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Sample records for breed cattle adapted

  1. Whole genome analysis for backfat thickness in a tropically adapted, composite cattle breed from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backfat thickness affects preservation of the beef carcass after slaughter and confers organoleptic characteristics assessed by the consumer. One of the breeding goals for Canchim, a tropically adapted breed, is to comprehensively increase fat thickness. Our goal was to identify genomic regions ass...

  2. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle ( Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T.; Tonk, R. K.; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S. V.; Yadav, B. R.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher ( P 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability.

  3. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties. Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest importance for veterinary service is the fact that selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are in the first place based on giving priority to healthy animals, with strong immune system, good reproductive characteristics, which can be in production system for a long period. Additional important selective criteria is specific body resistance and adaptability of autochtonous breeds to environmental conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TP 31085

  4. Assessment of adaptability of zebu cattle (Bos indicus) breeds in two different climatic conditions: using cytogenetic techniques on genome integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Waiz, Syma Ashraf; Sridhar Goud, T; Tonk, R K; Grewal, Anita; Singh, S V; Yadav, B R; Upadhyay, R C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genome integrity so as to assess the adaptability of three breeds of indigenous cattle reared under arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan (Bikaner) and Haryana (Karnal) India. The cattle were of homogenous group (same age and sex) of indigenous breeds viz. Sahiwal, Tharparkar and Kankrej. A total of 100 animals were selected for this study from both climatic conditions. The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's), chromosomal gaps and chromatid breaks were observed in metaphase plates of chromosome preparations obtained from in vitro culture of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The mean number of breaks and gaps in Sahiwal and Tharparkar of semi-arid zone were 8.56 ± 3.16, 6.4 ± 3.39 and 8.72 ± 2.04, 3.52 ± 6.29, respectively. Similarly, the mean number of breaks and gaps in Tharparkar and Kankrej cattle of arid zone were 5.26 ± 1.76, 2.74 ± 1.76 and 5.24 ± 1.84, 2.5 ± 1.26, respectively. The frequency of SCEs in chromosomes was found significantly higher (P P P > 0.05) was observed in the same zone. The analysis of frequency of CAs and SCEs revealed significant effects of environmental conditions on the genome integrity of animals, thereby indicating an association with their adaptability. PMID:26476524

  5. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...... these new genomic tools are especially useful for traits relating to animal welfare that are difficult to improve using traditional breeding tools, they may also facilitate breeding schemes with reduced generation intervals carrying a higher risk of unwanted side-effects on animal welfare. In this paper...... negative effects on animal welfare and to invest in breeding for increased animal welfare. Researchers are encouraged to further investigate the long-term effects of various breeding schemes that rely on genomic breeding values....

  6. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  7. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  8. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN was created in the early XX(th century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT breed (Red Poll and a West African taurine (AFT breed (N'Dama. Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i three footprints on chromosome (BTA 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  9. Selection criteria in organic cattle breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Savić Mila; Dimitrijević Vladimir; Trailović Ružica; Vegara Mensur; Dimitrijević Blagoje; Bečkei Žolt; Petrujkić Branislav; Cojkić Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    The central issue in process of organizing organic cattle breeding is the knowledge about specificities of this kind of production, good knowledge of breed characteristics (body composition, immune tolerance, expressed predisposition towards some diseases, production properties). Research centres, in collaboration with producers, have defined the essential features on which the selection programmes in organic cattle breeding are based on. Of the greatest im...

  10. West African cattle breeds characterizations: Review of CIRDES genetic works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The improvement of domestical animal breeds productivity or the animal genetic diversity maintenance to allow breeders to select animals or to create new breeds in order to adapt to environmental modifications, new diseases and societies needs, requires first a detailed inventory and, secondly, a genetic characterization of domestic animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clear; visual parameters are often used even if these procedures are subjective. So it is necessary to complete this phenotypic approach by a genomic one in order to contribute to an efficient characterization. At CIRDES, a regional center for subhumid livestock research and development, these studies have been conducted during the past ten years. They permitted (i) to describe the cattle phenotypic traits and their geographical localization and to highlight the breeds threatened with extinction, (ii) to determine zebu introgression level in taurine trypanotolerant cattle (iii) to identify specific alleles of different cattle breeds, and (iv) to quantify the importance of Robertson translocation in livestock production. Data collection has been realized using a bibliography study, completed by investigations in seven countries of West Africa. Blood collection has been also done for an analysis of 4 categories of genome markers (11 blood group systems, 3 blood protein loci, microsatellites and chromosomes). According to phenotypic description and to the conceptions of autochtone human population, 13 local cattle breeds have been identified: Ndama, Kouri, the group Baoule-Somba, the group Lagoon cattle, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu peuhl soudanien, zebu Gobra, and their crossbreds (Zebu x Ndama and Zebu x West African Shorthorns). Nine exotic breeds have been also identified: American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown

  11. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Leonardo D; Mariante Arthur S; Albuquerque Maria do Socorro M; Paiva Samuel R.; Egito Andréa A; Castro Silvia R; Grattapaglia Dario

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists...

  12. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  13. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  14. Breeding for longevity in Italian Chianina cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forabosco, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to evaluate genetic aspects of longevity (LPL) in the Chianina beef cattle population in order to define how to include this trait in selection criteria. The Chianina breed has been raised for over twenty-two centuries inItaly

  15. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  16. Motives and values in farming local cattle breeds in Europe: a survey on 15 breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandini, G.; Avon, L.; Bohte-Wilhelmus, D.I.; Bay, E.; Colinet, F.G.; Choroszy, Z.; Diaz, C.; Duclos, D.; Fernandez, J.; Gengler, N.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Kearney, F.; Lilja, T.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Martin-Collado, D.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Musella, M.; Pizzi, F.; Soini, K.; Toro, M.; Turri, F.; Viinalas, H.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Within the EURECA project (Towards self-sustainable EUropean REgional CAttle breeds), we interviewed a total of 371 farmers of 15 local cattle breeds in eight European countries. Besides collecting data on farmers, land use, herd composition and economic role of cattle, we aimed at understanding far

  17. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  18. The use of clones in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and the selecti

  19. Microsatellite based genetic diversity and relationships among ten Creole and commercial cattle breeds raised in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Leonardo D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil holds the largest commercial cattle populations worldwide. Local cattle breeds can be classified according to their origin, as exotic or Creole. Exotic breeds imported in the last 100 years, both zebuine and taurine, currently make up the bulk of the intensively managed populations. Locally adapted Creole breeds, originated from cattle introduced by the European conquerors derive from natural selection and events of breed admixture. While historical knowledge exists on the Brazilian Creole breeds very little is known on their genetic composition. The objective of this study was to assess the levels of genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and patterns of taurine/zebuine admixture among ten cattle breeds raised in Brazil. Results Significant reduction of heterozygosity exists due both to within-population inbreeding and to breed differentiation in both subspecies (taurine and zebuine. For taurine breeds the number of markers that contribute to breed differentiation is larger than for zebuine. A consistently similar number of alleles was seen in both subspecies for all microsatellites. Four Creole breeds were the most genetically diverse followed by the zebuine breeds, the two specialized taurine breeds and the Creole Caracu. Pairwise genetic differentiation were all significant indicating that all breeds can be considered as genetically independent entities. A STRUCTURE based diagram indicated introgression of indicine genes in the local Creole breeds and suggested that occasional Creole introgression can be detected in some Zebuine animals. Conclusion This study reports on a comprehensive study of the genetic structure and diversity of cattle breeds in Brazil. A significant amount of genetic variation is maintained in the local cattle populations. The genetic data show that Brazilian Creole breeds constitute an important and diverse reservoir of genetic diversity for bovine breeding and conservation. The

  20. Genomic signatures reveal geographic adaption and human selection in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated geographic adaptation and human selection using high-density SNP data of five diverse cattle breeds. Based on allele frequency differences, we detected hundreds of candidate regions under positive selection across Holstein, Angus, Charolais, Brahman, and N'Dama. In addition to well-k...

  1. Genomic adaptation of admixed dairy cattle in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui-Soo eKim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis, the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%. Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in eleven genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for

  2. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  3. Developing a typology for local cattle breed farmers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soini, K.; Diaz, C.; Gandini, G.; Haas, de Y.; Lilja, T.; Martin-Collado, D.; Pizzi, F.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing cultural diversity among local breed farmers is crucial for the successful development and implementation of farm animal genetic resources FAnGr conservation policies and programmes. In this study based on survey data collected in the EUropean REgional CAttle breeds project from six Euro

  4. Research on spontaneously emerged chromosomal aberrations in the periphery blood lymphocytes in cattle ('Busa' breed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanbasić, Danica; Rukavina, Dunja; Hodzić, Aida; Brka, Muhamed; Vegara, Mensur; Hamamdzić, Muhidin

    2007-11-01

    Knowledge of spontaneous aberrations, namely, of their frequency in non-irradiated cells is of paramount importance not only in cytogenetic research, but also in contemporary animal production. The paper deals with research on spontaneously emerged chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the cattle of 'Busa' breed. To obtain metaphase chromosomes the conventional method of lymphocyte cultivation was used, albeit slightly modified and adapted to the examined animals and the laboratory conditions. The research findings indicate that a certain percent of spontaneously emerged chromosomal aberrations of chromatid type (gap and break) have been found in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the cattle of 'Busa' breed.

  5. Production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle keepers in Kenya and implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatsia, Evans D; Roessler, Regina; Kahi, Alexander K; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Zárate, Valle

    2012-03-01

    The Sahiwal breed has been used for upgrading the East African Zebu (EAZ) for improved milk production and growth performance in the southern rangelands of Kenya. Main users of this breed are Maasai pastoralists. Until now, there has been no deliberate effort to understand why these pastoralists specifically prefer to keep Sahiwal genetic resources as well as which traits are considered important by them and what is the underlying reason for this. However, this information is regarded vital for further development of the breed. A survey was conducted between May and October 2009 among Maasai pastoralists in Kajiado and Narok counties in the Southern part of Kenya, and private ranches and government farms to identify production objectives and breeding goals of Sahiwal cattle producers. Sahiwal genetic resources were mainly kept for domestic milk production and for revenue generation through milk sales and live animals. To a limited extent, they were kept for breeding and also for multiple objectives that included insurance against risks and social functions. Production aims were influenced to varying extents by various household and farmer characteristics. Sahiwal cattle and their crosses were generally perceived to be better with respect to productive traits and fertility traits when compared to the EAZ. However, the EAZ was rated higher with respect to adaptation traits. The breeding objective traits of primary importance were high milk yield and big body size, good reproductive efficiency and relatively good adaptation to local production conditions. Performance and functional traits are important breeding goals that play a major role in fulfilling the multiple production objectives. This forms the basis for the optimisation of a breeding programme for sustainable utilisation to meet the needs of Sahiwal cattle producers.

  6. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    explain differences in rectal temperature between Brahman and Senepol. The results of these trials demonstrate heat tolerance of the Senepol and Romosinuano, two Bos taurus breeds. Furthermore, the results suggest a substantial level of dominance of the Senepol's ability to maintain constant body temperature in a hot environment as measured by rectal temperature in crosses with a non-adapted breed. PMID:8690664

  7. Assessing SNPs in coat colour genes for cattle breed traceability

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    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to identify a panel of SNPs in coat colour genes useful for breed traceability in Rendena, an autochthonous cattle breed raised in the province of Trento, and other 4 Italian cattle breeds. First, we sequenced some regions of several coat colour genes in 10 animals belonging to 5 breeds characterised by different coat colour phenotypes (Rendena, Italian Brown, Grey Alpine, Italian Friesian, and Italian Red Pied, and we detected 21 SNPs in 13 genes. These markers and 6 additional SNPs were used to genotype 180 animals of the same 5 breeds obtaining useful genotyping data for a total of 22 SNPs in 13 genes. Five out of the 22 SNP markers in the MC1R, KIT, MLPH, and SILV genes had the highest discriminating power. The panel of 22 SNPs is useful to trace Rendena particularly from Red Italian Pied and Italian Friesian.

  8. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of zebu dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariosto Ardila Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, Gyr and Guzerat breeds (Bos indicus are most explored for dairy industry and are much more adapted to climate. Gyr and Guzerat are Zebu breeds very common in Brazil and they are being used to generate Bos taurus x Bos indicus crosses in order to combine good production, heat and parasite tolerance on the tropics. Breeding programs for the main economically important traits of Zebu dairy cattle have been recently introduced in Brazil and is based on the use of genetically superior sires in the herds. A major objective of QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci and candidate genes is to find genes and markers that can be implemented in breeding programs across marker assisted selection (MAS. In Zebu dairy cattle MAS could be used to pre-select young candidate bulls to progeny testing, thus increasing selection differentials, shortening generation interval and increasing genetic gain

  9. Breeding for adaptation to drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I will describe an approach we have used to breed improved cowpea varieties for an environment that experiences very severe droughts - the African Sahel. I will then speculate on how this approach might be enhanced for cowpea and some other C3 species by including selection for carbon stable isotope composition, i.e carbon isotope discrimination by plants (Δ). The approach in breeding for adaptation to drought involved selecting parents and then progeny with a type of grain desired by consumers and optimal time of flowering and cycle length, incorporating resistances to important diseases and pests, and yield-testing advanced lines in many locations throughout the target production zone in experiment station and farm conditions over several years. Can we now make further progress in breeding to improve adaptation to drought by including selection for Δ? The approach I recommend is to choose varieties or elite lines as parents that have differences in Δ but similar high grain quality and optimal time to flowering, cycle length and harvest index. In many cases, pre-breeding will be needed to develop appropriate elite lines and it may be difficult to develop lines that differ in Δ but also have the other necessary traits. Then crosses would be made and progeny would be selected that have the required grain quality, phenology, harvest index, and multiple resistances to pests and diseases. Selected stable lines would be screened for Δ values. Finally, selected advanced lines would be subjected to the necessary multilocation tests for yield, grain quality and other agronomic traits in the target production zone. But, should one select for Δ values that are lower or higher than those of the best current cultivars? Theory and experimental tests have shown that for C3 species, Δ is negatively correlated with intrinsic, integrated water-use efficiency. Water-use efficiency (W) is the ratio of crop biomass production to transpiration. A yield

  10. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J.; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Bra...

  11. Accuracy of genotype imputation in Swiss cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of imputation from Illumina Bovine3k Bead Chip (3k) and Illumina BovineLD (6k) to 54k chip information in Swiss dairy cattle breeds. Genotype data comprised of 54k SNP chip data of Original Braunvieh (OB), Brown Swiss (BS), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF...

  12. Kappa-casein gene study in Iranian Sistani cattle breed (Bos indicus) using PCR-RFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohallah, Alinaghizadeh; Mohammadreza, Mohammad Abadi; Shahin, Moradnasab Badrabadi

    2007-12-01

    In cattle, caseins are subdivided into four main groups: alphaS1-, alphaaS2-, beta- and kappa-caseins. kappa-caseins (CSN2) considerably differ from other caseins in structure and other properties. Testing the A and B alleles is of practical importance, because the milk of cows that carry the B allele of CSN3 has a better thermal resistance and shorter coagulation time, better curdles and contains micelles of different sizes. Iranian Sistani cattle (Bos indicus) are a heavy built breed and used as dual-purpose cattle breed in Eastern Iran. This breed is a genetic resource that shows special features of adaptation to rustic environments. One of the most distinctive features of Sistani cattle is its great capability to resist diseases which makes it a potential reservoir of germplasm useful for future crosses. Our main goal was to study DNA-polymorphism of the CSN3 gene in the Iranian Sistani native cattle (Bos indicus) and analyze the information value of CSN3 gene polymorphism as a genetic marker. We genotyped and analyzed 65 animals of this breed using PCR-RFLP. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.6385 and 0.3615 and those of AA, AB and BB genotypes were 0.4000, 0.4769 and 0.1231, respectively. In the Sistani Zebu breed, frequency of B allele is higher than other Zebu breeds, indicating that intensive selection for dairy production have been done and indirectly influenced CSN3 allele frequencies.

  13. Physiological variables of equines remaining of the Nordestino Horse breed used in cattle handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobyas Maia de Albuquerque Mariz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the physiological parameters of horses remnants of the Nordestino Horse breedused in cattle handling in the caatinga bioma,  before and after the working activity. 16  castrated males were used. The animals were evaluated in two stages: At the begin and after the cattle handling. Heart rate, respiratory rate, skin temperature on the rump, side, scapula, neck and mean surface temperature were verified. The experimental design was a completely randomized with two treatments and 16 replications, and the values were submitted to analysis of variance and mean test (Tukey at 5% probability. Except for respiratory frequency and surface temperature of the rump, there was no statistical difference (P <0.05, in all the other variables, which increased its average value after performing the cattle handling. The Nordestino Horse breed showed to be well adapted to cattle handling in the caatinga bioma.

  14. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Prayaga, Kishore C; Chan, Eva K F; Johnston, David J; Hawken, Rachel J; Fordyce, Geoffry; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Sonstegard, Tad S; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Goddard, Michael E; Burrow, Heather M; Henshall, John M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Barendse, William

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity. PMID:25419663

  15. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  16. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  17. Preweaning growth of F1 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds x Angus and reproductive performance of their Angus dams in arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the preweaning performance of F1 Brahman (Bos indicus)-, Senepol (Bos taurus)-, and Tuli (Sanga)-Angus calves under semiarid south Texas conditions and to evaluate the reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Four hundred eighty-nine records collected over 4 yr were analyzed. The statistical model for performance traits included the effects of breed of sire, year, sex, age of dam, and breed of sire x year. Year effects were important (P Brahman F1 calves were 13% less (P Senepol F1 calves. Senepol F1 calves were intermediate (P Brahman and Tuli F1 calves for birth and weaning weight but had 11% more (P Senepol F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in BCS and frame size at weaning. Males were 3.3 kg heavier (P = 0.12) at birth than females, especially for the F1 Brahman males that were 4.5 kg heavier (P Brahman F1 weaned 19.9 kg heavier (P Brahman F1 were heavier at every measurement and appeared to be later-maturing and more able to excel under good forage conditions than the other two F1 breed types; Senepol and Tuli F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in these respects but appeared to be more competitive in relative growth rate to the Brahman F1 calves in years of greater nutritional stress. Angus females were observed to have a relatively low reproductive rate and high apparent fetal loss at the first (27.5%) and second (19.2%) compared with the third or later pregnancy (11.2%). Angus females that gave birth to Brahman F1 calves had 20.1% lower (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates in the succeeding year than those that had given birth to the other two breeds. PMID:12002328

  18. Beef cattle breeding à la Jefferson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenboken, W D

    1982-03-01

    ?Even more than most disciplines in the Animal Sciences, quantitative genetics is dependent upon models. Models, by definition, are abstractions of reality. Invariably they require simplifying assumptions, which should be but sometimes are not clearly specified. One thesis of this article, illustrated by examples, is that many of the assumptions upon which animal breeding theory and practice are based are not valid. Some proportion of research resources should be devoted to challenging or verifying those assumptions and following up those areas of enquiry suggested by the outcome of such research. A further thesis is that the selection of topics and priorities for animal breeding research should be a matter of choice by individual scientists and should not be determined by steering committees or directed by administrative fiat. Hopefully, the resultant mutation, cross-fertilization, assortment, recombination and selection of ideas that would result would bestow upon our discipline higher fitness from multiple-peak epistasis, and minimal danger of extinction (or petrification) from over-specialization. A final thesis is that true creativity by research scientists should be nurtured and rewarded and that work in traditional areas of breeding and quantitative genetics should be continued-but done better.

  19. Impact of Complementary National Direct Payments on Cattle Breeding Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Řezbová, K. Tomšík

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a topic of Complementary National Direct Payments (CNDP in the Czech Republic. It is focused on a relationship between allocated financial sources (in CZK and selected indicators of cattle breeding as heads of dairy cows, milk yield, milk balance, self-sufficiency ratio and heads of suckler cows.Main aim of the article is to evaluate an influence of CNDP on cattle breeding in the Czech Republic, especially on dairy sector and sector of suckler cows in the period 2007 - 2012.Used methods are chain and base indexes.Pieces of knowledge introduced in this paper resulted from solution of an institutional research intention MSM 6046070906 „Economics of resources of Czech agriculture and their efficient use in frame of multifunctional agri-food systems“.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCES OF FOGERA CATTLE AT METEKEL CATTLE BREEDING AND MULTIPLICATION RANCH, NORTH WEST RTHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MENALE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the reproductive performance and to asses non-genetic factors affecting the reproductive performance of Fogera cattle breed kept at Metekel ranch. For this purpose data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the ranch were used. The data were analyzed using the general linear model procedures of statistical analysis system. The effect of mating system, parity of dam, year of birth and calving, season of birth and calving, sex of calf, and sire breed were considered as fixed effects for evaluating different reproductive parameters. The overall least square means for number of services per conception (NSP, age at first calving (AFC, calving interval (CI, gestation length (GL and days open (DO were 1.28±0.06 and 50.8±0.36 months, 587±5.44, 282±0.26 and 285±4.3 days, respectively. The number of services per conception was significantly (P0.05. Days open was significantly (P<0.01 affected by year of birth. From the present study, it can be concluded that the non-genetic factors had exerted significant effects on the reproductive performance of Fogera Cattle breed kept at ranch. Thus, to improve reproductive performance of the Fogera cattle breed, great effort should be made towards mitigating negative impacts of those non-genetic factors.

  1. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C;

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...... shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...... relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic...

  2. Invited review: Are adaptations present to support dairy cattle productivity in warm climates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A

    2011-05-01

    Environmental heat stress, present during warm seasons and warm episodes, severely impairs dairy cattle performance, particularly in warmer climates. It is widely viewed that warm climate breeds (Zebu and Sanga cattle) are adapted to the climate in which they evolved. Such adaptations might be exploited for increasing cattle productivity in warm climates and decrease the effect of warm periods in cooler climates. The literature was reviewed for presence of such adaptations. Evidence is clear for resistance to ticks and tick-transmitted diseases in Zebu and Sanga breeds as well as for a possible development of resistance to ticks in additional breeds. Development of resistance to ticks demands time; hence, it needs to be balanced with potential use of insecticides or vaccination. The presumption of higher sweating rates in Zebu-derived breeds, based upon morphological differences in sweat glands between breeds, has not been substantiated. Relatively few studies have examined hair coat characteristics and their responses to seasonal heat, particularly in temperate climate breeds. Recently, a gene for slick hair coat has been observed that improved heat tolerance when introduced into temperate climate breeds. No solid evidence exists that hair coat in these lines is lighter than in well-fed warm climate-adapted Holsteins. Warm climate breeds and their F1 crosses share as dominant characteristics lower maintenance requirements and milk yields, and limited response to improved feeding and management. These characteristics are not adaptations to a feed-limited environment but are constitutive and useful in serving survival when feed is scarce and seasonal and high temperatures prevail. The negative relationship between milk yield and fertility present in temperate climates breeds also prevails in Zebu cattle. Fertility impairment by warm conditions might be counteracted in advanced farming systems by extra corporeal early embryo culture. In general, adaptations found in

  3. Matching genotype with the environment using an indigenous cattle breed: Introduction of Borana cattle from southern Ethiopia into the lowlands of north-western Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastoral, agro-pastoralism and transhumanance cattle production systems are important determinants of livelihoods in the semi-arid areas of north-western, southern and eastern parts of Ethiopia. The highlands are important for mixed crop-livestock enterprise, while the arid to semi-arid lowlands, that occupy 61% of the land area, are dominated by livestock production. The livestock species and breeds in these production systems have been traditionally selected, over millennia, to adapt to the challenges of the agro-ecologies. This initiative was undertaken in the arid to semi-arid lowlands of Metema district, which shares a 60 Km border with the Sudan, in North Gondar Zone of Amhara Region. The total area of the district is 440,000 ha, and 72% is covered with forest and rangeland, while 23.6% is cultivated. The cattle population is estimated at 136,910. Sesame-livestock followed by cotton-livestock production are the dominant farming systems. Although the Gumuz people are native in the district, most of the land is occupied by settlers from the highlands of Amhara and Tigray Regions. As a result, the dominant cattle population is the highland Zebu (mainly Fogera cattle breed crossed with other highland Zebu) brought by the highlanders. Rutana and Felata cattle breeds constitute a smaller proportion of the total cattle population. As a result, there is a mismatch between the cattle genotype and the environment. The major problems associated with cattle production are diseases and biting flies, water shortage, heat stress, long distance to watering points and grazing areas. Cattle production is therefore, characterized by high pre-weaning calf mortality (35-40%), slow growth rates, low fertility and calving rates, low milk yield and carcass weight. Breeding is entirely based on natural mating, and farmers' selection is based on milk yield, body conformation and colour; with considerations to disease resistance, heat tolerance and draft power potential. Table I

  4. A comparison of phenotypic traits related to trypanotolerance in five west african cattle breeds highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Berthier

    Full Text Available Animal African Trypanosomosis particularly affects cattle and dramatically impairs livestock development in sub-Saharan Africa. African Zebu (AFZ or European taurine breeds usually die of the disease in the absence of treatment, whereas West African taurine breeds (AFT, considered trypanotolerant, are able to control the pathogenic effects of trypanosomosis. Up to now, only one AFT breed, the longhorn N'Dama (NDA, has been largely studied and is considered as the reference trypanotolerant breed. Shorthorn taurine trypanotolerance has never been properly assessed and compared to NDA and AFZ breeds.This study compared the trypanotolerant/susceptible phenotype of five West African local breeds that differ in their demographic history. Thirty-six individuals belonging to the longhorn taurine NDA breed, two shorthorn taurine Lagune (LAG and Baoulé (BAO breeds, the Zebu Fulani (ZFU and the Borgou (BOR, an admixed breed between AFT and AFZ, were infected by Trypanosoma congolense IL1180. All the cattle were genetically characterized using dense SNP markers, and parameters linked to parasitaemia, anaemia and leukocytes were analysed using synthetic variables and mixed models. We showed that LAG, followed by NDA and BAO, displayed the best control of anaemia. ZFU showed the greatest anaemia and the BOR breed had an intermediate value, as expected from its admixed origin. Large differences in leukocyte counts were also observed, with higher leukocytosis for AFT. Nevertheless, no differences in parasitaemia were found, except a tendency to take longer to display detectable parasites in ZFU.We demonstrated that LAG and BAO are as trypanotolerant as NDA. This study highlights the value of shorthorn taurine breeds, which display strong local adaptation to trypanosomosis. Thanks to further analyses based on comparisons of the genome or transcriptome of the breeds, these results open up the way for better knowledge of host-pathogen interactions and

  5. Design of a DNA panel for genomic studies in Russian cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of 96 DNA samples (Russian Cattle Genomic Diversity Panel 1.0 or RCGDP 1.0) characterizing the breadth of genetic diversity in popular Russian cattle breeds was designed. The panel contains from four to eight animals from each of 11 dairy and six dairy-meat and meat breeds. The main criterio...

  6. Tropically adapted cattle of Africa: perspectives on potential role of copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M D; Dzama, K; Rees, D J G; Muchadeyi, F C

    2016-04-01

    Africa is host to diverse and locally adapted cattle breeds that are expected to survive the harsh and extreme tropical environments associated with diseases and parasite infections, heat stress and episodes of feed and water scarcity. Genomic copy number variations (CNVs) are considered to be primary role players in cattle breed formation and adaptation where isolation and genetic drift together with subsequent mutations have created an enormous diversity of local populations. CNVs are modifications in DNA structure comprising deletions, duplications and insertions that are >1 kb in size. Despite attracting much attention, the frequency and pattern of bovine CNV events, especially in African cattle breeds, are for the most part largely unknown. Characterization of genetic variation in the indigenous cattle of Africa will be a vital step toward dissecting the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation and local adaptation. This review therefore aims to describe the current knowledge regarding bovine CNVs and the implications and potentials they encompass for dissecting genetic adaptation and the genotypic skeleton of tropical African cattle populations.

  7. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  8. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  9. CATTLE BREEDING AND TERRITORY: A SURVEY ON THE MAREMMANA BREED RAISED IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto FRATINI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the importance of a cattle race native in an area of the territory of Tuscany. The Maremmana breed is a valuable breed raised in the pastures that stretch between southern Tuscany and northern Lazio. A sample of 12 farms was analyzed through direct interview, carried out at the farm. The farms surveyed implement organic farming, according to precise rules. The aspect that mostly catches in the interviews is that the only livestock activity is not sufficient for economic development of this rural area; in fact most of the farms perform multi-functional, practicing agritourism activities. In terms of remuneration of the factors of production used in animal husbandry it seems that especially farms with few animals require the integration of agricultural income with other business activities.

