breeding objectives for Targhee sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, R C; Notter, D R; Kuehn, L A; Kott, R W

    2007-11-01

    Breeding objectives were developed for Targhee sheep under rangeland production conditions. Traits considered were those for which EPD were available from the US National Sheep Improvement Program and included direct and maternal effects on 120-d weaning weight (WW and MM, respectively); yearling weight (YW); yearling fleece weight, fiber diameter, and staple length; and percent lamb crop (PLC), measured as the number of lambs born per 100 ewes lambing. A bioeconomic model was used to predict the effects of a change of 1 additive SD in EPD for each trait, holding all other traits constant at their mean, on animal performance, feed requirements, feed costs, and economic returns. Resulting economic weightings were then used to derive selection indexes. Indexes were derived separately for 3 prolificacy levels (1.41, 1.55, and 1.70 lambs/ewe lambing), 2 triplet survival levels (50 and 67%), 2 lamb pricing policies (with or without discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs), and 3 forage cost scenarios (renting pasture, purchasing hay, or reducing flock size to accommodate increased nutrient requirements for production). Increasing PLC generally had the largest impact on profitability, although an increase in WW was equally important, with low feed costs and no discounting of prices for heavy feeder lambs. Increases in PLC were recommended at all 3 prolificacy levels, but with low triplet survival the value of increasing PLC eventually declined as the mean litter size increased to approximately 2.15 lambs/ewe lambing and above. Increasing YW (independent of WW) increased ewe maintenance costs and reduced profitability. Predicted changes in breeding values for WW and YW under index selection varied with lamb pricing policy and feed costs. With low feed costs or no discounts for heavy lambs, YW increased at a modest rate in association with increasing WW, but with high feed costs or discounting of heavy lambs, genetic trends in WW were reduced by approximately 50% to

  17. An engineering based approach for hydraulic computations in river flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, S.; Biscarini, C.; Pierleoni, A.; Manciola, P.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an engineering based approach for hydraulic risk evaluation. The aim of the research is to identify a criteria for the choice of the simplest and appropriate model to use in different scenarios varying the characteristics of main river channel. The complete flow field, generally expressed in terms of pressure, velocities, accelerations can be described through a three dimensional approach that consider all the flow properties varying in all directions. In many practical applications for river flow studies, however, the greatest changes occur only in two dimensions or even only in one. In these cases the use of simplified approaches can lead to accurate results, with easy to build and faster simulations. The study has been conducted taking in account a dimensionless parameter of channels (ratio of curvature radius and width of the channel (R/B).

  18. MDA based-approach for UML Models Complete Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Chaouni, Samia Benabdellah; Mouline, Salma

    2011-01-01

    If a modeling task is distributed, it will frequently be necessary to integrate models developed by different team members. Problems occur in the models integration step and particularly, in the comparison phase of the integration. This issue had been discussed in several domains and various models. However, previous approaches have not correctly handled the semantic comparison. In the current paper, we provide a MDA-based approach for models comparison which aims at comparing UML models. We develop an hybrid approach which takes into account syntactic, semantic and structural comparison aspects. For this purpose, we use the domain ontology as well as other resources such as dictionaries. We propose a decision support system which permits the user to validate (or not) correspondences extracted in the comparison phase. For implementation, we propose an extension of the generic correspondence metamodel AMW in order to transform UML models to the correspondence model.

  19. [A complexity-based approach to zoonoses in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Angela N

    2012-01-01

    The present reflection was aimed at making a contribution towards improving control policy and programs integrality and efficacy in an attempt to answer the following question, "How can understanding zoonoses in Colombia be approached from a complexity-based approach?" The first part of this article examines zoonoses as a complex problem and the reiterated tendency of control policy and programs to deal with them as a simple problem, involving unidisciplinary and reductionist responses. The current status of complexity is synthesized as a paradigm, as are the advantages of using it in analysis and formulating policy and interventions. Possible fields of work are proposed for development when approaching zoonoses in Colombia from a complexity science viewpoint.

  20. Paternity Testing, a Poor Man’s Marker Assisted Breeding Strategy to Increase Selection Gains in Outbred Forage Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many methods to incorporate molecular markers into breeding programs have been proposed. Most existing marker assisted selection strategies use selection based on molecular marker linkage to achieve selection gains. Such strategies are often prohibitively expensive in forage breeding (Riday, 2007)...

  1. A fuzzy behaviorist approach to sensor-based robot control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1996-05-01

    Sensor-based operation of autonomous robots in unstructured and/or outdoor environments has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. An approach. which we have named the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist Approach{close_quotes} (FBA) is proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. This approach is based on the representation of the system`s uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and on the representation of the reasoning and control schemes as sets of elemental behaviors. Using the FBA, a formalism for rule base development and an automated generator of fuzzy rules have been developed. This automated system can automatically construct the set of membership functions corresponding to fuzzy behaviors. Once these have been expressed in qualitative terms by the user. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and for non-redundancy of the rules (which has traditionally been a major hurdle in rule base development). Two major conceptual features, the suppression and inhibition mechanisms which allow to express a dominance between behaviors are discussed in detail. Some experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy, rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in aprion unknown environments. using one of our autonomous test-bed robots as well as a real car in outdoor environments, are then reviewed and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} concepts.

  2. Crop Breeding for Low Input Agriculture: A Sustainable Response to Feed a Growing World Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner A. Benedito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World population is projected to reach its maximum (~10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45% increase of the current world population (approaching seven billion people will boost the demand for food and raw materials. However, we live in a historical moment when supply of phosphate, water, and oil are at their peaks. Modern agriculture is fundamentally based on varieties bred for high performance under high input systems (fertilizers, water, oil, pesticides, which generally do not perform well under low-input situations. We propose a shift of research goals and plant breeding objectives from high-performance agriculture at high-energy input to those with an improved rationalization between yield and energy input. Crop breeding programs that are more focused on nutrient economy and local environmental fitness will help reduce energy demands for crop production while still providing adequate amounts of high quality food as global resources decline and population is projected to increase.

  3. ITER breeding blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Kikuchi, Shigeto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-11-01

    The ITER breeding blanket employs a ceramic breeder and Be neutron multiplier both in small spherical pebble form. Radial-poloidal cooling panels are arranged in the blanket box to remove the nuclear heating in these materials and to reinforce the blanket structure. At the first wall, Be armor is bonded onto the stainless steel (SS) structure to provide a low Z plasma-compatible surface and to protect the first wall/blanket structure from the direct contact with the plasma during off-normal events. Thermo-mechanical analyses and investigation of fabrication procedure have been performed for this breeding blanket. To evaluate thermo-mechanical behavior of the pebble beds including the dependency of the effective thermal conductivity on stress, analysis methods have been preliminary established by the use of special calculation option of ABAQUS code, which are briefly summarized in this report. The structural response of the breeding blanket module under internal pressure of 4 MPa (in case of in-blanket LOCA) resulted in rather high stress in the blanket side (toroidal end) wall, thus addition of a stiffening rib or increase of the wall thickness will be needed. Two-dimensional elasto-plastic analyses have been performed for the Be/SS bonded interface at the first wall taking a fabrication process based on HIP bonding and thermal cycle due to pulsed plasma operation into account. The stress-strain hysteresis during these process and operation was clarified, and a procedure to assess and/or confirm the bonding integrity was also proposed. Fabrication sequence of the breeding blanket module was preliminarily developed based on the procedure to fabricate part by part and to assemble them one by one. (author)

  4. A microfabrication-based approach to quantitative isothermal titration calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Jia, Yuan; Lin, Qiao

    2016-04-15

    Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) directly measures heat evolved in a chemical reaction to determine equilibrium binding properties of biomolecular systems. Conventional ITC instruments are expensive, use complicated design and construction, and require long analysis times. Microfabricated calorimetric devices are promising, although they have yet to allow accurate, quantitative ITC measurements of biochemical reactions. This paper presents a microfabrication-based approach to integrated, quantitative ITC characterization of biomolecular interactions. The approach integrates microfabricated differential calorimetric sensors with microfluidic titration. Biomolecules and reagents are introduced at each of a series of molar ratios, mixed, and allowed to react. The reaction thermal power is differentially measured, and used to determine the thermodynamic profile of the biomolecular interactions. Implemented in a microdevice featuring thermally isolated, well-defined reaction volumes with minimized fluid evaporation as well as highly sensitive thermoelectric sensing, the approach enables accurate and quantitative ITC measurements of protein-ligand interactions under different isothermal conditions. Using the approach, we demonstrate ITC characterization of the binding of 18-Crown-6 with barium chloride, and the binding of ribonuclease A with cytidine 2'-monophosphate within reaction volumes of approximately 0.7 µL and at concentrations down to 2mM. For each binding system, the ITC measurements were completed with considerably reduced analysis times and material consumption, and yielded a complete thermodynamic profile of the molecular interaction in agreement with published data. This demonstrates the potential usefulness of our approach for biomolecular characterization in biomedical applications.

  5. English to Sanskrit Machine Translation Using Transfer Based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ganesh R.; Godse, Sachin P.

    2010-11-01

    Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning (message) in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation. Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.

  6. Proposed Representation Approach Based on Description Logics Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Yahiaoui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most familiar concept in Artificial intelligence is the knowledges representation. It aims to find explicit symbolization covering all semantic aspects of knowledge, and to make possible the use of this representation to produce an intelligent behavior like reasoning. The most important constraint is the usability of the representation; it’s why the structures used must be well defined to facilitate manipulation for reasoning algorithms which leads to facilitate their implementation. In this paper we propose a new approach based on the description logics formalism for the goal of simplification of description logics system implementation. This approach can reduce the complexity of reasoning Algorithm by the vectorisation of concept definition based on the subsumption hierarchy.

  7. A Computationally Based Approach to Homogenizing Advanced Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, P D; Cowen, C J

    2011-02-27

    We have developed a computationally based approach to optimizing the homogenization heat treatment of complex alloys. The Scheil module within the Thermo-Calc software is used to predict the as-cast segregation present within alloys, and DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformations) is used to model the homogenization kinetics as a function of time, temperature and microstructural scale. We will discuss this approach as it is applied to both Ni based superalloys as well as the more complex (computationally) case of alloys that solidify with more than one matrix phase as a result of segregation. Such is the case typically observed in martensitic steels. With these alloys it is doubly important to homogenize them correctly, especially at the laboratory scale, since they are austenitic at high temperature and thus constituent elements will diffuse slowly. The computationally designed heat treatment and the subsequent verification real castings are presented.

  8. A NEW ADMISSION CONTROL APPROACH BASED ON PREDICTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun

    2002-01-01

    Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.

  9. Data Warehouse Requirements Analysis Framework: Business-Object Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed requirements analysis plays a key role towards the design of successful Data Warehouse (DW system. The requirements analysis specifications are used as the prime input for the construction of conceptual level multidimensional data model. This paper has proposed a Business Object based requirements analysis framework for DW system which is supported with abstraction mechanism and reuse capability. It also facilitate the stepwise mapping of requirements descriptions into high level design components of graph semantic based conceptual level object oriented multidimensional data model. The proposed framework starts with the identification of the analytical requirements using business process driven approach and finally refine the requirements in further detail to map into the conceptual level DW design model using either Demand-driven of Mixed-driven approach for DW requirements analysi

  10. Knowledge Management Approaches in Portal-Based Collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela I. MUNTEAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration involves a different approach to business – focused on managing business relationships between people, within or without groups, and within and between organizations. Collaborative enterprises differ from other business in a number of ways and collaborative working needs to be simultaneously a business philosophy, strategy and operational working. Effective collaboration unlocks the potential of the collective knowledge and intellectual capital of the organization and its networks of business partners, suppliers and customers. At the core of true collaboration is the ability to share and catalogue knowledge, ideas, standards, best practices, and lessons learned and to be able to retrieve that knowledge from anywhere at any time. Knowledge management is not a goal by itself. Businesses don't exist with the purpose of spreading and advancing knowledge, they exist for selling competitive products and services of high quality. Based on these considerations, we propose some knowledge management approaches for portal-based collaborative environments.

  11. An SQL-based approach to physics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limper, Maaike, Dr

    2014-06-01

    As part of the CERN openlab collaboration a study was made into the possibility of performing analysis of the data collected by the experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) through SQL-queries on data stored in a relational database. Currently LHC physics analysis is done using data stored in centrally produced "ROOT-ntuple" files that are distributed through the LHC computing grid. The SQL-based approach to LHC physics analysis presented in this paper allows calculations in the analysis to be done at the database and can make use of the database's in-built parallelism features. Using this approach it was possible to reproduce results for several physics analysis benchmarks. The study shows the capability of the database to handle complex analysis tasks but also illustrates the limits of using row-based storage for storing physics analysis data, as performance was limited by the I/O read speed of the system.

  12. A pattern-based approach to elementary algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Strømskag, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; With a focus on epistemology, this paper discusses what pattern generalisation as an algebraic activity involves. Further, it presents a review of empirical studies where a pattern-based approach is used to teach algebra. This shows that students' problems with establishing algebraic rules from patterns and tables can be explained by: 1) difficulties caused by students' use of invalid methods to identify explicit formulae; 2) difficulties caused by students' tendency t...

  13. Improved Approach Based on SVM for License Plate Character Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WANG Xiao-guang

    2005-01-01

    An improved approach based on support vector machine (SVM) called the center distance ratio method is presented for license plate character recognition. First the support vectors are pre-extracted. A minimal set called the margin vector set, which contains all support vectors, is extracted. These margin vectors compose new training data and construct the classifier by using the general SVM optimized. The experimental results show that the improved SVM method does well at correct rate and training speed.

  14. A belief revision approach for argumentation-based negotiation agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilotti Pablo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Negotiation is an interaction that happens in multi-agent systems when agents have conflicting objectives and must look for an acceptable agreement. A typical negotiating situation involves two agents that cannot reach their goals by themselves because they do not have some resources they need or they do not know how to use them to reach their goals. Therefore, they must start a negotiation dialogue, taking also into account that they might have incomplete or wrong beliefs about the other agent’s goals and resources. This article presents a negotiating agent model based on argumentation, which is used by the agents to reason on how to exchange resources and knowledge in order to achieve their goals. Agents that negotiate have incomplete beliefs about the others, so that the exchange of arguments gives them information that makes it possible to update their beliefs. In order to formalize their proposals in a negotiation setting, the agents must be able to generate, select and evaluate arguments associated with such offers, updating their mental state accordingly. In our approach, we will focus on an argumentation-based negotiation model between two cooperative agents. The arguments generation and interpretation process is based on belief change operations (expansions, contractions and revisions, and the selection process is a based on a strategy. This approach is presented through a high-level algorithm implemented in logic programming. We show various theoretical properties associated with this approach, which have been formalized and proved using Coq, a formal proof management system. We also illustrate, through a case study, the applicability of our approach in order to solve a slightly modified version of the well-known home improvement agents problem. Moreover, we present various simulations that allow assessing the impact of belief revision on the negotiation process.

  15. Flow-based approach for holistic factory engineering and design

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, C.; Westkämper, E.

    2010-01-01

    The engineering of future factories requires digital tools along life cycle phases from investment planning to ramp-up. Manufacturers need scientific-based integrated highly dynamic data management systems for the participative and integrated factory planning. The paper presents a new approach for the continuously integrated product design, factory and process planning, through a service-oriented architecture for the implementation of digital factory tools. A first prototype of the digital fa...

  16. A New Approach to Coding in Content Based MANETs

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Joshua; Yu, Yu-Ting; Perez, Victor; Lu, Dennis; Gerla, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In content-based mobile ad hoc networks (CB-MANETs), random linear network coding (NC) can be used to reliably disseminate large files under intermittent connectivity. Conventional NC involves random unrestricted coding at intermediate nodes. This however is vulnerable to pollution attacks. To avoid attacks, a brute force approach is to restrict the mixing at the source. However, source restricted NC generally reduces the robustness of the code in the face of errors, losses and mobility induc...

  17. A Knowledge—Based Approach to Program Synthesis from Examples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鸿; 金凌紫

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to synthesize functional programs of Backus' FP system[1,2] from input/output instances.Based on a theory of orthogonal expansion of programs3[,4],the task of program synthesis is expressed in program equations,and fulfilled by solving them according to the knowledge about the equivalence between programs.Some general knowledge of solving program equations with a number of examples are given in the paper.