  10. The current status of cattle breeding programmes in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the South Asian and Pacific (SAP) countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes, but the degree of involvement by the state and the private sectors varies with their socioeconomic priorities. Dairying plays an important role in socioeconomic development in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Myanmar, while the economic output from livestock in Indonesia and Malaysia is dominated by the beef industry. Improving the productivity of cattle in SAP will required a multifaceted set of interventions that will involve not only proper management of local animal genetic resources, but also strengthening of local institutions for support of farming activities, including not only breeding-related services, but also services related to nutrition, health care, milk marketing and social services. These services are to be provided by a combination of governmental, non-governmental, and private institutions. A contribution by the government for policy setting and support in management of local resources is necessary to ensure sustainability and fair exchange of germplasm between countries

  11. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  13. Genetic diversity among Angus, American Brahman, Senepol and Romosinuano cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, R A; Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Riley, D G; Coleman, S W

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic diversity among breeds under evaluation for tropical adaptability traits that affect the performance of beef cattle at the USDA/ARS SubTropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) near Brooksville, FL, USA. Twenty-six microsatellite loci were used to estimate parameters of genetic diversity among the breeds American Brahman, Angus, Senepol and Romosinuano; the latter was comprised of two distinct bloodlines (Costa Rican and Venezuelan). Genotypes of 47 animals from each of these STARS herds were analysed for genetic diversity and genetic distance. Using two methods, the greatest genetic distance was detected between the Costa Rican line of Romosinuano and the Senepol. Gene diversity ranged between 0.64 (Costa Rican line of Romosinuano) and 0.75 (American Brahman). The breed relationship inferences, which are based on genetic distance, provide additional tools for consideration in future crossbreeding studies and for testing the relationship between quantified breed diversity and observed heterosis. PMID:17257188

  14. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands 1900-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the basis of outward characteristics. An objective verdict on the qualities of breeding stock could only be obtained by progeny testing, the scientists contended: the best animals were those that produced the most productive offspring. Some scientists had been making this claim since the beginning of the twentieth century. Why was it that their advice was apparently not heeded by breeders for so long? And what were the methods and beliefs that guided their practices? In this paper I intend to answer these questions by analysing the practical realities of dairy farming and stock breeding in The Netherlands between 1900 and 1950. Breeders continued to employ traditional breeding methods that had proven their effectiveness since the late eighteenth century. Their methods consisted in inbreeding--breeding in 'bloodlines,' as they called it--and selection on the basis of pedigree, conformation and milk recording data. Their aims were 'purity' and 'uniformity' of type. Progeny testing was not practiced due to practical difficulties. Before World War II, scientists acknowledged that genetic theory was of little practical use to breeders of livestock. Still, hereditary theory was considered to be helpful to assess the value of the breeders' methods. For instance, striving for purity was deemed to be consistent with Mendelian theory. Yet the term purity had different connotations for scientists and practical workers. For the former, it referred to homozygosity; for the latter, it rather buttressed the constancy of a distinct commercial 'brand.' Until the 1940s, practical breeders and most scientists were agreed that selecting animals purely for production was ill-advised. Cows of

  15. Microsatellite DNA typing for assessment of genetic variability in Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, a major breed of Rajasthan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Sodhi; M. Mukesh; B. Prakash; S. P. S. Ahlawat; R. C. Sobti

    2006-12-01

    The present study estimates genetic variability with a set of 25 microsatellite markers in a random sample of 50 animals of Tharparkar breed of Indian zebu (Bos indicus) cattle. Tharparkar is a dual-purpose breed, valued for its milk as well as draught utility, and is adapted to the inhospitable Thar desert conditions of Rajasthan typified by summer temperature hovering above 50°C, sparse rainfall and vegetation, and scarcity of even drinking water. The observed number of alleles ranged from 4 (ETH3, ILSTS030, INRA5, INRA63 and MM8) to 11 (HEL9 and ILSTS034), with allelic diversity (average number of observed alleles per locus) of 6.20. Observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 (INRA63) to 0.77 (ETH10), and from 0.51 (HEL5 and HAUT27) to 0.88 (HEL9) respectively. Wide range of genetic variability supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in measurement of genetic diversity indices in other Indian cattle breeds too. Various average genetic variability measures, namely allele diversity (6.20), observed heterozygosity (0.57), expected heterozygosity (0.67) and mean polymorphism information content (0.60) values showed substantial within-breed genetic variability in this major breed of Rajasthan, despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by high average inbreeding coefficient $(F_{\\text{IS}} = 0.39)$. The Tharparkar population has not experienced a bottleneck in the recent past.

  16. Conservation genetics of an endangered Catalonian cattle breed ("Alberes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordana

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We biochemically analyzed and characterized the genetic structure of a population in danger of extinction ,"Alberes", a local cattle breed of the Catalonian Pyrenees (Spain and France. Ninety-two individuals were analyzed for five polymorphic genetic loci (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc and Ptf2. The animals were grouped according to coat color: Fagina Alberes variety (N = 39 and Black Alberes variety (N = 53. The genetic structures and relationships between these subpopulations and one "outgroup" breed ("Bruna dels Pirineus" were analyzed and compared by using F-statistics. We determined that inbreeding in the Alberes breed is not significant, since negative and nonsignificant FIT and FIS values were obtained. The average genetic differentiation between subpopulations within the Alberes breed was 1.5% (FST = 0.015; P A estrutura génetica de uma população de Alberes, uma raça de gado dos Pirineus catalônicos (Espanha e França em risco de extinção, foi analisada e caracterizada bioquimicamente. Noventa e dois indivíduos foram analisados para 5 loci genéticos polimórficos (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc e Ptf2. Os animais foram agrupados de acordo com a cor do pêlo: variedade Fagina Alberes (N = 39 e Black Alberes (N = 53. As estruturas genéticas e as relações entre estas subpopulações e uma raça extra ("Bruna dels Pirineus" foram analisadas e comparadas pela estatística F. A endogamia na raça Alberes não foi significante, pois foram obtidos valores FIT e FIS negativos e não significantes. A diferenciação genética média entre as subpopulações dentro da raça Alberes foi 1,5% (FST = 0,015; P < 0,05, com um número efetivo de 4,1 indivíduos trocados entre as subpopulações por geração (fluxo de gene. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo confirmaram o perigo potencial de extinção da raça. A variedade Black Alberes é sugerida como o principal núcleo de conservação genética para esta raça, pois parece mostrar maior grau de isolamento gen

  17. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  18. Variation in meat quality characteristics between Sanga (Bos taurus africanus) and Sanga-derived cattle breeds and between Sanga and Brahman (Bos indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Smith, M F

    2011-03-01

    Cattle breeds indigenous to Africa (Sanga) compare favourably to Bos indicus breeds with regard to adaptation to harsh environments. This study compared the meat quality of three Sanga breeds (Nguni, Tuli and Drakensberger), a Sanga-related breed (Bonsmara) and a B. indicus breed (Brahman) and supported these results with biochemical and histological measurements on the M. longissimus lumborum. Twelve young grain-fed steers of each breed were slaughtered and carcasses were electrically stimulated. All Sanga (and related) breeds, with the exception of the Tuli, had lower Warner-Bratzler shear force (SF) values at 2 and 21 days post mortem compared with the BR (P meat than BR, mainly due to favourable calpain-to-calpastatin ratios. Small differences in colour, drip loss and cooking properties were found among breeds (P < 0.05). PMID:22445415

  19. Preferential traits for breeding Nguni cattle in low-input in-situ conservation production systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in communal and small-scale Nguni cattle enterprises to determine preferential traits for improvement under low-input cattle breeding programs. Forty-one farmers participated in ranking six specific traits of breeding bulls and cows. Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine mean ranks of traits and odds ratios of predictors (enterprise ownership, gender, farmer age, education level, agriculture training) on specified trai...

  20. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  1. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book organ

  2. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  3. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  4. Breeding objectives for a Nellore cattle rearing system

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    Caio Victor Damasceno Carvalho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to define the traits that should be included as breeding objectives for Nellore cattle, according to simulations with a bio-economic model for rearing systems. The economic values (EVs of the traits were calculated as the differences between the profits due to an increased performance of 1% in each trait, with the others traits remaining constant. To determine the impact of each selection on the revenue system, two scenarios were simulated based on the traits being selected. In the first scenario, the adopted selection criteria were: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, yearling weight (YW, and mature cow weight (MCW. In the second scenario, the cumulative productivity (CP of dams was used as an indirect evaluation of the performance of calves, with all the other traits included, except WW. In the first scenario, an EV of R$ 1.44 kg-1 was obtained for WW. In the second scenario, an EV of R$ 2.91 kg-1 was obtained for CP. The trait with the highest EV in both scenarios was WR, which enhanced the profits by R$ 3.21 for each 1% increased performance. The meat price paid to the producer is the factor with the greatest impact on the EVs of all examined traits.

  5. "Mirandês" cattle breed: systems and practices of the farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Fragata, António; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de

    1993-01-01

    Over the centuries, the mirandesa breed has been very useful! as traction animal and meat production. The latter, and in relation to other national breeds, their productive capacity occupies the first position and is famous for the quality of "posta mirandesa", a very special and appreciated dish by the rich gastronomy in the Northeast of Portugal. In spite of erosion suffered in the last decades, the ''mirandês'' cattle breed still has an important economi...

  6. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

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    Gao Chuan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is possible to perform genome wide population genetic analyses in cattle. In this study, we used a high-density panel of SNP markers to examine population structure and diversity among eight cattle breeds sampled from Bos indicus and Bos taurus. Results Two thousand six hundred and forty one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning all of the bovine autosomal genome were genotyped in Angus, Brahman, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black, Limousin and Nelore cattle. Population structure was examined using the linkage model in the program STRUCTURE and Fst estimates were used to construct a neighbor-joining tree to represent the phylogenetic relationship among these breeds. Conclusion The whole-genome SNP panel identified several levels of population substructure in the set of examined cattle breeds. The greatest level of genetic differentiation was detected between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds. When the Bos indicus breeds were excluded from the analysis, genetic differences among beef versus dairy and European versus Asian breeds were detected among the Bos taurus breeds. Exploration of the number of SNP loci required to differentiate between breeds showed that for 100 SNP loci, individuals could only be correctly clustered into breeds 50% of the time, thus a large number of SNP markers are required to replace the 30 microsatellite markers that are currently commonly used in genetic diversity studies.

  7. Adapted breeds for organic and low input dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A;

    2014-01-01

    Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds.......Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....

  8. Transcriptomic investigation of meat tenderness in two Italian cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Bueno, S; Chillemi, G; Ferrè, F; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Valentini, A

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives for this study were to understand the biological basis of meat tenderness and to provide an overview of the gene expression profiles related to meat quality as a tool for selection. Through deep mRNA sequencing, we analyzed gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds: Maremmana and Chianina. We uncovered several differentially expressed genes that encode for proteins belonging to a family of tripartite motif proteins, which are involved in growth, cell differentiation and apoptosis, such as TRIM45, or play an essential role in regulating skeletal muscle differentiation and the regeneration of adult skeletal muscle, such as TRIM32. Other differentially expressed genes (SCN2B, SLC9A7 and KCNK3) emphasize the involvement of potassium-sodium pumps in tender meat. By mapping splice junctions in RNA-Seq reads, we found significant differences in gene isoform expression levels. The PRKAG3 gene, which is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, showed four isoforms that were differentially expressed. This distinct pattern of PRKAG3 gene expression could indicate impaired glycogen storage in skeletal muscle, and consequently, this gene very likely has a role in the tenderization process. Furthermore, with this deep RNA-sequencing, we captured a high number of expressed SNPs, for example, we found 1462 homozygous SNPs showing the alternative allele with a 100% frequency when comparing tender and tough meat. SNPs were then classified into categories by their position and also by their effect on gene coding (174 non-synonymous polymorphisms) based on the available UMD_3.1 annotations. PMID:26857751

  9. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

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    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  10. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

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    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  11. Genomic prediction across dairy cattle populations and breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Lei

    Genomic prediction is successful in single breed genetic evaluation. However, there is no achievement in acoress breed prediction until now. This thesis investigated genomic prediction across populations and breeds using Chinese Holsterin, Nordic Holstein, Norwgian Red, and Nordic Red. Nordic Red...

  12. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

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    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  13. Insights into the Genetic History of French Cattle from Dense SNP Data on 47 Worldwide Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu Gautier; Denis Laloë; Katayoun Moazami-Goudarzi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Modern cattle originate from populations of the wild extinct aurochs through a few domestication events which occurred about 8,000 years ago. Newly domesticated populations subsequently spread worldwide following breeder migration routes. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time.[br/] Methodology...

  14. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  15. [Polymorphisms of bGH, RORC, and DGAT1 genes in Russian beef cattle breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, I F; Fedunin, A A; Randelin, D A; Sulimova, G E

    2014-12-01

    We examined the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms of genes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (RORC), diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1), and growth hormone (bGH) in Russian beef cattle breeds in two populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (of Kazakh and Russian selection) and in the Kalmyk cattle breed and Mongolian hogorogo breed, which is related to Kalmyk breed. The studied genes are associated with parameters of meat quality: marbleness (bGH and RORC) and tenderness (DGAT1). They are also associated with an increase in carcass weight (bGH). We found that Russian and Kazakh populations of the Kazakh white-headed.breed were characterized by a high content of the AA genotype of RORC (0.713 and 0.608, respectively) and of the AA genotype of DGAT1 (0.913 and 0.975), both of which are preferable for meat quality. The total frequencies for the combined genotypes for the bGH and RORC genes, which provide for superior meat quality and carcass weight, in the populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (GG/AA and GC/AA-68.8% and 57% in the Russian and Kazakh populations, respectively) exceeded the frequencies in the two other studied breeds by two times. Overall, the obtained results point to the high genetic potential of both populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle breeds in beef production. Results of this study can be used to improve the selection of meat traits in industrial livestock.

  16. Insights into the genetic history of French cattle from dense SNP data on 47 worldwide breeds.

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    Mathieu Gautier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modern cattle originate from populations of the wild extinct aurochs through a few domestication events which occurred about 8,000 years ago. Newly domesticated populations subsequently spread worldwide following breeder migration routes. The resulting complex historical origins associated with both natural and artificial selection have led to the differentiation of numerous different cattle breeds displaying a broad phenotypic variety over a short period of time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study gives a detailed assessment of cattle genetic diversity based on 1,121 individuals sampled in 47 populations from different parts of the world (with a special focus on French cattle genotyped for 44,706 autosomal SNPs. The analyzed data set consisted of new genotypes for 296 individuals representing 14 French cattle breeds which were combined to those available from three previously published studies. After characterizing SNP polymorphism in the different populations, we performed a detailed analysis of genetic structure at both the individual and population levels. We further searched for spatial patterns of genetic diversity among 23 European populations, most of them being of French origin, under the recently developed spatial Principal Component analysis framework. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, such high throughput genotyping data confirmed a clear partitioning of the cattle genetic diversity into distinct breeds. In addition, patterns of differentiation among the three main groups of populations--the African taurine, the European taurine and zebus--may provide some additional support for three distinct domestication centres. Finally, among the European cattle breeds investigated, spatial patterns of genetic diversity were found in good agreement with the two main migration routes towards France, initially postulated based on archeological evidence.

  17. Comparison of slaughter value and muscle properties of selected cattle breeds in Poland - Revue

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    Edward Pośpiech

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was the comparison of slaughter value and muscle properties of dual-purpose cattle most common in Poland with that of beef type, from which high quality culinary meat is obtained. Four breeds were compared: two of them were dual-purpose type i.e. Holstein-Fresian of Black and White variety and Polish Red and the other two – of beef type i.e. Limousine and Hereford. There are discussed factors influencing cattle slaughter value and muscle properties, i.e. the impact of the utility type, gender, age, feeding systems, as well as maturation rate of animals. The slaughter value was presented using the dressing percentage and the content of main components in the carcass i.e. the muscle tissue, fat and bones. The tissue composition of analysed cattle breeds and the share of main cuts in their carcasses were presented. Higher daily gains of beef type or dual-purpose breeds are connected with a higher number of muscle fibers (hyperplasia and also with a bigger size of their diameter (hypertrophy. These phenomena are accompanied by increased lightness of meat colour what is the result of changes in the muscle fibers metabolism and the proportion of myosin heavy chains (MHC of the I, IIa and IIx type. Observed differences in the slaughter value existed not only between breeds, but also inside them indicating the need for further improvement of animal selection and deeper analysis of factors influencing it. It was stated that the amount of culinary meat obtained from carcasses may be increased not only through the selection of corresponding genotypes, but also through the modification of the system of carcass cutting. The performed analysis of the slaughter value emphasizes special significance of the domestic Polish Red cattle also as a breed for production of good quality meat similar to beef cattle breeds.

  18. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  19. An assessment of population structure in eight breeds of cattle using a whole genome SNP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of population structure and breed diversity have provided insight into the origin and evolution of cattle. Previously, these studies have used a low density of microsatellite markers, however, with the large number of single nucleotide polymorphism markers that are now available, it is poss...

  20. Haplogroup Classification of Korean Cattle Breeds Based on Sequence Variations of mtDNA Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Seong-Su; Kim, Seung Chang; Choi, Seong-Bok; Kim, Su-Hyun; Lee, Chang Woo; Jung, Kyoung-Sub; Kim, Eun Sung; Choi, Young-Sun; Kim, Sung-Bok; Kim, Woo Hyun; Cho, Chang-Yeon

    2016-05-01

    Many studies have reported the frequency and distribution of haplogroups among various cattle breeds for verification of their origins and genetic diversity. In this study, 318 complete sequences of the mtDNA control region from four Korean cattle breeds were used for haplogroup classification. 71 polymorphic sites and 66 haplotypes were found in these sequences. Consistent with the genetic patterns in previous reports, four haplogroups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) were identified in Korean cattle breeds. In addition, T1a, T3a, and T3b sub-haplogroups were classified. In the phylogenetic tree, each haplogroup formed an independent cluster. The frequencies of T3, T4, T1 (containing T1a), and T2 were 66%, 16%, 10%, and 8%, respectively. Especially, the T1 haplogroup contained only one haplotype and a sample. All four haplogroups were found in Chikso, Jeju black and Hanwoo. However, only the T3 and T4 haplogroups appeared in Heugu, and most Chikso populations showed a partial of four haplogroups. These results will be useful for stable conservation and efficient management of Korean cattle breeds. PMID:26954229

  1. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that

  2. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  3. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  4. Is cross-breeding of cattle beneficial for the environment? The case of mixed farming systems in Central Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widi, T.S.M.; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Viets, T.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-breeding with European beef breeds has become a standard approach for the intensification of smallholder cattle production in Indonesia. This study assessed the environmental impact of cross-breeding, in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) and land use. We sampled 90 local Ongole and 162 c

  5. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity......A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability of...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  6. Y chromosome polymorphism in various breeds of cattle (Bos taurus) in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, Gerald F; Steiger, Dagmar; Kneubuhler, Josef; Hagger, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The evolutionary development of mammals involves mutations and fixations of chromosomal types. The Y chromosome polymorphism in cattle is important for the breeding strategy, since chromosomal incompatibilities in crossings result in fertility problems. In bulls of various breeds in Switzerland, data on chromosome status have been collected for over 20 years. Data from 7 years were analysed in this study through chromosome measurements and their normalization. Some highly significant differences were found between the 7 groups of breeds, especially between Holsteins and the original Swiss breeds Braunvieh and Simmental. Fleckvieh (purebred or crossbred) did not differ significantly from Black or Red Holsteins. The results were discussed with respect to fertility problems. The observed Y chromosome polymorphism should be taken into account in breeding, and research in this field should be continued.

  7. MILK FATTY ACID PROFILE IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows held in dairy farms in Slovakia. 368 milk samples were taken in total from cows of 5 different breeds, namely Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120, Pinzgau (P, n = 74, Slovak Pied (S, n = 61, and Braunvieh (B, n = 8. Single milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose content, minerals and fatty acid composition of milk fat using gas chromatography, where 54 FAs were identified and expressed relatively in percentage of peak areas (% and evaluated in segments in accord with their biosynthetic origine. The combination of acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, as expressed in the sum HCHFA (46.86% for S and 47.35% for P, and also the value of the so-calculated. atherogenic index (2.82 for S and 3.10 for P are the lowest, and thus the most favorable for human health at the breeds S and P. Medically desirable MUFA (27.11% for the S and 25.84% for P and PUFA (3.55% for S and 3.26% for P in these breeds are represented in the highest percentage shares. We conclude that among the observed breeds of dairy cows the Pinzgau and Simental breeds showed a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective.

  8. Preferential traits for breeding Nguni cattle in low-input in-situ conservation production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Obert; Muchenje, Voster; Dzama, Kennedy

    2013-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in communal and small-scale Nguni cattle enterprises to determine preferential traits for improvement under low-input cattle breeding programs. Forty-one farmers participated in ranking six specific traits of breeding bulls and cows. Kruskal-Wallis test and ordinal logistic regression were used to determine mean ranks of traits and odds ratios of predictors (enterprise ownership, gender, farmer age, education level, agriculture training) on specified trait ranks, respectively. Preferential traits for breeding bulls were in the order; aggression and mating behaviour (1.86), tick and disease resistance (1.90), body condition score (2.69), scrotal circumference (4.52), body size and conformation (4.71) and coat colour (5.02). For breeding cows,preferential order were; tick and disease resistance (1.55), reproductive efficiency (2.02), body condition score (3.14), body size and conformation (4.21), coat colour (4.74) and milk yield (5.31). Less old farmers ( 50 years), females and those from small-scale enterprises had odds ratio estimates less than one for the sixth ranked milk yield in Nguni cows. It was concluded that trait preference in breeding bulls and cows is significantly influenced by socio-economic and demographic factors. It is recommended to consider farmer preferences in trait selection and designing communal breeding programs. PMID:23705106

  9. Productivity through weaning of nine breeds of cattle under varying feed availabilities: I. Initial evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1994-11-01

    The effect of varying dry matter availability on the conversion of dry matter resources to weight of calf at weaning was evaluated for nine breeds of cattle; Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental were recorded for 5 yr. Within each breed, four cows were assigned to each of four feeding levels of dry matter intake: 58, 76, 93, or 111 g of DM/wt75. Cows remained on their assigned diet regimen throughout the study. Individual cow consumption, daily feed allowance adjusted for refusal, was recorded weekly. Production information included birth and weaning weight of the progeny, calving rate, and cow weights and condition scores. Cows were exposed to bulls of the same breed for 90 d. Reasons for cow replacement included failure to conceive in two successive years, injury, Caesarean section, chronic illness, and death. Response to dry matter intake (DMI) was curvilinear and differed among breeds (P .20). Red Poll exhibited more effective conversion at DMI less than 4,000 kg/yr, but breeds with greater genetic potential for growth and(or) milk production (Gelbvieh, Charolais, Braunvieh, Simmental, Pinzgauer, and Limousin) were more efficient at DMI greater than 6,000 kg/yr. Ranking for biological production efficiency (weight of calf weaned-cow exposed-1.kg DMI of cow-1) through weaning among breeds of cattle varied with dry matter intake.

  10. Genomic evaluation of cattle in a multi-breed context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc;

    2014-01-01

    sires, substantial but smaller gains are found. Little or no benefit is found when combining distantly related breeds such as Holstein and Jersey and using the widely used genomic BLUP model. By using more sophisticated Bayesian variable selection models that put more focus on genomic markers in strong...

  11. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A.e. Eaglen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  12. Optimizing reproductive performance of herds Simmental breed of cattle imported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATMIRA LEKA (SULAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of livestock farms that breed cows with high production capacities such as Simmental and Holstein breeds, an important role of manage genetic breed capacity import into future generations and management factors that constrain improvement of reproductive performance population. Importing a considerable amount of pregnant heifer Simmental and Holstein breeds from Austria, Germany , contributed positively to the addition of milk and meat production in our country. The study was conducted in Bio farm " Ramilli " – Shijak - Durres, for the periods 2008-2011. We also included about 150 cows Simmental pure - breed for dual purpose (milk – meat. Birth of a calf annually for cow provides the optimal milk production that can only be achieved with the correct programs to monitor the events of reproduction. To optimize reproductive indicators for genetic capacity utilization cow is aiming in our study. We also included three groups heifer imported from Austria, and approach them in terms of the farm. Production of milk for the first lactationconducted three groups to 4994 ± 936.4, 4123 ± 817.3, 3750 ± 560 proven statistically differences between them ( P less then 0:05. Calving interval realized 421.7 ± 73.4, 396.5 ± 42.1, 386.6 ± 43.7 days, the difference proven statistically (P less then 0:05. Conception index 2.1, 1.7, and 1.6. Improving reproductive performance in cows with higher milk production capacities, livestock farms achievedthrough unifying control period after calving.

  13. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  14. Characterization and comparison of the leukocyte transcriptomes of three cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    Full Text Available In this study, mRNA-Seq was used to characterize and compare the leukocyte transcriptomes from two taurine breeds (Holstein and Jersey, and one indicine breed (Cholistani. At the genomic level, we identified breed-specific base changes in protein coding regions. Among 7,793,425 coding bases, only 165 differed between Holstein and Jersey, and 3,383 (0.04% differed between Holstein and Cholistani, 817 (25% of which resulted in amino acid changes in 627 genes. At the transcriptional level, we assembled transcripts and estimated their abundances including those from more than 3,000 unannotated intergeneic regions. Differential gene expression analysis showed a high similarity between Holstein and Jersey, and a much greater difference between the taurine breeds and the indicine breed. We identified gene ontology pathways that were systematically altered, including the electron transport chain and immune response pathways that may contribute to different levels of heat tolerance and disease resistance in taurine and indicine breeds. At the post-transcriptional level, sequencing mRNA allowed us to identify a number of genes undergoing differential alternative splicing among different breeds. This study provided a high-resolution survey of the variation between bovine transcriptomes at different levels and may provide important biological insights into the phenotypic differentiation among cattle breeds.

  15. Contributions to the Study of Sura de Stepa Cattle Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Maciuc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sura de Stepa breed, which is on the verge of extinction, has been included in a preservation programme for animal genetic resources (H.G. nr. 822/2008, being raised in a reduced nucleus at S.C.D.C.B. – Dancu, Iasi. Researches were carried out on a number of 30 Sura de Stepa cows, focused on: milk production indicators by successive lactations, genetic determinism at the studied characters and at main lacto-proteins systems, the improvement value of breeding. The quantity of milk per normal lactation at Sură de Stepă population from S.C.D.C.B. – Dancu Iasi, has an upward evolution from 1589.64 kg in the first lactation to 2535.43 kg in the fifth lactation which is also the maximum one. First lactation represents 62.69% from maximum lactation, a value which highlighting the tardiness of Sura de Stepa breed in terms of milk production. Heritability analysis of the studied indicators show medium values for the quantity of milk and fat respectively a hereditary influence greater than h2 = 0.71% for percentage of milk fat and h2 = 0.57% for kappa–casein (K-cz from milk. Lacto-proteins systems, beta-lacto globulin (-lg, betacasein (-cz, alpha-casein S1 (S1-cz, have a low to intermediate heritability (0.19 to 0.29%.

  16. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  17. Quantitative trait loci for milk production and functional traits in two Danish Cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V;

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP......), protein percentage (PP), clinical mastitis (CM), somatic cell score (SCS), maternal stillbirth, maternal calf size (MCS) and maternal calving difficulty. For Red breed, nine grandsire families were genotyped for 166 markers on 18 BTAs. Six traits analysed were MY, FP, PP, CM, SCS and female fertility...

  18. Identification and Valuation of Public Goods within the Vertical of Cattle Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malý

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies and discusses the production of public goods in the vertical of cattle breeding. The cattle breeding vertical was divided into four basic levels – producer, processor, retailer, and consumer and main public goods were determined and discussed. Moreover, it provides the methods for the valuation of public goods. The method is applied in the estimation of manure shadow price. Using the fitted multiple output distance function with two market and one non-market output and applying the Lagrange method and the Shephard’s dual lemma the shadow price of manure was calculated. The results show that the shadow prices differ significantly among the groups of farmers. This especially holds for the classification of groups according to the size and technology of production.

  19. How Climate Factors Influenced the Spatial Allocation of and Returns to Texas Cattle Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    YUQUAN W. ZHANG; Hagerman, Amy D.; McCarl, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate binary choice model is used to examine the climate effects on cattle breed selection across Texas counties. Angus, Brangus, and Brahman are considered in the model. Results suggest that it is more efficient to estimate the binary choice equations jointly than separately. Counties having higher summer temperatures are more likely to choose Brahman and warmer winters increase the likelihood of adopting Brangus and Brahman. Angus price imposes positive effects on both Angus and Br...

  20. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  1. Breeding without Mendelism: theory and practice of dairy cattle breeding in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, L.T.G.

    2008-01-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s, Dutch scientists became increasingly critical of the practices of commercial dairy cattle breeders. Milk yields had hardly increased for decades, and the scientists believed this to be due to the fact that breeders still judged the hereditary potential of their animals on the

  2. Preliminary study on MC1R polymorphism in some cattle breeds raised in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........