  18. Performance Analysis of STFT Based Timing Approach to OFDM Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Yu-jun; TENG Yong; YIN Chang-chuan; HAO Jian-jun; YUE Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    This paper mainly focuses on performance analysis of the previously proposed STFT based 2-D timing approach to OFDM systems and presents simulations results of its performance in AWGN and multipath fading environment and its robustness against the duration of Channel Impulse Response (CIR) and frequency offset. Simulation results suggest that a revised version of Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) can be used to greatly reduce computational complexity, especially at higher SNR.

  19. Java Applications Development Based on Component and Metacomponent Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Danijel Radošević; Mario Konecki; Tihomir Orehovački

    2008-01-01

    Component based modeling offers new and improved approach to design, construction, implementation and evolution of software applications development. This kind of software applications development is usually represented by appropriate component model/diagram. UML, for example, offers component diagram for representation of this kind of model. On the other hand, metacomponents usage offers some new features which hardly could be achieved by using generic components. Firstly, implementation of ...

  20. Science based integrated approach to advanced nuclear fuel development - vision, approach, and overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB; Carmack, Jon [IDAHO NATIONAL LAB

    2010-01-01

    Advancing the performance of Light Water Reactors, Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles, and Advanced Rcactors, such as the Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants, requires enhancing our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. The capability to accurately model the nuclear fuel systems is critical. In order to understand specific aspects of the nuclear fuel, fully coupled fuel simulation codes are required to achieve licensing of specific nuclear fuel designs for operation. The backbone of these codes, models, and simulations is a fundamental understanding and predictive capability for simulating the phase and microstructural behavior of the nuclear fuel system materials and matrices. The purpose of this paper is to identify the modeling and simulation approach in order to deliver predictive tools for advanced fuels development. The coordination between experimental nuclear fuel design, development technical experts, and computational fuel modeling and simulation technical experts is a critical aspect of the approach and naturally leads to an integrated, goal-oriented science-based R & D approach and strengthens both the experimental and computational efforts. The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) and Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Fuels Integrated Performance and Safety Code (IPSC) are working together to determine experimental data and modeling needs. The primary objective of the NEAMS fuels IPSC project is to deliver a coupled, three-dimensional, predictive computational platform for modeling the fabrication and both normal and abnormal operation of nuclear fuel pins and assemblies, applicable to both existing and future reactor fuel designs. The science based program is pursuing the development of an integrated multi-scale and multi-physics modeling and simulation platform for nuclear fuels. This overview paper discusses the vision, goals and approaches how to develop and implement the new approach.

  1. A mindfulness-based approach to the treatment of insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Jason; Sholtes, David

    2010-11-01

    Mindfulness meditation has emerged as a novel approach to emotion regulation and stress reduction that has several health benefits. Preliminary work has been conducted on mindfulness-based therapy for insomnia (MBT-I), a meditation-based program for individuals suffering from chronic sleep disturbance. This treatment integrates behavioral treatments for insomnia with the principles and practices of mindfulness meditation. A case illustration of a chronic insomnia sufferer demonstrates the application of mindfulness principles for developing adaptive ways of working with the nocturnal symptoms and waking consequences of chronic insomnia.

  2. The FPGA based L1 track finding Tracklet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Savvas; CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The High Luminosity upgraded LHC is expected to deliver proton-proton collisions per 25ns with an estimated 140-200 pile up interactions per bunch crossing. Ultrafast track finding is vital for handling trigger rates in such conditions. An FPGA based road search algorithm is developed, the Tracklet approach one of a few currently under consideration, for the CMS L1 trigger system. Based on low/high transverse momentum track discrimination and designed for the HL upgraded outer tracker, the algorithm achieves microsecond scale track reconstruction in the expected high track multiplicity environment. The Tracklet method overview, implementation, hardware demonstrator and performance results are presented and discussed.

  3. A Model-Based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Goebel, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general model-based prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.

  4. A Model-based Prognostics Approach Applied to Pneumatic Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Daigle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of systems health management, the task of prognostics centers on predicting when components will fail. Model-based prognostics exploits domain knowledge of the system, its components, and how they fail by casting the underlying physical phenomena in a physics-based model that is derived from first principles. Uncertainty cannot be avoided in prediction, therefore, algorithms are employed that help in managing these uncertainties. The particle filtering algorithm has become a popular choice for model-based prognostics due to its wide applicability, ease of implementation, and support for uncertainty management. We develop a general model-based prognostics methodology within a robust probabilistic framework using particle filters. As a case study, we consider a pneumatic valve from the Space Shuttle cryogenic refueling system. We develop a detailed physics-based model of the pneumatic valve, and perform comprehensive simulation experiments to illustrate our prognostics approach and evaluate its effectiveness and robustness. The approach is demonstrated using historical pneumatic valve data from the refueling system.

  5. Reversible Circuit Synthesis Using a Cycle-Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedi, Mehdi; Sedighi, Mehdi; Sasanian, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has applications in various research areas including signal processing, cryptography and quantum computation. In this paper, direct NCT-based synthesis of a given $k$-cycle in a cycle-based synthesis scenario is examined. To this end, a set of seven building blocks is proposed that reveals the potential of direct synthesis of a given permutation to reduce both quantum cost and average runtime. To synthesize a given large cycle, we propose a decomposition algorithm to extract the suggested building blocks from the input specification. Then, a synthesis method is introduced which uses the building blocks and the decomposition algorithm. Finally, a hybrid synthesis framework is suggested which uses the proposed cycle-based synthesis method in conjunction with one of the recent NCT-based synthesis approaches which is based on Reed-Muller (RM) spectra. The time complexity and the effectiveness of the proposed synthesis approach are analyzed in detail. Our analyses show that the proposed hybrid fra...

  6. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers. 

  7. Model-based approach for elevator performance estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, E.; Salgado, O.; Iturrospe, A.; Isasa, I.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model for an elevator installation is presented in the state space domain. The model comprises both the mechanical and the electrical subsystems, including the electrical machine and a closed-loop field oriented control. The proposed model is employed for monitoring the condition of the elevator installation. The adopted model-based approach for monitoring employs the Kalman filter as an observer. A Kalman observer estimates the elevator car acceleration, which determines the elevator ride quality, based solely on the machine control signature and the encoder signal. Finally, five elevator key performance indicators are calculated based on the estimated car acceleration. The proposed procedure is experimentally evaluated, by comparing the key performance indicators calculated based on the estimated car acceleration and the values obtained from actual acceleration measurements in a test bench. Finally, the proposed procedure is compared with the sliding mode observer.

  8. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  9. Tongue base schwannoma: report, review, and unique surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Raja; Carron, Michael A; Mathog, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    Base of tongue schwannomas are exceedingly rare and therefore often are not immediately included in the differential diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal tumors. After a thorough review of the English literature, we found only 6 previously reported cases of tongue base schwannomas. We are contributing a report of a 37-year-old woman with progressive dysphagia, dysarthria, and large tongue base schwannoma. Diagnosis was confirmed by imaging studies and biopsy followed by surgical excision designed to preserve nerve function. A number of surgical approaches have been described for tongue base schwannomas. Each has its own degree of postoperative morbidity. The use of a unilateral transcervical incision with blunt dissection was simple and quickly accomplished with protection of nearby nerves. Histologic identification of Antoni A and B areas along with strong and diffuse staining with S-100 stain pathologically completed the diagnosis of schwannoma.

  10. Building enterprise reuse program--A model-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅宏; 杨芙清

    2002-01-01

    Reuse is viewed as a realistically effective approach to solving software crisis. For an organization that wants to build a reuse program, technical and non-technical issues must be considered in parallel. In this paper, a model-based approach to building systematic reuse program is presented. Component-based reuse is currently a dominant approach to software reuse. In this approach, building the right reusable component model is the first important step. In order to achieve systematic reuse, a set of component models should be built from different perspectives. Each of these models will give a specific view of the components so as to satisfy different needs of different persons involved in the enterprise reuse program. There already exist some component models for reuse from technical perspectives. But less attention is paid to the reusable components from a non-technical view, especially from the view of process and management. In our approach, a reusable component model--FLP model for reusable component--is introduced. This model describes components from three dimensions (Form, Level, and Presentation) and views components and their relationships from the perspective of process and management. It determines the sphere of reusable components, the time points of reusing components in the development process, and the needed means to present components in terms of the abstraction level, logic granularity and presentation media. Being the basis on which the management and technical decisions are made, our model will be used as the kernel model to initialize and normalize a systematic enterprise reuse program.

  11. Breeding performance in the Italian chicken breed Mericanel della Brianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano P. Marelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, 90 local avian breeds were described, the majority (61% were classified extinct and only 8.9 % still diffused. Therefore, efforts for conservation of Italian avian breeds are urgently required. The aim of this study was to record the breeding performance of the Italian breed Mericanel della Brianza and multiply a small population, in order to develop a conservation program. Fourteen females and 8 males were available at the beginning of the reproductive season in 2009 and organized in 8 families (1 male/1-2 females kept in floor pens. Birds received a photoperiod of 14L:10D and fed ad libitum. Breeding performance was recorded from March to June. Egg production and egg weight were recorded daily; eggs were set every 2 weeks and fertility, embryo mortality and hatchability were recorded. Mean egg production was 37% and mean egg weight was 34±3.49 g. High fertility values were recorded in the first three settings, from 94 to 87%, and the overall mean fertility value was 81.6%. Overall hatchability was only 49.6% due to a high proportion of dead embryos. Embryo mortality occurred mainly between day 2 and 7 of incubation and during hatch. Highest hatchability values were recorded in setting 1 and 2, 69 and 60% respectively, and a great decrease was found in the following settings. Great variations in egg production, fertility, hatchability and embryo mortality were found among families. The present results are the basic knowledge on reproductive parameters necessary to improve the reproductive efficiency of the breed within a conservation plan.

  12. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  13. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better.

  14. Genetic Diversity of Some Tomato Cultivars and Breeding Lines Commonly Used in Pakistani Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azhar Shah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity present in gene pool is an important determination for breeding programs, and characterization is useful of building crop plant collections primarily based on the knowledge of the presence of valuable genes and traits. Developing successful varieties for increasing the future yield and quality of tomato depend mainly on the genetic diversity of parents used in the breeding program. Molecular characterization of 21 tomato genotypes used in in Pakistani breeding program was studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Total 102 bands were amplified among 21 genotypes using 20 RAPD primers. Overall 73.5% polymorphism was shown as 75 out of 102 loci were polymorphic. High degree of divergence between varieties was indicated by low level of monomorphic bands. The number of PCR products per primer varied from 2-8 with an average of 5.1 bands per primer. Primer GL J-20 and GL C-09 produced maximum number of bands whereas the primers GL A-09 produced the lowest. The polymorphism per RAPD primer ranged from 50% to 100% with an average of 73.5%. The accumulative analysis of amplified products generated by RAPD’s was enough to assess the genetic diversity among the genotypes. The information would be helpful for formulating future breeding and genome mapping programs. This study will also work as an indicator for tomato breeders to evolve varieties with genetic diverse back ground to achieve sustainability in tomato production in the country.

  15. Genetic diversity revealed by AFLP markers in Albanian goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Anila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP technique with three EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations was used in 185 unrelated individuals, representative of 6 local goat breeds of Albania, and 107 markers were generated. The mean Nei’s expected heterozygosity value for the whole population was 0.199 and the mean Shannon index was 0.249, indicating a high level of within-breed diversity. Wright’s FST index, Nei’s unbiased genetic distance and Reynolds’ genetic distance were calculated. Pairwise Fst values among the populations ranged from 0.019 to 0.047. A highly significant average FST of 0.031 was estimated, showing a low level of breed subdivision. Most of the variation is accounted for by differences among individuals. Cluster analysis based on Reynolds’ genetic distance between breeds and PCA were performed. An individual UPGMA tree based on Jaccard’s similarity index showed clusters with individuals from all goat breeds. Analysis of population structure points to a high level of admixture among breeds.

  16. Behaviour characteristics estimation tool of genetic distance between sheep breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Handiwirawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the estimation of genetic distances and differentiation among sheep breeds are needed in crossing and conservation programs. This research aims to study of utilizing behaviour characteristic variables to differentiate and estimate genetic distance between the sheep breeds. The study was conducted at Cilebut and Bogor Animal House of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production. Five sheep breeds used were Barbados Black Belly Cross (BC, Garut Composite (KG, Garut Local (LG, Sumatera Composite (KS and St. Croix Cross (SC, with total sample of 50 heads. A total of 10 variables of behavior traits were observed in this study. Analysis of variances and significance tests were applied to compare between sheep breeds and performed for all of behavior traits using PROC GLM of SAS Program ver. 9.0. PROC CANDISC was used for canonical discriminant analyses, the hierarchical clustering was performed using the PROC CLUSTER by Average Linkage method (Unweighted Pair-Group Method Using Arithmetic Averages, UPGMA, and the dendogram for the five sheep breeds was described using PROC TREE. The differentiator variables for the behavior traits were standing and feeding duration. The canonical plotting based on behavioral characteristics could differentiate BC, KS and LG (with KG and SC sheeps. Estimation of genetic distance based on the behavior traits is less accurate for grouping of sheep breeds.

  17. EFL READING INSTRUCTION: COMMUNICATIVE TASK-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harison Mohd Sidek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the overarching framework of EFL (English as a Foreign Language reading instructional approach reflected in an EFL secondary school curriculum in Malaysia. Based on such analysis, a comparison was made if Communicative Task-Based Language is the overarching instructional approach for the Malaysian EFL secondary reading curriculum. This study used document reviews as the primary data collection. The coding of data analysis was based on the modifications of the components of Richards and Rodgers’s (2001 analysis of language teaching model. The curriculum was examined in terms of theories of SLA, theories of L2 reading as well as learner roles in relation to Communicative Task-Based Language Teaching (CTBLT characteristics. The findings of the study suggest that the majority of reading tasks in the selected EFL secondary reading curriculum is highly lacking CTBLT characteristics. The results of the study were discussed in relation to the current Malaysian EFL secondary curriculum framework and their implications on the EFL reading at the tertiary level.

  18. Query Based Approach Towards Spam Attacks Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar Tak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, spam and scams are passive attack over the inbox which can initiated to steal some confidential information, to spread Worms, Viruses, Trojans, cookies and Sometimes they are used for phishing attacks. Spam mails are the major issue over mail boxes as well as over the internet. Spam mails can be the cause of phishing attack, hacking of banking accounts, attacks on confidential data. Spamming is growing at a rapid rate since sending a flood of mails is easy and very cheap. Spam mails disturb the mind-peace, waste time and consume various resources e.g., memory space and network bandwidth, so filtering of spam mails is a big issue in cyber security. This paper presents an novel approach of spam filtering which is based on some query generated approach on the knowledge base and also use some artificial neural network methods to detect the spam mails based on their behavior. analysis of the mail header, cross validation. Proposed methodology includes the 7 several steps which are well defined and achieve the higher accuracy. It works well with all kinds of spam mails (text based spam as well as image spam. Our tested data and experiments results shows promising results, and spam’s are detected out at least 98.17 % with 0.12% false positive.

  19. ARABIC PERSON NAMES RECOGNITION BY USING A RULE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aboaoga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Name Entity Recognition is very important task in many natural language processing applications such as; Machine Translation, Question Answering, Information Extraction, Text Summarization, Semantic Applications and Word Sense Disambiguation. Rule-based approach is one of the techniques that are used for named entity recognition to identify the named entities such as a person names, location names and organization names. The recent rule-based methods have been applied to recognize the person names in political domain. They ignored the recognition of other named entity types such as locations and organizations. We have used the rule based approach for recognizing the named entity type (person names for Arabic. We have developed four rules for identifying the person names depending on the position of name. We have used an in-house Arabic corpus collected from newspaper achieves. The evaluation method that compares the results of the system with the manually annotated text has been applied in order to compute precision, recall and f-measure. In the experiment of this study, the average f-measure for recognizing person names are (92.66, 92.04 and 90.43% in sport, economic and politic domain respectively. The experimental results showed that our rule-based method achieved the highest f-measure values in sport domain comparing with political and economic domains.

  20. Syntactic and Sentence Feature Based Hybrid Approach for Text Summarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Y. Sakhare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a significant research in automatic text summarization using feature-based techniques in which most of them utilized any one of the soft computing techniques. But, making use of syntactic structure of the sentences for text summarization has not widely applied due to its difficulty of handling it in summarization process. On the other hand, feature-based technique available in the literature showed efficient results in most of the techniques. So, combining syntactic structure into the feature-based techniques is surely smooth the summarization process in a way that the efficiency can be achieved. With the intention of combining two different techniques, we have presented an approach of text summarization that combines feature and syntactic structure of the sentences. Here, two neural networks are trained based on the feature score and the syntactic structure of sentences. Finally, the two neural networks are combined with weighted average to find the sentence score of the sentences. The experimentation is carried out using DUC 2002 dataset for various compression ratios. The results showed that the proposed approach achieved F-measure of 80% for the compression ratio 50 % that proved the better results compared with the existing techniques.

  1. Pedestrian detection from thermal images: A sparse representation based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; John, Vijay; Liu, Zheng; Mita, Seiichi

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection, a key technology in computer vision, plays a paramount role in the applications of advanced driver assistant systems (ADASs) and autonomous vehicles. The objective of pedestrian detection is to identify and locate people in a dynamic environment so that accidents can be avoided. With significant variations introduced by illumination, occlusion, articulated pose, and complex background, pedestrian detection is a challenging task for visual perception. Different from visible images, thermal images are captured and presented with intensity maps based objects' emissivity, and thus have an enhanced spectral range to make human beings perceptible from the cool background. In this study, a sparse representation based approach is proposed for pedestrian detection from thermal images. We first adopted the histogram of sparse code to represent image features and then detect pedestrian with the extracted features in an unimodal and a multimodal framework respectively. In the unimodal framework, two types of dictionaries, i.e. joint dictionary and individual dictionary, are built by learning from prepared training samples. In the multimodal framework, a weighted fusion scheme is proposed to further highlight the contributions from features with higher separability. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were conducted to compare with three widely used features: Haar wavelets (HWs), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), and histogram of phase congruency (HPC) as well as two classification methods, i.e. AdaBoost and support vector machine (SVM). Experimental results on a publicly available data set demonstrate the superiority of the proposed approach.

  2. Matching sensors to missions using a knowledge-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gomez, Mario; de Mel, Geeth; Vasconcelos, Wamberto; Sleeman, Derek; Colley, Stuart; Pearson, Gavin; Pham, Tien; La Porta, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Making decisions on how best to utilise limited intelligence, surveillance and reconnaisance (ISR) resources is a key issue in mission planning. This requires judgements about which kinds of available sensors are more or less appropriate for specific ISR tasks in a mission. A methodological approach to addressing this kind of decision problem in the military context is the Missions and Means Framework (MMF), which provides a structured way to analyse a mission in terms of tasks, and assess the effectiveness of various means for accomplishing those tasks. Moreover, the problem can be defined as knowledge-based matchmaking: matching the ISR requirements of tasks to the ISR-providing capabilities of available sensors. In this paper we show how the MMF can be represented formally as an ontology (that is, a specification of a conceptualisation); we also represent knowledge about ISR requirements and sensors, and then use automated reasoning to solve the matchmaking problem. We adopt the Semantic Web approach and the Web Ontology Language (OWL), allowing us to import elements of existing sensor knowledge bases. Our core ontologies use the description logic subset of OWL, providing efficient reasoning. We describe a prototype tool as a proof-of-concept for our approach. We discuss the various kinds of possible sensor-mission matches, both exact and inexact, and how the tool helps mission planners consider alternative choices of sensors.

  3. Java Applications Development Based on Component and Metacomponent Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Radošević

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Component based modeling offers new and improved approach to design, construction, implementation and evolution of software applications development. This kind of software applications development is usually represented by appropriate component model/diagram. UML, for example, offers component diagram for representation of this kind of model. On the other hand, metacomponents usage offers some new features which hardly could be achieved by using generic components. Firstly, implementation of program properties which are dispersed on different classes and other program units, i.e. aspects, is offered. This implies using automated process of assembling components and their interconnection for building applications, according to appropriate model offered in this paper, which also offers generic components usage. Benefits of this hybrid process are higher flexibility achieved by automated connection process, optimization through selective features inclusion and easier application maintenance and development. In this paper we offer an approach of application development based on hybrid component/metacomponent model. The component model is given by UML diagrams, while the metacomponent model is given by generator scripting model. We explain that hybrid approach on an example of Java Web application development.

  4. Nanotechnology-Based Approaches for Guiding Neural Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shreyas; Solanki, Aniruddh; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2016-01-19

    The mammalian brain is a phenomenal piece of "organic machinery" that has fascinated scientists and clinicians for centuries. The intricate network of tens of billions of neurons dispersed in a mixture of chemical and biochemical constituents gives rise to thoughts, feelings, memories, and life as we know it. In turn, subtle imbalances or damage to this system can cause severe complications in physical, motor, psychological, and cognitive function. Moreover, the inevitable loss of nerve tissue caused by degenerative diseases and traumatic injuries is particularly devastating because of the limited regenerative capabilities of the central nervous system (i.e., the brain and spinal cord). Among current approaches, stem-cell-based regenerative medicine has shown the greatest promise toward repairing and regenerating destroyed neural tissue. However, establishing controlled and reliable methodologies to guide stem cell differentiation into specialized neural cells of interest (e.g., neurons and oligodendrocytes) has been a prevailing challenge in the field. In this Account, we summarize the nanotechnology-based approaches our group has recently developed to guide stem-cell-based neural regeneration. We focus on three overarching strategies that were adopted to selectively control this process. First, soluble microenvironmental factors play a critical role in directing the fate of stem cells. Multiple factors have been developed in the form of small-molecule drugs, biochemical analogues, and DNA/RNA-based vectors to direct neural differentiation. However, the delivery of these factors with high transfection efficiency and minimal cytotoxicity has been challenging, especially to sensitive cell lines such as stem cells. In our first approach, we designed nanoparticle-based systems for the efficient delivery of such soluble factors to control neural differentiation. Our nanoparticles, comprising either organic or inorganic elements, were biocompatible and offered

  5. Molecular Design Breeding in Crops in China%中国作物分子设计育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建康; 李慧慧; 张学才; 尹长斌; 黎裕; 马有志; 李新海; 邱丽娟; 万建民

    2011-01-01

    to meet various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, and the most efficient and effective crossing and selection strategies approaching the best target genotypes can be identified.The design breeding greatly increases the predictability in conventional breeding, leading to the evolution from “phenotypic breeding by experience” to “genotypic breeding by prediction” and an increased breeding efficiency and effectiveness.Three major steps are involved in design breeding.The first step is to identify genes affecting breeding traits and to study gene and gene interactions, i.e., to seek for the original materials for producing the crop cultivars, which includes establishment of genetic populations, screening of polymorphism markers, construction of linkage maps, phenotypic evaluation and genetic analysis etc.The second step is to determine the target genotypes for various breeding objectives in various ecological regions, i.e., prototype of the final cultivar product, which includes the genotype-to-phenotype prediction based on identified and known gene information, i.e., locations of genes on chromosomes, biochemical pathways and expression networks from genes to traits, their genetic effects on breeding traits, and the interactions between genes.The third step is to identify the most efficient breeding strategies leading to the target genotypes determined in the second step, i.e., a detailed blue chart to produce the designed crop cultivars.Significant progresses have been made in crop molecular design breeding in China in recent years.This paper first summarized major progresses made in the development of novel genetic materials, genetic study of important breeding traits, development and application of breeding simulation tools, application of design breeding, and the platform research and development in molecular design breeding in crops in China.A perspective view of molecular design breeding was given for the near future after reviewing the

  6. Rights-Based Approaches to Ensure Sustainable Nutrition Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sweta

    2016-01-01

    In India, a rights-based approach has been used to address large-scale malnutrition, including both micro- and macro-level nutrition deficiencies. Stunting, which is an intergenerational chronic consequence of malnutrition, is especially widespread in India (38% among children under 5 years old). To tackle this problem, the government of India has designed interventions for the first 1,000 days, a critical period of the life cycle, through a number of community-based programs to fulfill the rights to food and life. However, the entitlements providing these rights have not yet produced the necessary changes in the malnutrition status of people, especially women and children. The government of India has already implemented laws and drafted a constitution that covers the needs of its citizens, but corruption, bureaucracy, lack of awareness of rights and entitlements and social discrimination limit people's access to basic rights and services. To address this crisis, Welthungerhilfe India, working in remote villages of the most backward states in India, has shifted from a welfare-based approach to a rights-based approach. The Fight Hunger First Initiative, started by Welthungerhilfe in 2011, is designed on the premise that in the long term, poor people can only leave poverty behind if adequate welfare systems are in place and if basic rights are fulfilled; these rights include access to proper education, sufficient access to adequate food and income, suitable health services and equal rights. Only then can the next generation of disadvantaged populations look forward to a new and better future and can growth benefit the entire society. The project, co-funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, is a long-term multi-sectoral program that involves institution-building and empowerment.

  7. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  8. APPROACH ON INTELLIGENT OPTIMIZATION DESIGN BASED ON COMPOUND KNOWLEDGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jianchu; Zhou Ji; Yu Jun

    2003-01-01

    A concept of an intelligent optimal design approach is proposed, which is organized by a kind of compound knowledge model. The compound knowledge consists of modularized quantitative knowledge, inclusive experience knowledge and case-based sample knowledge. By using this compound knowledge model, the abundant quantity information of mathematical programming and the symbolic knowledge of artificial intelligence can be united together in this model. The intelligent optimal design model based on such a compound knowledge and the automatically generated decomposition principles based on it are also presented. Practically, it is applied to the production planning, process schedule and optimization of production process of a refining & chemical work and a great profit is achieved. Specially, the methods and principles are adaptable not only to continuous process industry, but also to discrete manufacturing one.

  9. Bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based scientific approaches in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews contemporary approaches for bridging Ayurveda with evidence-based medicine. In doing so, the author presents a pragmatic assessment of quality, methodology and extent of scientific research in Ayurvedic medicine. The article discusses the meaning of evidence and indicates the need to adopt epistemologically sensitive methods and rigorous experimentation using modern science. The author critically analyzes the status of Ayurvedic medicine based on personal observations, peer interactions and published research. This review article concludes that traditional knowledge systems like Ayurveda and modern scientific evidence-based medicine should be integrated. The author advocates that Ayurvedic researchers should develop strategic collaborations with innovative initiatives like 'Horizon 2020' involving predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM).

  10. An Efficient Fuzzy Clustering-Based Approach for Intrusion Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Huu Hoa; Darmont, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The need to increase accuracy in detecting sophisticated cyber attacks poses a great challenge not only to the research community but also to corporations. So far, many approaches have been proposed to cope with this threat. Among them, data mining has brought on remarkable contributions to the intrusion detection problem. However, the generalization ability of data mining-based methods remains limited, and hence detecting sophisticated attacks remains a tough task. In this thread, we present a novel method based on both clustering and classification for developing an efficient intrusion detection system (IDS). The key idea is to take useful information exploited from fuzzy clustering into account for the process of building an IDS. To this aim, we first present cornerstones to construct additional cluster features for a training set. Then, we come up with an algorithm to generate an IDS based on such cluster features and the original input features. Finally, we experimentally prove that our method outperform...

  11. Robust adaptive beamforming algorithm based on Bayesian approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin SONG; Jinkuan WANG; Yinghua HAN; Han WANG

    2008-01-01

    The performance of adaptive array beamform-ing algorithms substantially degrades in practice because of a slight mismatch between actual and presumed array res-ponses to the desired signal. A novel robust adaptive beam-forming algorithm based on Bayesian approach is therefore proposed. The algorithm responds to the current envi-ronment by estimating the direction of arrival (DOA) of the actual signal from observations. Computational com-plexity of the proposed algorithm can thus be reduced com-pared with other algorithms since the recursive method is used to obtain inverse matrix. In addition, it has strong robustness to the uncertainty of actual signal DOA and makes the mean output array signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) consistently approach the optimum. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is bet-ter in performance than conventional adaptive beamform-ing algorithms.

  12. Evolutionary modeling-based approach for model errors correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, S. Q.; He, W. P.; Wang, L.; Jiang, W.; Zhang, W.

    2012-08-01

    The inverse problem of using the information of historical data to estimate model errors is one of the science frontier research topics. In this study, we investigate such a problem using the classic Lorenz (1963) equation as a prediction model and the Lorenz equation with a periodic evolutionary function as an accurate representation of reality to generate "observational data." On the basis of the intelligent features of evolutionary modeling (EM), including self-organization, self-adaptive and self-learning, the dynamic information contained in the historical data can be identified and extracted by computer automatically. Thereby, a new approach is proposed to estimate model errors based on EM in the present paper. Numerical tests demonstrate the ability of the new approach to correct model structural errors. In fact, it can actualize the combination of the statistics and dynamics to certain extent.

  13. Nucleic Acid-Based Therapy Approaches for Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vagner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is caused by a dominant mutation that results in an unstable expansion of a CAG repeat in the huntingtin gene leading to a toxic gain of function in huntingtin protein which causes massive neurodegeneration mainly in the striatum and clinical symptoms associated with the disease. Since the mutation has multiple effects in the cell and the precise mechanism of the disease remains to be elucidated, gene therapy approaches have been developed that intervene in different aspects of the condition. These approaches include increasing expression of growth factors, decreasing levels of mutant huntingtin, and restoring cell metabolism and transcriptional balance. The aim of this paper is to outline the nucleic acid-based therapeutic strategies that have been tested to date.

  14. A Competence-Based Approach to Sustainable Innovation Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2007-01-01

    the object of a research exercise, to affect and observe various approaches to the teaching of design. Particular attention will be paid in this case to competencies, both initiated in the teaching and the evaluated in the students’ interpretation of the theoretical contents. The lessons learned from...... on sustainable innovation. By focusing particularly on the Design & Innovation programme’s fifth semester, which is entitled Innovation for Sustainability, the efforts we have made to renew the educational approach and contents in our engineering teaching will be shown in this paper. This semester has been...... the first three years of this semester’s application and teaching to approximately 55 students per year are presented and discussed. After introducing the motivation and background for establishing the education programme, the consideration of competence-based education is described, in the context...

  15. Market-Based Approach to Mobile Surveillance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elmogy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The active surveillance of public and private sites is increasingly becoming a very important and critical issue. It is, therefore, imperative to develop mobile surveillance systems to protect these sites. Modern surveillance systems encompass spatially distributed mobile and static sensors in order to provide effective monitoring of persistent and transient objects and events in a given area of interest (AOI. The realization of the potential of mobile surveillance requires the solution of different challenging problems such as task allocation, mobile sensor deployment, multisensor management, cooperative object detection and tracking, decentralized data fusion, and interoperability and accessibility of system nodes. This paper proposes a market-based approach that can be used to handle different problems of mobile surveillance systems. Task allocation and cooperative target tracking are studied using the proposed approach as two challenging problems of mobile surveillance systems. These challenges are addressed individually and collectively.

  16. Classification approach based on association rules mining for unbalanced data

    CERN Document Server

    Ndour, Cheikh

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the supervised classification when the response variable is binary and its class distribution is unbalanced. In such situation, it is not possible to build a powerful classifier by using standard methods such as logistic regression, classification tree, discriminant analysis, etc. To overcome this short-coming of these methods that provide classifiers with low sensibility, we tackled the classification problem here through an approach based on the association rules learning because this approach has the advantage of allowing the identification of the patterns that are well correlated with the target class. Association rules learning is a well known method in the area of data-mining. It is used when dealing with large database for unsupervised discovery of local patterns that expresses hidden relationships between variables. In considering association rules from a supervised learning point of view, a relevant set of weak classifiers is obtained from which one derives a classification rule...