  3. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

  4. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  5. Bootstrap study of genome-enabled prediction reliabilities using haplotype blocks across Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyabano, B C D; Su, G; Rosa, G J M; Lund, M S; Gianola, D

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the accuracy of genome-enabled prediction models using individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype blocks as covariates when using either a single breed or a combined population of Nordic Red cattle. The main objective was to compare predictions of breeding values of complex traits using a combined training population with haplotype blocks, with predictions using a single breed as training population and individual SNP as predictors. To compare the prediction reliabilities, bootstrap samples were taken from the test data set. With the bootstrapped samples of prediction reliabilities, we built and graphed confidence ellipses to allow comparisons. Finally, measures of statistical distances were used to calculate the gain in predictive ability. Our analyses are innovative in the context of assessment of predictive models, allowing a better understanding of prediction reliabilities and providing a statistical basis to effectively calibrate whether one prediction scenario is indeed more accurate than another. An ANOVA indicated that use of haplotype blocks produced significant gains mainly when Bayesian mixture models were used but not when Bayesian BLUP was fitted to the data. Furthermore, when haplotype blocks were used to train prediction models in a combined Nordic Red cattle population, we obtained up to a statistically significant 5.5% average gain in prediction accuracy, over predictions using individual SNP and training the model with a single breed. PMID:26233439

  6. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P breed, the MUFA proportion was always the greatest (47.58%; P

  7. Intramuscular fat and fatty acid composition of longissimus muscle from divergent pure breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, T T N; Blanton, J R; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F; Thompson, L D

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular fat from the LM of 3 divergent breeds of cattle: Angus (AN, n = 9), Brahman (BR, n = 7), and Romosinuano (RM, n = 11). Cattle were blocked by breed and finished 129 d before slaughter in one year and 157 d in the next year. Longissimus muscle samples were collected from each carcass between the 10th and 13th ribs, trimmed of external fat, frozen in liquid nitrogen, homogenized, and used for fat extraction, using a modified Folch procedure. Extracted fat was analyzed for FA by using a GLC system with an HP-88 capillary column. Fatty acid composition was expressed using both a normalized percentage (%) and gravimetric calculation (mg/g of fresh muscle tissue) in relation to degree of saturation, which was determined using a saturation index (ratio of total SFA to total unsaturated FA). Crude fat determination revealed that LM from AN purebred cattle had the greatest amount of intramuscular fat (7.08%; P = 0.001). Although intramuscular fat of LM from RM contained a reduced percentage of total SFA (P = 0.002) compared with AN, it had the greatest percentage of total PUFA (P < 0.001 and P = 0.020). The percentages of total MUFA were similar among the 3 breeds (P = 0.675). The gravimetric calculation, a measure of actual FA concentration, showed significantly greater concentrations of SFA (26.67 mg/g), MUFA (26.50 mg/g), and PUFA (2.37 mg/g) in LM from AN cattle, as compared with LM from BR and RM cattle (P < 0.001). Interestingly, BR purebreds had the least PUFA concentration (1.49 mg/g; P breed, the MUFA proportion was always the greatest (47.58%; P

  8. Digesta kinetics, energy intake, grazing behavior, and body temperature of grazing beef cattle differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Ellist, W C; Stuth, J W; Forbes, T D; Greene, L W

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether digesta kinetics, energy intake (EI, kcal ME intake x kg(-.75) x d(-1)), grazing behavior, or body temperature differed by breed, lactational state, or season of the year among cattle presumed to vary in adaptability to the subtropics. Two-year-old lactating and nonlactating Brahman x Angus (BA; n = 5, n = 5), Tuli x Angus (TA; n = 5, n = 4), and Angus (A; n = 4, n = 4) cows were used. During both early (ES) and late summer (LS), lactating cattle vs nonlactating cattle had greater gastrointestinal tract load (CM2) and EI (P .48). During LS, lactating cattle had decreased early morning rectal temperatures (P .26) late afternoon rectal temperatures compared with BA and TA. With data pooled over both grazing trials, BA cattle had the smallest CM2 (P .28) early morning rectal temperatures compared with BA during ES and LS. During LS, TA spent more time in the sun and less time in the shade than did either A or BA (P .50). During LS, EI for lactating A was greater than for BA and TA (P x Angus cattle appear to be comparable to BA with respect to heat adaptation. It appears that EI demands are greater in a hot environment. PMID:10875645

  9. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

  10. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  11. Genetic diversity and divergence among Spanish beef cattle breeds assessed by a bovine high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas-Álvarez, J J; González-Rodríguez, A; Munilla, S; Varona, L; Díaz, C; Baro, J A; Altarriba, J; Molina, A; Piedrafita, J

    2015-11-01

    The availability of SNP chips for massive genotyping has proven to be useful to genetically characterize populations of domestic cattle and to assess their degree of divergence. In this study, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip genotyping array was used to describe the genetic variability and divergence among 7 important autochthonous Spanish beef cattle breeds. The within-breed genetic diversity, measured as the marker expected heterozygosity, was around 0.30, similar to other European cattle breeds. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 94.22% of the total variance was explained by differences within individuals whereas only 4.46% was the result of differences among populations. The degree of genetic differentiation was small to moderate as the pairwise fixation index of genetic differentiation among breeds (F) estimates ranged from 0.026 to 0.068 and the Nei's D genetic distances ranged from 0.009 to 0.016. A neighbor joining (N-J) phylogenetic tree showed 2 main groups of breeds: Pirenaica, Bruna dels Pirineus, and Rubia Gallega on the one hand and Avileña-Negra Ibérica, Morucha, and Retinta on the other. In turn, Asturiana de los Valles occupied an independent and intermediate position. A principal component analysis (PCA) applied to a distance matrix based on marker identity by state, in which the first 2 axes explained up to 17.3% of the variance, showed a grouping of animals that was similar to the one observed in the N-J tree. Finally, a cluster analysis for ancestries allowed assigning all the individuals to the breed they belong to, although it revealed some degree of admixture among breeds. Our results indicate large within-breed diversity and a low degree of divergence among the autochthonous Spanish beef cattle breeds studied. Both N-J and PCA groupings fit quite well to the ancestral trunks from which the Spanish beef cattle breeds were supposed to derive.

  12. Breeding History and Current in Inner Improvements of Sanhe Cattle Mongolia%内蒙古三河牛培育历程及进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏军; 马孝林; 刘爱荣; 刘友山; 赵建虎; 王东升; 刘化柱; 柴河; 窦同喜; 袁鹏; 周磊; 李海峰; 姜立新; 赵建; 吴青青; 乌恩旗; 崔久辉

    2012-01-01

    内蒙古三河牛是我国自主培育的乳肉兼用型品种,它是呼伦贝尔各族人民一百多年来辛勤劳动的结晶。从1986年育成以来,三河牛以核心家系选育的方式延续严格的保种制度,在呼伦贝尔草原严酷环境中保持良好的生产性能和繁殖力。虽然在近20年不断受到荷斯坦牛等高产品种的挑战,但对当地气候的高度适应性和良好的兼用性让三河牛始终立于不败之地。"十一五"以来,三河牛选育进一步得到国家重视,在原有品种登记和性能测定系统的基础上,修定并发布了新的三河牛品种国家标准,建立了三河牛育种信息数据库,引入奶牛DHI测定体系,强调兼用性的育种目标,吸收国外兼用型品种高水平遗传种质,采用开放式核心群育种体系,不断取得各方面进展。现简述三河牛培育历程,并总结目前的各项进展,与业界同仁分享。%Sanhe Cattle in Inner Mongolia is a local dual purpose breed formed and approved in China with more than 100 years developing history in Hulunbuir pasture. Sanhe cattle is famous for its durabili ty, disease resistance, high quality in both milk and meat production, and suitability for grazing. Since it was approved as a breed in 1986, this breed was preserved adopting selection within family lines in the nu cleolus herd, both its performance and reproduction efficiency was preserved under the harsh condition in Hulunbuir pasture. Although Sanhe cattle was challenged by high yield breeds during the past 20 years, such as Holstein, it remained as a major breed because it was highly adapted for the local environment and had excellent performance in meat and milk production. Since the beginning of the llth five-year plan, state government paid more attention to the genetic improvement of Sanhe from the basis of existing sys- tem for breed registration and performance testing. National standard for Sanhe cattle breed was revised and re

  13. Accuracy of genomic breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnabosco, C U; Lopes, F B; Fragoso, R C; Eifert, E C; Valente, B D; Rosa, G J M; Sainz, R D

    2016-07-01

    Zebu () cattle, mostly of the Nellore breed, comprise more than 80% of the beef cattle in Brazil, given their tolerance of the tropical climate and high resistance to ectoparasites. Despite their advantages for production in tropical environments, zebu cattle tend to produce tougher meat than Bos taurus breeds. Traditional genetic selection to improve meat tenderness is constrained by the difficulty and cost of phenotypic evaluation for meat quality. Therefore, genomic selection may be the best strategy to improve meat quality traits. This study was performed to compare the accuracies of different Bayesian regression models in predicting molecular breeding values for meat tenderness in Polled Nellore cattle. The data set was composed of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus muscle from 205, 141, and 81 animals slaughtered in 2005, 2010, and 2012, respectively, which were selected and mated so as to create extreme segregation for WBSF. The animals were genotyped with either the Illumina BovineHD (HD; 777,000 from 90 samples) chip or the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP Indicus HD; 77,000 from 337 samples). The quality controls of SNP were Hard-Weinberg Proportion -value ≥ 0.1%, minor allele frequency > 1%, and call rate > 90%. The FImpute program was used for imputation from the GGP Indicus HD chip to the HD chip. The effect of each SNP was estimated using ridge regression, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), Bayes A, Bayes B, and Bayes Cπ methods. Different numbers of SNP were used, with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, or 100% of the markers preselected based on their significance test (-value from genomewide association studies [GWAS]) or randomly sampled. The prediction accuracy was assessed by the correlation between genomic breeding value and the observed WBSF phenotype, using a leave-one-out cross-validation methodology. The prediction accuracies using all markers were all very similar for all models, ranging from 0

  14. Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH and dopamine b-hydroxylase (DBH genes in cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Lelidett Lourenco-Jaramillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine b-hydroxylase (DBH coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds.

  15. Genetic diversity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) genes in cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Sifuentes-Rincón, Ana María; Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; de la Rosa-Reyna, Xochitl Fabiola; Segura-Cabrera, Aldo; Arellano-Vera, Williams

    2012-04-01

    DNA from four cattle breeds was used to re-sequence all of the exons and 56% of the introns of the bovine tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene and 97% and 13% of the bovine dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) coding and non-coding sequences, respectively. Two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a microsatellite motif were found in the TH sequences. The DBH sequences contained 62 nucleotide changes, including eight non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) that are of particular interest because they may alter protein function and therefore affect the phenotype. These DBH nsSNPs resulted in amino acid substitutions that were predicted to destabilize the protein structure. Six SNPs (one from TH and five from DBH non-synonymous SNPs) were genotyped in 140 animals; all of them were polymorphic and had a minor allele frequency of > 9%. There were significant differences in the intra- and inter-population haplotype distributions. The haplotype differences between Brahman cattle and the three B. t. taurus breeds (Charolais, Holstein and Lidia) were interesting from a behavioural point of view because of the differences in temperament between these breeds. PMID:22888292

  16. Selection criteria and breeding objectives in improvement of productivity of cattle and buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding objectives for improving the productivity of or conserving particular breeds or genetic groups of livestock depend upon many factors. Among these factors are the agro-climatic conditions of the area of inhabitation (including endemic diseases), agricultural and livestock systems in vogue, availability of feedstuffs - including crop by-products, herd size, marketing structure and locally available animal genetic resources, socio-cultural and economic level of the livestock owners, available infrastructure and facilities, desire and capabilities of farmers and the political and administrative will of the state to bring about change in animal productivity to improve the living standard of livestock farmers. The religious sentiments of some populations attached with animals, especially cows, shall also not be ignored in defining breeding objectives. In addition, breeding objectives must not only consider the present status of these factors, but also take into consideration the future needs for quantity and quality of animal products. As the generation intervals of livestock, particularly of cattle and buffaloes is quite long, the impact of breeding plans are not expected to be realized for several years, by which time the requirements may be different

  17. Characterization of Doayo and Kapsiki taurine cattle breeds of Cameroon in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebangi, A Lot; Achukwi, M D; Messine, O; Abba, D

    2011-08-01

    Data were collected on live weight (LW), heart girth (HG), height-at-withers (HW), trunk length (TL), age, sex, and coat color of 207 taurines cattle--122 of the Doayo (Namchi) breed and 85 of the Kapsiki (Kirdi) breed. The animals, aged 1 to 20 years, were selected from 60 herds randomly selected from villages of Poli of Faro and Mokolo of Tsanga, divisions of the North and Far North Regions of Cameroon. The data were analyzed using the SAS program with a linear model, applying standard tests. Results indicated no breed effect (P > 0.05) in the growth trends of LW, HG, HW, and TL. HG and TL were highly significantly (P 0.05) significantly. The breeds attained maturity as from 4 years. In the absence of breed effect (P > 0.05), a single regression equation was established for the estimation of live weight as thus LW = -244.42 (±22.57) kg + 2.49 (±0.23) HG + 1.04 (±0.25) TL, with HG contributing up to 70% of total variation and TL, 2%. This equation could be used to develop a measuring band useful in the rural environment for commercial and clinical veterinary purposes.

  18. Some preliminary observations on the susceptibility and resistance of different cattle breeds to Theileria parva infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Ndungu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Theileria parva-naïve Friesian (Bos taurus, Boran (Bos indicus and Maasai Zebu steers (B. indicus were infected with a T. parva sporozoite stabilate dose which had previously been shown to induce an estimated 50 % mortality rate in Boran cattle. All the cattle developed patent infections with no significant differences in the length of the prepatent period to development of macroschizonts (P > 0.05 between the three groups. Clinical theileriosis occurred in all eight the Friesians (100 %, five out of nine Borans (55.6 % and two out of five Zebus (40 %. Three of the Friesians (37.5 %, and two of the Borans (22.2 % died of theileriosis. The different cattle types were equally susceptible to the infective dose used as indicated by the length of the prepatent periods, but there was a marked difference in their development of clinical theileriosis. The gradation in resistance to disease confirms the findings of earlier less critical studies and identifies these cattle breeds as suitable for investigations into the mechanisms of resistance to theileriosis.

  19. Recent and historical recombination in the admixed Norwegian Red cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grove Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparison of recent patterns of recombination derived from linkage maps to historical patterns of recombination from linkage disequilibrium (LD could help identify genomic regions affected by strong artificial selection, appearing as reduced recent recombination. Norwegian Red cattle (NRF make an interesting case study for investigating these patterns as it is an admixed breed with an extensively recorded pedigree. NRF have been under strong artificial selection for traits such as milk and meat production, fertility and health. While measures of LD is also crucial for determining the number of markers required for association mapping studies, estimates of recombination rate can be used to assess quality of genomic assemblies. Results A dataset containing more than 17,000 genome-wide distributed SNPs and 2600 animals was used to assess recombination rates and LD in NRF. Although low LD measured by r2 was observed in NRF relative to some of the breeds from which this breed originates, reports from breeds other than those assessed in this study have described more rapid decline in r2 at short distances than what was found in NRF. Rate of decline in r2 for NRF suggested that to obtain an expected r2 between markers and a causal polymorphism of at least 0.5 for genome-wide association studies, approximately one SNP every 15 kb or a total of 200,000 SNPs would be required. For well known quantitative trait loci (QTLs for milk production traits on Bos Taurus chromosomes 1, 6 and 20, map length based on historic recombination was greater than map length based on recent recombination in NRF. Further, positions for 130 previously unpositioned contigs from assembly of the bovine genome sequence (Btau_4.0 found using comparative sequence analysis were validated by linkage analysis, and 28% of these positions corresponded to extreme values of population recombination rate. Conclusion While LD is reduced in NRF compared to some of the

  20. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bongiorni

    Full Text Available Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  1. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  2. Genetic diversity of native Turkish cattle breeds: Mantel, AMOVA and bottleneck analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Özşensoy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate potential extinction risk of Turkish native cattle breeds using Mantel and AMOVA tests and Bottleneck analysis. A total of 271 DNA samples were isolated from Anatolian Black, Anatolian Grey, South Anatolian Red, Native Southern Anatolian Yellow, East Anatolian Red, and Zavot cattle. In this study, genotypes of 20 microsatellites were determined by capillary electrophoresis and fragment analysis. A total of 269 different alleles were detected. The maximum and minimum numbers of total alleles were observed in TGLA122 (n=26 and INRA005 (n=7 loci, respectively. The highest average observed and expected heterozygosity values were determined as 0.619–0.852 and 0.669–0.877, respectively. The average FIS value was 0.068. Results of AMOVA and Mantel tests illustrated statistically significant differences in populations (p<0.001 and correlation (p<0.01. Bottleneck analysis revealed a normal distribution of L–shaped curve indicating that there was no recent risk of extinction for these breeds.

  3. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; Segura-Correa, José C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  4. Association analysis for feet and legs disorders with whole-genome sequence variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Identification of genetic variants associated with feet and legs disorders (FLD) will aid in the genetic improvement of these traits by providing knowledge on genes that influence trait variations. In Denmark, FLD in cattle has been recorded since the 1990s. In this report, we used deregressed breeding values as response variables for a genome-wide association study. Bulls (5,334 Danish Holstein, 4,237 Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and 1,180 Danish Jersey) with deregressed estimated breeding values were genotyped with the Illumina Bovine 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. Genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequence variants, and then 22,751,039 SNP on 29 autosomes were used for an association analysis. A modified linear mixed-model approach (efficient mixed-model association eXpedited, EMMAX) and a linear mixed model were used for association analysis. We identified 5 (3,854 SNP), 3 (13,642 SNP), and 0 quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions associated with the FLD index in Danish Holstein, Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, and Danish Jersey populations, respectively. We did not identify any QTL that were common among the 3 breeds. In a meta-analysis of the 3 breeds, 4 QTL regions were significant, but no additional QTL region was identified compared with within-breed analyses. Comparison between top SNP locations within these QTL regions and known genes suggested that RASGRP1, LCORL, MOS, and MITF may be candidate genes for FLD in dairy cattle. PMID:27344389

  5. Breed diversification in south western Uganda: characterisation of a new cattle farming system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to increasing land pressure due to rapidly growing population, growing demand for livestock products in urban centres and new land policies which encourage individual land ownership in Uganda, pastoralists rearing the long horned Ankole cattle in south western Uganda have now become sedentary and less dependent on communal grazing systems. Crossbreeding of Ankole cattle with the Holstein Friesian for increased milk production is taking place at a very fast rate. A new production system in which pure bred Ankole and crosses of Ankole with Holstein Friesian are reared in separate herds on one farm has now emerged in the area. As part of a programme evaluating the ecological and economic sustainability of breeding in pastoral systems, a survey of sixteen farmers selected from three sub-counties in Kiruhura District in south west Uganda was undertaken. Two sets of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the farmers. Set one was administered at the beginning of the study in April 2007, while set two was administered on a monthly basis for a period of 12 months. In addition, production data from the animals was collected monthly. Results show that crossbreeding is taking place with no defined programme, farmers still have an attachment to the Ankole cattle and that the most important challenges to the production system are insufficient pasture during the dry season and livestock diseases. The crossbreeds produce significantly more milk than the Ankole and have higher live weights. There is need to formulate appropriate breeding programmes for the farmers and to develop guidelines for suitable stocking densities. (author)

  6. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-09-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals to achieve the highest production period. Moreover, longevity is an indirect indicator of animal welfare. Using whole-genome sequencing variants in 3 dairy cattle breeds, we carried out an association study and identified 7 genomic regions in Holstein and 5 regions in Red Dairy Cattle that were associated with longevity. Meta-analyses of 3 breeds revealed 2 significant genomic regions, located on chromosomes 6 (META-CHR6-88MB) and 18 (META-CHR18-58MB). META-CHR6-88MB overlaps with 2 known genes: neuropeptide G-protein coupled receptor (NPFFR2; 89,052,210-89,059,348 bp) and vitamin D-binding protein precursor (GC; 88,695,940-88,739,180 bp). The NPFFR2 gene was previously identified as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. META-CHR18-58MB overlaps with zinc finger protein 717 (ZNF717; 58,130,465-58,141,877 bp) and zinc finger protein 613 (ZNF613; 58,115,782-58,117,110 bp), which have been associated with calving difficulties. Information on longevity-associated genomic regions could be used to find causal genes/variants influencing longevity and exploited to improve the reliability of genomic prediction. PMID:27289149

  7. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel. III. Puberty in bulls and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, T S; Long, C R; Cartwright, T C

    1980-05-01

    Pubertal characters of bulls and heifers produced in a diallel mating of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey cattle were analyzed. Ninety-one heifers and 138 bulls in individual pens adn 286 bulls in drylots were fed a 72% TDN diet ad libitum; another 384 heifers were placed on pasture with supplemental feed. Puberty in heifers was defined as time of first ovulatory estrus; in bulls, as first detection of sperm cells in an electroejaculate. Breed type least-squares means, adjusted for birth month, were estimated within sex-nutrition-management groups and then decomposed into breed effects, average heterosis (h), general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) by diallel analysis techniques. Breed effects were a significant source of variation for all characters studied. Heterosis (h, GCA, SCA) was not significant for pubertal age of bulls or heifers receiving complete diets in pens, a rather high nutritional plane. However, on pasture, crossbred heifers reached puberty at a younger age (P less than .05) than straightbreds. Average heterosis was significant (P less than .05) for increased weight and hip height at puberty and ratios involving these characters for both sexes. Specific combining abilities were not statistically significant for the majority of the pubertal characters, yet large differences among estimates of combining abilities were expressed. Ad libitum feeding of the penned heifers tended to decrease pubertal age and increase pubertal size as compared to pubertal age and size of pastured heifers. The breed type x management interactions within both sexes indicated a different ranking of the breed types for each management regimen. PMID:7390940

  8. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  9. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed.

  10. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. PMID:21214647

  11. Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  12. The genetic variability of the Podolica cattle breed from the Gargano area. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cianci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Podolica cattle breed is autochthonous of Southern Italy and denoted by its particular rusticity. This study presents the preliminary results of the genetic characterization of the Podolica breed using DNA STR markers. A total of 20 microsatellite loci were analysed in 79 individuals reared in the Gargano area. Number of polymorphisms, allele fre- quencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium between loci and genetic similarities between animals were calculated. The results showed a high deficiency of heterozygotes, the observed mean of het- erozygosis being 0.449, whereas the expected mean was 0.766. Many markers showed also deviations from the Hardy- Weinberg proportions and significant linkage disequilibrium between loci. However the genetic similarity within the pop- ulation was low (0.281 and the average number of alleles per locus was high (10, representing a high genetic vari- ability. In order to explain these results, a stratification of the breed in sub-populations with a high interior genetic homo- geneity but markedly differentiated one from each other could be hypothesized; this situation probably derived from non- random mating within each herd (consanguinity and from the lack of exchange of genetic material between the herds. A further study is needed on a wider sample and extending the analysis to FAO-ISAG microsatellite panel in order to con- firm this hypothesis. This could eventually provide the information necessary for the correct management of the repro- ductive schemes and for genomic traceability of meat production.

  13. The anterior tooth development of cattle presented for slaughter: an analysis of age, sex and breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, K J; Brown, S N; Browne, W J; Hadley, P J; Knowles, T G

    2013-08-01

    In a cross-sectional study, data from records of cattle slaughtered over a 1-year period at a large abattoir in South West England were analysed using an ordered category response model to investigate the inter-relationships between age, sex and breed on development of the permanent anterior (PA) teeth. Using the model, transition points at which there was a 50% probability of membership of each category of paired PA teeth were identified. Data from ∼60,000 animals were initially analysed for age and sex effect. The age transition was found to be ∼23 months moving from zero to two teeth; 30 months for two to four teeth; 37 months for four to six teeth and 42 months for six to eight teeth. Males were found to develop, on average, ∼22 days earlier than females across all stages. A reduced data set of ∼23,000 animals registered as pure-bred only was used to compare breed and type interactions and to investigate sex effects within the sub-categories. Breeds were grouped into dairy and beef-type and beef breeds split into native and continental. It was found that dairy-types moved through the transition points earlier than beef-types across all stages (interval varying between ∼8 and 12 weeks) and that collectively, native beef breeds moved through the transition points by up to 3 weeks earlier than the continental beef breeds. Interestingly, in contrast to beef animals, dairy females matured before dairy males. However, the magnitude of the difference between dairy females and males diminished at the later stages of development. Differences were found between breeds. Across the first three stages, Ayrshires and Guernseys developed between 3 and 6 weeks later than Friesian/Holsteins and Simmental, Limousin and Blonde Aquitaine 6 and 8 weeks later than Aberdeen Angus. Herefords, Charolais and South Devon developed later but by a smaller interval and Red Devon and Galloway showed the largest individual effect with transition delayed by 8 to 12 weeks.

  14. [A beautiful cow is a good cow. Dutch scientists and commercial breeders on cattle breeding, 1900-1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    In the agricultural journal De Nieuwe Veldbode of 1941 Dutch scientists, agricultural engineers, commercial cattle breeders and herd-book officials engaged in a prolonged debate about cattle breeding methods. Geneticist Arend Hagedoorn started the debate by accusing commercial breeders of deceiving their buyers. In his view, breeders were merely interested in producing beautiful show bulls that could be sold for high prices, and they ignored the animals' hereditary potential for milk production. Rational breeding, he argued, required progeny testing: only the production of his daughters should decide on a bull's merits. Commercial breeders denied the charge. They did indeed select for conformation, not however for aesthetic reasons, but to safeguard the health and durability of the breed. In their view, selecting for production was not feasible in practice and would, moreover, lead to the degeneration of the breed. In this article I explore the backgrounds of this debate by investigating the different views of scientists and practical breeders on theory and practice of cattle breeding in the first half of the century. I shall show that to understand the different viewpoints, the practical realities of dairy farming under Dutch circumstances, commercial considerations and normative ideas on good farming have to be taken into account. PMID:22586751

  15. Across-Family Marker-Assisted Selection Using Selective Genotyping Strategies in Dairy Cattle Breeding Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari-Mahyari, S; Sørensen, A C; Lund, M S;

    2008-01-01

    individuals for genotyping were identified among the potential breeding candidates (young bulls and bull-dams). Two strategies were used to identify the most informative animals. The first genotyping strategy was based on selecting individuals for genotyping with predicted total genetic effect [sum of the......This study investigated the potential loss expected from marker-assisted selection (MAS) when only a proportion of animals are genotyped using several selective genotyping strategies. A population resembling a commercial dairy cattle population over 25 yr was simulated, and the most informative...... predicted quantitative trait locus (QTL) and polygenic effects] close to the truncation point for selection. The second strategy used an index that extended the previous strategy to include the variance due to segregation of the QTL in the parents. The 2 strategies for selective genotyping were applied at...

  16. Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part II: relationship to fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Verità

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have pointed out that even under similar environmental conditions, fatty acid composition in milk from dairy cattle of different breeds may be not homogeneous (Beaulieu and Palmquist, 2000; Palmquist et al., 1993; Bitman et al., 1995. The higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Friesian milk, compared to that of Jerseys, may be related to the physical characteristics of fat globules (Timmen and Patton, 1988; Jensen et al., 1991; Scolozzi, 2002. Milk fat globules of heterogeneous dimensions have been described for many years (Walstra, 1969, but it is still uncertain whether a link exists between the morphometric characteristics of fat globules and their chemical composition (Polidori et al., 1995. In this study we proposed to investigate the relationship between milk fatty acid composition and the morphometric characteristics of fat globules.