  17. An Agent Based approach to design Serious Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gentile

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Serious games are designed to train and educate learners, opening up new learning approaches like exploratory learning and situated cognition.  Despite growing interest in these games, their design is still an artisan process.On the basis of experiences in designing computer simulation, this paper proposes an agent-based approach to guide the design process of a serious game. The proposed methodology allows the designer to strike the right equilibrium between educational effectiveness and entertainment, realism and complexity.The design of the PNPVillage game is used as a case study. The PNPVillage game aims to introduce and foster an entrepreneurial mindset among young students. It was implemented within the framework of the European project “I  can… I cannot… I go!” Rev.2

  18. NEW APPROACH FOR IMAGE REPRESENTATION BASED ON GEOMETRIC STRUCTURAL CONTENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Xiaomeng; Wang Guoyu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for representation of image contents based on edge structural features. Edge detection is carried out for an image in the pre-processing stage.For feature representation, edge pixels are grouped into a set of segments through geometrical partitioning of the whole edge image. Then the invariant feature vector is computed for each edge-pixel segment. Thereby the image is represented with a set of spatially distributed feature vectors, each of which describes the local pattern of edge structures. Matching of two images can be achieved by the correspondence of two sets of feature vectors. Without the difficulty of image segmentation and object extraction due to the complexity of the real world images, the proposed approach provides a simple and flexible description for the image with complex scene, in terms of structural features of the image content. Experiments with real images illustrate the effectiveness of this new method.

  19. A Component Based Approach to Scientific Workflow Management

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Jean-Marie; Baker, Nigel; Brooks, Peter; McClatchey, Richard

    2001-01-01

    CRISTAL is a distributed scientific workflow system used in the manufacturing and production phases of HEP experiment construction at CERN. The CRISTAL project has studied the use of a description driven approach, using meta- modelling techniques, to manage the evolving needs of a large physics community. Interest from such diverse communities as bio-informatics and manufacturing has motivated the CRISTAL team to re-engineer the system to customize functionality according to end user requirements but maximize software reuse in the process. The next generation CRISTAL vision is to build a generic component architecture from which a complete software product line can be generated according to the particular needs of the target enterprise. This paper discusses the issues of adopting a component product line based approach and our experiences of software reuse.

  20. A cloud-based approach to medical NLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Kyle; Russell, Michael; Lussier, Yves A; Mendonça, Eneida A; Silverstein, Jonathan C

    2011-01-01

    Natural Language Processing (NLP) enables access to deep content embedded in medical texts. To date, NLP has not fulfilled its promise of enabling robust clinical encoding, clinical use, quality improvement, and research. We submit that this is in part due to poor accessibility, scalability, and flexibility of NLP systems. We describe here an approach and system which leverages cloud-based approaches such as virtual machines and Representational State Transfer (REST) to extract, process, synthesize, mine, compare/contrast, explore, and manage medical text data in a flexibly secure and scalable architecture. Available architectures in which our Smntx (pronounced as semantics) system can be deployed include: virtual machines in a HIPAA-protected hospital environment, brought up to run analysis over bulk data and destroyed in a local cloud; a commercial cloud for a large complex multi-institutional trial; and within other architectures such as caGrid, i2b2, or NHIN.

  1. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land). Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  2. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mohan, S Murali; Gaur, Pooran M; Gangarao, N V P R; Pandey, Manish K; Bohra, Abhishek; Sawargaonkar, Shrikant L; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kimurto, Paul K; Janila, Pasupuleti; Saxena, K B; Fikre, Asnake; Sharma, Mamta; Rathore, Abhishek; Pratap, Aditya; Tripathi, Shailesh; Datta, Subhojit; Chaturvedi, S K; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Anuradha, G; Babbar, Anita; Choudhary, Arbind K; Mhase, M B; Bharadwaj, Ch; Mannur, D M; Harer, P N; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Nadarajan, N; Gowda, C L L

    2013-12-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genomic resources such as molecular markers, transcript reads and BAC-end sequences (BESs) in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive transcriptome assemblies and genome sequences have either been developed or underway in these crops. Based on these resources, dense genetic maps, QTL maps as well as physical maps for these legume species have also been developed. As a result, these crops have graduated from 'orphan' or 'less-studied' crops to 'genomic resources rich' crops. This article summarizes the above-mentioned advances in genomics and genomics-assisted breeding applications in the form of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea; marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) for introgressing QTL region for drought-tolerance related traits, Fusarium wilt (FW) resistance and Ascochyta blight (AB) resistance in chickpea; late leaf spot (LLS), leaf rust and nematode resistance in groundnut. We critically present the case of use of other modern breeding approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) to utilize the full potential of genomics-assisted breeding for developing superior cultivars with enhanced tolerance to various environmental stresses. In addition, this article recommends the use of advanced-backcross (AB-backcross) breeding and development of specialized populations such as multi-parents advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) for creating new variations that will help in developing superior lines with broadened genetic base. In summary, we propose the use of integrated genomics and breeding approach in these legume crops to enhance crop productivity in marginal environments ensuring food security in developing countries.

  3. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  4. Sport horses : breeding specialist from a single breeding programme?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovere, G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection,

  5. The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Derakhshandeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing. Keywords: EFL writing proficiency, Product-based approach, Process-based approach, Synthetic-based approach

  6. Online approach to feature interaction problems in middleware based system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Gang; LIU XuanZhe; MEI Hong

    2008-01-01

    As a popular infrastructure for distributed systems running on the Internet, middle-ware has to support much more diverse and complex interactions for coping with the drastically increasing demand on information technology and the extremely open and dynamic nature of the Internet. These supporting mechanisms facilitate the development, deployment, and integration of distributed systems, as well as increase the occasions for distributed systems to interact in an undesired way. The undesired interactions may cause serious problems, such as quality violation, function loss, and even system crash. In this paper, the problem is studied from the perspective of the feature interaction problem (FIP) in telecom, and an online ap-proach to the detection and solution on runtime systems is proposed. Based on a classification of middleware enabled interactions, the existence of FIP in middle-ware based systems is illustrated by four real cases and a conceptual comparison between middleware based systems and telecom systems. After that, runtime soft-ware architecture is employed to facilitate the online detection and solution of FIP. The approach is demonstrated on J2EE (Java 2 Platform Enterprise Edition) and applied to detect and resolve all of the four real cases.

  7. Big Data Analytics in Immunology: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Lan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  8. A practical approach to object based requirements analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Daniel W.; Bishop, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Presented here is an approach developed at the Unisys Houston Operation Division, which supports the early identification of objects. This domain oriented analysis and development concept is based on entity relationship modeling and object data flow diagrams. These modeling techniques, based on the GOOD methodology developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, support the translation of requirements into objects which represent the real-world problem domain. The goal is to establish a solid foundation of understanding before design begins, thereby giving greater assurance that the system will do what is desired by the customer. The transition from requirements to object oriented design is also promoted by having requirements described in terms of objects. Presented is a five step process by which objects are identified from the requirements to create a problem definition model. This process involves establishing a base line requirements list from which an object data flow diagram can be created. Entity-relationship modeling is used to facilitate the identification of objects from the requirements. An example is given of how semantic modeling may be used to improve the entity-relationship model and a brief discussion on how this approach might be used in a large scale development effort.

  9. COPULA BASED VaR APPROACH FOR EUROPEAN STOCKS PORTFOLIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Bohdalová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives stochastic assessments of the financial crisis and discusses the Value at Risk European stocks from the point of view of copula based approach. Copula techniques can be based on the connection between rank correlation and certain one–parameter bivariate copulas. This relation allows easy calibration of the parameters. We use more general numerical calibration techniques that are based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE. Using this approach we want to estimate VaR of the EU stocks portfolio using Monte Carlo simulation. The focus will be on modelling the interdependence between two risk factor returns. We suppose that the risk factor returns have some assumed marginal distributions, which need not be identical, and their dependency is modelled with copulas. We find that standard parametric copula functions (such as Gaussian are not able to provide a good fit to the data. This is especially true when one or more of the marginal distributions has fat tails. We overcome this problem by fitting a t–copula with different marginal which can approximate any possible shape for the joint density.

  10. A web-based approach to data imputation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhixu

    2013-10-24

    In this paper, we present WebPut, a prototype system that adopts a novel web-based approach to the data imputation problem. Towards this, Webput utilizes the available information in an incomplete database in conjunction with the data consistency principle. Moreover, WebPut extends effective Information Extraction (IE) methods for the purpose of formulating web search queries that are capable of effectively retrieving missing values with high accuracy. WebPut employs a confidence-based scheme that efficiently leverages our suite of data imputation queries to automatically select the most effective imputation query for each missing value. A greedy iterative algorithm is proposed to schedule the imputation order of the different missing values in a database, and in turn the issuing of their corresponding imputation queries, for improving the accuracy and efficiency of WebPut. Moreover, several optimization techniques are also proposed to reduce the cost of estimating the confidence of imputation queries at both the tuple-level and the database-level. Experiments based on several real-world data collections demonstrate not only the effectiveness of WebPut compared to existing approaches, but also the efficiency of our proposed algorithms and optimization techniques. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  11. Big data analytics in immunology: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Sun, Jing; Chitkushev, Lou; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    With the vast amount of immunological data available, immunology research is entering the big data era. These data vary in granularity, quality, and complexity and are stored in various formats, including publications, technical reports, and databases. The challenge is to make the transition from data to actionable knowledge and wisdom and bridge the knowledge gap and application gap. We report a knowledge-based approach based on a framework called KB-builder that facilitates data mining by enabling fast development and deployment of web-accessible immunological data knowledge warehouses. Immunological knowledge discovery relies heavily on both the availability of accurate, up-to-date, and well-organized data and the proper analytics tools. We propose the use of knowledge-based approaches by developing knowledgebases combining well-annotated data with specialized analytical tools and integrating them into analytical workflow. A set of well-defined workflow types with rich summarization and visualization capacity facilitates the transformation from data to critical information and knowledge. By using KB-builder, we enabled streamlining of normally time-consuming processes of database development. The knowledgebases built using KB-builder will speed up rational vaccine design by providing accurate and well-annotated data coupled with tailored computational analysis tools and workflow.

  12. Lessons Learned From Community-Based Approaches to Sodium Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby PhD, Jan L.; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S.; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. Design A multiple case study design was used. Setting This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Subjects Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. Analysis The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semi structured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Results Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. Conclusion The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption. PMID:24575726

  13. Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G A A; Oliver, Richard P

    2014-03-01

    One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. "Effectoromics" has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems.

  14. Advanced phenotyping offers opportunities for improved breeding of forage and turf species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Achim; Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Advanced phenotyping, i.e. the application of automated, high-throughput methods to characterize plant architecture and performance, has the potential to accelerate breeding progress but is far from being routinely used in current breeding approaches. In forage and turf......, spectral reflection, chlorophyll-fluorescence, temperature and other properties, from which traits such as biomass, architecture, photosynthetic efficiency, stomatal aperture or stress resistance can be derived. Applications of these methods in the context of forage and turf breeding are discussed....... Conclusions Progress in cutting-edge molecular breeding tools is beginning to be matched by progress in automated non-destructive imaging methods. Joint application of precise phenotyping machinery and molecular tools in optimized breeding schemes will improve forage and turf breeding in the near future...

  15. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  16. Spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Duan, Ping; Sheng, Yehua; Lv, Haiyang

    2015-12-01

    In many interpolation methods, with its simple interpolation principle, Inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation is one of the most common interpolation method. There are anisotropic spatial structures with actual geographical spatial phenomenon. When the IDW interpolation is used, anisotropic spatial structures should be considered. Geostatistical theory has a characteristics of exploring anisotropic spatial structures. In this paper, spatial interpolation approach based on IDW with anisotropic spatial structures is proposed. The DEM data is tested in this paper to prove reliability of the IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures. Experimental results show that IDW interpolation considering anisotropic spatial structures can improve interpolation precision when sampling data has anisotropic spatial structures feature.

  17. A Multiple Model Approach to Modeling Based on LPF Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Input-output data fitting methods are often used for unknown-structure nonlinear system modeling. Based on model-on-demand tactics, a multiple model approach to modeling for nonlinear systems is presented. The basic idea is to find out, from vast historical system input-output data sets, some data sets matching with the current working point, then to develop a local model using Local Polynomial Fitting (LPF) algorithm. With the change of working points, multiple local models are built, which realize the exact modeling for the global system. By comparing to other methods, the simulation results show good performance for its simple, effective and reliable estimation.``

  18. Conceptual modelling approach of mechanical products based on functional surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A modelling framework based on functional surface is presented to support conceptual design of mechanical products. The framework organizes product information in an abstract and multilevel manner. It consists of two mapping processes: function decomposition process and form reconstitution process. The steady mapping relationship from function to form (function-functional surface-form) is realized by taking functional surface as the middle layer. It farthest reduces the possibilities of combinatorial explosion that can occur during function decomposition and form reconstitution. Finally, CAD tools are developed and an auto-bender machine is applied to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  19. Infections on Temporal Networks—A Matrix-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koher, Andreas; Lentz, Hartmut H. K.; Hövel, Philipp; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2016-01-01

    We extend the concept of accessibility in temporal networks to model infections with a finite infectious period such as the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. This approach is entirely based on elementary matrix operations and unifies the disease and network dynamics within one algebraic framework. We demonstrate the potential of this formalism for three examples of networks with high temporal resolution: networks of social contacts, sexual contacts, and livestock-trade. Our investigations provide a new methodological framework that can be used, for instance, to estimate the epidemic threshold, a quantity that determines disease parameters, for which a large-scale outbreak can be expected. PMID:27035128

  20. A Clock Fingerprints-Based Approach for Wireless Transmitter Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Caidan; Xie, Liang; Huang, Lianfen; Yao, Yan

    Cognitive radio (CR) was proposed as one of the promising solutions for low spectrum utilization. However, security problems such as the primary user emulation (PUE) attack severely limit its applications. In this paper, we propose a clock fingerprints-based authentication approach to prevent PUE attacks in CR networks with the help of curve fitting and classifier. An experimental setup was constructed using the WLAN cards and software radio devices, and the corresponding results show that satisfied identification can be achieved for wireless transmitters.

  1. Reconfigurable diplexer based on switched delay line approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Acar, Öncel; Ruaro, Andrea;

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a concept for the realization of a reconfigurable microwave multiplexer based on a switched delay-line topology is presented. The multiplexing concept is studied by considering a diplexer example. The topology provides two times reduction in the number of filters in comparison...... to the conventional directional filter approach. The switched delay-line topology enables the lossy and nonlinear switching elements to be used as a part of the coupling elements rather than within the resonators. Therefore, the diplexer potentially allows for a low insertion loss and high linearity. In addition...

  2. A CONTENT ANALYSIS ON PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    BİBER, Mahir; Esen ERSOY; KÖSE BİBER, Sezer

    2014-01-01

    Problem Based Learning is one of the learning models that contain the general principles of active learning and students can use scientific process skills. Within this research it was aimed to investigate in detail the postgraduate thesis held in Turkey about PBL approach. The content analysis method was used in the research. The study sample was consisted of a total of 64 masters and PhD thesis made between the years 2012-2013 and reached over the web. A “Content Analysis Template” prepared ...

  3. A CONTENT ANALYSIS ON PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    BİBER, Mahir; Esen ERSOY; KÖSE BİBER, Sezer

    2015-01-01

    Problem Based Learning is one of the learning models that contain the general principles of active learning and students can use scientific process skills. Within this research it was aimed to investigate in detail the postgraduate thesis held in Turkey about PBL approach. The content analysis method was used in the research. The study sample was consisted of a total of 64 masters and PhD thesis made between the years 2012-2013 and reached over the web. A “Content Analysis Template” prepared ...

  4. Competitor phenology as a social cue in breeding site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samplonius, Jelmer M; Both, Christiaan

    2017-05-01

    Predicting habitat quality is a major challenge for animals selecting a breeding patch, because it affects reproductive success. Breeding site selection may be based on previous experience, or on social information from the density and success of competitors with an earlier phenology. Variation in animal breeding phenology is often correlated with variation in habitat quality. Generally, animals breed earlier in high-quality habitats that allow them to reach a nutritional threshold required for breeding earlier or avoid nest predation. In addition, habitat quality may affect phenological overlap between species and thereby interspecific competition. Therefore, we hypothesized that competitor breeding phenology can be used as social cue by settling migrants to locate high-quality breeding sites. To test this hypothesis, we experimentally advanced and delayed hatching phenology of two resident tit species on the level of study plots and studied male and female settlement patterns of migratory pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca. The manipulations were assigned at random in two consecutive years, and treatments were swapped between years in sites that were used in both years. In both years, males settled in equal numbers across treatments, but later arriving females avoided pairing with males in delayed phenology plots. Moreover, male pairing probability declined strongly with arrival date on the breeding grounds. Our results demonstrate that competitor phenology may be used to assess habitat quality by settling migrants, but we cannot pinpoint the exact mechanism (e.g. resource quality, predation pressure or competition) that has given rise to this pattern. In addition, we show that opposing selection pressures for arrival timing may give rise to different social information availabilities between sexes. We discuss our findings in the context of climate warming, social information use and the evolution of protandry in migratory animals.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Old Chicken Breeds Kept in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Maretto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the genetic variation of five local chicken breeds reared in Poland. Twenty-seven microsatellite markers were investigated in 138 birds belonging to five breeds: Miniature Cochin (MCO, Gold Italian (GI, Green Legged Partridge (GLP, Silver Italian (SI and White Leghorn (WL. One hundred eighty five alleles were detected in the overall population, with a mean number of 6.85 ± 3.32 alleles per locus. For the local breeds, the observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from a minimum of 0.287 to a maximum of 0.458 and from 0.397 to 0.499 for the GI and SI breeds, respectively. The overall population heterozygote deficiency was 0.430, the average Wright’s inbreeding coefficient (FIS was 0.061 and the heterozygote deficiency due to breed subdivision was 0.393. Wright’s fixation index was slightly positive for all breeds excluding MCO (FIS = -0.476 and the estimated molecular inbreeding (fij within breed ranged from 0.296 (GLP and SI to 0.361 (WL evidencing limited coancestry. Mean allelic richness, obtained with rarefaction method based on sixteen observations, was 2.12 being the WL the less variable (1.79. Tomiuk and Loeschcke’s DTL genetic distance values were used to draw a neighbornet network which separated the cluster made of MCO and GLP from the cluster of GI, WL and SI. The results arising from our microsatellites analysis represent a starting point for the valorization of these local Polish chicken breeds for monitoring and preserving their genetic variability.

  6. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs.

  7. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  8. Candidate genes for idiopathic epilepsy in four dog breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson James R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic epilepsy (IE is a naturally occurring and significant seizure disorder affecting all dog breeds. Because dog breeds are genetically isolated populations, it is possible that IE is attributable to common founders and is genetically homogenous within breeds. In humans, a number of mutations, the majority of which are genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitters, or their regulatory subunits, have been discovered to cause rare, specific types of IE. It was hypothesized that there are simple genetic bases for IE in some purebred dog breeds, specifically in Vizslas, English Springer Spaniels (ESS, Greater Swiss Mountain Dogs (GSMD, and Beagles, and that the gene(s responsible may, in some cases, be the same as those already discovered in humans. Results Candidate genes known to be involved in human epilepsy, along with selected additional genes in the same gene families that are involved in murine epilepsy or are expressed in neural tissue, were examined in populations of affected and unaffected dogs. Microsatellite markers in close proximity to each candidate gene were genotyped and subjected to two-point linkage in Vizslas, and association analysis in ESS, GSMD and Beagles. Conclusions Most of these candidate genes were not significantly associated with IE in these four dog breeds, while a few genes remained inconclusive. Other genes not included in this study may still be causing monogenic IE in these breeds or, like many cases of human IE, the disease in dogs may be likewise polygenic.

  9. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the ‘visual contact task’ and the ‘unsolvable task’. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds. PMID:27736990

  10. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation.

  11. An Approach to Model Based Testing of Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiq Ur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous agents perform on behalf of the user to achieve defined goals or objectives. They are situated in dynamic environment and are able to operate autonomously to achieve their goals. In a multiagent system, agents cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. Testing of multiagent systems is a challenging task due to the autonomous and proactive behavior of agents. However, testing is required to build confidence into the working of a multiagent system. Prometheus methodology is a commonly used approach to design multiagents systems. Systematic and thorough testing of each interaction is necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to testing of multiagent systems based on Prometheus design artifacts. In the proposed approach, different interactions between the agent and actors are considered to test the multiagent system. These interactions include percepts and actions along with messages between the agents which can be modeled in a protocol diagram. The protocol diagram is converted into a protocol graph, on which different coverage criteria are applied to generate test paths that cover interactions between the agents. A prototype tool has been developed to generate test paths from protocol graph according to the specified coverage criterion.

  12. Knowledge-based approaches for river basin management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mikulecký

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Rare attempts to use knowledge technologies and other relevant approaches are found in the river basin management. Some applications of expert systems as well as utilization of soft computing techniques (as neural networks or genetic algorithms are known in an experimental level. Knowledge management approaches still have not been used at all. In this paper we discuss knowledge-based approaches in the river basin management as a difficult yet important direction which could be proven to be helpful. We summarize the research done in the scope of the AQUIN project, one of first Czech knowledge management projects in the river basin management. The project was initiated by the water management company in Pilsen, where dispatchers make decisions about manipulations on the reservoir Nýrsko, the strategic source of drinking water for inhabitants of Pilsen. The project aim was to support dispatchers' decision making under a high degree of uncertainty or data shortage. The research is continued in the scope of a new project AQUINpro, planned for the period of 2006 to 2008.

  13. A Redundancy Based Approach for Wireless Sensor Networks Distributed Reconfiguration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bechar Rachid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are interested in the fault-tolerant and lifetime optimisation approaches in wireless sensor networks (WSN. We propose a WSN monitoring approach using distributed reconfiguration which is based on the concept of redundancy. This allows the sensor nodes to be organized in groups where each one will have a quite precise role. It also makes it possible to manage redundancy which will consist in leaving active only some nodes. The other redundant member nodes go into sleep mode and will be awaked using an operation of reconfiguration in case of fault. A node can be also a data source measurement, called simple node or a gateway node that may be used in several groups at the same time, and whose main role is to provide the communication function, each group is managed by a coordinator. The evaluation results of this approach showed that this distributed structure is suitable to ensure simultaneously the fault-tolerance property and to improve the performance and the network lifetime.

  14. Normal mode-based approaches in receptor ensemble docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2012-01-01

    Explicitly accounting for target flexibility in docking still constitutes a difficult challenge due to the high dimensionality of the conformational space to be sampled. This especially applies to the high-throughput scenario, where the screening of hundreds of thousands compounds takes place. The use of multiple receptor conformations (MRCs) to perform ensemble docking in a sequential fashion is a simple but powerful approach that allows to incorporate binding site structural diversity in the docking process. Whenever enough experimental structures to build a diverse ensemble are not available, normal mode analysis provides an appealing and efficient approach to in silico generate MRCs by distortion along few low-frequency modes that represent collective mid- and large-scale displacements. In this way, the dimension of the conformational space to be sampled is heavily reduced. This methodology is especially suited to incorporate target flexibility at the backbone level. In this chapter, the main components of normal mode-based approaches in the context of ensemble docking are presented and explained, including the theoretical and practical considerations needed for the successful development and implementation of this methodology.

  15. Development of an Inquiry-Based Learning Support System Based on an Intelligent Knowledge Exploration Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ji-Wei; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) is an effective approach for promoting active learning. When inquiry-based learning is incorporated into instruction, teachers provide guiding questions for students to actively explore the required knowledge in order to solve the problems. Although the World Wide Web (WWW) is a rich knowledge resource for students to…

  16. Opportunistic splitting for scheduling using a score-based approach

    KAUST Repository

    Rashid, Faraan

    2012-06-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling a user in a multi-user wireless environment in a distributed manner. The opportunistic splitting algorithm is applied to find the best group of users without reporting the channel state information to the centralized scheduler. The users find the best among themselves while requiring just a ternary feedback from the common receiver at the end of each mini-slot. The original splitting algorithm is modified to handle users with asymmetric channel conditions. We use a score-based approach with the splitting algorithm to introduce time and throughput fairness while exploiting the multi-user diversity of the network. Analytical and simulation results are given to show that the modified score-based splitting algorithm works well as a fair scheduling scheme with good spectral efficiency and reduced feedback. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Computational approaches to substrate-based cell motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebert, Falko; Aranson, Igor S.

    2016-07-01

    Substrate-based crawling motility of eukaryotic cells is essential for many biological functions, both in developing and mature organisms. Motility dysfunctions are involved in several life-threatening pathologies such as cancer and metastasis. Motile cells are also a natural realisation of active, self-propelled 'particles', a popular research topic in nonequilibrium physics. Finally, from the materials perspective, assemblies of motile cells and evolving tissues constitute a class of adaptive self-healing materials that respond to the topography, elasticity and surface chemistry of the environment and react to external stimuli. Although a comprehensive understanding of substrate-based cell motility remains elusive, progress has been achieved recently in its modelling on the whole-cell level. Here we survey the most recent advances in computational approaches to cell movement and demonstrate how these models improve our understanding of complex self-organised systems such as living cells.

  18. A model-data based systems approach to process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    In recent years process intensification (PI) has attracted much interest as a potential means of process improvement to meet the demands, such as, for sustainable production. A variety of intensified equipment are being developed that potentially creates options to meet these demands...... for focused validation of only the promising candidates in the second-stage. This approach, however, would be limited to intensification based on “known” unit operations, unless the PI process synthesis/design is considered at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena level. That is, the model....... Here, established procedures for computer aided molecular design is adopted since combination of phenomena to form unit operations with desired objectives is, in principle, similar to combining atoms to form molecules with desired properties. The concept of the phenomena-based synthesis/design method...

  19. A Security Based Data Mining Approach in Data Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Vidhya, S

    2010-01-01

    Grid computing is the next logical step to distributed computing. Main objective of grid computing is an innovative approach to share resources such as CPU usage; memory sharing and software sharing. Data Grids provide transparent access to semantically related data resources in a heterogeneous system. The system incorporates both data mining and grid computing techniques where Grid application reduces the time for sending results to several clients at the same time and Data mining application on computational grids gives fast and sophisticated results to users. In this work, grid based data mining technique is used to do automatic allocation based on probabilistic mining frequent sequence algorithm. It finds frequent sequences for many users at a time with accurate result. It also includes the trust management architecture for trust enhanced security.

  20. Ontology mapping approach based on set & relation theory and OCL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Peng-fei; ZHANG Shen-sheng; LIU Ying-hua

    2009-01-01

    An ontology mapping approach based on set & relation theory and OCL is introduced, then an ontolo-gy mapping meta-model is established which is composed of ontology related elements, mapping related elements and definition rule related elements. This ontology mapping meta-model can be regarded as a unified mechanism to realize different kinds of ontology mappings. The powerful computation capability of set and relation theory and the flexible expressive capability of OCL can be used in the computation of ontology mapping meta-model to realize the unified mapping among different ontology models. Based on the mapping meta-model, a general mapping management framework is developed to provide a common mapping storage mechanism, some mapping APIs and mapping rule APIs.

  1. Chemical Abstracts Service approach to management of large data bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, M A; Wigington, R L

    1975-02-01

    When information handling is "the business," as it is at Chemical Abstract Service (CAS), the total organization must be involved in information management. Since 1967, when, as a result of long-range planning efforts, CAS adopted a "data-base approach" to management of both the processing system and the distribution of information files, CAS has been grappling with the problems of managing large collections of information in computer-based systems. This paper describes what has been done at CAS in the management of large files and what we see as necessary, as a result of our experience, to improve and complete the information management system that is the foundation of our production processes.

  2. A model-based approach to human identification using ECG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Mark; Irvine, John M.; Wendelken, Suzanne

    2009-05-01

    Biometrics, such as fingerprint, iris scan, and face recognition, offer methods for identifying individuals based on a unique physiological measurement. Recent studies indicate that a person's electrocardiogram (ECG) may also provide a unique biometric signature. Current techniques for identification using ECG rely on empirical methods for extracting features from the ECG signal. This paper presents an alternative approach based on a time-domain model of the ECG trace. Because Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models form a rich class of descriptors for representing the structure of periodic time series data, they are well-suited to characterizing the ECG signal. We present a method for modeling the ECG, extracting features from the model representation, and identifying individuals using these features.

  3. Copula-Based Approach to Synthetic Population Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deok-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Generating synthetic baseline populations is a fundamental step of agent-based modeling and simulation, which is growing fast in a wide range of socio-economic areas including transportation planning research. Traditionally, in many commercial and non-commercial microsimulation systems, the iterative proportional fitting (IPF) procedure has been used for creating the joint distribution of individuals when combining a reference joint distribution with target marginal distributions. Although IPF is simple, computationally efficient, and rigorously founded, it is unclear whether IPF well preserves the dependence structure of the reference joint table sufficiently when fitting it to target margins. In this paper, a novel method is proposed based on the copula concept in order to provide an alternative approach to the problem that IPF resolves. The dependency characteristic measures were computed and the results from the proposed method and IPF were compared. In most test cases, the proposed method outperformed IPF in preserving the dependence structure of the reference joint distribution. PMID:27490692

  4. GPC Using a Delta-Domain Emulator-Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Morten Bach; Jensen, Morten Rostgaard; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes new approaches to generalized predictive control formulated in the delta (delta) domain. A new delta-domain version of the continuous-time emulator-based predictor is presented. It is shown to contain the optimal discrete-time predictor based on incomplete information...... as a special case. Usually, a good estimate is obtained in a much longer range of samples than obtained by the optimal predictor of the same complexity. This is particularly advantageous at fast sampling rates where a `conventional' predictor is bound to become very computationally demanding. Two controllers...... are considered: one having a well-defined limit as the sampling period tends to zero, the other being a close approximation to the conventional discrete-time GPC. Both algorithms are discrete in nature and well-suited for adaptive control. The fact that delta-domain models are used does not introduce...

  5. An annotation based approach to support design communication

    CERN Document Server

    Hisarciklilar, Onur

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose an approach based on the concept of annotation for supporting design communication. In this paper, we describe a co-operative design case study where we analyse some annotation practices, mainly focused on design minutes recorded during project reviews. We point out specific requirements concerning annotation needs. Based on these requirements, we propose an annotation model, inspired from the Speech Act Theory (SAT) to support communication in a 3D digital environment. We define two types of annotations in the engineering design context, locutionary and illocutionary annotations. The annotations we describe in this paper are materialised by a set of digital artefacts, which have a semantic dimension allowing express/record elements of technical justifications, traces of contradictory debates, etc. In this paper, we first clarify the semantic annotation concept, and we define general properties of annotations in the engineering design context, and the role of annotations in...

  6. A TQCS-based Scheduling Approach for Manufacturing Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-lan; YU Tao; CAO Hong-wu; SHI Zhan-bei

    2004-01-01

    With Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA) as system framework, and Globus Toolkit3.0 (GT3) as developing tools, Manufacturing Grid (MG) is proposed in this research to realize resource sharing and collaborative working among manufacturing resources, and task scheduling is one of the most critical components in this system. Nevertheless, the Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) does not provide scheduling system by default, and traditional performance-guided or economy-guided schedulers cannot satisfy our needs in MG. So, in this paper, a TQCS (Time, Quality, Cost, Service)-based scheduling approach is presented and the corresponding scheduler (Manufacturing Grid Task Scheduler, MGTS) is implemented with the functions of Global Process Planning (GPP) analyzing, resource discovery, resource selection, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process)-based resource mapping, and fault-tolerant handling. Furthermore, the application architecture is depicted at the end of the paper to illustrate the utilization of our scheduler.

  7. The evolution of potato breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cultivars in most regions of the world are tetraploid and clonally propagated. For over a century, the breeding strategy has been phenotypic recurrent selection. However, the polyploid nature of the crop prevents breeders from eliminating deleterious alleles and assembling positive alleles fo...