  17. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  18. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  19. Accuracy of direct genomic breeding values for nationally evaluated traits in US Limousin and Simmental beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatchi Mahdi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In national evaluations, direct genomic breeding values can be considered as correlated traits to those for which phenotypes are available for traditional estimation of breeding values. For this purpose, estimates of the accuracy of direct genomic breeding values expressed as genetic correlations between traits and their respective direct genomic breeding values are required. Methods We derived direct genomic breeding values for 2239 registered Limousin and 2703 registered Simmental beef cattle genotyped with either the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip or the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip. For the 264 Simmental animals that were genotyped with the BovineHD BeadChip, genotypes for markers present on the BovineSNP50 BeadChip were extracted. Deregressed estimated breeding values were used as observations in weighted analyses that estimated marker effects to derive direct genomic breeding values for each breed. For each breed, genotyped individuals were clustered into five groups using K-means clustering, with the aim of increasing within-group and decreasing between-group pedigree relationships. Cross-validation was performed five times for each breed, using four groups for training and the fifth group for validation. For each trait, we then applied a weighted bivariate analysis of the direct genomic breeding values of genotyped animals from all five validation sets and their corresponding deregressed estimated breeding values to estimate variance and covariance components. Results After minimizing relationships between training and validation groups, estimated genetic correlations between each trait and its direct genomic breeding values ranged from 0.39 to 0.76 in Limousin and from 0.29 to 0.65 in Simmental. The efficiency of selection based on direct genomic breeding values relative to selection based on parent average information ranged from 0.68 to 1.28 in genotyped Limousin and from 0.51 to 1.44 in genotyped Simmental animals

  20. Estimates of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Brahman cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavani, L; Garcia, D A; Carreño, L O D; Ono, R K; Pires, M P; Farah, M M; Ventura, H T; Millen, D D; Fonseca, R

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to estimate genetic parameters for the following traits of Brahman cattle in Brazil: age at first calving (AFC), calving interval (CI), rebreeding (REB), and stayability (STAY). For REB, the value 1 was assigned to heifers that rebred and calved after first calving and the value 0 was assigned to heifers that failed to rebreed after first calving. Likewise, for STAY, the value 1 was assigned to cows that calved at least 3 times by the time they reach 6 yr of age; otherwise, the value 0 was assigned. A bivariate analysis was used to estimate covariances components by using linear animal model for CI and AFC and threshold animal model for REB and STAY. The mean h(2) were 0.10, 0.02, 0.22, and 0.10 for AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, respectively. The genetic correlations were –0.13 between AFC and CI, –0.35 between AFC and REB, –0.57 between AFC and STAY, and 0.32 between REB and STAY, which reveal that cows that remain productive for longer periods in the herd also start breeding younger and present greater chances to REB. The selection of Brahman cattle for reproductive traits, such as AFC, CI, REB, and STAY, will render low magnitude and long-term responses. PMID:26439997

  1. The genetics of adaptation of cattle to high altitude environment: The case of brisket disease in northwestern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High altitude or brisket disease of cattle is common at high altitude areas. It is characterized by right ventricular hypertrophy and edema of the chest and brisket, because of reduced blood oxygen saturation at high elevation. It is similar to altitude sickness in humans and frequently ends with the death of the affected animal unless transferred to lower altitude. The incidence and severity of the disease increase with altitude. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) is an indicator of proneness to the disease. High values (>50 mm HG) indicate high risk and low values (<35 mmHG) indicate resistance to the disease. Analyses of heritability of PAP, mostly performed on Angus cattle in the Rocky Mountains at altitudes of 2000-3800 m indicate a relatively high heritability, in the range of 0.30-0.50. This provides options for selection, which is performed routinely in the Rocky Mountains. The Semien Mountains are the highest mountain range of Ethiopia, peaking at the Ras Dashen (4620 m). Cattle are kept at altitudes of up to almost 4000 m. Along the western side of the mountain range, there is a rather continuous drop in altitude down to about 600 m, over a rather short distance (250 km). The cattle in the region are partly of different type (Zebu, Sanga) and partly a mixture (Zenga = Zebu x Sanga). The phenotypic differentiation in terms of body size along levels of altitude is strong. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence rate of high altitude disease and as well as to compare adaptive characteristics of indigenous cattle populations and their crosses with European types towards altitude, in particular, to high altitude disease. In January 2007, 218 animals situated within an altitude range of 1730 - 3500 m were tested for PAP by an experienced veterinarian from Colorado State University. Local breeds and crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey were measured. The results in Table I indicate that no sign of brisket disease is observed among the studied

  2. Genetic divergence in cellular resistance to heat shock in cattle: differences between breeds developed in temperate versus hot climates in responses of preimplantation embryos, reproductive tract tissues and lymphocytes to increased culture temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Lopes, F F; Chase, C C; Al-Katanani, Y M; Krininger, C E; Rivera, R M; Tekin, S; Majewski, A C; Ocon, O M; Olson, T A; Hansen, P J

    2003-02-01

    The detrimental effects of heat stress on fertility in cattle are less pronounced in heat-tolerant breeds. Although these genetic differences reflect differences in thermoregulation, cells from heat-tolerant breeds are less adversely compromised by increased temperature (that is, heat shock) than cells from heat-sensitive breeds. Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that cells and tissues from two thermotolerant breeds (Brahman and Senepol) are better able to survive and function after exposure to increased temperature than cells and tissues from two thermosensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus). Exposure of embryos at>eight-cell stage at day 5 after insemination to heat shock of 41.0 degrees C for 6 h decreased development to the blastocyst stage and the number of cells per embryo. However, the deleterious effect of heat shock on blastocyst formation and the number of cells per embryo was less pronounced for Brahman than for Holstein and Angus breeds. Embryos from Senepol cows had very low development and it was not possible to determine heat shock effects in this breed. In contrast to the sensitivity of embryos to heat shock, there was no effect of a 41.0 degrees C heat shock on [(3)H]leucine incorporation into proteins secreted by oviductal or endometrial explants. Lymphocytes from Brahman and Senepol cows were more resistant to heat-induced apoptosis than lymphocytes from other breeds. Heat shock reduced lymphocyte glutathione content but the magnitude of the decrease was not affected by breed. In conclusion, embryos from Brahman cows are more resistant to heat shock than embryos from Holstein or Angus cows. Genetic differences are also present in thermotolerance for apoptosis response in lymphocytes, with Brahman and Senepol cattle being more resistant to heat shock than Angus and Holstein breeds. It is likely that the evolutionary forces that led to the Brahman and Senepol breeds being adapted to hot climates resulted in the selection of genes

  3. EFFECT OF BREED AND SAMPLING PLACE ON THE MINERAL CONTENT OF CATTLE HAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Szigeti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mineral intake is important for high production level. Estimation of exact mineral intake is difficult in grazing and/or group housed animals like cattle. Accessing of long term mineral status seems to be possible using hair mineral analyses. However, several factors can affect the results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the effect of sampling location and breed on the mineral content of beef cows’ hair fed the same feeding regime. Ten Hungarian Simmental and ten Charolais cow were selected from the same farm. Coloured hair samples free of visible contamination were obtained from the withers, side and quarter of the cows. Hungarian Simmental samples were used to test the effect of sampling location. Since it did not show significant effect, Charolais samples were analysed as pooled. Samples were mineralized using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide using ultrasonic cleaning unit. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, copper, selenium and zinc content were determined by ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer, Optima 3300 DV. Statistical analyses were carried out by SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC GLM procedure. Significant breed differences were detected in the case of calcium, magnesium and copper. The measured values were above or around the normal ranges, suggesting that the mineral status of the herd was adequate. Sampling location of short hairs had no influence on the mineral profile.

  4. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    2012-01-01

    612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check.......39 and 0.87 percent to 1.75, 0.59 and 0.54 percent for respectively Danish, Swedish and Fi nnish Red when going from single national reference to a combined Red reference. The larger error rate in the Danish population was caused by a subgroup of 10 animals showing a large proportion of Holstein genetics...

  5. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø;

    612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check.......39 and 0.87 percent to 1.75, 0.59 and 0.54 percent for respectively Danish, Swedish and Fi nnish Red when going from single national reference to a combined Red reference. The larger error rate in the Danish population was caused by a subgroup of 10 animals showing a large proportion of Holstein genetics...

  6. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

  7. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle.

  8. Phenotypic characteristics and trypanosome prevalence of Mursi cattle breed in the Bodi and Mursi districts of South Omo Zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Endashaw; Haile, Aynalem; Mulatu, Wudyalew; Dessie, Tadelle; Mwai, Okeyo

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of Mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities. Cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. Blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the wet smeared buffy coat and to estimate the degree of anemia (PCV). Tsetse flies were collected using phenol-treated biconical trap and the caught flies identified to species level. The breed possesses variable coat color pattern, coat color type, and have small to medium hump size on the thoracic vertebrae. Body measurement of Mursi cattle in the two locations did not show significant differences except chest girth, rump width, and horn length. Trypanosome prevalence in the Mursi cattle breed was 6.1%. The highest trypanosome infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense (56%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax (40%) and Trypanosoma brucei (4%). Trypanosome prevalence significantly varies between dry (2.0%) and late rainy (10.1%) seasons (P cattle show the lowest PCV value (20.4 ± 1%) than aparasitaemic (23.7 ± 0.3%) cattle and cattle with lean BCS showed the lowest (P cattle shows medium BCS, low trypanosome prevalence, and higher PCV value.

  9. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  10. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  11. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simčič, Mojca; Smetko, Anamarija; Sölkner, Johann; Seichter, Doris; Gorjanc, Gregor; Kompan, Dragomir; Medugorac, Ivica

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which potentially have had

  12. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Simčič

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which

  13. Analysis of a polymorphism in the DGAT1 gene in 14 cattle breeds through PCR-SSCP methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoli, M V; Corva, P; Giovambattista, G

    2006-06-01

    The diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. Recent work have evidenced a significant association between lysine at amino acid position 232 with elevated milk fat content, while an alanine at this position is associated with lowered milk fat content. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple and inexpensive PCR-SSCP assay in order to discriminate the CG/AA alleles in exon 8 of the DGAT1 gene. In addition, this method was used to analyze the polymorphism of the DGAT1 through PCR-SSCP methods in 14 populations of cattle from Argentine, Bolivia and Uruguay. The PCR primers were designed from GenBank reported sequences. In this study, we found three PCR-SSCP variants, which were denominated from "A" to "C". However, DNA sequencing analysis showed that "A" variant corresponded with the A allele, while both "B" and "C" observed pattern have the motif AA at positions 10,433-10,434 (K allele), being two alternative conformations of the same DNA sequence. Both variants were detected within each breed with the exception of Hereford, and the heterozygosity varied between 0.000 and 0.524. The gene frequency analysis evidenced significant differences among the studied breeds (F(ST) = 0.325, p = 0.000). European Bos taurus breeds, with the exception of Jersey breed, showed the lowest frequency of the K allele, while highest K allele frequencies were harboured by Bos indicus type cattle. In addition, unselected South American Creole cattle breeds and the synthetic Brangus breed had intermediate allele frequencies. PMID:16464654

  14. Bionic self-sufficient greenhouses and cattle breeding. Agrosphere IV; Bionisch autarkische glastuinbouw en veeteelt. Agrosphere IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.H.H. [VERWOL Klimaatplafonds, Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Agrosphere-IV is a concept in which cattle breeding and greenhouse culture are combined in an artificial cycle which functions similar to the cycles on earth. In this article attention is paid to the combination of greenhouses for the production of paprikas (peppers) or tomatoes and breeding of pigs (porkers) [Dutch] Met de ontwikkeling van Agrosphere-IV is een vierde biosfeerconcept benoemd. Waar huidige agroconcepten nog uitgaan van samenvoeging van traditionele veeteelt- en glastuinbouwconcepten betreft het hier een directe koppeling van veeteelt en glastuinbouw. De koppeling heeft plaats via uitgekiende luchtstromen en hergebruik van de afvalstromen en vormt zo een bionisch autarkisch systeem.

  15. Estimation of breed and heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits in cattle using published crossbreeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Aguilar, I; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2010-02-01

    Current genetic evaluations are performed separately for each breed. Multiple breed genetic evaluations, however, assume a common base among breeds, enabling producers to compare cattle of different breed makeup. Breed and heterosis effects are needed in a multibreed evaluation because databases maintained by breed associations include few crossbred animals, which may not be enough to accurately estimate these effects. The objective of this study was to infer breed effects, maternal effects, direct heterosis effects, and maternal heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits using least squares means estimates from crossbreeding studies published in the literature from 1976 to 1996. The data set was formed by recording each least squares mean along with the breed composition, maternal breed composition, and direct and maternal heterozygosity. Each trait was analyzed using a single trait fixed effect model, which included study as a fixed effect and breed composition and heterozygosity as covariates. Breed solutions for each trait were expressed relative to the Angus breed. Direct breed effects for weaning weight ranged from -7.0 +/- 0.67 kg (British Dairy) to 29.3 +/- 0.74 kg (Simmental), and maternal effects ranged from -11.7 +/- 0.24 kg (Hereford) to 31.1 +/- 2.22 kg (Gelbvieh). Direct breed effects for birth weight ranged from -0.5 +/- 0.14 kg (British Dairy) to 10.1 +/- 0.46 kg (Continental Beef), and maternal effects ranged from -7.2 +/- 0.13 kg (Brahman) to 6.0 +/- 1.07 kg (Continental Beef). Direct breed effects ranged from -17.9 +/- 1.64 kg (Brahman) to 21.6 +/- 1.95 kg (Charolais), from -6.5 +/- 1.29 kg (Brahman) to 55.8 +/- 1.47 kg (Continental Beef), from -8.1 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Shorthorn) to 21.0 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Continental Beef), and from -1.1 +/- 0.02 cm (Continental Beef) to 0 +/- 0.00 cm (Angus) for postweaning BW gain, carcass weight, LM area, and fat thickness, respectively. The use of literature estimates to predict direct and maternal breed and

  16. Estimation of breed and heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits in cattle using published crossbreeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Aguilar, I; Rekaya, R; Bertrand, J K

    2010-02-01

    Current genetic evaluations are performed separately for each breed. Multiple breed genetic evaluations, however, assume a common base among breeds, enabling producers to compare cattle of different breed makeup. Breed and heterosis effects are needed in a multibreed evaluation because databases maintained by breed associations include few crossbred animals, which may not be enough to accurately estimate these effects. The objective of this study was to infer breed effects, maternal effects, direct heterosis effects, and maternal heterosis effects for growth and carcass traits using least squares means estimates from crossbreeding studies published in the literature from 1976 to 1996. The data set was formed by recording each least squares mean along with the breed composition, maternal breed composition, and direct and maternal heterozygosity. Each trait was analyzed using a single trait fixed effect model, which included study as a fixed effect and breed composition and heterozygosity as covariates. Breed solutions for each trait were expressed relative to the Angus breed. Direct breed effects for weaning weight ranged from -7.0 +/- 0.67 kg (British Dairy) to 29.3 +/- 0.74 kg (Simmental), and maternal effects ranged from -11.7 +/- 0.24 kg (Hereford) to 31.1 +/- 2.22 kg (Gelbvieh). Direct breed effects for birth weight ranged from -0.5 +/- 0.14 kg (British Dairy) to 10.1 +/- 0.46 kg (Continental Beef), and maternal effects ranged from -7.2 +/- 0.13 kg (Brahman) to 6.0 +/- 1.07 kg (Continental Beef). Direct breed effects ranged from -17.9 +/- 1.64 kg (Brahman) to 21.6 +/- 1.95 kg (Charolais), from -6.5 +/- 1.29 kg (Brahman) to 55.8 +/- 1.47 kg (Continental Beef), from -8.1 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Shorthorn) to 21.0 +/- 0.48 cm(2) (Continental Beef), and from -1.1 +/- 0.02 cm (Continental Beef) to 0 +/- 0.00 cm (Angus) for postweaning BW gain, carcass weight, LM area, and fat thickness, respectively. The use of literature estimates to predict direct and maternal breed and

  17. AN APPROACH TO FARMING AND CATTLE BREEDING PRACTICES EMERGED IN THE TYNDALL COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW BACK TO THE PAST

    OpenAIRE

    Idris Omarovich Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of histo...

  18. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Heather J; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W; Olson, Timothy A; McClure, Matthew C; Chase, Chad C; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M P; Van Tassell, Curt P; Garcia, José F; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7-38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus.

  19. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Jay Huson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The slick hair coat (SLICK is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (Chr 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA, haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity, and identity by state (IBS calculations were used to identify a 0.8Mb (37.7-38.5Mb consensus region for the SLICK locus on Chr 20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principle component analysis and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus.

  20. Description and comparison of growth parameters in Chianina and Nelore cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrijo Sônia Mara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight data from birth to 18 months of age of Nelore and Chianina, both meat-producing cattle breeds, were analyzed. Data were corrected for significant effects of environment and utilized to estimate genetic parameters through the non-linear von Bertalanffy model. Average values found for growth parameters in Nelore were: mature weight (A, 312.87 kg; integration constant (B, 0.49; maturity rate (k, 0.13; age at inflection point (T(I, 3.29 months; weight at inflection point (P(I, 92.70 kg, and maturity interval (1/k, 8.04 months. For the Chianina animals, the values were 751.38 kg, 0.59, 0.10, 6.64 months, 222.63 kg, and 10.98 months, respectively. Nelore animals exhibited higher maturity rate, smaller maturity intervals, reaching mature weights younger than Chianina animals, although lighter than these at maturity. Heritability estimates presented low values, mainly for mature weight (0.093 and 0.212, age at inflection point (0.062 and 0.202, weight at inflection point (0.093 and 0.212 and maturity interval (0.057 and 0.309 (for Nelore and Chianina, respectively. The parameters mature weight and weight at inflection point presented positive genetic correlations with weights at different ages and with similar trends, increasing as age increased, in both breeds. Considering the development period analyzed, from birth to 18 months of age, the parameter maturity rate and the weights at different ages showed genetic correlations which increased until the weight at 150 and 205 days in Nelore and Chianina, respectively, and decreased from these ages on, and the genetic correlations among the parameter maturity interval and the weights at different ages were negative. They decreased until the weights at 150 and 205 days, respectively, in Nelore and Chianina, and increased from these ages on.

  1. THE BREEDING OF VARIOUS PERFORMANCE TYPES OF CATTLE IN IDENTICAL TECHNOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A JEŽKOVÁ

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The work assess the effect of the quality of rearing on milk production of a herd of Holstein (H and Czech Pied (C cattle. An evaluation was made of the impact of selected factors (breed, lactation sequence, age at first mating, live weight at the ages of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months on indices of milk production and reproduction (quantity of milk and contents of the milk components, age at first calving, length of calving interval, insemination index. We measured 8 bodily dimensions to characterize the growth of calves-heifers (height at withers, height at sacrum, direct body length, chest circumference, length of pelvis, front, middle and rear width of the pelvis. The results were evaluated statistically using a linear model in SAS software, with a correlation analysis for evaluating dependencies between the individual bodily measures. The work included monitoring the behaviour of dairy Holstein and Czech Pied cows. In the course of ethological monitoring the dairy cows were found to behave calmly, without manifestations of aggressiveness while maintaining stereotypical behaviour. The chosen technology of housing and treating the dairy cows of both performance types (open cubicle-type stable can be considered appropriate based on ethological observations.

  2. Association of GH and IGF-1 polymorphisms with growth traits in a synthetic beef cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pozzi Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim beef cattle (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu has been selected for meat production in Brazil since late 1950. In the present work the effects of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 polymorphisms were investigated in 688 animals born between 1998 and 2000. These animals belonged to two genetic groups, i.e., traditional and new lineages. Genotype effects on expected breeding values for birth weight (BW, weaning weight (WW and yearling weight (YW were investigated by the least square method. Significant effects were found for GH genotype on YW (p < 0.05, with positive effects associated with the LV (leucine/valine genotype. For IGF-1 genotypes, significant effects were found on BW (p < 0.01 and YW (p < 0.01. Average substitution effects for IGF-1 alleles estimated by regression analysis suggested a positive effect of the IGF-1 225 bp allele on BW and of the 229 bp allele on YW.

  3. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  4. Pheomelanin coat colour dilution in French cattle breeds is not correlated with the TYR, TYRP1 and DCT transcription levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Sylvain; Girardot, Michael; Leveziel, Hubert; Julien, Raymond; Oulmouden, Ahmad

    2004-08-01

    In this study we report the isolation of full-length cDNAs and the expression patterns of TYR, TYRP1 and DCT in four e/e cattle breeds exhibiting different pheomelanic coat colours ranging from reddish brown to creamy white phenotypes. Predicted proteins encoded by bovine TYR, TYRP1 and DCT display high levels of homology and contain all characteristic domains shared between their mouse and human counterparts. The full expression of these three genes is observed in melanocytes of black areas of E(D)/E(D) Prim'Holstein's animals. On the other hand, e/e melanocytes of animals belonging to the Blonde d'Aquitaine (blond), Limousine (red) and Salers (reddish brown) breeds present different levels of down-regulated TYR and DCT expression and a complete repression of TYRP1. Surprisingly, e/e melanocytes of animals belonging to the Charolais breed (creamy white) present an inverse relationship between TYR, TYRP1 and DCT expression and its lower melanogenic activity. The sum of these results shows that the dilution of the coat colour in French cattle breeds is not correlated with a transcription level of TYR family genes. Other possible modifier loci are suggested.

  5. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  6. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are

  7. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eGutiérrez-Gil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1,049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds and 6 dual-purpose breeds, and four different beef-vs-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57% of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs, 134 CSSs (33% were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-four-breed CSSs and 39 CSSs (9% were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs. For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5,183 BioMart-extracted genes linked to dairy and meat production, stature and coat colour traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behaviour, immune response and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as divergence signals, which may be useful in characterising and protecting livestock genetic diversity.

  8. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592099

  9. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledike, E T; Wittum, T E; Jenkins, T G

    1995-07-01

    The objective was to determine the association between breed, intake, and carcass composition and the status of liver Cu, Zn, and Fe, and serum Cu, Zn, Ca, and Mg of 118 mature cows representing nine breeds of cattle. Breeds used were Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental. The cows were fed one of four levels of DMI: 58, 76, 93, and 111 g of DMI.wt-75.d-1. A ground alfalfa, corn, and corn silage diet was fed for up to 5 yr. There was no relationship between liver and serum concentrations of Cu, a negative correlation (P < .05) existed between liver and serum concentrations of Zn and a positive correlation (P < .01) existed between liver concentrations of Cu and Zn. Concentrations of serum Ca were positively correlated (Cu and Zn, P < .01; Mg, P < .05) with serum concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mg, but negatively correlated (P < .01) with liver Fe. Liver Cu was higher (P < .05) for the Limousin breed than all others, except Angus. Liver Zn concentrations were higher (P < .05) for Limousin than for Pinzgauer, but no other breed differences were observed. Liver Cu concentration was not affected by daily intake, but liver Zn concentration increased (P < .05) with increased daily intake. Liver Fe concentration decreased (P < .01) in a curvilinear manner with increased daily intake. No breed differences in serum concentrations of Cu or Zn were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised.

  11. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    with those with only 50%. Heterosis was numerically greater for most traits for An × Br (11 to 64%) compared with An × Ro and Br × Ro (3 to 42%), which were similar. In a subset of the steers (n = 261), G:F was not influenced by level of tropical breeding, but tropically adapted steers were more efficient (P < 0.05) by residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised. PMID:22247114

  12. Genomic inbreeding estimation in small populations: evaluation of runs of homozygosity in three local dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, S; Tolone, M; Di Gerlando, R; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2016-05-01

    In the local breeds with small population size, one of the most important problems is the increase of inbreeding coefficient (F). High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays has facilitated the quantification of F by genomic markers in farm animals. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes and represent an estimate of the degree of autozygosity at genome-wide level. The current study aims to quantify the genomic F derived from ROH (F ROH) in three local dairy cattle breeds. F ROH values were compared with F estimated from the genomic relationship matrix (F GRM), based on the difference between observed v. expected number of homozygous genotypes (F HOM) and the genomic homozygosity of individual i (F MOL i ). The molecular coancestry coefficient (f MOL ij ) between individuals i and j was also estimated. Individuals of Cinisara (71), Modicana (72) and Reggiana (168) were genotyped with the 50K v2 Illumina BeadChip. Genotypes from 96 animals of Italian Holstein cattle breed were also included in the analysis. We used a definition of ROH as tracts of homozygous genotypes that were >4 Mb. Among breeds, 3661 ROH were identified. Modicana showed the highest mean number of ROH per individual and the highest value of F ROH, whereas Reggiana showed the lowest ones. Differences among breeds existed for the ROH lengths. The individuals of Italian Holstein showed high number of short ROH segments, related to ancient consanguinity. Similar results showed the Reggiana with some extreme animals with segments covering 400 Mb and more of genome. Modicana and Cinisara showed similar results between them with the total length of ROH characterized by the presence of large segments. High correlation was found between F HOM and F ROH ranged from 0.83 in Reggiana to 0.95 in Cinisara and Modicana. The correlations among F ROH and other

  13. Adaptive breeding habitat selection: Is it for the birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    The question of why animals choose particular habitats has important implications for understanding behavioral evolution and distribution of organisms in the wild and for delineating between habitats of different quality for conservation and management. Habitats chosen by animals can influence fitness outcomes via the costs (e.g., predation risk) and benefits (e.g., food availability) of habitat use. Habitat preferences should therefore be under selection to favor those that confer fitness advantages (Clark and Shutler 1999). Indeed, prevailing theory suggests that the habitat preferences of animals should be adaptive, such that fitness is higher in preferred habitats (Hildén 1965, Southwood 1977, Martin 1998). However, studies have often identified apparent mismatches between observed habitat preferences and fitness outcomes across a wide variety of taxa (Valladares and Lawton 1991, Mayhew 1997, Kolbe and Janzen 2002, Arlt and Pärt 2007, Mägi et al. 2009). Certainly, one limitation of studies may be that assessment of “fitness” is typically constrained to fitness surrogates such as nest success rather than lifetime reproductive success or classic Fisherian fitness (Endler 1986). Nevertheless, important habitat choices such as nest sites influence the probability that temporarily sedentary, dependent young are discovered by enemies such as predators and parasites. We therefore expect, on average, to see congruence between evolved habitat preferences and relevant components of fitness (e.g., nest success). Here, we (1) review the prevalence of apparent mismatches between avian breeding-habitat preferences and fitness outcomes using nest-site selection as a focus; (2) describe several potential mechanisms for such mismatches, including anthropogenic, methodological, and ecological–evolutionary; and (3) suggest a framework for understanding the contexts in which habitat preferences represent adaptive decisions, with a primary focus on ecological information

  14. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  15. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for growth traits in both sexes of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-08-01

    Heterosis effects for birth weight, ADG from birth to weaning, 200-d weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, 368-d weight, 368-d height, 368-d condition score, and 368-d muscling score (males only) were evaluated separately for each sex in F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations in three composite beef cattle populations. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (i.e., Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated. The large differences among breeds for growth and size traits in combined additive direct and additive maternal genetic effects (Gi + Gm) provide an opportunity to use genetic differences among breeds to achieve and maintain optimum additive genetic (breed) composition for growth and size traits to match cattle genetic resources to a wide range of production and marketing situations. Combined individual and maternal heterosis was significant in the F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations for each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations in both sexes for most of the traits evaluated. In both sexes, heterosis retained in combined F3 and F4 generations was greater (P less than .05) than expected based on retained heterozygosity for birth weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, and for 368-d weight and did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation for other traits. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis in cattle for traits related to growth and size is due to dominance effects of genes.

  16. Estimation of inbreeding using pedigree, 50k SNP chip genotypes and full sequence data in three cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Calus, Mario P L; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levels of inbreeding in cattle populations have increased in the past due to the use of a limited number of bulls for artificial insemination. High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. Various estimators based on different sources, e.g., pe...... on 50k can be used to access homozygosity levels in individuals. However, genotypes denser than 50k are required to accurately detect short ROH that are most likely identical by descent (IBD)....... different methods performed for the estimation of inbreeding levels in three different cattle breeds. Results: Five different estimates for inbreeding were calculated and compared in this study: pedigree based inbreeding coefficient (FPED); run of homozygosity (ROH)-based inbreeding coefficients (FROH...

  17. Association between CSN3 and BCO2 gene polymorphisms and milk performance traits in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartonova, P; Vrtkova, I; Kaplanova, K; Urban, T

    2012-01-01

    Daily milk, fat and protein yield and amount of somatic cells in cow milk are very important factors that influence milk performance traits. An association between polymorphisms in the kappa casein (CSN3) gene and milk production, composition and technical properties has been previously reported; however, this type of information is not available for the bovine β-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) gene--the BCO2 gene has relationship with milk color and meat fat color, which is dependent on content of β-carotene. We analyzed these two genes and their relationship with milk performance traits (daily milk, fat and protein yield, somatic cell count, SCC) in one cattle population, Czech Fleckvieh (N = 152). All animals were milked twice a day and kept in the same environmental conditions. The Fleckvieh is a typical Czech cattle breed farming for milk and meat production. It is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. DNA was isolated from milk or from hairs. Genes were analyzed using PCR-RFLP, frequencies of alleles and genotypes were calculated and association analysis was performed using a GLM Procedure in SAS. Statistical analysis established that the CSN3 gene has no statistically significant influence on daily milk, fat and protein yield and SCC. Compared to other references this result can be explained by, e.g., small group of animals and different cattle breed. The BCO2 gene (genotypes AA and AG) shows a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.05) with daily milk, protein yield and SCC. PMID:22614274

  18. Molecular Characterization of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Species in Different Cattle Breeds and Age Groups in Mbarara District (Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhanguzi Dennis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma and Ehrlichia sp. (AEs cause significant economic losses to the livestock sector in Uganda. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AEs in cattle from Kashaari county-Mbarara district (Uganda so as to compare the prevalence of AEs in different cattle breeds, age groups, sub county of origin and management systems and predictor(s of infection with AEs. Such information is deemed necessary to direct future tick-borne disease control programs. A single pair of primers w as used to am plify a 492-498bp fragment of the 16SRNA gene spanning the V1 region conserved for both AEs. PCR products were transferred onto the Reverse Line Blot (RLB membrane and AEs amplicons in the PCR products allowed to hybridize with AE species-specific oligonucleotides. The prevalence of Ehrlichia sp. was 5.1% (CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3% whereas that of Anaplasma species was 5.3 % (C I = 95%, 3-7.6%. Individual AEs detected include; A. bovis (5.1%, CI = 95%, 2.9-7.3%, E. ruminantium (4.5% , CI = 95%, 2.4-6.6%, A. marginale (3.7%, CI = 95%, 1.8-5.6%, A. (E. phagocytophilum (2.7%, CI = 95%, 1.1-4.3% , E. ovina/canis (2.7%, CI = 95%; 1.1-4.3%, E. sp. (omatjenne(1.9%, CI = 95 %, 0.5-3.3%. Cattle breed was found to be the best predictor of infection. To further understand bovine tick-borne parasites in Uganda, we recommend that studies covering a wider area and over longer periods, investigation of breed as a predictor of infection, molecular genetic characterization, transmission and pathogenicity studies on the different strains of AEs be carried out.