  8. Rose breeding: past, present, prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this review the PAST, PRESENT and PROSPECT will be considered as three separate periods in the history of the breeding and development of rose cultivars. The recurring theme is the genetic variation. This theme was chosen because there is justified doubt as to sufficient genetic variation availab

  9. Short communication. Effect of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on the productive and economic performance of autochthonous sheep breeds fed forage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimon Ripoll-Bosch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming systems in Spain are experiencing an intensification process, characterised by a general selection criteria of enhancing prolificacy in ewes, and by increasing indoor feeding with concentrates to the detriment of grazing. This study evaluated the effects of concentrate supplementation and prolificacy on productive and economic performance of a local sheep breed in different price scenarios. Ewes were fed forage hay ad libitum, without (in pre-partum period, PRE-HAY; and in post-partum period, POST-HAY or with concentrates (300 g/d in pre-partum period, PRE-CON; and 750 g/d in post-partum period, POST-CON. The inclusion of concentrate during the pre-partum period (last 10 weeks of pregnancy had no effect on the productive performance of the ewes. In contrast, the inclusion of concentrate in the post-partum period (6 weeks, resulted in greater milk yield (1009 vs. 1275 ± 89 g/d, lamb average daily gain (151±12 vs. 225±19 g/d and lamb output (kg of lamb LW weaned. However, the greater productivity thanks to the use of concentrates did not always turn into greatest profitability, since the economic margin was highly influenced by the cost of the diet and extremely subjected to variability in price of concentrates. Hence, the inclusion of concentrates in sheep meat production was not always justified in economic terms. In conclusion, the use of concentrates should only be considered as long as prices of commodities remain low, and inadvisable when prices reach a certain threshold or are subject to certain volatility in markets.

  10. The ROI CT problem: a shearlet-based regularization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba, T. A.; Porta, F.; Zanghirati, G.; Bonettini, S.

    2016-10-01

    The possibility to significantly reduce the X-ray radiation dose and shorten the scanning time is particularly appealing, especially for the medical imaging community. Region- of-interest Computed Tomography (ROI CT) has this potential and, for this reason, is currently receiving increasing attention. Due to the truncation of projection images, ROI CT is a rather challenging problem. Indeed, the ROI reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed in general and naive local reconstruction algorithms tend to be very unstable. To obtain a stable and reliable reconstruction, under suitable noise circumstances, we formulate the ROI CT problem as a convex optimization problem with a regularization term based on shearlets, and possibly nonsmooth. For the solution, we propose and analyze an iterative approach based on the variable metric inexact line-search algorithm (VMILA). The reconstruction performance of VMILA is compared against different regularization conditions, in the case of fan-beam CT simulated data. The numerical tests show that our approach is insensitive to the location of the ROI and remains very stable also when the ROI size is rather small.

  11. A Block-Based Regularized Approach for Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new efficient algorithm for image interpolation based on regularization theory. To render a high-resolution (HR image from a low-resolution (LR image, classical interpolation techniques estimate the missing pixels from the surrounding pixels based on a pixel-by-pixel basis. In contrast, the proposed approach formulates the interpolation problem into the optimization of a cost function. The proposed cost function consists of a data fidelity term and regularization functional. The closed-form solution to the optimization problem is derived using the framework of constrained least squares minimization, by incorporating Kronecker product and singular value decomposition (SVD to reduce the computational cost of the algorithm. The effect of regularization on the interpolation results is analyzed, and an adaptive strategy is proposed for selecting the regularization parameter. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is able to reconstruct high-fidelity HR images, while suppressing artifacts such as edge distortion and blurring, to produce superior interpolation results to that of conventional image interpolation techniques.

  12. An approach towards problem-based learning in virtual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Lutz S; Bockisch, Andreas; Beyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established and efficient approach to sustainable teaching. Here, we describe translation of PBL into the virtual classroom thereby offering novel teaching aspects in the field of Nuclear Medicine. Our teaching approach is implemented on a "moodle" platform and consists of 2 modules: complementary seminar teaching materials and a virtual PBL-classroom, which can be attended via Skype.Over the course of 4 semesters 539 students have accessed our teaching platform. 21 students have participated in the PBL seminar (module 2). After resolving some minor technical difficulties our virtual seminars have evolved into a forum of intense studies, whereby the participating students have learned to become more independent along the workup of the teaching cases. This was reflected in the results of the intra-group presentations and discussions.Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of our moodle-based PBL platform indicates an increasing level of acceptance and enthusiasm by the students. This has initiated discussions about opening our PBL concept to a wider audience within the university and beyond the Nuclear Medicine specialty.

  13. SPATIAL DATA INTEGRATION USING ONTOLOGY-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hasani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world, the necessity for spatial data for various organizations is becoming so crucial that many of these organizations have begun to produce spatial data for that purpose. In some circumstances, the need to obtain real time integrated data requires sustainable mechanism to process real-time integration. Case in point, the disater management situations that requires obtaining real time data from various sources of information. One of the problematic challenges in the mentioned situation is the high degree of heterogeneity between different organizations data. To solve this issue, we introduce an ontology-based method to provide sharing and integration capabilities for the existing databases. In addition to resolving semantic heterogeneity, better access to information is also provided by our proposed method. Our approach is consisted of three steps, the first step is identification of the object in a relational database, then the semantic relationships between them are modelled and subsequently, the ontology of each database is created. In a second step, the relative ontology will be inserted into the database and the relationship of each class of ontology will be inserted into the new created column in database tables. Last step is consisted of a platform based on service-oriented architecture, which allows integration of data. This is done by using the concept of ontology mapping. The proposed approach, in addition to being fast and low cost, makes the process of data integration easy and the data remains unchanged and thus takes advantage of the legacy application provided.

  14. Subway Train Braking System: A Fuzzy Based Hardware Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamun B.I. Reaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Automated subway train-braking system require perfection, efficiency and fast response. In order to cope with this concerns, an appropriate algorithm need to be developed which need to be implemented in hardware for faster response. Approach: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy based subway train braking system has been presented on an Alter FLEX10K device to provide an accurate and increased speed of convergence of the network. The fuzzy based subway train braking system is comprised of fusilier, inference, rule selector and defuzzifier modules. Sixteen rules are identified for the rule selector module. After determining the membership functions and its fuzzy variables, the Max-Min Composition method and Madman-Min implication operator are used for the inference module and the Centre of Gravity method is used for the defuzzification module. Each module is modeled individually using behavioral VHDL. The layers are then connected using structural VHDL. Two 8-bit and one 8-bit unsigned digital signals are used for input and output respectively. Six ROMs are defined in order to decrease the chances of processing and increasing the throughput of the system. Results: Functional simulations were commenced to verify the functionality of the individual modules and the system as well. We have validated the hardware implementation of the proposed approach through comparison, verification and analysis. The design has utilized 2372 units of LC with a system frequency of 139.8MHz. Conclusion: In this research, the FPGA realization of fuzzy brake system of subway train has been successfully implemented with minimum usage of logic cells. The validation study with C model shows that the hardware model is appropriate and the hardware approach shows faster and accurate response with full automatic control.

  15. LEADING CHANGES IN ASSESSMENT USING AN EVIDENCE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Macaulay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectivesIt is has been widely accepted that assessment of learning is a critical component of education and that assessment drives/guides student learning through shaping study habits and student approaches to learning. However, although most academics would agree that assessment is a critical aspect of their roles as teachers it is often an aspect of teaching that is regarded more as an additional task rather than an integral component of the teaching/learning continuum. An additional impediment to high quality assessment is the non-evidence based-approach to the decision making process. The overall aim of this project was to improve the quality of assessment in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology undergraduate education by promoting high quality assessment.Materials and methodsTo do this we developed and trialled an audit tool for mapping assessment practices. The audit tool was designed to gather data on current assessment practices and identify areas of good practice in which assessment aligned with the learning objectives and areas in need of improvement. This evidence base will then be used to drive change in assessment.Results and conclusionsUsing the assessment mapping tool we have mapped the assessment regime in a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major at Monash University. Criteria used included: assessment type, format, timing, assessors, provision of feedback, level of learning (Bloom’s, approaches taken to planning assessment. We have mapped assessment of content and the systematic development of higher order learning and skills progression throughout the program of study. The data has enabled us to examine the assessment at unit (course level as well as the vertical development across the major. This information is now being used to inform a review of the units and the major.

  16. 南宁某警犬基地蜱虫及病原体感染调查%Investigation of ticks and pathogen infection at a police dog breeding and training base in Nanning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华素; 徐金山; 彭恒; 李孟英; 陈要朋; 刘铁牛; 朱淮民; 薛绍礼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To survey the infestation and pathogens infections of ticks at a police dog breed-ing and training base in Guangxi Nanning.Methods In July 2013,ticks from the police dogs and doghouses at a police dog breeding and training base were sampled; Using nest-PCR,PCR,with the universal primers of 18S rRNA of Babesia spp.,16S rRNA of prokaryote,and mitochondria 16S rRNA of eukaryote,the infection of pathogens in ticks was investigated.Results A total of 5 engorged ticks and 13 non-blood sucking ticks were collected.The ticks sampled were Rhipicephalus sanguincus identified by PCR.Some of the ticks from the police dogs and doghouses had positive amplifications of B.microti,C.burnetii,Pseudomonas sp.,Methylobacterium sp.,and the positive rates were 27.8%(5/18),22.2%(4/18),11.1%(2/18),11.1%(2/18),respectively.Conclusion Ticks at the police dog breeding and training base were found.The ticks were R.sanguineus according to the results of PCR amplification.And some of the tested ticks were infected with B.microti,C.burnetii,Pseudomonas sp.,Methylobacterium sp..Those microbes are zoonosic pathogens and are threatening to human and livestocks.Prevention and control strategy should be strengthened.%目的 了解广西南宁某警犬养殖训练基地蟀虫及病原体携带情况. 方法 2013年7月在广西南宁某警犬养殖训练基地,采用逆毛式检蜱法采集犬体表以及犬舍墙壁的蜱虫,用巴贝虫属18S rRNA通用引物的巢式PCR、原核生物16S rRNA及真核生物线粒体16S rRNA通用引物的PCR和序列测定方法,鉴定蜱虫体内的病原体感染情况和蜱虫种类. 结果 从警犬体表及犬舍墙壁共计采集5只饱血蜱和13只饥饿蜱;经PCR鉴定均为血红扇头蜱(Rhipicephalus sanguineus).蜱虫体内扩增到田鼠巴贝虫(Babesia microti)、伯纳特氏立克次氏体(Goxiella burnetii)、假单胞球菌(Pseu-domonas sp.)、甲基杆菌(Methylobacterium sp.)DNA序列,阳性率分别为27.8% (5/18)、22.2

  17. Strategy for larch breeding in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eysteinsson, T. [Iceland Forest Service, Egilsstadir (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    An accelerated breeding program for Siberian larch was initiated in Iceland in 1992. Siberian larch is an important exotic species, but not fully adapted to Icelandic conditions. Selections are made based on adaptive traits such as growth rhythm and resistance to damage as well as form and growth rate. Seed will be produced in containerised, greenhouse orchards, necessitating selection for fecundity to best use expensive greenhouse space. Research will concentrate on developing flower induction treatments for Siberian larch and ways to maximize seed production and viability. 19 refs

  18. Business Process Management – A Traditional Approach Versus a Knowledge Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The enterprise management represents a heterogeneous aggregate of both resources and assets that need to be coordinated and orchestrated in order to reach the goals related to the business mission. Influences and forces that may influence this process, and also for that they should be considered, are not concentrated in the business environment, but they are related to the entireoperational context of a company. For this reason, business processes must be the most versatile and flexible with respect to the changes that occur within the whole operational context of a company.Considering the supportive role that information systems play in favour of Business Process Management - BPM, it is also essential to implement a constant, continuous and quick mechanism for the information system alignment with respect to the evolution followed by business processes.In particular, such mechanism must intervene on BPM systems in order to keep them aligned and compliant with respect to both the context changes and the regulations. In order to facilitate this alignment mechanism, companies are already referring to the support offered by specific solutions, such as knowledge bases. In this context, a possible solution might be the approach we propose, which is based on a specific framework called Process Management System. Our methodology implements a knowledge base support for business experts, which is not limited to the BPM operating phases, but includes also the engineering and prototyping activities of the corresponding information system. This paper aims to compare and evaluate a traditional BPM approach with respect to theapproach we propose. In effect, such analysis aims to emphasize the lack of traditional methodology especially with respect to the alignment between business processes and information systems, along with their compliance with context domain and regulations.

  19. A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach A Comparison of Routing Protocol for WSNs: Redundancy Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs with their dynamic applications gained a tremendous attention of researchers. Constant monitoring of critical situations attracted researchers to utilize WSNs at vast platforms. The main focus in WSNs is to enhance network localization as much as one could, for efficient and optimal utilization of resources. Different approaches based upon redundancy are proposed for optimum functionality. Localization is always related with redundancy of sensor nodes deployed at remote areas for constant and fault tolerant monitoring. In this work, we propose a comparison of classic flooding and the gossip protocol for homogenous networks which enhances stability and throughput quiet significantly.  

  20. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds.

  1. An Integrated Approach for Image Retrieval based on Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Choudhary

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties faced in an image retrieval system used for browsing, searching and retrieving of image in an image databases cannot be underestimated also the efficient management of the rapidly expanding visual information has become an urgent problem in science and technology. This requirement formed the driving force behind the emergence of image retrieval techniques. Image retrieval based on content also called content based image retrieval, is a technique which uses the visual contents to search an image in the scale database. This Image retrieval technique integrate both low-level visual features, addressing the more detailed perceptual aspects, and high-level semantic features underlying the more general conceptual aspects of visual data. In connection with this Content Based Image Retrieval is a technology that is being developed to address different application areas, remote sensing, geographic information systems, and weather forecasting, architectural and engineering design, multimedia documents for digital libraries. In this paper we present an approach that significantly automates the retrieving process by relying on image analysis techniques that are based on image visual features like color with spatial information, texture and shape.

  2. A decision analytic approach to exposure-based chemical prioritization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Mitchell

    Full Text Available The manufacture of novel synthetic chemicals has increased in volume and variety, but often the environmental and health risks are not fully understood in terms of toxicity and, in particular, exposure. While efforts to assess risks have generally been effective when sufficient data are available, the hazard and exposure data necessary to assess risks adequately are unavailable for the vast majority of chemicals in commerce. The US Environmental Protection Agency has initiated the ExpoCast Program to develop tools for rapid chemical evaluation based on potential for exposure. In this context, a model is presented in which chemicals are evaluated based on inherent chemical properties and behaviorally-based usage characteristics over the chemical's life cycle. These criteria are assessed and integrated within a decision analytic framework, facilitating rapid assessment and prioritization for future targeted testing and systems modeling. A case study outlines the prioritization process using 51 chemicals. The results show a preliminary relative ranking of chemicals based on exposure potential. The strength of this approach is the ability to integrate relevant statistical and mechanistic data with expert judgment, allowing for an initial tier assessment that can further inform targeted testing and risk management strategies.

  3. Query Based Approach Towards Spam Attacks Using Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Kumar Tak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, spam and scams are passive attack over the inbox which can initiated to steal someconfidential information, to spread Worms, Viruses, Trojans, cookies and Sometimes they are used forphishing attacks. Spam mails are the major issue over mail boxes as well as over the internet. Spam mailscan be the cause of phishing attack, hacking of banking accounts, attacks on confidential data. Spammingis growing at a rapid rate since sending a flood of mails is easy and very cheap. Spam mails disturb themind-peace, waste time and consume various resources e.g., memory space and network bandwidth, sofiltering of spam mails is a big issue in cyber security.This paper presents an novel approach of spam filtering which is based on some query generatedapproach on the knowledge base and also use some artificial neural network methods to detect the spammails based on their behavior. analysis of the mail header, cross validation. Proposed methodologyincludes the 7 several steps which are well defined and achieve the higher accuracy. It works well with allkinds of spam mails (text based spam as well as image spam. Our tested data and experiments resultsshows promising results, and spam’s are detected out at least 98.17 % with 0.12% false positive.

  4. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and embryo transfer(MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation.Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized.Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered,i.e.,traditional progeny testing breeding scheme(denoted as STANPT),GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information,MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family,GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology,COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT,and three non-progeny testing schemes,i.e.the MOET,GAMO and COMB schemes,corresponding to MOETPT,GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system.Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was estimated under an animal model framework.Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario.The influences of using QTL information and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency,true breeding values,polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated,for five different populations including active sires,lactating cows,bull dams,bull sires,and young bulls.The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed.The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant.The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes.The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year.The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL allele varied more greatly across

  5. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO WeiZhen; WANG YaChun; ZHANG Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and em-bryo transfer (MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation. Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized. Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered, i.e., traditional progeny testing breeding scheme (denoted as STANPT), GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information, MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family, GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology, COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT, and three non-progeny testing schemes, i.e. the MOET, GAMO and COMB schemes, corresponding to MOETPT, GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system. Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was es-timated under an animal model framework. Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario. The influences of using QTL informa-tion and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency, true breeding values, polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated, for five different populations including active sires, lactating cows, bull dams, bull sires, and young bulls. The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed. The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant. The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes. The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year. The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL

  6. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeon-Soo; Kim, Dae-Won; Chun, Se-Yoon; Sung, Samsun; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Oh, Sung-Jong

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous (native) breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB) which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/) provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed's characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  7. An algebraic approach to revising propositional rule-based knowledge bases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN ShangMin; DAI GuoZhong

    2008-01-01

    One of the important topics in knowledge base revision is to introduce an efficient implementation algorithm. Algebraic approaches have good characteristics and implementation method; they may be a choice to solve the problem. An algebraic approach is presented to revise propositional rule-based knowledge bases in this paper. A way is firstly introduced to transform a propositional rule-based knowl- edge base into a Petri net. A knowledge base is represented by a Petri net, and facts are represented by the initial marking. Thus, the consistency check of a knowledge base is equivalent to the reachability problem of Petri nets. The reachability of Petri nets can be decided by whether the state equation has a solution; hence the con- sistency check can also be implemented by algebraic approach. Furthermore, al- gorithms are introduced to revise a propositional rule-based knowledge base, as well as extended logic programming. Compared with related works, the algorithms presented in the paper are efficient, and the time complexities of these algorithms are polynomial.

  8. Rule based fuzzy logic approach for classification of fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Evren; Yildiz, Sedat; Albayrak, Yalcin; Koklukaya, Etem

    2016-06-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic muscle and skeletal system disease observed generally in women, manifesting itself with a widespread pain and impairing the individual's quality of life. FMS diagnosis is made based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. However, recently the employability and sufficiency of ACR criteria are under debate. In this context, several evaluation methods, including clinical evaluation methods were proposed by researchers. Accordingly, ACR had to update their criteria announced back in 1990, 2010 and 2011. Proposed rule based fuzzy logic method aims to evaluate FMS at a different angle as well. This method contains a rule base derived from the 1990 ACR criteria and the individual experiences of specialists. The study was conducted using the data collected from 60 inpatient and 30 healthy volunteers. Several tests and physical examination were administered to the participants. The fuzzy logic rule base was structured using the parameters of tender point count, chronic widespread pain period, pain severity, fatigue severity and sleep disturbance level, which were deemed important in FMS diagnosis. It has been observed that generally fuzzy predictor was 95.56 % consistent with at least of the specialists, who are not a creator of the fuzzy rule base. Thus, in diagnosis classification where the severity of FMS was classified as well, consistent findings were obtained from the comparison of interpretations and experiences of specialists and the fuzzy logic approach. The study proposes a rule base, which could eliminate the shortcomings of 1990 ACR criteria during the FMS evaluation process. Furthermore, the proposed method presents a classification on the severity of the disease, which was not available with the ACR criteria. The study was not limited to only disease classification but at the same time the probability of occurrence and severity was classified. In addition, those who were not suffering from FMS were

  9. Simulation and Non-Simulation Based Human Reliability Analysis Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk model. In this report, we review simulation-based and non-simulation-based human reliability assessment (HRA) methods. Chapter 2 surveys non-simulation-based HRA methods. Conventional HRA methods target static Probabilistic Risk Assessments for Level 1 events. These methods would require significant modification for use in dynamic simulation of Level 2 and Level 3 events. Chapter 3 is a review of human performance models. A variety of methods and models simulate dynamic human performance; however, most of these human performance models were developed outside the risk domain and have not been used for HRA. The exception is the ADS-IDAC model, which can be thought of as a virtual operator program. This model is resource-intensive but provides a detailed model of every operator action in a given scenario, along with models of numerous factors that can influence operator performance. Finally, Chapter 4 reviews the treatment of timing of operator actions in HRA methods. This chapter is an example of one of the critical gaps between existing HRA methods and the needs of dynamic HRA. This report summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in the RISMC simulations.

  10. Genetic variability in three Italian beef cattle breeds derived from pedigree information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Filippini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic variability in Chianina (CH, Marchigiana (MC and Romagnola (RO breeds using pedigree information. Different approaches based on probability of identity-by-descent (effective population size through an increase in inbreeding Ne or probability of gene origin (total number of founders f, effective number of founders fe, ancestors fa and founder genomes fg were used. Reference populations were defined using female animals born between 1996 and 2000 where both parents are known. Generation intervals were 5.35, 4.93 and 5.15 years for CH, MC and RO, respectively. The total number of founders were 7092, 11947, 3928, for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Complete generation equivalent showed the relative high quality of pedigree information: 5.66 for CH, 4.54 for MC and 4.95 for RO. For CH, MC and RO, respectively, a fe value of 152.1, 70.9 and 89.8, a fa value of 73.6, 48.0 and 59.5 and a fg value of 39.5, 25.0 and 38.5, were calculated. When inbreeding was used effective population sizes were 138, 122 and 124 for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Parameters derived from the probabilities of gene origin were variable among the investigated breeds and the results for MC demonstrate the need to pay specific attention to breeding strategies.

  11. Selective breeding in organic dairy production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Organic dairy farming started to take off in the early 1990s, when the European Union laid down organic standards for animal production. Until now, however, only incidental steps have been taken towards organic breeding and organic farmers mainly use breeding stock from conventional breeding program

  12. A Learning Object Approach To Evidence based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabin Visram

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the philosophy, development and framework of the body of elements formulated to provide an approach to evidence-based learning sustained by Learning Objects and web based technology Due to the demands for continuous improvement in the delivery of healthcare and in the continuous endeavour to improve the quality of life, there is a continuous need for practitioner's to update their knowledge by accomplishing accredited courses. The rapid advances in medical science has meant increasingly, there is a desperate need to adopt wireless schemes, whereby bespoke courses can be developed to help practitioners keep up with expanding knowledge base. Evidently, without current best evidence, practice risks becoming rapidly out of date, to the detriment of the patient. There is a need to provide a tactical, operational and effective environment, which allows professional to update their education, and complete specialised training, just-in-time, in their own time and location. Following this demand in the marketplace the information engineering group, in combination with several medical and dental schools, set out to develop and design a conceptual framework which form the basis of pioneering research, which at last, enables practitioner's to adopt a philosophy of life long learning. The body and structure of this framework is subsumed under the term Object oriented approach to Evidence Based learning, Just-in-time, via Internet sustained by Reusable Learning Objects (The OEBJIRLO Progression. The technical pillars which permit this concept of life long learning are pivoted by the foundations of object oriented technology, Learning objects, Just-in-time education, Data Mining, intelligent Agent technology, Flash interconnectivity and remote wireless technology, which allow practitioners to update their professional skills, complete specialised training which leads to accredited qualifications. This paper sets out to develop and

  13. Grooming relationships between breeding females and adult group members in cooperatively breeding moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löttker, Petra; Huck, Maren; Zinner, Dietmar P; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2007-10-01

    Grooming is the most common form of affiliative behavior in primates that apart from hygienic and hedonistic benefits offers important social benefits for the performing individuals. This study examined grooming behavior in a cooperatively breeding primate species, characterized by single female breeding per group, polyandrous matings, dizygotic twinning, delayed offspring dispersal, and intensive helping behavior. In this system, breeding females profit from the presence of helpers but also helpers profit from staying in a group and assisting in infant care due to the accumulation of direct and indirect fitness benefits. We examined grooming relationships of breeding females with three classes of partners (breeding males, potentially breeding males, (sub)adult non-breeding offspring) during three reproductive phases (post-partum ovarian inactivity, ovarian activity, pregnancy) in two groups of wild moustached tamarins (Saguinus mystax). We investigated whether grooming can be used to regulate group size by either "pay-for-help" or "pay-to-stay" mechanisms. Grooming of breeding females with breeding males and non-breeding offspring was more intense and more balanced than with potentially breeding males, and most grooming occurred during the breeding females' pregnancies. Grooming was skewed toward more investment by the breeding females with breeding males during the phases of ovarian activity, and with potentially breeding males during pregnancies. Our results suggest that grooming might be a mechanism used by female moustached tamarins to induce mate association with the breeding male, and to induce certain individuals to stay in the group and help with infant care.

  14. [Food based approaches to improve vitamin and mineral nutrition adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M T; Uauy, R; Olivares, S

    2001-03-01

    This paper, using the nutrient density concept and the development of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG), explores the nutritional adequacy of food patterns based on the main staples around the world--maize, wheat, rice and potato. The nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates and the minerals iron, zinc and calcium in diets composed by these staples is analyzed. Projected diets modified by the addition of foods high in vitamins and minerals, based on food table composition information, are analyzed for changes in nutritional adequacy, in order to cover the nutritional requirements of all family members. This theoretical exercise shows that diets diversified by the addition of relatively small quantities (27-70 g) of foods like fruits, vegetables, legumes and meat improve substantially the nutritional adequacy of the vitamins A, C, folates, iron and zinc. In the case of calcium, the addition of a dairy source becomes essential. From the practical point of view, the implementation of the food based approach requires a national effort in order to support the production of nutrient rich foods and to promote consciousness of nutrient bioavailability, so that people may obtain all nutrient potential from foods. Simultaneously, the need of fortification programs at the national level is recognized. This is the case for critical nutrients, where requirements might be above the potential in available foods. A similar situation occurs in the case of vulnerable groups like pregnant women and infants, who need supplementation to ensure nutritional adequacy of their diets. In conclusion, the use of FBDG is a good alternative for improving the nutritional adequacy of diets based predominantly on staple foods. However, food fortification and supplementation programs directed to vulnerable groups are necessary and complementary practices to the FBDG implementation.

  15. The Arts-Based Research’ approach: hints for educational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pentassuglia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen a growing interest on the different ways of knowing in all the fields. Although some research has highlights the importance of this topic, there is still very little scientific understanding about this process. The first serious discussions and analyses of the construction of knowledge emerged during the 1900s. In Humanities field, questions have been raised about the use of traditional research paradigm considered unable for the understanding of these complex subjects. In this perspective, this article provided an important opportunity to advance the understanding of new research paths that not only overturn the classical perspective of research, but also allow us to reformulate and reinvent strategies, tools, and forms of representations of research findings. This article considers the implications of the approach of Arts-Based Research (ABR and deeply of dance-based methods for educational research.L’approccio dell’Arts-Based Research: quali spunti per la ricerca educativa?Tra i temi che più si sono imposti, negli ultimi anni, all’attenzione dei ricercatori, è il problema dei processi di costruzione della conoscenza ad aver catalizzato su di sé la maggior parte degli studi; è soprattutto in ambito umanistico che cresce l’idea secondo cui i classici paradigmi di ricerca non siano in grado di comprendere ed indagare la complessità dei fenomeni esplorati. Sulla scia di tali necessità, il presente contributo intende approfondire l’approccio dell’Arts-Based Research (ABR ed in particolare dei dance-based methods nel campo della ricerca educativa che negli ultimi anni sta contribuendo a capovolgere l’impostazione classica del processo di ricerca a favore di nuovi percorsi in grado di utilizzare le potenzialità dell’Arte secondo nuove prospettive.

  16. Surgeon's view of the skull base from the lateral approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, R A

    1984-12-01

    This paper presents the surgical anatomy of the skull base and infratemporal fossa. The information has been derived from the author's own experience in surgical and cadaver dissection, standard anatomical references, and selected experience of other skull base surgeons. Because the lateral approach has become the utilitarian method of exposure, the intricate detailed anatomy is demonstrated from this view at five levels of dissection, so the surgeon may gain a practical understanding of the surgical relationship of critical structures. Consistent anatomical landmarks can be used by the surgeon in the location of these critical structures. The styloid process, sphenoidal spine, and middle meningeal artery identify the internal carotid artery as it enters the carotid canal. The bony or fibrous septum that divides the jugular foramen into neural and vascular compartments may be used to better identify nerves IX, X, and XI. The zygomatic root is useful for location of the middle fossa dura. The lateral pterygoid plate leads directly to the foramen ovale. The increased precision of dissection permitted by use of the microscope requires an increased level of knowledge of anatomical structures in this area. It is hoped that the information presented in this paper will assist surgeons in the meticulous and thorough removal of skull base tumors and in the preservation of neural and vascular structures that are presently being sacrificed.

  17. Modeling the crop transpiration using an optimality-based approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaus; J.Schymanski; Murugesu; Sivapalan

    2008-01-01

    Evapotranspiration constitutes more than 80% of the long-term water balance in Northern China.In this area,crop transpiration due to large areas of agriculture and irrigation is responsible for the majority of evapotranspiration.A model for crop transpiration is therefore essential for estimating the agricultural water consumption and understanding its feedback to the environment.However,most existing hydrological models usually calculate transpiration by relying on parameter calibration against local observations,and do not take into account crop feedback to the ambient environment.This study presents an optimality-based ecohydrology model that couples an ecological hypothesis,the photosynthetic process,stomatal movement,water balance,root water uptake and crop senescence,with the aim of predicting crop characteristics,CO2 assimilation and water balance based only on given meteorological data.Field experiments were conducted in the Weishan Irrigation District of Northern China to evaluate performance of the model.Agreement between simulation and measurement was achieved for CO2 assimilation,evapotranspiration and soil moisture content.The vegetation optimality was proven valid for crops and the model was applicable for both C3 and C4 plants.Due to the simple scheme of the optimality-based approach as well as its capability for modeling dynamic interactions between crops and the water cycle without prior vegetation information,this methodology is potentially useful to couple with the distributed hydrological model for application at the watershed scale.

  18. Team-Based Learning: A New Approach Toward Improving Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rezaee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available  Team-based learning is designed to provide students with both conceptual and procedural knowledge, aiming to enhance active learning and critical thinking. In the present study, team-based learning and lecture methods in teaching the “hospital organization and management” course among hospital management students were compared. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 25 undergraduate students of management. Teaching sessions were divided into two parts. The first part was taught with interactive lectures and the second part with team-based learning method. The students' knowledge was measured before, immediately and two months (late post-test after teaching. Finally, the mean scores of the final exam and students' satisfaction towards the methods of teaching were measured. There was an improvement in test scores of the students after the TBL sessions when compared to the test scores after lecture sessions (P<0.001. Also, TBL group had significantly a higher amount of knowledge retention compared to the lecture group (P<0.001, but no significant relationship was found between the mean scores of the final exam in the TBL and lecture groups (P=0.116. Finally, the majority of the respondents were more satisfied with TBL sessions compared to the ones held through lecture (P=0.037. The results indicated that TBL provides a better outcome for students. We found that the TBL approach allowed us to create an active learning environment that contributed to the improvement of the students’ performances.

  19. ARABIC-MALAY MACHINE TRANSLATION USING RULE-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Jumaa Alsaket

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arabic machine translation has been taking place in machine translation projects in recent years. This study concentrates on the translation of Arabic text to its equivalent in Malay language. The problem of this research is the syntactic and morphological differences between Arabic and Malay adjective sentences. The main aim of this study is to design and develop Arabic-Malay machine translation model. First, we analyze the adjective role in the Arabic and Malay languages. Based on this analysis, we identify the transfer bilingual rules form source language to target language so that the translation of source language to target language can be performed by computers successfully. Then, we build and implement a machine translation prototype called AMTS to translate from Arabic to Malay based on rule based approach. The system is evaluated on set of simple Arabic sentences. The techniques used to evaluate the correctness of the system translation are the BLEU metric algorithm and the human judgment. The results of the BLEU algorithm show that the AMTS system performs better than Google in the translation of Arabic sentences into Malay. In addition, the average accuracy given by human judges is 92.3% for our system and 75.3% for Google.

  20. Structure-based molecular modeling approaches to GPCR oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Selent, Jana; Poso, Antti

    2013-01-01

    Classical structure-based drug design techniques using G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as targets focus nearly exclusively on binding at the orthosteric site of a single receptor. Dimerization and oligomerization of GPCRs, proposed almost 30 years ago, have, however, crucial relevance for drug design. Targeting these complexes selectively or designing small molecules that affect receptor-receptor interactions might provide new opportunities for novel drug discovery. In order to study the mechanisms and dynamics that rule GPCRs oligomerization, it is essential to understand the dynamic process of receptor-receptor association and to identify regions that are suitable for selective drug binding, which may be determined with experimental methods such as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) or Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and computational sequence- and structure-based approaches. The aim of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive description of the structure-based molecular modeling methods for studying GPCR dimerization, that is, protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics, normal mode analysis, and electrostatics studies.