  19. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  20. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Petrera, Francesca; Capelletti, Maurizio; Dal Prà, Aldo; Bontempo, Luana; Tonon, Agostino; Camin, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow) of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese) were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H) and O (18O/16O) were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk) and 0.7848 (urine-plasma) for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk) and 0.9602 (plasma-milk) for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water. PMID:25996911

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope fractionation in body fluid compartments of dairy cattle according to season, farm, breed, and reproductive stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Abeni

    Full Text Available Environmental temperature affects water turnover and isotope fractionation by causing water evaporation from the body in mammals. This may lead to rearrangement of the water stable isotope equilibrium in body fluids. We propose an approach to detect possible variations in the isotope ratio in different body fluids on the basis of different homoeothermic adaptations in varying reproductive stages. Three different reproductive stages (pregnant heifer, primiparous lactating cow, and pluriparous lactating cow of two dairy cattle breeds (Italian Friesian and Modenese were studied in winter and summer. Blood plasma, urine, faecal water, and milk were sampled and the isotope ratios of H (2H/1H and O (18O/16O were determined. Deuterium excess and isotope-fractionation factors were calculated for each passage from plasma to faeces, urine and milk. The effects of the season, reproductive stages and breed on δ2H and δ18O were significant in all the fluids, with few exceptions. Deuterium excess was affected by season in all the analysed fluids. The correlations between water isotope measurements in bovine body fluids ranged between 0.6936 (urine-milk and 0.7848 (urine-plasma for δ2H, and between 0.8705 (urine-milk and 0.9602 (plasma-milk for δ18O. The increase in both isotopic δ values in all body fluids during summer is representative of a condition in which fractionation took place as a consequence of a different ratio between ingested and excreted water, which leads to an increased presence of the heavy isotopes. The different body water turnover between adult lactating cattle and non-lactating heifers was confirmed by the higher isotopic δ for the latter, with a shift in the isotopic equilibrium towards values more distant from those of drinking water.

  2. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  3. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  4. Variation in genes involved in epigenetic processes offers insights into tropically adapted cattle diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Fortes, Marina R S; McWilliam, Sean M; Lehnert, Sigrid A; Reverter, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the relevance of the BovineHD Illumina SNP chip with respect to genes involved in epigenetic processes. Genotypes for 729,068 SNP on two tropical cattle breeds of Australia were used: Brahman (n = 2112) and Tropical Composite (n = 2550). We used data mining approaches to compile a list of bovine protein-coding genes involved in epigenetic processes. These genes represent 9 functional categories that contain between one (histone demethylases) and 99 (chromatin remodeling factors) genes. A total of 3091 SNP mapped to positions within 3000 bp of the 193 coding regions of those genes, including 113 SNP in transcribed regions, 2738 in intronic regions and 240 in up- or down-stream regions. For all these SNP categories, we observed differences in the allelic frequencies between Brahman and Tropical Composite cattle. These differences were larger than those observed for the entire set of 729,068 SNP (P = 1.79 x 10(-5)). A multidimensional scaling analysis using only the 113 SNP in transcribed regions allowed for the separation of the two populations and this separation was comparable to the one obtained with a random set of 113 SNP (Principal Component 1 r (2) > 0.84). To further characterize the differences between the breeds we defined a gene-differentiation metric based on the average genotypic frequencies of SNP connected to each gene and compared both cattle populations. The 10% most differentiated genes were distributed across 10 chromosomes, with significant (P < 0.05) enrichment on BTA 3 and 10. The 10% most conserved genes were located in 12 chromosomes. We conclude that there is variation between cattle populations in genes connected to epigenetic processes, and this variation can be used to differentiate cattle breeds. More research is needed to fully characterize the use of these SNP and its potential as means to further our understanding of biological variation and epigenetic processes. PMID:24795751

  5. Variation in genes involved in epigenetic processes offers insights into tropically adapted cattle diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R Porto-Neto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relevance of the BovineHD Illumina SNP chip with respect to genes involved in epigenetic processes. Genotypes for 729,068 SNP on two tropical cattle breeds of Australia were used: Brahman (n = 2,112 and Tropical Composite (n = 2,550. We used data mining approaches to compile a list of bovine protein-coding genes involved in epigenetic processes. These genes represent 9 functional categories that contain between one (histone demethylases and 99 (chromatin remodelling factors genes. A total of 3,091 SNP mapped to positions within 3,000 bp of the 193 coding regions of those genes, including 113 SNP in transcribed regions, 2,738 in intronic regions and 240 in up- or down-stream regions. For all these SNP categories, we observed differences in the allelic frequencies between Brahman and Tropical Composite cattle. These differences were larger than those observed for the entire set of 729,068 SNP (P = 1.79 x 10-5. A multidimensional scaling analysis using only the 113 SNP in transcribed regions allowed for the separation of the two populations and this separation was comparable to the one obtained with a random set of 113 SNP (Principal Component 1 r2 > 0.84. To further characterise the differences between the breeds we defined a gene-differentiation metric based on the average genotypic frequencies of SNP connected to each gene and compared both cattle populations. The 10% most differentiated genes were distributed across 10 chromosomes, with significant (P < 0.05 enrichment on BTA 3 and 10. The 10% most conserved genes were located in 12 chromosomes. We conclude that there is variation between cattle populations in genes connected to epigenetic processes, and this variation can be used to differentiate cattle breeds. More research is needed to fully characterise the use of these SNP and its potential as means to further our understanding of biological variation and epigenetic processes.

  6. Climate change and adaptation of small-scale cattle and sheep farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Mandleni, B.; Anim, F.D.K.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that affected the decision of small-scale farmers who kept cattle and sheep on whether to adapt or not to climate changes. The Binary Logistic Regression model was used to investigate farmers’ decision. The results implied that a large number of socio-economic variables affected the decision of farmers on adaptation to climate changes. The study concluded that the most significant factors affecting climate change and adaptation w...

  7. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values of Milk Traits for Simmental Cattle in Croatia Using a Lactation Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kapš

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values for dairy traits in Simmental cattle in Croatia by developing an animal lactation model. Data consisted of 30761 first lactation records of cows born between 1985 and 2001. By including the pedigree there was a total of 48748 animals. The following effects were analyzed: age, season and year at first calving, days open, breeding organization, farm, animal, and genetic group. Adequacy of the models was tested by using F tests for fixed effects, and REML functions and ‘Mendelian sampling’ for the whole models. The best fit model was determined to have the following effects: age at first calving, days open, year x season interaction and breeding organization x year interaction as fixed, and animal and farm x year as random effects. By including genetic group the model was further improved. From this model, the following heritabilites were estimated: 0.34 ± 0.02, 0.30 ± 0.02, 0.29 ± 0.03 for milk, milk fat and protein yield, respectively. Further, phenotypic and genetic trends were analyzed. The genetic gain in milk traits has been low so far, but by using an appropriate animal model, the breeding value prediction is expected to be improved in terms of accuracy and precision.

  8. Breeding of Chinese Yellow Cattle in a Historical Prospective%从中国黄牛的历史谈现代黄牛的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅春; 陈幼春; 张沅

    2012-01-01

    China is famous by her long history and rich animal genetic resources. Current article tried to review nearly 2000 years" breeding history of Chinese yellow cattle from meat type to working type through historical evidences, treating Chinese yellow cattle as an integrated entirety. By comparing to modern breeding techniques and system, breeding goals, measurements and organization related to cattle breeding were analyzed, and the breeding efficiency of yellow cattle was evaluated. The purpose of these comparisons were to assist the understanding of advance and importance of key techniques and modern efficient system for cattle breeding, so we could learn from the history and boost the breeding philosophy in China%中国素以历史悠久、动物遗传资源丰富而著称。本文把中国黄牛作为一个整体,透过其选育的历史线索,评述中国黄牛在过去的数千年间经历的从肉用到役用的历史选育过程;通过与现代育种理论体系比较,剖析黄牛历史选育过程中的目标、手段和组织,理性认识黄牛的历史选育效率,以助深入理解高效动物育种体系及其关键技术的先进性和重要性,为我国现代黄牛的选育工作提供借鉴。

  9. 三河牛目标性状边际效益研究%Study on Marginal Profits of Traits in the Breeding Goal in Sanhe Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋萌; 秦春华; 吴宏军; 刘爱荣; 王雅春; 史远刚; 张胜利

    2014-01-01

    对经济权重比例为62﹕14﹕22,近似于3﹕1﹕1的比例。(5)牛奶价格提高10%,产奶量和产犊间隔的边际效益分别增加0.29元和0.17元;牛肉价格提高10%,初生重、育肥期日增重、屠宰率、产犊间隔的边际效益分别增加0.81元、0.15元、7.86元,使用年限的边际效益降低0.03元;饲料价格提高10%,产奶量、乳脂率、乳蛋白率、初生重、首次产犊日龄、育肥期日增重的边际效益分别降低0.05元、0.58元、0.34元、0.21元、0.16元、0.01元,产犊间隔和生产寿命的边际效益分别增加0.88元、0.06元。【结论】市场价格的变动对三河牛乳用性状和肉用性状的边际效益影响较大。研究构建的生物经济利润模型可为在中国实施兼用牛选育提供参考,为制定三河牛育种体系的育种目标提供依据。%The Sanhe cattle is a domestic dual purpose breed formed and approved in China in 1983, which was named after its origin of Sanhe region in Hulunbuir pasture land. Sanhe cattle is famous for its durability, suitability for grazing, cold resistance and strong adaptability. This study was conducted to estimate the marginal profits of traits in breeding goal and provide a base for designing breeding plan in Sanhe cattle. [Method] The performance, economic and nutrition parameters of Sanhe cattle were obtained according to theoretical nutrition demand of dairy and beef cattle, as well as the production and breeding data in 2011 from Xiertala Cattle Breeding Farm in Inner Mongolia, China, which are the central production region of this breed. Also, the breeding objective traits were proposed based on the production and breeding system of Sanhe cattle. A bio-economic profit model was fitted using Profit Equation method, and the marginal profits were calculated for the milk performance, beef performance and functional traits, then the sensitivity analysis was run.[Result]The results indicated that ten breeding objective traits for

  10. Growth hormone genotyping by MspI restriction enzyme and PCR-RFLP method in Aceh cattle breed at Indrapuri District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDYA PINTAKA BAYU PUTRA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Putra WPB, Hartatik T, Sumadi. 2014. Growth hormone genotyping by MspI restriction enzyme and PCR-RFLP method in Aceh cattle breed at Indrapuri District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 1-5. The objective of this research was to identify growth hormone (GH gene in Aceh cattle at Indrapuri’s Breeding and Forage Centre (IBFC of Aceh Cattle. Fourty one cattle consisting of 21 male and 20 female cattle were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and sequencing method was used to detect MspI site on GH gene. Based on the sequencing, it can be concluded that all cattle were monomorphic. The frequency of TT genotype and T allele were 1.00 relatively. The transition of C (cytosine into T (thymine on 1549 position caused the lost of restriction site. The insertion of T and G (guanine on 1542 and 1552 position caused the length of GH gene were 329 bp in Aceh cattle.

  11. Chinese and International Situation, Progresses and Perspectives of Breeding Strategies in Dual Purpose Cattle%国内外兼用牛现状及育种理论研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秋萌; 秦春华; 王雅春; 史远刚; 张胜利; 张沅

    2013-01-01

    Dual purpose cattle is famous by its elite performance in both milk and meat production.This study first reviewed the genetic resources of dual purpose cattle in China and major dual purpose cattle breeds internationally,then summarized the development of breeding system and breeding strategies applied in dual purpose cattle breeding,to provide reference for drawing up breeding scheme for dual purpose cattle in China.%兼用牛亦称乳肉兼用牛,是兼具较高产奶性能和优秀产肉性能的牛品种.本文就国内外兼用牛的发展现状、育种体系和育种规划方法的研究进展做简要综述,为制定我国兼用牛育种规划提供参考.

  12. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2015-03-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of inducing host resistance to ticks. Selection for disease resistance provide alternate method for sustainable control of TTBDs. Domestic livestock manifests tick-resistance by skin thickness, coat type, coat color, hair density and skin secretions etc. Zebu cattle have, on average, greater tick resistance than either European cattle or African cattle. Heritability for tick burden in cattle has been shown to range about 0.30, which is sufficient to result in the success of some programs of selection for tick resistance in cattle. To select animals at younger age, to reduce generation interval and to increase genetic gain, marker assisted selection is an important tool. There are also various MHC molecules which are associated with resistance to TTBDs. PMID:25698850

  13. [Allelic polymorphism of kappa-casein gene (CSN3) in Russian cattle breeds and its informative value as a genetic marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimova, G E; Abani Azari, M; Rostamzadeh, J; Mohammad Abani, M R; Lazebnyĭ, O E

    2007-01-01

    The frequencies of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) alleles and genotypes have been determined in five Russian cattle breeds (Bestuzhev, Kalmyk, Russian Black Pied, Yaroslavl, and Yakut breeds) by means of PCR-RFLP analysis using two independent restriction nucleases (HinfI and TaqI) and by allele-specific PCR. Typing alleles A and B of CSN3 is of practical importance, because allele B is correlated with commercially valuable parameters of milk productivity (protein content and milk yield) and improves the cheese yielding capacity. The frequencies of the B allele of CSN3 in the breeds studied vary from 0.16 to 0.50; and those of the AB and BB genotypes, from 0.27 to 0.60 and from 0.02 to 0.23, respectively. The Yaroslavl breed had the highest frequencies of CSN3 allele B and genotype BB (0.50 and 0.23, respectively). The frequencies of the B allele and BB genotype in other breeds studied varied from 0.25 to 0.32 and from 0.03 to 0.09, respectively. In none of the breeds studied have the observed and expected heterozygosities been found to differ from each other significantly. However, the observed genotype distributions significantly differ from the expected one in some herds (in most such cases, an excess of heterozygotes is observed). Two herds of the Yaroslavl breed dramatically differ from each other in the heterozygosity level: a deficit (D = -0.14) and an excess (D = 0.20) of heterozygotes have been observed at the Mikhailovskoe and Gorshikha farms, respectively. In general, however, the heterozygosity of the Yaroslavl breed corresponds to the expected level (D = 0.04). Analysis of breeds for homogeneity with the use of Kulback's test has shown that all cattle breeds studied are heterogeneous, the CSN3 diversity within breeds being higher than that among different breeds, which is confirmed by low Fst values (0.0025-0.0431). Thus, a DNA marker based on CSN3 gene polymorphism is extremely important for breeding practice as a marker of milk quality; however, it is

  14. On the History of Cattle Genetic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen Felius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give an account of the history of cattle by integrating archaeological record and pictorial or written sources, scarce until 300 years ago, with the recent contributions of DNA analysis. We describe the domestication of their wild ancestor, migrations to eventually all inhabited continents, the developments during prehistory, the antiquity and the Middle Ages, the relatively recent breed formation, the industrial cattle husbandry in the Old and New World and the current efforts to preserve the cattle genetic resources. Surveying the available information, we propose three main and overlapping phases during the development of the present genetic diversity: (i domestication and subsequent wild introgression; (ii natural adaptation to a diverse agricultural habitat; and (iii breed development.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF STEPPE RED CATTLE WITH A CAPACITY OF AYRSHIRE AND HOLSTEIN BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panfilova G. I.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the studies of the effect on heifers of Red Steppe breed and hybrids, inclueding their growth, form of the udder, milk production. The cows breed was improved by Ayrshire bulls and red -and-white Holsteins in the South zone of the Rostov region

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa; Neves Dina; Borges Carla; Sobral Maria F; Matos José; Penedo Maria CT; Ginja Catarina; Cravador Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. ...

  17. Model calculations concerning economic optimalization of AI-breeding with cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of costs on the optimum breeding plan for selection for milk traits and the profitability of performance-test selection according to meat production were studied, including the consequences of beef crossing. Returns from breeding schemes were calculated from the expression of genetic supe

  18. A new SNP panel for evaluating genetic diversity in a composite cattle breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom 60K SNP panel, extracted from Bovine HD SNP chip was used to evaluate genotypic frequency changes in Braford (BF, a composite breed) when compared to progenitor breeds: Hereford (HF), Brahman (BR), and Nelore (NE). Samples from both the U. S. and Brazil were used. The new panel differentiat...

  19. Genome-Wide Survey of SNP Variation Uncovers the Genetic Structure of Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A deep draft sequence assembly derived from shotgun reads from a single Hereford female and comparative sampling sequences from cows representing six additional bovine breeds has enabled the development of genetic probes to interrogate single nucleotide polymorphisms for population and breed analyse...

  20. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for puberty and scrotal traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Lunstra, D D; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-07-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in F1, F2, and F3 generations of females and in the F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations of males in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included weight, height, and condition scores at different ages, percentage of females reaching puberty at 368, 410, and 452 d, adjusted age, and adjusted weight of females at puberty and scrotal circumference and paired testicular volume of males. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated. Heterosis was significant for weight, height, and condition score at all ages and for most measures of puberty in each generation of each composite and for the mean of the three composite populations. Heterosis for age at puberty was largely independent of heterosis effects on 368-d weight. Heterosis was significant for scrotal circumference and paired testicular volume in each generation of each composite and for the mean of the three composite populations. Heterosis effects on scrotal measurements are mediated both through heterosis effects on growth rate and through factors that are independent of growth rate. Correlation coefficients among breed group means and correlations of breed rank for scrotal measurements with puberty traits of females were greater than or equal to .88 (P less than .01) for all puberty traits except weight at puberty, which was not associated with scrotal measurements. There was close agreement in heterosis observed for most traits and expectation based on retained heterozygosity. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis in cattle for size, puberty, and scrotal measurement

  1. Development, standardization and validation of purine excretion technique for measuring microbial protein supply for Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate of the developed techniques for uric acid, allantoin and creatinine in Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle on farm at different feeding level locally available feed resources and linking the observed information to feed intake and to assess of protein nutrition status of Yerli Kara cross-breed dairy cattle using urinary PD and creatinine excretion. In Experiment I. Response of daily PD excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara cross-breed on state farm was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30 % wheat straw and 70 % compounded feed. The diet contained 90 % DM, its N and OM contents were 124 and 950 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment II. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara cross-breed bulls live weight with a mean of 211±41.3 kg were used. Experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were [located according to a 4x4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at smallholder farms. Compound feed containing 65 % barley, 25 % bran, 6 % sunflower seed meal, 3 % manner dust and 1 % mineral and vitamin mixture (120 g/kg DM-Crude Protein and 950 g/kg DM-Organic Matter)- was offered total in between 2 to 3 kg in two parts one in the morning (07:30 h) and one in the afternoon (17:00 h). Compound feed ingredients were similar given to all animals but Groups I, II and III animals were receiving 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (30 g CP/kg DM, 93Og OM/kg DM), grass hay (70g CP/kg DM, 915 g OM/kg DM), straw and grass hay respectively. There were significant correlations (R2=0.99) between PD excretion (mmol/d) and DOMI (kg/d) for YK-C cattle. PD execration (mmol/L) was plotted against PD: Creatinine W0.75 to obtain slope and use as constant for the estimation of daily PD excretion from spot sampling from animals held by small holders. The equation could be expressed as: PD (mmol/d)=8.27+0.960 (PD:CxW0.75). The constant

  2. Selection and Breeding of Cattle in Asia: Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding. Prepared under the Framework of an RCA Project with the Technical Support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment (RAS/5/044). The 23 project counterparts and the IAEA technical officer, based on the lack of standard practices in the region with regard to selection of cattle for breeding purposes, and the need to properly manage the genetic resources within each country for improving the productivity of the existing stock while maintaining the unique and beneficial genetic characteristics of the indigenous breeds, agreed during the first meeting to request the IAEA to recruit a group of experts with the task of preparing guidelines for the selection and breeding of cattle and buffalo on the Asian continent. To address these recommendations, an experts meeting on Selection Criteria for Breeding Heifers was organized and held in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The meeting was hosted by the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) from 6 to 10 February 2006. It was attended by six foreign experts and two local experts, and was supported by the technical officer of RAS/5/044. The experts from countries participating in RAS/5/044 gave presentations on the current state of cattle breeding in their countries and two experts working in industrialized countries within the region (New Zealand and Australia) informed the participants about the existing cattle breeding programmes in their respective countries and offered their perspectives on how similar approaches could be transferred to the Member States participating in RAS/5/044. All experts also made a field visit to a prominent dairy-producing region, to experience at first-hand some of the current programmes

  3. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  4. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  5. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and embryo transfer(MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation.Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized.Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered,i.e.,traditional progeny testing breeding scheme(denoted as STANPT),GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information,MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family,GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology,COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT,and three non-progeny testing schemes,i.e.the MOET,GAMO and COMB schemes,corresponding to MOETPT,GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system.Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was estimated under an animal model framework.Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario.The influences of using QTL information and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency,true breeding values,polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated,for five different populations including active sires,lactating cows,bull dams,bull sires,and young bulls.The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed.The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant.The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes.The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year.The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL allele varied more greatly across

  6. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus muscle simultaneously with a high percentage of retail product. These results suggest that the most logical approach to resolution of the genetic antagonism between favorable carcass composition and less favorable palatability attributes is to form composite breeds with breed contributions organized to achieve an optimum balance between favorable carcass composition and desirable

  7. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P < .01) for all carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P < .05) most traits evaluated. The effects of retained heterosis were not consistent among composites. For the mean of the three composites, retained heterosis was significant only for percentage of 9-10-11th rib fat and for percentage of retail product. Phenotypic correlations indicated that marbling score was a poor predictor of palatability attributes of individual carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus

  8. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO WeiZhen; WANG YaChun; ZHANG Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and em-bryo transfer (MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation. Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized. Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered, i.e., traditional progeny testing breeding scheme (denoted as STANPT), GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information, MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family, GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology, COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT, and three non-progeny testing schemes, i.e. the MOET, GAMO and COMB schemes, corresponding to MOETPT, GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system. Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was es-timated under an animal model framework. Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario. The influences of using QTL informa-tion and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency, true breeding values, polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated, for five different populations including active sires, lactating cows, bull dams, bull sires, and young bulls. The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed. The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant. The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes. The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year. The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL

  9. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P yield grade, retail product yield, fat yield, fat weight, and bone yield. Sire breed was significant (P yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  10. Haplotype Based Genome-Enabled Prediction of Traits Across Nordic Red Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Rosa, G J M;

    SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training.......1% higher reliability than with the individual SNP approach in mastitis. This work gives evidence that predictions using haploblocks along with a combined training population of dairy cattle, may improve prediction accuracy of important traits in the individual populations........ Predictions were performed under a Bayesian approach comparing a GBLUP and a mixture model. In general, predictions were more reliable when using haploblocks instead of individual SNPs as predictors. The Danish Red cattle presented the largest benefit in predictive ability from haploblocks, achieving 5...

  11. Deterministic Simulation of Alternative Breeding Objectives and Schemes for Pure Bred Cattle in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alternative breeding objectives and schemes for milk production were evaluated for their economic efficiency using deterministic simulation. A two-tier open nucleus breeding scheme and a young bull system (YBS) were assumed with intensive recording and 100% artificial insemination (AI) in the nucleus and 35% AI in the commercial population, which was assumed to comprise of the smallholder herds. Since most production systems are dual purpose, breeding objectives were defined, which represented different scenarios. These objectives represented the present (objective 1- dual purpose), smallholder (objective 2- dual purpose with limited mature live weight) and future production situations (objective 3- dual purpose with fat based milk price). Breeding objectives differed in the trials included and their economic values while the breeding schemes differed in records available for use as selection criteria as well as in the costs and investment parameters. since the main question for establishing a breeding and recording programme is that of efficiency of investment, the monetary genetic response and profit per cow in the population were used as evaluation criteria. All breeding objectives and schemes realized profits. The objectives and schemes that ranked highly for annual monetary genetic response and total return per cow did not rank the same in profit per cow in all cases. In objective 3, the scheme that assumed records on fat yield (FY) were available for use as selection criterion and that, which assumed no records on FY,differed very little in profit per cow (approximately 4%). Therefore, under the current production and marketing conditions, a breeding scheme that requires measuring of the fat content does not seem to be justified from an economic point of view. There is evidence that a well-organised breeding programme utilizing an open nucleus, a YBS and the smallholder farms as well as commercial population could sustain itself

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among the European and American bison and seven cattle breeds recon structed using the Bovine SNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Wójcik, Jan M; Kawalko, Agata;

    2010-01-01

    bison Bi on bison athabascae (WB) and seven (PB), the wood bison (WB) and seven cattle Bostaurus breeds. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct their evolutionary relationships, (2) detect any genetic signature of past bottlenecks and to quantify the con sequences of bottle necks on the genetic distances...... and wood bison. A linkage disequi librium based program (LDNE) was used to estimate the effective population size (Ne) for the cattle breeds; Ne was generally low, relative to the census size of the breeds (cattle breeds: mean Ne = 299.5, min Ne = 18.1, max Ne = 755.0). BOTTLENECK 1.2 de tected signs...... of pop u la tion bot tle necks in = 755.0). BOTTLENECK 1.2 detected signs of population bottle necks in EB, PB and WB populations (sign test and standardized sign test: p = 0.0001). Evidence for loci under selection was found in cattle but not in bison. All extant wild populations of bison have shown...

  13. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P carcass traits except MS.

  14. Two-, three-, and four-breed rotational crossbreeding of beef cattle: carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, S M; Franke, D E; Bidner, T D; Blouin, D C

    1992-12-01

    Carcass data from 1,494 straightbred and rotational crossbred steers were collected over four generations. Mating systems included straightbreds (Angus [A], Brahman [B], Charolais [C], and Hereford [H]); two-breed rotations (A-B, C-B, and H-B); three-breed rotations (A-B-C, A-B-H, and B-C-H); and a four-breed rotation (A-B-C-H). Steers were randomly allocated to one of four postweaning treatments that varied in length of grazing and feeding periods. Treatment and breed group (four straightbreds and seven rotational combinations) significantly influenced hot carcass weight (HCWT), retail yield (RY), longissimus muscle area (LM), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MS), USDA quality grade (QG), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS). Feeding for longer periods resulted in greater (P < .05) HCWT, RY, FT, and MS, higher QG, and lower (P < .05) WBS values. Among the straightbreds, C was heavier and larger for HCWT, RY, and LM (P < .01), whereas A and H had greater (P < .01) FT and MS. The B was similar to H for HCWT, RY, and LM and to C for FT but ranked last (P < .01) for MS and WBS. Three- and four-breed rotational mating systems were superior (P < .05) to the two-breed rotation for HCWT, RY, and LM but were similar for FT, MS, and WBS. Rotational combinations exceeded (P < .05) the straightbreds for all carcass traits except MS.

  15. Maternal grandsire, granddam, and sire breed effects on growth and carcass traits of crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Cundiff, L V

    2003-04-01

    Postweaning growth, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were analyzed on 1,422 animals obtained by mating F1 cows to F1 (Belgian Blue x British breeds) or Charolais sires. Cows were obtained from mating Hereford, Angus, and MARC IIIHereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Pinzgauer, and 1/4 Red Poll) dams to Hereford or Angus (British breeds), Tuli, Boran, Brahman, or Belgian Blue sires. Breed groups were fed in replicated pens and slaughtered serially in each of 2 yr. Postweaning average daily gain; live weight; hot carcass weight; fat depth; longissimus area; estimated kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (percentage); percentage Choice; marbling score; USDA yield grade; retail product yield (percentage); retail product weight; fat yield (percentage); fat weight; bone yield (percentage); and bone weight were analyzed in this population. Quadratic regressions of pen mean weight on days fed and of cumulative ME consumption on days fed were used to estimate gain, ME consumption and efficiency (Mcal of ME/kg of gain) over time (0 to 200 d on feed), and weight (300 to 550 kg) intervals. Maternal grandsire breed was significant (P carcass weight, longissimus area, and bone weight. Sex class was a significant (P < 0.001) source of variation for all traits except for percentage Choice, marbling score, retail product yield, and fat yield. Interactions between maternal grandsire and sire breed were nonexistent. Sire and grandsire breed effects can be optimized by selection and use of appropriate crossbreeding systems.