  1. DIGITAL ONCOLOGY PATIENT RECORD - HETEROGENEOUS FILE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Sapundzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oncology patients need extensive follow-up and meticulous documentation. The aim of this study was to introduce a simple, platform independent file based system for documentation of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in oncology patients and test its function.Material and methods: A file-name based system of the type M1M2M3.F2 was introduced, where M1 is a unique identifier for the patient, M2 is the date of the clinical intervention/event, M3 is an identifier for the author of the medical record and F2 is the specific software generated file-name extension.Results: This system is in use at 5 institutions, where a total of 11 persons on 14 different workstations inputted 16591 entries (files for 2370. The merge process was tested on 2 operating systems - when copied together all files sort up as expected by patient, and for each patient in a chronological order, providing a digital cumulative patient record, which contains heterogeneous file formats.Conclusion: The file based approach for storing heterogeneous digital patient related information is an reliable system, which can handle open-source, proprietary, general and custom file formats and seems to be easily scalable. Further development of software for automatic checks of the integrity and searching and indexing of the files is expected to produce a more user-friendly environment

  2. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  3. Emperor penguins breeding on iceshelves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a new breeding behaviour discovered in emperor penguins; utilizing satellite and aerial-survey observations four emperor penguin breeding colonies have been recorded as existing on ice-shelves. Emperors have previously been considered as a sea-ice obligate species, with 44 of the 46 colonies located on sea-ice (the other two small colonies are on land. Of the colonies found on ice-shelves, two are newly discovered, and these have been recorded on shelves every season that they have been observed, the other two have been recorded both on ice-shelves and sea-ice in different breeding seasons. We conduct two analyses; the first using synthetic aperture radar data to assess why the largest of the four colonies, for which we have most data, locates sometimes on the shelf and sometimes on the sea-ice, and find that in years where the sea-ice forms late, the colony relocates onto the ice-shelf. The second analysis uses a number of environmental variables to test the habitat marginality of all emperor penguin breeding sites. We find that three of the four colonies reported in this study are in the most northerly, warmest conditions where sea-ice is often sub-optimal. The emperor penguin's reliance on sea-ice as a breeding platform coupled with recent concerns over changed sea-ice patterns consequent on regional warming, has led to their designation as "near threatened" in the IUCN red list. Current climate models predict that future loss of sea-ice around the Antarctic coastline will negatively impact emperor numbers; recent estimates suggest a halving of the population by 2052. The discovery of this new breeding behaviour at marginal sites could mitigate some of the consequences of sea-ice loss; potential benefits and whether these are permanent or temporary need to be considered and understood before further attempts are made to predict the population trajectory of this iconic species.

  4. UAV based multi-load remote sensing technologies for wheat breeding information acquirement%农用无人机多传感器遥感辅助小麦育种信息获取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵军; 李长春; 于海洋; 徐波; 冯海宽; 高林; 朱冬梅

    2015-01-01

    为实现小麦育种过程中大规模育种材料表型信息快速高通量获取,该文分别从无人机平台优选、农情信息采集传感器集成及数据处理与解析等方面开展研究,研发了一套农业多载荷无人机遥感辅助小麦育种信息获取系统。该系统基于多旋翼无人机平台,并集成高清数码相机、多光谱仪、热像仪等多载荷传感器,提出了无地面控制点条件下的无人机遥感数据几何精校正模型,实现多载荷遥感数据几何校正。该系统操控简便,适合农田复杂环境条件作业,能够高通量获取作物倒伏面积、叶面积指数、产量及冠层温度等育种关键表型参量,为研究小麦育种基因型与表型关联规律提供辅助支持。%To realize rapid acquisition of massive phenotypic information of wheat breeding material, the studies on UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) platform selection, sensor integration, and remote sensing data processing and analyses were carried out respectively, and a set of multi-load agricultural UAV based remote sensing system for assisting crop breeding information acquisition was developed. The speed and height of multi-rotor UAV could be controlled easily, even at low altitude. Different kinds of sensors such as digital camera, multi-spectral camera and infrared thermal imager, could be loaded on the UAV at the same time. The above characteristics make multi-rotor UAV most suitable to acquire different kinds of farmland spatial information at different scales readily. The crop lodging area could be obtained according to the generated ortho-image based on the high-definition digital images. The crop growth status and crop coverage could be estimated through multispectral images. The canopy temperature, as an important index related to crop growth, could be rapidly acquired by a thermal infrared sensor. The developed system was used in the breeding experiments in the breeding base of Academy of

  5. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  6. Luminance-based Embedding Approach for Color Image Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ali Hussein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new non-blind luminance-based color image watermarking technique is proposed. The original 512×512 color host image is divided into 8×8 blocks, and each block is converted to YCbCr color space. A 32×32 monochrome image is used as a watermark and embedded in the selected blocks of the original image. The selected blocks must have log-average luminance that is closer to the log-average luminance of the image. DCT transform is applied to the Y component of each selected block. Each four values of the watermark image are embedded into each selected block of the host image. The watermark values are embedded in the first four AC coefficients leaving the DC value unchanged. The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image using the same selected blocks and DCT coefficients that have been used in the embedding process. This approach is tested against variety of attacks and filters: such as, highpass, lowpass, Gaussian, median, salt and peppers, and JPEG compression. The proposed approach shows a great ability to preserve the watermark against these attacks.

  7. Predicting activity approach based on new atoms similarity kernel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Atta, Ahmed H; Moussa, M I; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2015-07-01

    Drug design is a high cost and long term process. To reduce time and costs for drugs discoveries, new techniques are needed. Chemoinformatics field implements the informational techniques and computer science like machine learning and graph theory to discover the chemical compounds properties, such as toxicity or biological activity. This is done through analyzing their molecular structure (molecular graph). To overcome this problem there is an increasing need for algorithms to analyze and classify graph data to predict the activity of molecules. Kernels methods provide a powerful framework which combines machine learning with graph theory techniques. These kernels methods have led to impressive performance results in many several chemoinformatics problems like biological activity prediction. This paper presents a new approach based on kernel functions to solve activity prediction problem for chemical compounds. First we encode all atoms depending on their neighbors then we use these codes to find a relationship between those atoms each other. Then we use relation between different atoms to find similarity between chemical compounds. The proposed approach was compared with many other classification methods and the results show competitive accuracy with these methods.

  8. PARTICLE FILTER BASED VEHICLE TRACKING APPROACH WITH IMPROVED RESAMPLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Leong Khong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical sensors based vehicle tracking can be widely implemented in traffic surveillance and flow control. The vast development of video surveillance infrastructure in recent years has drawn the current research focus towards vehicle tracking using high-end and low cost optical sensors. However, tracking vehicles via such sensors could be challenging due to the high probability of changing vehicle appearance and illumination, besides the occlusion and overlapping incidents. Particle filter has been proven as an approach which can overcome nonlinear and non-Gaussian situations caused by cluttered background and occlusion incidents. Unfortunately, conventional particle filter approach encounters particle degeneracy especially during and after the occlusion. Particle filter with sampling important resampling (SIR is an important step to overcome the drawback of particle filter, but SIR faced the problem of sample impoverishment when heavy particles are statistically selected many times. In this work, genetic algorithm has been proposed to be implemented in the particle filter resampling stage, where the estimated position can converge faster to hit the real position of target vehicle under various occlusion incidents. The experimental results show that the improved particle filter with genetic algorithm resampling method manages to increase the tracking accuracy and meanwhile reduce the particle sample size in the resampling stage.

  9. An efficient approach for reliability-based topology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakasabai, Pugazhendhi; Dhingra, Anoop K.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an efficient approach for reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO) in which the computational effort involved in solving the RBTO problem is equivalent to that of solving a deterministic topology optimization (DTO) problem. The methodology presented is built upon the bidirectional evolutionary structural optimization (BESO) method used for solving the deterministic optimization problem. The proposed method is suitable for linear elastic problems with independent and normally distributed loads, subjected to deflection and reliability constraints. The linear relationship between the deflection and stiffness matrices along with the principle of superposition are exploited to handle reliability constraints to develop an efficient algorithm for solving RBTO problems. Four example problems with various random variables and single or multiple applied loads are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach in solving RBTO problems. The major contribution of this article comes from the improved efficiency of the proposed algorithm when measured in terms of the computational effort involved in the finite element analysis runs required to compute the optimum solution. For the examples presented with a single applied load, it is shown that the CPU time required in computing the optimum solution for the RBTO problem is 15-30% less than the time required to solve the DTO problems. The improved computational efficiency allows for incorporation of reliability considerations in topology optimization without an increase in the computational time needed to solve the DTO problem.

  10. A Learning-Based Approach for Biomedical Word Sense Disambiguation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Al-Mubaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biomedical domain, word sense ambiguity is a widely spread problem with bioinformatics research effort devoted to it being not commensurate and allowing for more development. This paper presents and evaluates a learning-based approach for sense disambiguation within the biomedical domain. The main limitation with supervised methods is the need for a corpus of manually disambiguated instances of the ambiguous words. However, the advances in automatic text annotation and tagging techniques with the help of the plethora of knowledge sources like ontologies and text literature in the biomedical domain will help lessen this limitation. The proposed method utilizes the interaction model (mutual information between the context words and the senses of the target word to induce reliable learning models for sense disambiguation. The method has been evaluated with the benchmark dataset NLM-WSD with various settings and in biomedical entity species disambiguation. The evaluation results showed that the approach is very competitive and outperforms recently reported results of other published techniques.

  11. Graph Based New Approach for Frequent Pattern Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Choubey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Association rule mining is a function of data mining research domain and frequent pattern mining is anessential part of it. Most of the previous studies on mining frequent patterns based on an Apriori approach, which required more number of database scans and operations for counting pattern supports in the database. Since the size of each set of transaction may be massive that it makes difficult to perform traditional data mining tasks. This research intends to propose a graph structure that captures only those itemsets that needs to define a sufficiently immense dataset into a submatrix representing important weights and does not give any chance to outliers. We have devised a strategy that covers significant facts of data by drilling down the large data into a succinct form of an Adjacency Matrix at different stages of mining process. The graph structure is so designed that it can be easily maintained and the trade off in compressing the large data values is reduced. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our graphbased approach.

  12. Video Compression Algorithm Based on Frame Difference Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuzhirShaban Al-Ani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The huge usage of digital multimedia via communications, wireless communications, Internet, Intranet andcellular mobile leads to incurable growth of data flow through these Media. The researchers go deep indeveloping efficient techniques in these fields such as compression of data, image and video. Recently,video compression techniques and their applications in many areas (educational, agriculture, medical …cause this field to be one of the most interested fields.Wavelet transform is an efficient method that can be used to perform an efficient compression technique.This work deals with the developing of an efficient video compression approach based on frames differenceapproaches that concentrated on the calculation of frame near distance (difference between frames. Theselection of the meaningful frame depends on many factors such as compression performance, framedetails, frame size and near distance between frames. Three different approaches are applied for removingthe lowest frame difference. In this paper, many videos are tested to insure the efficiency of this technique,in addition a good performance results has been obtained.

  13. Selection of construction methods: a knowledge-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrada, Ximena; Serpell, Alfredo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method' selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS) was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods' selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  14. Selection of Construction Methods: A Knowledge-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ferrada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate selection of construction methods to be used during the execution of a construction project is a major determinant of high productivity, but sometimes this selection process is performed without the care and the systematic approach that it deserves, bringing negative consequences. This paper proposes a knowledge management approach that will enable the intelligent use of corporate experience and information and help to improve the selection of construction methods for a project. Then a knowledge-based system to support this decision-making process is proposed and described. To define and design the system, semistructured interviews were conducted within three construction companies with the purpose of studying the way that the method’ selection process is carried out in practice and the knowledge associated with it. A prototype of a Construction Methods Knowledge System (CMKS was developed and then validated with construction industry professionals. As a conclusion, the CMKS was perceived as a valuable tool for construction methods’ selection, by helping companies to generate a corporate memory on this issue, reducing the reliance on individual knowledge and also the subjectivity of the decision-making process. The described benefits as provided by the system favor a better performance of construction projects.

  15. A Formal Approach for Agent Based Large Concurrent Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhary, Ankit

    2011-01-01

    Large Intelligent Systems are so complex these days that an urgent need for designing such systems in best available way is evolving. Modeling is the useful technique to show a complex real world system into the form of abstraction, so that analysis and implementation of the intelligent system become easy and is useful in gathering the prior knowledge of system that is not possible to experiment with the real world complex systems. This paper discusses a formal approach of agent-based large systems modeling for intelligent systems, which describes design level precautions, challenges and techniques using autonomous agents, as its fundamental modeling abstraction. We are discussing Ad-Hoc Network System as a case study in which we are using mobile agents where nodes are free to relocate, as they form an Intelligent Systems. The designing is very critical in this scenario and it can reduce the whole cost, time duration and risk involved in the project.

  16. A Task-Based Language Teaching Approach in Teaching Esp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Motuziene

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the general overview of the popularity of EFL for university and college students in Lithuania is discussed paying attention to the peculiarities of teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes (ESP at Klaipeda State College and also the strategies of enhancing the communicative competence or ability to communicate both spoken or written language and developing four language skills. The article deals with EFL status in the present labour market in Lithuania as well as the problems the English language teachers and students face and gives the reasons for the need of applying task-based language teaching (TBLT approach used in teaching ESP for students of higher educational institutions.

  17. An Improved Face Recognition Technique Based on Modular LPCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathu S.S. Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A face identification algorithm based on modular localized variation by Eigen Subspace technique, also called modular localized principal component analysis, is presented in this study. Approach: The face imagery was partitioned into smaller sub-divisions from a predefined neighborhood and they were ultimately fused to acquire many sets of features. Since a few of the normal facial features of an individual do not differ even when the pose and illumination may differ, the proposed method manages these variations. Results: The proposed feature selection module has significantly, enhanced the identification precision using standard face databases when compared to conservative and modular PCA techniques. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm, when related with conservative PCA algorithm and modular PCA, has enhanced recognition accuracy for face imagery with illumination, expression and pose variations.

  18. A model-data based systems approach to process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    In recent years process intensification (PI) has attracted much interest as a potential means of process improvement to meet the demands, such as, for sustainable production. A variety of intensified equipment are being developed that potentially creates options to meet these demands...... are preserved for focused validation of only the promising candidates in the second-stage. This approach, however, would be limited to intensification based on “known” unit operations, unless the PI process synthesis/design is considered at a lower level of aggregation, namely the phenomena level. That is...... that would be obtained. Here, established procedures for computer aided molecular design is adopted since combination of phenomena to form unit operations with desired objectives is, in principle, similar to combinng atoms to form molecules with desired properties. The concept of the phenomena...

  19. Analysis of Trust-Based Approaches for Web Service Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoni, Nicola; Miotto, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    a collection of pages to a collections of services. Consensus is growing that this Web service revolution wont eventuate until we resolve trust-related issues. Indeed, the intrinsic openness of the SOC vision makes crucial to locate useful services and recognize them as trustworthy. In this paper we review......The basic tenet of Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) is the possibility of building distributed applications on the Web by using Web services as fundamental building blocks. The proliferation of such services is considered the second wave of evolution in the Internet age, moving the Web from...... the field of trust-based Web service selection, providing a structured classification of current approaches and highlighting the main limitations of each class and of the overall field....

  20. Myasthenia gravis: new therapeutic approaches based on pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard A

    2013-10-15

    Over the past 40 years Dr. Robert Lisak has made important contributions to our understanding of the pathophysiology and therapy of myasthenia gravis. This review will touch upon some of his work as it discusses current therapies and the potential for new treatments based on the evolving knowledge of the underlying basis of the disease. The recognition of different immune mechanisms that can cause the phenotype that we acknowledge as myasthenia gravis coincides with the introduction of monoclonal antibodies and other new therapies that can target specific aspects of the disease. This has raised our hopes for treatments that will have less side effects and be more effective. In some cases these hopes have been realized. In other instances, the situation remains a "work in progress". Dr. Lisak's work and teachings remain cogent to our modern approach to this classic immunologic disease.