  16. PREDICTING HABITAT SUITABILITY FOR TWO BREEDS OF CATTLE (ENGLISH AND SPANISH) IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON PRAIRIE ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Oregon cattle distribution was studied with global positioning (GPS) collars for 2 years on the Zumwalt prairie in the spring and fall and Hells Canyon during the winter to determine distribution and habitat selection differences between Spanish bred (Corriente X Longhorn) and English bred c...

  17. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals

  18. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  19. Genomic heritabilities and genomic estimated breeding values for methane traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, B J; Donoghue, K A; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bird-Gardiner, T; Herd, R M; Arthur, P F

    2016-03-01

    Enteric methane emissions from beef cattle are a significant component of total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The variation between beef cattle in methane emissions is partly genetic, whether measured as methane production, methane yield (methane production/DMI), or residual methane production (observed methane production - expected methane production), with heritabilities ranging from 0.19 to 0.29. This suggests methane emissions could be reduced by selection. Given the high cost of measuring methane production from individual beef cattle, genomic selection is the most feasible approach to achieve this reduction in emissions. We derived genomic EBV (GEBV) for methane traits from a reference set of 747 Angus animals phenotyped for methane traits and genotyped for 630,000 SNP. The accuracy of GEBV was tested in a validation set of 273 Angus animals phenotyped for the same traits. Accuracies of GEBV ranged from 0.29 ± 0.06 for methane yield and 0.35 ± 0.06 for residual methane production. Selection on GEBV using the genomic prediction equations derived here could reduce emissions for Angus cattle by roughly 5% over 10 yr. PMID:27065252

  20. Behavioural linear standardized scoring system of the Lidia cattle breed by testing in herd: estimation of genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2016-10-01

    Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility.

  1. SNP在肉牛育种中的应用进展%SNP and Its Application in Beef Cattle Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明成; 杨魁; 王玲; 左福元

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), as a third generation molecular marker, has many characteristics, such as rich sites, strong representation and genetic stability, it had became the focus of molecular markers related fields. This paper reviewed the characteristics and detection methods of SNP and its application in beef cattle' s growth traits, reproductive traits, carcass and meat quality traits, as the candidate gene for molecular marker assisted selection, to accelerate the speed of beef cattle breeding.%单核苷酸多态性(Single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)作为第三代分子标记,具有位点丰富、代表性强和遗传稳定等特点,已成为分子标记研究领域的焦点.本研究综述了SNP特点、检测方法及其在肉牛生长发育性状、繁殖性状、胴体与肉质性状的应用,作为分子标记辅助选择的候选基因,加快了肉牛育种进程.

  2. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for preweaning traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-03-01

    The effects of heterosis for gestation length, dystocia, calf survival, birth weight, 200-d weight, and ADG from birth to weaning were evaluated in F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations in three composite populations. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll, Hereford, Angus, Limousin, Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, and Charolais) that contributed to the three composite populations. Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated except survival at birth. The large differences among breeds in additive direct and additive maternal genetic effects offer a great opportunity to use the genetic differences among breeds to achieve and maintain optimum additive genetic (breed) composition to match genetic resources to a wide range of production-marketing ecosystems. There was no heterosis for gestation length. Mean heterosis for dystocia was significant estimated in F1 but not in F2 or in the combined F3 and F4 generations. Mean heterosis was not significant in any generation for survival at birth, to 72 h, and to weaning for the F1 generation; mean heterosis was significant for survival to weaning for the F2 generation and approached significance (P = .06) for the combined F3 and F4 generations. Mean heterosis over all composite populations and heterosis for each composite population were significant in all generations for weight at birth and at 200 d and for ADG from birth to weaning. Retained heterosis was not less than expected from retained heterozygosity in composite populations for the traits evaluated. These results suggest that heterosis for these traits likely is due to dominance effects and, thus, can be attributed to the recovery of accumulated inbreeding depression in the parental breeds.

  3. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait. PMID:23658330

  4. Accuracy of prediction of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake and carcass and meat quality traits in Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolormaa, S; Pryce, J E; Kemper, K; Savin, K; Hayes, B J; Barendse, W; Zhang, Y; Reich, C M; Mason, B A; Bunch, R J; Harrison, B E; Reverter, A; Herd, R M; Tier, B; Graser, H-U; Goddard, M E

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of genomic predictions for 19 traits including feed efficiency, growth, and carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The 10,181 cattle in our study had real or imputed genotypes for 729,068 SNP although not all cattle were measured for all traits. Animals included Bos taurus, Brahman, composite, and crossbred animals. Genomic EBV (GEBV) were calculated using 2 methods of genomic prediction [BayesR and genomic BLUP (GBLUP)] either using a common training dataset for all breeds or using a training dataset comprising only animals of the same breed. Accuracies of GEBV were assessed using 5-fold cross-validation. The accuracy of genomic prediction varied by trait and by method. Traits with a large number of recorded and genotyped animals and with high heritability gave the greatest accuracy of GEBV. Using GBLUP, the average accuracy was 0.27 across traits and breeds, but the accuracies between breeds and between traits varied widely. When the training population was restricted to animals from the same breed as the validation population, GBLUP accuracies declined by an average of 0.04. The greatest decline in accuracy was found for the 4 composite breeds. The BayesR accuracies were greater by an average of 0.03 than GBLUP accuracies, particularly for traits with known genes of moderate to large effect mutations segregating. The accuracies of 0.43 to 0.48 for IGF-I traits were among the greatest in the study. Although accuracies are low compared with those observed in dairy cattle, genomic selection would still be beneficial for traits that are hard to improve by conventional selection, such as tenderness and residual feed intake. BayesR identified many of the same quantitative trait loci as a genomewide association study but appeared to map them more precisely. All traits appear to be highly polygenic with thousands of SNP independently associated with each trait.

  5. Participatory plant breeding: a way to arrive at better adapted onions varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemens-Hulscher, M.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Osman, A.M.; Jeuken, J.; Groenen, R.; Heer, de R.

    2006-01-01

    The search for varieties that are better adapted to organic farming is a current topic in the organic sector. Breeding programmes specific for organic agriculture should solve this problem. Collaborating with organic farmers in such programmes, particularly in the selection process, can potentially

  6. Schemes for Oestrus Synchronization Protocols and Controlled Breeding Programs in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Y. G.; Sandabe, U. K.; Maina, V. A.; Balla, H. G.

    Today prostaglandin and progesterone has been found widely used in several schemes of oestrus synchronization and controlled breeding program. Several controlled breeding program, have been developed for synchronizing groups of all open or lactating cows within a breeding group with or without ovarian palpation. Such programs are reviewed in this article which involves extending the luteal phase by treatment with exogenous progesterone such as: progesterone treatment regimes using syncro-mate-B, progesterone releasing intravaginal device, melengesterol acetate-select and melegestrol acetate plus prostaglandin. Also reviewed in the program is the termination of the luteal phase by treatment with prostaglandin or its analogues. These includes, controlled breeding without ovarian palpation such as, the 7-days program; 11-days program, target breeding, ovsynch program, Heat synch, Cosynch and pre synch-ovsynch program. In our opinion full potential of progesterone and prostaglandin for the detection of oestrus and timed artificial insemination should be utilized. This reduces the much labour input employed in previous years. The practitioner of the livestock herd health must-develop strategies for the delivery of this technology to livestock farmers, its use and limitations.

  7. Evaluation of line and breed of cytoplasm effects on performance of purebred Brangus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, G A; Taylor, J F; Sanders, J O; Thallman, R M

    1994-11-01

    Substantial differences between reciprocally crossed Bos taurus x Bos indicus calves for birth, weaning, and yearling weights have been reported. To determine whether cytoplasmic inheritance is responsible for a portion of these differences, field records for birth and weaning weight (n = 7,353) and postweaning average daily gain (n = 2,746) from registered Brangus calves were analyzed. An animal model that included maternal effects was fit for each trait. Breed of cytoplasmic origin was fit as a fixed effect and coded as Angus, Brahman, or unknown. Cytoplasmic line within each breed of origin was treated as a random effect. Variance components for random effects were estimated using derivative-free REML procedures. Line of cytoplasm accounted for less than .002% of the phenotypic variance in all three traits. Estimates for cytoplasmic breed of origin effects were small in magnitude, and contrasts tested (Angus vs Brahman and Angus vs Unknown) were not significant (P > .10). Estimates of heritability of direct (maternal) effects were .36 (.20), .41 (.27), and .21 (.08) for birth weight, weaning weight, and postweaning average daily gain, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal effects ranged from -.27 for postweaning average daily gain to -.58 for birth weight. No evidence for breed or line within breed of cytoplasmic origin effects was detected in these data. PMID:7730171

  8. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  9. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  10. Lactation characteristics of nine breeds of cattle fed various quantities of dietary energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1992-06-01

    Milk yield data were collected by weigh-suckle-weigh procedures at approximately 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, 138, 156, 184, and 212 d postpartum for mature Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental cows over a 4-yr period. Individual cows were fed at one of four energy intake levels. Parameters characterizing lactation curves for 431 lactations from 179 cows were estimated by nonlinear regression. Differences due to breed, level of energy intake, and the two-factor interaction between breed and level of ME allowance for scale and shape parameters of lactation curves and derived estimates for time of peak lactation, yield at time of peak lactation, and for total yield for a 210-d lactation period were evaluated. Breed and energy intake level were significant sources of variation for all traits. Pooled over energy levels, daily yields at time of peak lactation of Braunvieh, Gelbvieh, and Pinzgauer were greater (P less than .05) than those of Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Limousin. Simmental and Red Poll were intermediate. Total lactation yield of the Braunvieh exceeded (P less than .05) that of all other breeds with the exception of Gelbvieh. Hereford produced less milk than (P less than .05) the other breeds. The response in yields at time of peak lactation as energy allowances increased for Braunvieh, Charolis, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Pinzgauer cows were linear and resulted in higher yields at this time. Linear increases in total 210-d yield and times of peak lactation were observed for all breeds with the exception of Hereford.

  11. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Pariset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM, formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.

  12. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Shyma; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2013-01-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of in...

  13. SELECTIVE BREEDING, HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETIC-BASED TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...

  14. Haplotype Based Genome-Enabled Prediction of Traits Across Nordic Red Cattle Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Rosa, G. J. M.; Gianola, Daniel; Su, Guosheng

    2014-01-01

    SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training. Predictions were performed under a Bayesian approach comparing a GBLUP and a mixture model. In general, predictions were more reliable when using haploblocks instead of individual SNPs as predictors. The Dan...

  15. Refining QTL with high-density SNP genotyping and whole genome sequence in three cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    method. Principal components were used to account for population structure. The QTL segregating in all three breeds were selected and a few of the most significant ones were followed in further analyses. The polymorphisms in the identified QTL regions were imputed using 90 whole genome sequences...... available from these three breeds. Imputations were done using IMPUTE v2.2. Association analyses with imputed polymorphisms were repeated for the targeted regions. The QTL genotypes of the sires with more than 20 sons were determined by an a posteriori granddaughter design. The concordance of sires...

  16. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Whole-genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci associated with milk protein composition in 3 French dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M P; Govignon-Gion, A; Ferrand, M; Gelé, M; Pourchet, D; Amigues, Y; Fritz, S; Boussaha, M; Capitan, A; Rocha, D; Miranda, G; Martin, P; Brochard, M; Boichard, D

    2016-10-01

    In the context of the PhénoFinLait project, a genome-wide analysis was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect milk protein composition estimated using mid-infrared spectrometry in the Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO), and Holstein (HO) French dairy cattle breeds. The 6 main milk proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and αS1-, αS2-, β-, and κ-caseins) expressed as grams per 100g of milk (% of milk) or as grams per 100g of protein (% of protein) were estimated in 848,068 test-day milk samples from 156,660 cows. Genotyping was performed for 2,773 MO, 2,673 NO, and 2,208 HO cows using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Individual test-day records were adjusted for environmental effects and then averaged per cow to define the phenotypes analyzed. Quantitative trait loci detection was performed within each breed using a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis approach. A total of 39 genomic regions distributed on 20 of the 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA) were significantly associated with milk protein composition at a genome-wide level of significance in at least 1 of the 3 breeds. The 9 most significant QTL were located on BTA2 (133 Mbp), BTA6 (38, 47, and 87 Mbp), BTA11 (103 Mbp), BTA14 (1.8 Mbp), BTA20 (32 and 58 Mbp), and BTA29 (8 Mbp). The BTA6 (87 Mbp), BTA11, and BTA20 (58 Mbp) QTL were found in all 3 breeds, and they had highly significant effects on κ-casein, β-lactoglobulin, and α-lactalbumin, expressed as a percentage of protein, respectively. Each of these QTL explained between 13% (BTA14) and 51% (BTA11) of the genetic variance of the trait. Many other QTL regions were also identified in at least one breed. They were located on 14 additional chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15, 17, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, and 27), and they explained 2 to 8% of the genetic variance of 1 or more protein composition traits. Concordance analyses, performed between QTL status and sequence-derived polymorphisms from

  18. Evaluation of carcass, live, and real-time ultrasound measures in feedlot cattle: I. Assessment of sex and breed effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassen, A; Wilson, D E; Rouse, G H

    1999-02-01

    Carcass and live-animal measures from 1,029 cattle were collected at the Iowa State University Rhodes and McNay research farms over a 6-yr period. Data were from bull, heifer, and steer progeny of composite, Angus, and Simmental sires mated to three composite lines of dams. The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits, to evaluate effects of sex and breed of sire on growth models (curves), and to suggest a strategy to adjust serially measured data to a constant age end point. Estimation of genetic parameters using a three-trait mixed model showed differences between bulls and steers in estimates of h2 and genetic correlations. Heritability for carcass weight, percentage of retail product, retail product weight, fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area from bull data were .43, .04, .46, .05, and .21, respectively. The corresponding values for steer data were in order of .32, .24, .40, .42, and .07, respectively. Analysis of serially measured fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, body weight, hip height, and ultrasound percentage of intramuscular fat using a repeated measures model showed a limitation in the use of growth models based on pooled data. In further evaluation of regression parameters using a linear mixed model analysis, sex and breed of sire showed an important (P < .05) effect on intercept and slope values. Regression of serially measured traits on age within animal showed a relatively larger R2 (62 to 98%) and a smaller root mean square error (RMSE, .09 to 8.85) as compared with R2 (0 to 58%) and RMSE (.31 to 67.9) values when the same model was used on pooled data. We concluded that regression parameters from a within-animal regression of a serially measured trait on age, averaged by sex and breed, are the best choice in describing growth and adjusting data to a constant age end point. PMID:10100654

  19. Physical, chemical, histological and palatability characteristics of muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Forty-five steers (9-12 months of age) of Angus (n =15), Brahman (n = 15) and Brahman × Angus (n = 15) breed-types were fed a high-energy diet and then slaughtered after 0, 112 or 224 days of feeding. At 7 days post mortem, the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris were removed from the left side of each carcass and steaks were obtained for determination of sensory panel ratings, Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length, collagen content and collagen solubility. Tenderness ratings of steaks from the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris from Angus were generally higher than ratings for steaks from Brahman or Brahman × Angus steers. Steaks from Brahman × Angus received higher tenderness ratings than steaks from Brahman steers in only a few comparisons. The three breed-types of cattle responded to time-on-feed differently; Brahman cattle needed to have been fed longer than Angus cattle to produce equally tender beef. With increased time-on-feed, M. longissimus tenderness increased for all breed-types, but M. biceps femoris tenderness was not related to time-on-feed. Few significant differences were observed among breed-types and among time-on-feed periods for collagen content or collagen solubility. Tenderness differences were closely correlated with the contractile state of the muscle which, in turn, was associated with weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and temperature decline of the carcass.

  20. Physical, chemical, histological and palatability characteristics of muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Forty-five steers (9-12 months of age) of Angus (n =15), Brahman (n = 15) and Brahman × Angus (n = 15) breed-types were fed a high-energy diet and then slaughtered after 0, 112 or 224 days of feeding. At 7 days post mortem, the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris were removed from the left side of each carcass and steaks were obtained for determination of sensory panel ratings, Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length, collagen content and collagen solubility. Tenderness ratings of steaks from the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris from Angus were generally higher than ratings for steaks from Brahman or Brahman × Angus steers. Steaks from Brahman × Angus received higher tenderness ratings than steaks from Brahman steers in only a few comparisons. The three breed-types of cattle responded to time-on-feed differently; Brahman cattle needed to have been fed longer than Angus cattle to produce equally tender beef. With increased time-on-feed, M. longissimus tenderness increased for all breed-types, but M. biceps femoris tenderness was not related to time-on-feed. Few significant differences were observed among breed-types and among time-on-feed periods for collagen content or collagen solubility. Tenderness differences were closely correlated with the contractile state of the muscle which, in turn, was associated with weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and temperature decline of the carcass. PMID:22056075

  1. Cluster analysis of breeding values for milk yield and lactation persistency in Guzerá cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz; Rodrigo Pelicioni Savegnago; Annaíza Braga Bignardi Santana; Maria Gabriela Campolina Diniz Peixoto; Frank Angelo Tomita Bruneli; Lenira El Faro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of genetic lactation curves of Guzerá cattle using cluster analysis. Test-day milk yields of 5,274 first-lactation Guzerá cows were recorded in a progeny test. A total of 34,193 monthly records were analyzed with a random regression animal model using Legendre polynomials to fit additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and mean trends. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed based on the EB...

  2. Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L;

    2008-01-01

    A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over...... mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker......-assisted selection. Pleiotropic effects of the mastitis QTL were studied for three milk production traits and eight udder conformation traits. This QTL was also associated with yield traits in DR but not in FA or SRB. No QTL were found for udder conformation traits on chromosome 9...

  3. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species. PMID:8952073

  4. Infestations of the bont tick Amblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on different breeds of cattle in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D

    1996-10-01

    Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.

  5. Genetic variability in three Italian beef cattle breeds derived from pedigree information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Filippini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic variability in Chianina (CH, Marchigiana (MC and Romagnola (RO breeds using pedigree information. Different approaches based on probability of identity-by-descent (effective population size through an increase in inbreeding Ne or probability of gene origin (total number of founders f, effective number of founders fe, ancestors fa and founder genomes fg were used. Reference populations were defined using female animals born between 1996 and 2000 where both parents are known. Generation intervals were 5.35, 4.93 and 5.15 years for CH, MC and RO, respectively. The total number of founders were 7092, 11947, 3928, for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Complete generation equivalent showed the relative high quality of pedigree information: 5.66 for CH, 4.54 for MC and 4.95 for RO. For CH, MC and RO, respectively, a fe value of 152.1, 70.9 and 89.8, a fa value of 73.6, 48.0 and 59.5 and a fg value of 39.5, 25.0 and 38.5, were calculated. When inbreeding was used effective population sizes were 138, 122 and 124 for CH, MC and RO, respectively. Parameters derived from the probabilities of gene origin were variable among the investigated breeds and the results for MC demonstrate the need to pay specific attention to breeding strategies.

  6. ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF RUSTIC ANIMAL BREEDS IN BANAT WITH CO-ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Luminita Matiuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th and the 20th centuries, they developed in the Banat of Temeswar animalbreeds with economic performances comparable to those of other breeds in Europe.Traditionally, they also breed animal breeds and populations developed in Transylvania, amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic historical region that resembles the Banat of Temeswar verymuch from this point of view. Some of the rustic breeds from the Banat of Temeswar orfrom Transylvania are economically behind other specialised breeds. These rustic breedsare, in exchange, well adapted to the areas and they have genes that endow them withparticular disease-resistance. Reform of farm support policies in OECD countries is awelcome step which has led to a decline in the aggregate trade distortion coefficient from0.96 in 1986 to 0.74 in 2007. Climate change and increased biofuel production representmajor risks for long-term food security. Although countries in the Southern hemisphere arenot the main originators of climate change, they may suffer the greatest share of damage inthe form of declining yields and greater frequency of extreme weather events. Nowadays asustainable economy must become rural, based on Agrifood Biodiversity. Bioeconomy andEco-Economy scientifically applied to the rural economy, in the context of a sustainablerural development, the possibility exists to issue the following tentative terms forconsideration in the future: a. Bioeconomic sustainable development of the rural areas;b.Eco-Economic sustainable development of the agrifood production; c. Eco-Bioeconomicsustainable development of the agrifood green power.

  7. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (Ppressure losses than from Unstressed animals. There were significant differences (Ppressure losses. The ageing time had a significant effect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. PMID:25105491

  8. Genetic parameters for milk yield and persistency in Carora dairy cattle breed using random regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Tullo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In tropical environments, lactation curves with lower peaks and higher persistency (PS might be desirable from both an economical and a physiological point of view. The objective of this study was to obtain genetic parameters for test day (TD yields, and PS for the tropical breed Carora and to compare these with results from a standard 305-d-milk yield animal model. Four random regression models (RRM were used on a dataset composed of 95,606 TD records collected in Venezuela and tested to find the best fitting the data. Estimated daily heritabilities for milk yields ranged from 0.21 to 0.30, with the lowest values around the peak of lactation. Lactation repeatabilities ranged from 0.50 to 0.56. Correlations between the breeding values obtained with the RRM and the lactation model currently used in Venezuela [single trait Animal Model (stAM] are quite high and positive (Pearson correlation=0.71 and Spearman correlation=0.72. Correlations between PS and 305-d-milk yield estimated breeding values (EBV ranged from -0.18 (PS as the deviation of daily productions in the interval 50-279 days in milk from a point at the end of lactation to 0.52 (PS as EBV difference between the second and the first stage of lactation. The use of PS indexes accounting for milk yield may allow the selection of individuals able to express their potential genetic values in tropical environment, without incurring in excessive heat stress losses.

  9. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near ...

  10. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivieri

    Full Text Available Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East.Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17 and Domiaty (N = 14, from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed.Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s; (ii haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades.

  11. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  12. A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Raymond

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r encoded by the coat color extension gene (E plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, α-MSH or antagonist (Agouti protein ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant ED allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein, whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers. A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1 or heterozygous (E1/E individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles.

  13. Metabolic profile of Japanese Black breeding cattle herds: usefulness in selection for nutrient supplementation to enhance reproductive performance and regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Urara; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Yamato, Osamu; Otoi, Takeshige; Tshering, Chenga; Okamoto, Koji

    2013-05-01

    The study aims were (1) to confirm the effects of nutritional improvement in prepartal and postpartal periods, monitored using the serum metabolic profile test (MPT) and reproductive performance, and (2) to clarify regional characteristics of the MPT results within our jurisdiction by using our MPT database. Experiment 1: Among 42 breeding cattle herds in our jurisdiction mainly fed home-pasture roughage, 3 experimental herds showing subnormal blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were selected and compared with 1 representative excellent herd. Dietary remedial measures were implemented from feed analysis in each herd. BUN concentration in all 3 herds increased significantly, and open days postpartum in 2 of the herds were significantly reduced, compared with values before dietary supplementation. Experiment 2: Thirty-seven herds within our jurisdiction were grouped into 3 categories (Area 1, 2 and 3) by location and soil condition of the herd pastureland. The MPT and reproductive performance in cows whose blood samples were collected at both prepartum (60-20 days before calving) and postpartum (30-90 days after calving) were compared among the 3 areas. Significant regional differences were found in prepartal albumin, total cholesterol, BUN, and glucose and postpartal BUN, glucose and open days (P<0.05). Overall, the MPT (especially BUN) might be useful for determining the metabolic nutritional status of breeding cattle herds, particularly those fed home-pasture roughage. Additionally, poor/unsatisfactory reproductive performance of beef breeding cattle herds probably reflects inadequate nutritional content of the diet, possibly arising from regional pastureland differences.

  14. ESTIMATION OF BREEDING VALUES OF SAHIWAL CATTLE USING TEST DAY MILK YIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. KHAN, G. BILAL, I. R. BAJWA, Z. REHMAN1 AND S. AHMAD2

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Estimated breeding values of test-day (TD and 305-day milk yield were calculated to compare ranking of animals on the basis of two information sources under an animal model. Two statistical models were used to analyze 780 first lactation (305-day and monthly milk yield records. The first model was an individual animal model to analyze lactation milk yield with period-season of calving as fixed effect, while the second model was a repeatability model where monthly milk yield records were analyzed using period-season of calving as fixed effect and animals’ additive genetic effect and permanent environmental effect as random factors. In this model, the age at calving, ratio of days in milk to 305-day (as linear and quadratic components and their reciprocal logs were used as covariables. Ranking of animals for estimated breeding values from the two models was compared. The rank correlations were 0.927 and 0.923 for sires and cows, respectively. Largest rank shift measured in sires and cows showed that ranking of sire was affected less than that of cows. Phenotypic and genetic correlations did not show any clear pattern due to limited number of observations. Higher values of rank correlations suggested that TD milk yields could be used instead of 305-day lactation yields for genetic evaluation of sires and cows. Detailed studies involving larger data sets were however, suggested for validation of results.

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. PMID:26582037

  16. AN APPROACH TO FARMING AND CATTLE BREEDING PRACTICES EMERGED IN THE TYNDALL COMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW BACK TO THE PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Omarovich Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper written by the author considered the economic performance of one of the communities of Dagestan, – the Tindal people. The survey examined advancement of farming in the local community. In particular, harvesting practiced by the Tindin people, their instruments of labour, natural environment’ specifics, etc.One of the lines that the paper observed was advancement of cattle breeding by local peasants. The paper presented the huge bulk of field data and a significant selection of historical sources.The author did due diligence to examination of the terrace-land cultivation by the Tindal people, which was the core occupation for all highlander inhabitants of Dagestan. The Tindal people grow mainly barley, wheat, rye, oat, millet, beans; since the XIX century the local inhabitants have introduced corn and potatoes.The Tindal people paid a specific attention to the gardening. Basically, the Tindal cultivated apples, apricots, pears, plums, nuts, etc., The gardening, although having not taken a key position in the economic life of the Tindal people, had been of enormous significance for the overall business operations of the highlanders.The Tindal people mostly used to cultivate land manually. They used the following instruments of labour: mattock, plough, wooden plough with an iron ploughshare (bezzi, entirely wooden plough (Rukia.

  17. Detection of new allotypic variants of bovine λ-light chain constant regions in different cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Aboelhassan, Dalia M; Stein, Sina K; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the cattle breeds German Black Pied (GBP), German Simmental (GS), Holstein Friesian (HF), Aubrac (A) three transcribed allotypic variants in isotype IGLC2 and five allotypic variants in isotype IGLC3 were identified. Substitutions within the putative interface to CH1 at position 11 and 79 were noted. In IGLC2(b), K79E led to a charge conversion. In IGLC3(b) and IGLC3(c), the E79N replacement removed the charge while the T11K substitution resulted in a positively charged amino acid residue. In addition, D15 and T16 were found in IGLC2(c), IGLC3(b), and IGLC3(c). Substitutions located on the outer site of the molecule were observed in IGLC2(b) (V40, H45.5), IGLC2(c) (A1, V40, D77), IGLC3(b) (A1, D77, D109, P127), IGLC3(c) (A1, G45.5, D77, D109, P127), IGLC3(d) (D109), and IGLC3(e) (A1). Amino acid residues P83 (IGLC2(c), IGLC3(b), IGLC3(c)), N93 (IGLC2(b)), D93 (IGLC3(b)), and G93 (IGLC3(c)) were positioned in cavities but seemed to be accessible for solvents.

  18. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  19. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  20. High Density SNP Chip Impacts Beef Cattle Breeding%高密度SNP芯片及其对肉牛育种影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清峰; 秦巧梅

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in sequencing and genotyping technologies have promoted a rapid revolution in methods for beef cattle selection. Genotyping assays efficiency has been improved greatly, from the past restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that were low-throughput, time consuming to the newest high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays. As the cattle genome sequence map and SNP map were finished, cattle genome wide selection that was based on the high density SNP chip became a new research hot for cattle breeding. This paper that based on the high density SNP chip on beef cattle breeding effects, reviewed high-density SNP chip technology, next generation sequencing and beef cattle genome wide selection of research. The paper also elucidated the high-density SNP chip for multiple breeds model construction of genome wide selection, and show it was extremely important that accurately predicting genomic breeding value.%近年来先进的测序和基因分型技术促进了肉牛育种方法的革新.从过去低通量、耗时的限制性片段多态标记( RFLP)到如今高通量、高密度的单核苷酸多态性(SNP)标记,基因检测效率大幅提高.随着肉牛基因组序列图谱及SNP图谱的完成,基于高密度SNP标记的牛全基因组选择成了牛育种的新热点.作者立足高密度SNP芯片对肉牛育种的影响,综述高密度SNP芯片及和下一代测定技术及肉牛全基因组选择的研究进展,阐明高密度SNP芯片对多品种全基因组选择的模型的建立及准确的预测基因组育种值极其重要.

  1. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida. PMID:2005003

  2. Effects of breed group by location interaction on crossbred cattle in Nebraska and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, T A; Euclides Filho, K; Cundiff, L V; Koger, M; Butts, W T; Gregory, K E

    1991-01-01

    Data on 2,744 calves produced in Clay Center, Nebraska and Brooksville, Florida were used to evaluate the importance of genotype x location interactions on the reproductive and maternal performance of eight breed groups of F1 crossbred cows. A total of 648 F1 crossbred cows included Bos taurus x Bos taurus (Bt x Bt) crosses: Hereford x Angus reciprocal crossbreds (HA and AH), Pinzgauer x Angus (PA), Pinzgauer x Hereford (PH); and Bos indicus x Bos taurus (Bi x Bt) crosses: Brahman x Angus (BA), Brahman x Hereford (BH), Sahiwal x Angus (SA) and Sahiwal x Hereford (SH). The first calf crop was sired by Red Poll bulls. All remaining calf crops were sired by Simmental bulls. Although the pregnancy rate was 9% higher in Nebraska, the rate of unassisted calvings and calf survival rate were both 4.6% lower in Nebraska. Calf birth and weaning weights were 8.0 and 15.6 kg heavier in Nebraska than in Florida. Bi x Bt dams exceeded (P less than .001) Bt x Bt crossbred dams for all traits except age of calf at weaning and calf-survival rates (P greater than .10). Birth weights of calves from Bi x Bt crossbred dams were 3.4 kg lighter than those from the Bt x Bt crossbred dams. The interaction of location with the breed group comparison of Bi x Bt vs Bt x Bt crossbred dams was significant for pregnancy rate, calf age at weaning, rate of unassisted calving and all weight traits. Adjusted weaning weights of calves from HA, AH, PA, PH, BA, BH, SA and SH cows were as follows: HA, 194 and 222; AH, 202 and 230; PA, 213 and 242; PH, 217 and 245; BA, 251 and 254; BH, 252 and 254; SA, 236 and 238; and SH, 238 and 243 kg, respectively, in Florida and Nebraska. Bos indicus-sired cows (BA, BH, SA and SH) weaned essentially equal-weight calves at both locations, whereas calves from Bt x Bt crossbred cows (HA, AH, PA, PH) were about 28 kg lighter in Florida.

  3. Skeletal muscle transcriptional profiles in two Italian beef breeds, Chianina and Maremmana, reveal breed specific variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiorni, S; Gruber, C E M; Chillemi, G; Bueno, S; Failla, S; Moioli, B; Ferrè, F; Valentini, A

    2016-04-01

    Chianina and Maremmana breeds play an important role in the Italian cattle meat market. The Chianina breed is an ancient breed principally raised for draught. Now this breed is the worldwide recognized producer of top quality beef, tasteful and tender, specifically the famous "Florentine steak". The Maremmana characterized by a massive skeletal structure, is a rustic cattle breed selected for adaptability to the marshy land of the Maremma region. We used a high throughput mRNA sequencing to analyze gene expression in muscle tissues of two Italian cattle breeds, Maremmana (MM) and Chianina (CN) with different selection history. We aim to examine the specific genetic contribution of each breed to meat production and quality, comparing the skeletal muscle tissue from Maremmana and Chianina. Most of the differentially expressed genes were grouped in the Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis pathways. The rate and the extent of post-mortem energy metabolism have a critical effect on the conversion of muscle to meat. Furthermore, we aim at discovering the differences in nucleotide variation between the two breeds which might be attributable to the different history of selection/divergence. In this work we could emphasize the involvement of pathways of post-mortem energy metabolism. Moreover, we detected a collection of coding SNPs which could offer new genomic resources to improve phenotypic selection in livestock breeding program. PMID:26896938

  4. Selection for adaptation to dietary shifts: towards sustainable breeding of carnivorous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Le Boucher

    Full Text Available Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture.

  5. On the history of cattle genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen; Beerling, Marie Louise; Buchanan, David S.; Theunissen, Bert; Koolmees, Peter A.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2014-01-01

    Cattle are our most important livestock species because of their production and role in human culture. Many breeds that differ in appearance, performance and environmental adaptation are kept on all inhabited continents, but the historic origin of the diverse phenotypes is not always clear. We give

  6. Cattle breed evaluation at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Centre and implications for commercial beef farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1969, 36 sire breeds have been evaluated for topcross performance in a series of experiments (Cycles) in the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) Program. In Cycle VII, the 7 most prominent U.S. beef breeds (3 British breeds: Angus, Hereford, Red Angus; and 4 Continental European breeds: Simmental, ...

  7. Nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine lymphotoxin A gene and their distribution among Bos indicus zebu cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Jyotsna Dhingra; Mishra, Priyanka; Verma, N K; Niranjan, S K; Dangi, P S; Sharma, Rekha; Behl, Rahul

    2016-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to characterize the genetic variation present in lymphoxin A gene (LTA gene) encoding for the lymphotoxin A protein also known as tumor necrosis factor beta, a cytokine produced by lymphocytes, known to be cytotoxic for a wide range of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, and, which is essential for normal immunological development; in 40 animals of 5 diverse Bos indicus Indian zebu cattle breeds. These breeds survive under the harsh and tough tropical climatic conditions of various parts of the Indian subcontinent. The LTA gene in the present study was observed to contain 33 SNPs and 3 small insertion/deletion polymorphisms. Four SNPs occurred in the coding regions of the gene viz. g.1327A>G and g.1400C>T in exon 2 and g.1840C>T and g.1942C>T in exon 3, of which the SNP g.1327A>G in exon 2 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change G38D. This amino acid change was however predicted not be affecting the protein function in any manner. The gene contained putative transcription factor binding sites for the c-Re1 and for Pax-4 transcription factors. A putative promoter region was also predicted on the reverse DNA strand from position 894 to 644. Several repeat elements and microsatellite repeats were detected to be occurring across the 3.2kb LTA gene sequence. The study showed the occurrence of 40 genotypes and 48 most probable haplotypes. The genotypes at the observed SNP positions in the LTA gene were in near Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. A negative Tajima's D value that was not significant statistically at P>0.10 indicated that the neutral mutation hypothesis could not be excluded. The genetic variations observed in the LTA gene in the present study have not been reported earlier and these could possibly be used as molecular markers for further studies involving association of the gene variability with disease resistance/tolerance traits.

  8. Collection of oocytes through transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration of follicles in an Indian breed of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, R S; Singla, S K; Palta, P

    2003-04-15

    The present study was undertaken in Karan Fries, an Indian breed of cattle to (1) determine the number of follicles available for puncture and (2) explore the potential of this breed as a donor of developmentally competent oocytes. Ovum pick-up (OPU) was performed using an ultrasound machine with a transvaginal convex transducer (5 MHz) with a needle guide, single lumen 19-gauge 60 cm long needle and a vacuum pressure of 90 mmHg. The number and size of follicles in each ovary was determined before puncture. The follicles were characterized on the basis of their diameter as small (3-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large (>/=10 mm). The oocytes recovered were classified by quality. They were matured in vitro, irrespective of their grade, in 50 microl droplets of the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium (TCM-199+10% fetal bovine serum(FBS)+5 microg/ml follicle stimulating hormone (folltropin)+1 microg/ml estradiol-17beta+0.2 mM sodium pyruvate), covered with paraffin oil, in 35 mm petridish for 24 h in a CO(2) incubator (5% CO(2) in air) at 38.5 degrees C. The cleavage rate was recorded at day 2 post-insemination after subjecting the oocytes to in vitro fertilization (IVF). The differences in follicular populations of all size categories among individual donors were not significant. A total of 92 oocytes were recovered by aspiration of 157 follicles, with an overall recovery rate of 59% (range 35-79%). Of these, 32% were of grades A and B and the rest of grades C and D. The mean numbers of total follicles and the oocytes recovered per session did not differ significantly among individual donors. Out of the 73 oocytes subjected to IVM and IVF, 24 reached 2-4 cell stage at day 2 post-fertilization, with a cleavage rate of 33%. The total number of oocytes recovered was correlated with the number of small (R=0.54, Pslaughter is not allowed for religious reasons. PMID:12586489

  9. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  10. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  11. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    O. Bernardes

    2010-01-01

    Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important a...

  12. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  13. Genetic types of milk proteins prevalence and their relation with production traits in Lithuanian dairy cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Peciulaitienė, Nijolė

    2005-01-01

    First time was investigated distribution of genes coding for milk protein diversity in Lithuanian dairy cattle population and milk protein genes influencing milk yield and composition. According to research results, offer take into account to specific genes loci in cattle genome, influencing expression of desirable milk protein types. Select animals, owning Kapa-casein B and Beta-lactoglobulin B alleles and create specific cattle herds be able to produce qualitative milk suitable for curd and...

  14. African Indigenous Cattle: Unique Genetic Resources in a Rapidly Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Okeyo; Hanotte, Olivier; Kwon, Young-Jun; Cho, Seoae

    2015-07-01

    At least 150 indigenous African cattle breeds have been named, but the majority of African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized. As cattle breeds and populations in Africa adapted to various local environmental conditions, they acquired unique features. We know now that the history of African cattle was particularly complex and while several of its episodes remain debated, there is no doubt that African cattle population evolved dramatically over time. Today, we find a mosaic of genetically diverse population from the purest Bos taurus to the nearly pure Bos indicus. African cattle are now found all across the continent, with the exception of the Sahara and the river Congo basin. They are found on the rift valley highlands as well as below sea level in the Afar depression. These unique livestock genetic resources are in danger to disappear rapidly following uncontrolled crossbreeding and breed replacements with exotic breeds. Breeding improvement programs of African indigenous livestock remain too few while paradoxically the demand of livestock products is continually increasing. Many African indigenous breeds are endangered now, and their unique adaptive traits may be lost forever. This paper reviews the unique known characteristics of indigenous African cattle populations while describing the opportunities, the necessity and urgency to understand and utilize these resources to respond to the needs of the people of the continent and to the benefit of African farmers. PMID:26104394

  15. The periparturient period is associated with structural and transcriptomic adaptations of rumen papillae in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M A; Schiestel, C; AlZahal, O; Dionissopoulos, L; Laarman, A H; Matthews, J C; McBride, B W

    2015-04-01

    The structural and functional adaption of the rumen epithelium during the transition period is largely undescribed. To characterize the adaptation of the rumen epithelium during transition, multiparous dairy cattle (n=12) fitted with rumen fistulas and fed a low-energy dry cow diet (1.37 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) were transitioned abruptly to a high-energy lactating cow diet (1.68 Mcal/kg, net energy for lactation) immediately after parturition. Rumen papillae were biopsied at -3, +1, and +6 wk relative to calving. The histology of morphology of the rumen papillae was evaluated under the light microscope and electron microscope, and mRNA profiling was performed using an Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Data preprocessing was conducted using the robust multi-array average method, and detection of significant genes was conducted using ANOVA. Also, the Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate of 0.1 was applied. Microscopic examination of rumen papillae revealed an increase in epithelial desquamation during early lactation as sloughing scores increased from 1.7 ± 0.2 at -3 wk to 4.1 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2 at +1 and + 6 wk, respectively. A total of 1,011 (-3 vs. +1 wk) and 729 (-3 vs. +6 wk) differentially expressed genes were identified (false discovery rate of 0.10, Ptransition period in dairy cattle. In conclusion, the experimental data support the hypothesis that rumen papillae adapt in early lactation by altering their gene expression patterns and, thus, their epithelial structure. PMID:25682143

  16. Selection of SNP from 50K and 777K arrays to predict breed of origin in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.; Hoving, A.H.; Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable breed assignment can be performed with SNP. Currently, high density SNP chips are available with large numbers of SNP from which the most informative SNP can be selected for breed assignment. Several methods have been published to select the most informative SNP to distinguish among breeds.

  17. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo M. F.; Baccari, Flávio; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the heat tolerance of animals of two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds, through the monitoring of physiological acclimatization reactions in different thermal situations characterized by alternate periods of thermoneutrality and heat stress simulated in climatic chambers. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The increase in chamber temperatures had different consequences on the animals of each breed. When submitted to heat stress, the Frisian animals developed high thermal polypnea (more than 105 breath movements per minute), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.7°C to 40.0°C). However, only a slight depression in food intake and in blood thyroid hormone concentrations was observed under thermal stressful conditions. Under the thermal stressful conditions, Limousine animals decreased food intake by 11.4% and blood triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration decreased to 76% of the level observed in thermoneutral conditions. Alentejana animals had similar reactions. The Mertolenga cattle exhibited the highest capacity for maintaining homeothermy: under heat stressful conditions, the mean thermal polypnea increased twofold, but mean rectal temperature did not increase. Mean food intake decreased by only 2% and mean T3 blood concentration was lowered to 85,6% of the concentration observed under thermoneutral conditions. These results lead to the conclusion that the Frisian animals had more difficulty in tolerating high temperatures, the Limousine and Alentejana ones had an intermediate difficulty, and the Mertolenga animals were by far the most heat tolerant.

  18. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  19. Assessing the impact of natural service bulls and genotype by environment interactions on genetic gain and inbreeding in organic dairy cattle genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Simianer, H; Swalve, H H; König, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare genetic gain and inbreeding coefficients of dairy cattle in organic breeding program designs by applying stochastic simulations. Evaluated breeding strategies were: (i) selecting bulls from conventional breeding programs, and taking into account genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, (ii) selecting genotyped bulls within the organic environment for artificial insemination (AI) programs and (iii) selecting genotyped natural service bulls within organic herds. The simulated conventional population comprised 148 800 cows from 2976 herds with an average herd size of 50 cows per herd, and 1200 cows were assigned to 60 organic herds. In a young bull program, selection criteria of young bulls in both production systems (conventional and organic) were either 'conventional' estimated breeding values (EBV) or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for two traits with low (h 2=0.05) and moderate heritability (h 2=0.30). GEBV were calculated for different accuracies (r mg), and G×E interactions were considered by modifying originally simulated true breeding values in the range from r g=0.5 to 1.0. For both traits (h 2=0.05 and 0.30) and r mg⩾0.8, genomic selection of bulls directly in the organic population and using selected bulls via AI revealed higher genetic gain than selecting young bulls in the larger conventional population based on EBV; also without the existence of G×E interactions. Only for pronounced G×E interactions (r g=0.5), and for highly accurate GEBV for natural service bulls (r mg>0.9), results suggests the use of genotyped organic natural service bulls instead of implementing an AI program. Inbreeding coefficients of selected bulls and their offspring were generally lower when basing selection decisions for young bulls on GEBV compared with selection strategies based on pedigree indices.

  20. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. field population to laboratory breeding causes transcriptional alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte H Højland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450 genes was previously found in a newly-collected susceptible field population in comparison to three insecticide-resistant laboratory strains and a laboratory reference strain. RESULTS: We compared gene expression of five P450s by qPCR as well as global gene expression by RNAseq in the newly-acquired field population (845b in generation F1, F13 and F29 to test how gene expression changes following laboratory adaption. Four (CYP6A1, CYP6A36, CYP6D3, CYP6G4 of five investigated P450 genes adapted to breeding by decreasing expression. CYP6D1 showed higher female expression in F29 than in F1. For males, about half of the genes accessed in the global gene expression were up-regulated in F13 and F29 in comparison with the F1 population. In females, 60% of the genes were up-regulated in F13 in comparison with F1, while 33% were up-regulated in F29. Forty potential P450 genes were identified. In most cases, P450 gene expression was decreased in F13 flies in comparison with F1. Gene expression then increased from F13 to F29 in males and decreased further in females. CONCLUSION: The global gene expression changes massively during adaptation to laboratory breeding. In general, global expression decreased as a result of laboratory adaption in males, while female expression was not unidirectional. Expression of P450 genes was in general down-regulated as a result of laboratory adaption. Expression of hexamerin, coding for a storage protein was increased, while gene expression of genes coding for amylases decreased. This suggests a major impact of the surrounding environment on gene response to xenobiotics and genetic composition of housefly strains.

  1. Predicting demographically sustainable rates of adaptation: can great tit breeding time keep pace with climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Lof, Marjolein; Reed, Thomas E; McNamara, John; Verhulst, Simon; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-01-19

    Populations need to adapt to sustained climate change, which requires micro-evolutionary change in the long term. A key question is how the rate of this micro-evolutionary change compares with the rate of environmental change, given that theoretically there is a 'critical rate of environmental change' beyond which increased maladaptation leads to population extinction. Here, we parametrize two closely related models to predict this critical rate using data from a long-term study of great tits (Parus major). We used stochastic dynamic programming to predict changes in optimal breeding time under three different climate scenarios. Using these results we parametrized two theoretical models to predict critical rates. Results from both models agreed qualitatively in that even 'mild' rates of climate change would be close to these critical rates with respect to great tit breeding time, while for scenarios close to the upper limit of IPCC climate projections the calculated critical rates would be clearly exceeded with possible consequences for population persistence. We therefore tentatively conclude that micro-evolution, together with plasticity, would rescue only the population from mild rates of climate change, although the models make many simplifying assumptions that remain to be tested.

  2. Current warming will reduce yields unless maize breeding and seed systems adapt immediately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, A. J.; Koehler, A.-K.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Whitfield, S.; Das, B.

    2016-10-01

    The development of crop varieties that are better suited to new climatic conditions is vital for future food production. Increases in mean temperature accelerate crop development, resulting in shorter crop durations and reduced time to accumulate biomass and yield. The process of breeding, delivery and adoption (BDA) of new maize varieties can take up to 30 years. Here, we assess for the first time the implications of warming during the BDA process by using five bias-corrected global climate models and four representative concentration pathways with realistic scenarios of maize BDA times in Africa. The results show that the projected difference in temperature between the start and end of the maize BDA cycle results in shorter crop durations that are outside current variability. Both adaptation and mitigation can reduce duration loss. In particular, climate projections have the potential to provide target elevated temperatures for breeding. Whilst options for reducing BDA time are highly context dependent, common threads include improved recording and sharing of data across regions for the whole BDA cycle, streamlining of regulation, and capacity building. Finally, we show that the results have implications for maize across the tropics, where similar shortening of duration is projected.

  3. Effect of Brucella Infection on Reproduction Conditions of Female Breeding Cattle and Its Public Health Significance in Western Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Haileselassie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common clinical manifestations of brucellosis in livestock are associated with reproduction. This paper reports the result of a cross-sectional study conducted between October, 2007 and April, 2008 in Western Tigray, North Ethiopia, with the objectives of assessing the effect of Brucella infection on reproduction conditions of female breeding bovine and to explore the presence of Brucella seroreactors in vulnerable humans. A total of 1,354 and 246 sera were collected from female cattle and humans, respectively. The sera were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT, and positive samples were confirmed by complement fixation test (CFT. Reproductive conditions for female cattle and risk to human brucellosis seropositivity were tested by using logistic regression analysis. The result indicated that the overall prevalence in female cattle was 6.1%. The study showed 1.2% prevalence among human risk groups, all of which were herdsmen. Logistic regression identified parity status, calving interval, abortion history, and abortion period were significantly associated with seropositivity. The association was not significant with reproductive status and parity number. Proper hygienic practices and team work between veterinary and health personnel should improve the efforts to combat disease transmission.

  4. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  5. Strategies for imputation to whole genome sequence using a single or multi-breed reference population in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam;

    2014-01-01

    individual). Conclusion Combining reference populations across breeds is a good option to increase the size of the reference data and in turn the accuracy of imputation when only few animals are available. Pre-phasing the reference data only slightly decreases the accuracy but gives substantial improvements...... autosome 29 using 387,436 bi-allelic variants and 13,612 SNP markers from the bovine HD panel. Results A combined breed reference population led to higher imputation accuracies than did a single breed reference. The highest accuracy of imputation for all three test breeds was achieved when using BEAGLE...

  6. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  7. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1 on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Papa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1 of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P, Limousine(L, Kianina(C, Sharole(Sh and Markixhana(M on meat production increasing on small scale farms. To carried out this objective, two study methods were used: (i The survey - 284 small scale farms was observed in the Albanian coastal field and (ii Comparative essay of fattening calves (F1 in semi intensive small scale farm condition - 32 calves, F1 crosses of Holstein cows with above mentioned meat breeds were put in fattening in semi intensive small scale farm condition. 6 Holstein breed (H calves of 3-4 months age was used as control group. The feeding of animals was based on forages produced in farm: corn silage 30 % D.M, fresh alpha-alpha and its hay. 35 % of dry matter requirements were supplied by bought concentrate feedstuffs with 15 % crude protein on dry matter bases. The fattening period lasted 8 months . The average daily body weight increasing for each crosses and control group were respectively 889g (PxH, 998g (LxH, 850g (KxH, 1010g( ChxH, 953g (MxH and 702g (HxH. Multivariate analyses according to a linear model with constant factors ( genotype, sex, genotype x sex and covariance “live body weight in the beginning of experiment” showed that: (i The effect of crossbreds on average daily gain is evident under the small-scale farms conditions, also, (ii The average daily gain increases with 23 -38 % , depending on the type of crosses, (iii The crosses of dairy cattle with Limousine and Sharole result as most effective. The differences between F

  8. Effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in South East Brazil: Part 2-Tissue distribution and carcase composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A; de Felicio, P E

    1982-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series recording the effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of Nelore, Guzerá, Charolais and Canchim cattle in south-east Brazil. Significant treatment variations were recorded in carcase bone weights but differences in meat to bone ratios were not sufficiently marked to demonstrate that bone might grow at the expense of muscle when animals are maintained on particularly severe nutritional regimes. A simple carcase weight to length ratio was shown to be highly correlated with total bone proportion but not with yield of saleable meat. Recovery of total saleable meat was only marginally and not significantly affected by breed but was significantly affected by treatment. The increased levels of fatness in the carcases of the zebu and, in particular, all animals finished in feedlot, that affected the yield of saleable meat, was also thought to be responsible for the decreased recovery of first quality meat in these carcases. In general, tissue differences were more noticeable between treatments than between breeds and reflected the varying nutritional status of the animals pre-slaughter. PMID:22054702

  9. DNA polymorphisms of the prion doppel gene region in four different German cattle breeds and cows tested positive for bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, N; Humeny, A; Kashkevich, K; Henz, I; Fischer, C; Becker, C-M; Schiebel, K

    2005-11-01

    Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene PRNP have been shown to influence the susceptibility/resistance to prion infections in human and sheep. In addition, the T174M polymorphism within the flanking prion doppel gene (PRND) was thought to be involved in susceptibility to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. To study a possible influence of DNA polymorphisms of the bovine PRND gene in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), previously identified and newly isolated DNA polymorphisms were genotyped in all available German cattle that tested positive for BSE. Genotypes and calculated haplotypes were compared with breeding bulls serving as controls. Analysis of the four major breeds Schwarzbunt (Holstein Friesian), Rotbunt (Holstein Red), Fleckvieh (Simmental), and Braunvieh (Swiss Brown) resulted in the isolation of the previously known polymorphisms R50H and R132Q and two novel synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C4820T and A5063T. Comparative genotype and haplotype analysis of BSE and control animals revealed a significantly different distribution of polymorphisms C4815T and R132Q in Fleckvieh animals but not in the other breeds tested. No association to BSE susceptibility was detectable for polymorphisms R50H and A5063T.

  10. Are cattle, sheep, and goats endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberlet, P; Valentini, A; Rezaei, H R; Naderi, S; Pompanon, F; Negrini, R; Ajmone-Marsan, P

    2008-01-01

    For about 10 000 years, farmers have been managing cattle, sheep, and goats in a sustainable way, leading to animals that are well adapted to the local conditions. About 200 years ago, the situation started to change dramatically, with the rise of the concept of breed. All animals from the same breed began to be selected for the same phenotypic characteristics, and reproduction among breeds was seriously reduced. This corresponded to a strong fragmentation of the initial populations. A few decades ago, the selection pressures were increased again in order to further improve productivity, without enough emphasis on the preservation of the overall genetic diversity. The efficiency of modern selection methods successfully increased the production, but with a dramatic loss of genetic variability. Many industrial breeds now suffer from inbreeding, with effective population sizes falling below 50. With the development of these industrial breeds came economic pressure on farmers to abandon their traditional breeds, and many of these have recently become extinct as a result. This means that genetic resources in cattle, sheep, and goats are highly endangered, particularly in developed countries. It is therefore important to take measures that promote a sustainable management of these genetic resources; first, by in situ preservation of endangered breeds; second, by using selection programmes to restore the genetic diversity of industrial breeds; and finally, by protecting the wild relatives that might provide useful genetic resources. PMID:17927711

  11. Using Sequence Variants in Linkage Disequilibrium with Causative Mutations to Improve Across Breed Prediction in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Boichard, Didier; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt;

    2016-01-01

    between markers and causative mutations, and assumed that a fraction of the causative mutations was shared across breeds and had the same effect across breeds. By comparing the loss in reliability of different scenarios, varying the distance between markers and causative mutations, using either all genome...... wide markers from commercial SNP chips, or only the markers closest to the causative mutations, we demonstrate the importance of using only variants very close to the causative mutations, especially for across breed prediction. Rare variants improved prediction only if they were very close to rare...

  12. THE STRUCTURES OF BREEDING DAIRY CATTLE IN THE SAHARA: THE STATUS IN THE M’ZAB VALLEY (SOUTHERN ALGERIAN SHARA)

    OpenAIRE

    H. BENSAHA; F. ARBOUCHE

    2014-01-01

    The dairy milk sector is a strategic sector in the Algerian agriculture with 2.39 billion liters in 2009, 2.7 billion in 2010 and 2.93 billion in 2011. The milk collection reached 572 million liters in 2011. The enthusiasm for milk production in the M’zab valley led to the creation of many cattle farms. The objective of this study is to investigate the dairy cattle infrastructures and its impacts on milk production. The conducted through a questionnaire over 53 farms representing 57.7% of the...

  13. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

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    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  14. Molecular Assisted Breeding and Adaptability Analysis of Zhongyouza 11 with Super High Oil Content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using a three-line system of Shaan 2A cytoplasmic male sterility, a hybrid variety rapeseed, Zhongyouza 11, was developed by the combination of traditional methods and a molecular marker-assisted breeding technique. This hybrid variety had high grain yield, high oil content, wide adaptability, and good quality. The oil content of Zhongyouza 11 is steadily above 43% in the three ecological regions along the Yangtze River valley, which is the largest winter oilseed production area in China. The highest oil content of Zhongyouza 11 reached 46.68% in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River valley in 2003-2004, which was the highest among all lines involved in the national regional rapeseed variety trials. In the regional yield trials in Hubei Province, the average yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 853 kg ha-1 (2002-2004), yielding more than the control variety Zhongshuang 6 by 11.34%. In the national trials, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 reached 2 405.7, 2 697.3, and 2 770.2 kg ha-1 in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, yielding more than the control varieties by 11.52, 12.9, and 14.92%, respectively, in 2003-2005. Both the high oil content and high grain yield contributed to the high oil yield of Zhongyouza 11. The oil yield of Zhongyouza 11 in the national trials reached 1083.3, 1210.2, and 1224.8 kg ha-1, yielding more than the controls by 29.42, 27.65, and 20.98%, respectively, in the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley. The highest oil yield reached 1369.65 kg ha-1 in the middle reach of the Yangtze River valley(2003-2004), with an increase of 46.21% compared to the control. The experimental sites distributed widely along the Yangtze River valley, cover most of the Chinese winter rapeseed production areas. Among the 89 experimental location/years, the yield of Zhongyouza 11 surpassed the controls at 77 location/years in the trials, indicating its wide adaptability.Zhongyouza 11 was the only one that passed the

  15. Comparison of cattle of a five-breed diallel: size, growth, condition and pubertal characters of second-generation heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J F; Long, C R; Posada, G A; McElhenney, W H; Cartwright, T C

    1989-05-01

    Monthly weights, heights and condition scores and measurements taken at the time of puberty were utilized to estimate effects of breed-type and heterosis on characters related to growth, size and puberty of second-generation heifers of a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey. One group of heifers was maintained on pasture with supplemental feed; two other groups were fed in individual pens starting at weaning and 1 yr of age, respectively. A model including main effects of breed-type, sire within breed-type, management, parity of dam and birth-season was used for analyzing all characters. Breed-type tested with sire within breed-type was significant for all characters except ADG from 360 to 450 d. Straightbred and crossbred means were larger for the second generation than for the first, presumably due to management and(or) year effects. Heterosis generally was positive and, when expressed as a percentage, decreased with age, which is in agreement with other research reports. Holsteins and Brahmans were largest for growth and size characters, whereas Jerseys were smallest. Jerseys were the youngest, lightest and shortest at puberty, whereas Brahmans were oldest, heaviest and tallest. PMID:2737979

  16. Experimental selection for calving ease and postnatal growth in seven cattle populations. I. Changes in estimated breeding values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental selection was used to create beef cattle lines with similar yearling weight direct and weaning weight maternal EBV and either lower 2-yr-old heifer calving difficulty score EBV or proportionally average birth weight EBV. Select (low heifer calving difficulty score EBV) and control line...

  17. Genomic selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programmes: Sexed semen cannot replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer as superior reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer;

    2012-01-01

    semen. However, when all young bull candidates were born following MOET, the results showed that the use of Y-semen in the breeding nucleus tended to decrease the rate of inbreeding as it enabled GS to increase within-family selection. This implies that the benefit from using sexed semen in a modern......The aim of this study was to test whether the use of X-semen in a dairy cattle population using genomic selection (GS) and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) increases the selection intensity on cow dams and thereby the genetic gain in the entire population. Also, the dynamics of using...... different types of sexed semen (X, Y or conventional) in the nucleus were investigated. The stochastic simulation study partly supported the hypothesis as the genetic gain in the entire population was elevated when X-semen was used in the production population as GS exploited the higher selection intensity...

  18. 吉林左家地区黄牛的繁殖障碍及治疗方法%Cattle Breeding Disorder and Treatment in Zuojia Region of Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽娟; 丛立新; 金哲浩

    2012-01-01

    黄牛的繁殖障碍日益成为黄牛品种改良过程中影响肉牛生产的一大难题,其中以卵巢疾病占的比例较大,笔者根据吉林左家地区黄牛品种改良过程中发现的卵巢疾病进行了激素治疗,效果较好。%Breeding disorder is increasingly becoming a major problem in the cattle breed improvement process,and ovarian disease accounted for a large proportion.The author taking hormone therapy for ovarian disease,found which achieved better results in the cattle breed improvement process.

  19. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  20. Efficacy of Brahman breeding in the management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Brown, M A; Tolley, G; Phillips, J M

    1994-02-01

    The efficacy of Brahman breeding used as an alternative tactic to manage insecticide-resistant populations of adult horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), was determined. Concentration-mortality bioassays done at Booneville and Hope, AR, in 1988 and 1989, respectively, showed that horn fly populations were resistant to diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, tetrachlorvinphos, and methoxychlor. Data showed loss of field efficacy for coumaphos and delnav. Mean horn fly counts on Braham cows were significantly lower than on Angus cows for all sampling dates in 1989 and 1990. Mean fly counts on Brahman x Angus cows were approximately intermediate to the two purebred mean fly counts. Brahman breeding caused significant reductions in the number of organophosphate-resistant horn flies, which had been equal to or greater than that obtained from continued spraying with organophosphate insecticides. The Brahman x Hereford cows, which have one-eighth greater Brahman breeding than the Brangus cows, had fewer horn flies on 48 of 56 sampling dates in 1988-1990 and significantly fewer flies on 37 sampling dates. The effectiveness of Brahman breeding in causing lower numbers of insecticide-resistant horn flies significantly increased as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. PMID:8144749

  1. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal;

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  2. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  3. Changes in proportions of empty body depots and constituents for nine breeds of cattle under various feed availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1997-01-01

    Mature cows (146) representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds were slaughtered to contribute to the investigation of the effect of various feed availabilities on body composition. Weights recorded when cows were placed on feed were used to set daily diets at four rates of intake within each breed (55, 76, 96, and 111 g DM/[kg wt.75.d]). Cows remained on their assigned daily feed allotment throughout the study (3 to 5 yr). On the day of slaughter, shrunk live weights were recorded. Chemical determinations of protein (nitrogen x 6.25), ether extractable lipid, ash of dry matter, and moisture for hide and offal were obtained for all cows. Chemical determinations of these same constituents were obtained for the carcass soft tissue of 98 cows. Relationships among estimator traits carcass ash, warm carcass weight, resistive impedance, and carcass water from the 97 carcasses were used to predict the carcass constituents for the remaining 49 cows. Within breed, relationships between proportions of fat and empty body (sum of fat, ash, water, and protein from the three body pools of hide, offal, and carcass) were used to estimate empty body weight at 251 g fat/kg (standard reference body weight) for each of the nine breeds. Proportions of offal, carcass, hide, chemical constituents, and selected abdominal and thoracic organs relative to empty body weight from cows that attained weight stasis were regressed on one minus the ratio of individual actual empty body weight to breed standard reference weight. Among mature cows attaining weight stasis at various feeding rates, the proportion of offal remained constant, proportions of fat in carcass, hide, and offal increased with increasing feed level, and proportions of water and protein decreased. Significant variation (P < .01) attributable to breed in proportions of carcass, offal, hide, chemical constituents of the hide and offal, water, and protein of the

  4. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for birth weight, birth date, dystocia, and survival as traits of dam in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-09-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated as traits of the dam in F2 progeny of F1 dams and F3 and 4 progeny of F2 and 3 dams in three composite populations of beef cattle. Traits included birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth, 72 h, and weaning for calves with dams of different age classes. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/4 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Among calves with 2-yr-old dams, breed effects were significant for birth weight, birth date, calving difficulty percentage, and survival percentage at birth but not at 72 h and weaning. Calf survival at weaning was lowest for smallest (less than mu - 1.5 sigma) and largest (greater than mu + 1.5 sigma) birth weight classes and did not differ among intermediate birth weight classes. Calves with difficult births with 2-yr-old dams were significantly heavier at birth (39.6 vs 35.4 kg) and had significantly lower survival at 72 h (87.1 vs 92.2%) and at weaning (77.4 vs 85.1%) than calves with 2-yr-old dams that did not experience difficult births. Among calves with dams greater than or equal to 3 yr old and from dams of all ages, breed group effects generally were significant for the traits analyzed. Important breed group effects on dystocia and survival traits were observed independent of breed group effects on birth weight. Effects of heterosis were significant for birth weight for each generation of each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations. Generally, heterosis effects for calving difficulty percentage were not significant. Effects of heterosis generally were significant for date of birth (earlier) for each composite population and for

  5. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Collado, D.; Diaz, D.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Gandini, G.

    2013-01-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influe

  6. Changes in proportions of empty body depots and constituents for nine breeds of cattle under various feed availabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1997-01-01

    Mature cows (146) representing Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Pinzgauer, Red Poll, and Simmental breeds were slaughtered to contribute to the investigation of the effect of various feed availabilities on body composition. Weights recorded when cows were placed on feed were used to set daily diets at four rates of intake within each breed (55, 76, 96, and 111 g DM/[kg wt.75.d]). Cows remained on their assigned daily feed allotment throughout the study (3 to 5 yr). On the day of slaughter, shrunk live weights were recorded. Chemical determinations of protein (nitrogen x 6.25), ether extractable lipid, ash of dry matter, and moisture for hide and offal were obtained for all cows. Chemical determinations of these same constituents were obtained for the carcass soft tissue of 98 cows. Relationships among estimator traits carcass ash, warm carcass weight, resistive impedance, and carcass water from the 97 carcasses were used to predict the carcass constituents for the remaining 49 cows. Within breed, relationships between proportions of fat and empty body (sum of fat, ash, water, and protein from the three body pools of hide, offal, and carcass) were used to estimate empty body weight at 251 g fat/kg (standard reference body weight) for each of the nine breeds. Proportions of offal, carcass, hide, chemical constituents, and selected abdominal and thoracic organs relative to empty body weight from cows that attained weight stasis were regressed on one minus the ratio of individual actual empty body weight to breed standard reference weight. Among mature cows attaining weight stasis at various feeding rates, the proportion of offal remained constant, proportions of fat in carcass, hide, and offal increased with increasing feed level, and proportions of water and protein decreased. Significant variation (P carcass, offal, hide, chemical constituents of the hide and offal, water, and protein of the carcass and selected organs was observed. PMID

  7. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  8. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness. PMID:16160060

  9. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

    2005-10-01

    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness.

  10. 中国五大良种黄牛品质特性的研究进展%Recent Progress in the Study of Meat Quality Characteristics of Five Dominant Cattle Breeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敬; 王勇峰; 李娜; 孙宝忠; 李海鹏; 谢鹏; 郎玉苗; 丰永红; 刘亚娜; 郭江南

    2015-01-01

    Yellow cattle widely distribute all over China. There are 53 cattle breeds recognized in the country, 5 breeds of which are renowned for excellent draft performance and meat quality. This review summarizes the recent progress in studying meat quality characteristics of the 5 cattle breeds, leading to the conclusion that comprehensive, systematic and in-depth studies are lacking; carcass segmentation and meat grading are only dimly understood and have been scarcely investigated. It is suggested that meat grading and quality evaluation should be carried out under modern processing conditions for a better understanding of meat quality characteristics. Additionally, the effects of gender, slaughter age and carcass location on meat quality of the 5 cattle breeds need to be investigated in order to ensure the meat quality. This paper is expected to provide useful data for developing excellent beef cattle breeds and establishing carcass segmentation and meat grading standards for local cattle breeds in China.%黄牛分布遍布全国,被认可的黄牛品种有53个,其中役肉性能良好的品种有5个,称为五大良种黄牛。本文总结了我国五大良种黄牛品质特性的研究现状,发现对我国五大良种黄牛品质特性缺乏全面、系统、深入的研究,对于其分级分割的认识模糊,相应的研究较少。建议完善我国五大良种黄牛品质特性的研究,采用现代加工条件对肉质进行合理的评级评价,补充五大良种黄牛的不同性别、年龄、部位品质的研究,保存其优良性状,以期为我国选育优良肉用型品种和形成我国本地牛品种的分级分割方法提供参考。

  11. THE STRUCTURES OF BREEDING DAIRY CATTLE IN THE SAHARA: THE STATUS IN THE M’ZAB VALLEY (SOUTHERN ALGERIAN SHARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. BENSAHA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dairy milk sector is a strategic sector in the Algerian agriculture with 2.39 billion liters in 2009, 2.7 billion in 2010 and 2.93 billion in 2011. The milk collection reached 572 million liters in 2011. The enthusiasm for milk production in the M’zab valley led to the creation of many cattle farms. The objective of this study is to investigate the dairy cattle infrastructures and its impacts on milk production. The conducted through a questionnaire over 53 farms representing 57.7% of the exploitations in the M’zab valley. The results show that 25% of farms have mechanical means for milking (milking trolley and that 92% of buildings are equipped with troughs in a poor condition and do not meet accepted standards. All farms surveyed practice stalls. 32.92% of the buildings are designed with unsuited materials (tin, zinc, shrubs trunks, etc., 49.88% are designed with a blend of modern (blocks and traditional (Reeds, Diss materials, and 17.20% are built with hard poles, walls in cement mortar and asbestos cement roof. The sanitary and hygienic appearance is a function of investments, which are supported by state subsidies in the context of the promotion of the dairy industry. This investigation gave rise to a set of proposals for the upgrading and modernization of the dairy cattle infrastructures, which meet specific climatic conditions, in order to improve the quality and the quantity of milk production in the region of the M’zab Valley with specific climatic conditions.

  12. Comparison of tick resistance of crossbred Senepol × Limousin to purebred Limousin cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Teurlai, Magali; Naves, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The comparison of resistance to natural tick infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) of crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle was investigated. The Senepol breed, originated from St Croix Island in the Caribbean is considered as a Bos taurus breed adapted to tropical conditions. Despite its B. taurus genetic background, it is believed to have a good tick resistance, but this resistance has never been assessed previously. Tick counts under natural infestation were carried out to investigate the difference of susceptibility between crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle. Mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of the breed on the number of ticks. Results show that Senepol × Limousin are five times less infested by ticks than purebred Limousin. These results underline the opportunity to use Senepol cattle for crossing with susceptible B. taurus breeds in tick infested areas, to combine tick resistance with beef production abilities. PMID:24366717

  13. Breed effects, dietary energy density effects, and retained heterosis on different measures of gain efficiency in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for different measures of gain efficiency was estimated in F3 generation castrate male progeny in three composite populations finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Gain efficiency was evaluated in time constant (0 to 207 d), gain constant (310 to 540 kg), carcass weight constant (333 kg), and retail product weight constant (225 and 210 kg) end points and to different marbling score and longissimus muscle fat end points. Expressions of gain efficiency included live weight gain/megacalories of ME and retail product weight/megacalories of ME. Significant differences were observed among breeds in all measures of gain efficiency. Breeds that had the smallest weight to maintain tended to be more efficient in live weight gain in the time constant period, whereas breeds with the highest rate of gain tended to be more efficient in the gain constant period. To marbling score or longissimus muscle fat end points, breeds with the lowest marbling scores and smallest percentage fat in the longissimus muscle on an age constant basis (e.g., Limousin and Gelbvieh) tended to be less efficient, whereas breeds with the highest marbling score and highest percentage of fat in the longissimus muscle on an age constant basis (e.g., Hereford and Angus) tended to be more efficient. Breeds with the highest percentage of retail product (Limousin and Gelbvieh) were more efficient to retail product weight end points, or when retail product weight was the measure of output. Steers fed the

  14. Breed effects, dietary energy density effects, and retained heterosis on different measures of gain efficiency in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for different measures of gain efficiency was estimated in F3 generation castrate male progeny in three composite populations finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Gain efficiency was evaluated in time constant (0 to 207 d), gain constant (310 to 540 kg), carcass weight constant (333 kg), and retail product weight constant (225 and 210 kg) end points and to different marbling score and longissimus muscle fat end points. Expressions of gain efficiency included live weight gain/megacalories of ME and retail product weight/megacalories of ME. Significant differences were observed among breeds in all measures of gain efficiency. Breeds that had the smallest weight to maintain tended to be more efficient in live weight gain in the time constant period, whereas breeds with the highest rate of gain tended to be more efficient in the gain constant period. To marbling score or longissimus muscle fat end points, breeds with the lowest marbling scores and smallest percentage fat in the longissimus muscle on an age constant basis (e.g., Limousin and Gelbvieh) tended to be less efficient, whereas breeds with the highest marbling score and highest percentage of fat in the longissimus muscle on an age constant basis (e.g., Hereford and Angus) tended to be more efficient. Breeds with the highest percentage of retail product (Limousin and Gelbvieh) were more efficient to retail product weight end points, or when retail product weight was the measure of output. Steers fed the

  15. Breed effects and retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-04-01

    Retained heterosis for growth, carcass, and meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate male progeny in three composite populations finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C] that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P .05) from Limousin in retail product weight or carcass lean weight because of higher dressing percentage, lower fat trim percentage, and lower bone percentage of Limousin. The effects of dietary energy density were important (P < .01) for most traits. The interaction of breed group x dietary energy density generally was not important. Retained heterosis generally was significant for each composite population for weight of retail product, fat trim, bone, and carcass lean, fat, and bone. For percentage of retail product, fat trim, carcass lean, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut, generally, heterosis was significant for composites MARC II and MARC III but not for composite MARC I (i.e., composites MARC II and MARC III had a lower percentage of retail product and carcass lean and a higher percentage of fat trim, carcass fat, and chemical fat in the 9-10-11th rib cut than the mean of contributing purebreds).

  16. Use of linear discriminant analysis to characterise three dairy cattle breeds on the basis of several milk characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leotta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterise individuals of differents breeds on the basis of milk composition and to identify the best set of variablesa linear discriminant analysis (LDA, on 14 milk production traits, was performed on milk samples from 199 cows of differentbreeds (respectively, 127 subjects were Italian Friesians (IF, 62 were German Friesians (GF, and 10 were Jerseys(J and all came from the same breeding farm in Tuscany. The variables were: test day milk yield (kg milk, % Fat, %Protein,% Lactose, % solid non fat (SNF, % total solid (TS, pH and titratable acidity (TA; five rheological variables: r,k20, a30, a45, and somatic cell counts /ml (SCC; and one hygiene-related variable: total bacterial count (TBC. The analysisperformed on the 14 variables, with regard to the three breeds, allowed us to identify 10 of these as variables usefulfor discrimination (leaving out kg milk, pH, a45, and TBC. The most important variables were the percentage of Fat andTS for the first canonical variate and SNF, Lactose and Protein for the second. Fat and TS play an important role sincethey present significant values (even if opposite sign in the two variates. The resulting classification of subjects was satisfactory:79% of the Italian Friesians, 73% of German Friesians and 100% of the Jersey cows were classified correctly.

  17. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus.

  18. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L

    1985-01-01

    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus. PMID:22055632

  19. Serological evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 and 5 in cattle-breeding systems on Colombia’s high plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Bovine herpesvirus – 1 (BoHV- 1 and Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 neutralizing antibodies in herds on the Colombian high plains and their correlation with the level of cross-protection against both herpesviruses. Materials and methods. This study was carried out on cattle farms located around the towns of Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán in Colombia’s Meta department. Sampling was made by convenience. Twenty-three farms were involved in the study; 488 sera samples were taken by random sampling. Virus neutralization test were performed according to the protocols of the OIE. Each serum was evaluated independently for each virus, BoHV-1 and BoHV-5. Results. The serological test confirmed the presence of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 infections in the Colombian bovine population in 100% and 73.9% respectively. However, crossreaction for both viruses was not evident in all farms evaluated. Conclusions. Alpha-herpesviruses are amongst the most significant infectious agents affecting cattle. Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 is found throughout the whole world and is endemic in Colombian bovine population, whereas bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 has limited geographical distribution, mainly being reported in South-America (Brazil and Argentina, and we also confirmed the presence of BoHV-5 in Colombia.

  20. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

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    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland and extensive (upland production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity. Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001, leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001. While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001. Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  1. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  2. Distribution of allele frequencies at TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A between Japanese Black and four other cattle breeds with differing historical selection for marbling

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    Muramatsu Youji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. Our previous study detected 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, g.231054C > T, g.3109537C > T and c.*188G > A, respectively, in the 5' flanking region of the titin (TTN, the 5' flanking region of the ribosomal protein L27a (RPL27A and the 3' untranslated region of the akirin 2 genes (AKIRIN2, which have been considered as positional functional candidates for the genes responsible for marbling, and showed association of these SNPs with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. In the present study, we investigated the allele frequency distribution of the 3 SNPs among the 5 cattle breeds, Japanese Black, Japanese Brown, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds. Findings We genotyped the TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, using 101 sires and 1,705 paternal half sib progeny steers from 8 sires for Japanese Black, 86 sires and 27 paternal half sib progeny steers from 3 sires for Japanese Brown, 79 sires and 264 paternal half sib progeny steers from 14 sires for Japanese Shorthorn, 119 unrelated cows for Holstein, and 118 unrelated cows for Brown Swiss breeds. As compared to the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T, g.3109537C > T T and c.*188G > A A alleles, associated with high marbling, in Japanese Black breed that has been subjected to a strong selection for high marbling, those in the breeds, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds, that have not been selected for high marbling were null or lower. The Japanese Brown breed selected slightly for high marbling showed lower frequency than Japanese Black breed in the g.3109537C > T T allele, whereas no differences were detected between the 2 breeds in the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T and c

  3. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  4. TESTING OF TWO PROTOCOLS FOR GENOTYPING THE LEPTIN GENE LOCUS AND BODY MEASUREMENT IN MARAMURES BROWN AND ROMANIAN BREED CATTLE

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    CRINA TEODORA CARSAI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body measurement of Maramures Brown breed and Romanian Siemmental and testing two protocols for emphasizing the leptine gene in order to perform associations with some beef production traits within further studies were the aims of our research. The blood DNA extraction was performed according to the protocols proposed by Yves Amigues and genotyping protocols was proposed by Leifers and Pomp et al. The body weight is within standards. The analyzed protocols used for leptine gene emphasizing led to satisfactory results, which will enable us to perform further research in order to make associations between this possible marker gene and some body traits.

  5. TESTING OF TWO PROTOCOLS FOR GENOTYPING THE LEPTIN GENE LOCUS AND BODY MEASUREMENT IN MARAMURES BROWN AND ROMANIAN BREED CATTLE

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    CARSAI CRINA TEODORA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The body measurement of Maramures Brown breed and Romanian Siemmental and testing twoprotocols for emphasizing the leptine gene in order to perform associations with some beef productiontraits within further studies were the aims of our research. The blood DNA extraction was performedaccording to the protocols proposed by Yves Amigues and genotyping protocols was proposed byLeifers and Pomp et al. The body weight is within standards. The analyzed protocols used for leptinegene emphasizing led to satisfactory results, which will enable us to perform further research in orderto make associations between this possible marker gene and some body traits.

  6. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes. PMID:3722018

  7. Characterization of cattle of a five-breed diallel: VI. Fat deposition patterns of serially slaughtered bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamantes, M A; Long, C R; Smith, G C; Jenkins, T G; Ellis, W C; Cartwright, T C

    1986-05-01

    Dissection and chemical analysis data from 197 bulls of 15 breedtypes were used to examine the distribution of total fat (TOTFAT) among carcass fat (CFAT), viscera fat (VIF), kidney plus pelvic fat (KPF) and blood fat (BLF). The bulls were obtained from a five-breed diallel involving Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey; reciprocal crosses were pooled. One or two bulls of each breedtype were slaughtered at each of seven ages: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24 and 30 mo. An allometric equation was utilized to describe growth rate of each fat depot relative to either TOTFAT or carcass side weight (CSW). The pooled within-breedtype differential growth rates obtained from the allometric equation indicated that as TOTFAT or CSW increased, the proportion composed of CFAT and KPF increased (growth coefficients significantly greater than 1), whereas the proportion composed of VIF and BLF decreased (growth coefficients significantly less than 1). Holstein and Jersey tended to have more CFAT than Hereford, Angus and Brahman. Jersey had more KPF than other breeds. Crossbreds exhibited positive heterosis for CFAT and VIF, and negative heterosis for KPF. On a constant CSW basis, there were no significant breedtype differences in TOTFAT: nevertheless, differences in fat distribution among breedtypes persisted. There were different amounts of fat at the depots studied, but fat growth coefficients relative to TOTFAT tended to be homogeneous among breedtypes.

  8. Detection of the Non-SMC Condensin I Complex Subunit G Gene Polymorphism (NCAPG c.1326 T>G in Different Breeds of Cattle

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    Anna Trakovická

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-synonymous mutation c.1326 T>G in the non-SMC condesin I complex subunit G (NCAPG gene is asociate with the prenatal growth and carcass weight or growth-associated traits in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyse the population of 50 sires of four breeds (Holstein – 2 bulls, Pinzgau – 3 bulls, Charolais – 3 bulls, Simmental – 42 bulls for SNP polymorphism causing an exchange from isoleucine to methionine at position 422 of the amino acid chain. Bovine genomic DNA was isolated from sperm by commercial kit. The SNP c.1326 T>G was detected by PCR-RFLP method with restriction endonuclease Tsp509I. The wild allele T was detected by two restriction fragments 66 bp and 63 bp and the mutant allele G with 129 bp fragment. In the samples of Pinzgau sires, Charolais sires and Simmental sires were detected homozygous genotypes GG (0.3333; 0.3333 and 0.7143 and heterozygous genotype GT (0.6667; 0.6667 and 0.2857. In the sample of Holstein sires were detected homozygous genotype GG (0.5 and homozygous genotype TT (0.5.

  9. Effect of breed, gender, housing system and dietary crude protein content on performance of finishing beef cattle fed maize-silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, D T; Bryant, M J; Beever, D E; Fisher, A V

    2007-06-01

    Maize silage-based diets with three dietary crude protein (CP) supplements were offered to 96 finishing cattle of contrasting breed (Holstein Friesian (HF) v. Simmental × HF (SHF)) and gender (bull v. steer) housed in two types of feeding system (group fed v. individually fed). The three protein supplements differed either in CP or protein degradability (degradable (LUDP) v. rumen undegradable (HUDP)) and provided CP concentrations of 142 (Con), 175 (LUDP) and 179 (HUDP) g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively, with ratios of degradable to undegradable of 3.0, 1.4 and 0.9:1 for diets Con, LUDP and HUDP, respectively. DM intakes were marginally higher (P = 0.102) for LUDP when compared with Con and HUDP. Rates of daily live-weight gain (DLWG) were higher (P = 0.005) in LUDP and HUDP when compared with Con. HF had higher DM intakes than SHF although this did not result in any improvement in HF DLWG. Bulls had significantly better DM intakes, DLWG and feed conversion efficiency than steers. Conformation scores were better in SHF than HF (P carcass fat scores. PMID:22444477

  10. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for reproduction and maternal traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-03-01

    Heterosis effects in F1 dams producing F2 progeny and retained heterosis in combined F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny were evaluated in dams 2 yr old, in dams greater than or equal to 5 yr old, and in dams of all ages. Traits included pregnant percentage, calf crop born percentage, calf crop weaned percentage, 200-d calf weight per heifer or cow exposed, and 200-d calf weight. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated in the three age groupings and generally were greatest in 2-yr-old dams and smallest in dams greater than or equal to 5 yr old. Heterosis effects for 200-d calf weight were relatively uniform among age groupings and among the three composite populations and heterosis retained was equal to, or greater than, expectation based on retained heterozygosity. Heterosis effects in animals of all ages for reproductive traits in F1 dams producing F2 progeny differed among the three composite populations, as did heterosis retained in combined F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny. In dams of all ages, heterosis retained for reproductive traits in F2 and F3 dams producing F3 and F4 progeny did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity in two of the three composite populations, but loss of heterosis was greater (P less than .05) than expectation based on retained heterozygosity in one of the three composite populations for calf crop born percentage, calf crop weaned percentage, and 200-d calf weight per heifer or cow exposed. This reduction was the result of increased fetal loss between pregnancy diagnosis and parturition

  11. Genetic (co)variances among birth weight, 200-day weight, and postweaning gain in composites and parental breeds of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G L; Gregory, K E

    1996-11-01

    Genetic and environmental (co)variances for birth weight, adjusted 200-d weight, and postweaning gain were estimated in nine parental and three composite populations of beef cattle. The parental breeds were Angus (A), Braunvieh (B), Charolais (C), Gelbvieh (G), Hereford (H), Limousin (L), Pinzgauer (P), Red Poll (R), and Simmental (S). The composites were MARC I (1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A), MARC II (1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A), and MARC III (1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Heritabilities of additive direct genetic effects for birth weight (.50) and postweaning gain (.49) were greater than for 200-d weight (.32). Heritabilities of additive maternal effects of .09 for birth weight and .10 for 200-d weight were much smaller than direct effect heritabilities. Heritabilities were larger in composites than in parental breeds for additive direct effects of all three traits but smaller for maternal 200-d weight. Correlations were high and positive for direct genetic effects of the three weight traits and higher in composites than in the parental breeds. Correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects for both birth weight and 200-d weight were near zero. Some differences in variances among populations were correlated with differences in weight and milk yield. Heavier populations had larger variances, supporting the use of logarithmic transformation of weights to stabilize variances among genetic groups. Increased average milk yield was correlated with decreased phenotypic variance of 200-d weight. Average milk yield was also implicated in the expression of direct and maternal genetic effects for 200-d weight and their covariance. Comparison of univariate and multivariate estimates of genetic variances suggested that it is important to include birth weight in multivariate analyses of all weight traits to account for increased preweaning mortality of calves with extremely heavy or light birth weights. Based on heritability estimates, within-herd selection in

  12. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

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    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  13. Breeding and regulatory opportunities and constraints for developing broccoli cultivars adapted to organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the regulatory and technical challenges to the organic seed and breeding sector. This study specifically explored the mutual influence of the regulatory environment for organic seed sector development in the United States (US), Europe Union (EU) and Mexico, and the extent to whi

  14. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires. PMID:9331861

  15. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  16. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle.

  17. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  18. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

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    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  19. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to meals containing micronized maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, N J; Baskerville, C L; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2015-07-01

    The enteroinsular axis is a complex system that includes the release of incretin hormones from the gut to promote the absorption and utilization of glucose after a meal. The insulinogenic effect of incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) remains poorly characterized in the horse. The aim of this study was to compare postprandial glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 responses of different equine breeds adapted to twice-daily meals containing micronized maize. Four Standardbred horses, 4 mixed-breed ponies, and 4 Andalusian cross horses in moderate BCS (5.5 ± 0.2 out of 9) were fed meals at 0800 and 1600 h each day. The meals contained micronized maize (mixed with soaked soybean hulls and lucerne chaff), with the amount of maize gradually increased over 12 wk to reach a final quantity of 1.7 g/kg BW (1.1 g/kg BW starch) in each meal. Animals had ad libitum access to the same hay throughout. After 12 wk of acclimation, serial blood samples were collected from all animals over a 14-h period to measure concentrations of glucose, insulin, and GLP-1, with meals fed immediately after the 0 and 8 h samples. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) values were similar between breed groups (P = 0.41); however, ponies and Andalusian horses exhibited significantly higher insulin AUC values after both meals compared with Standardbred horses (both P laminitis in domestic equids, this study provides evidence that the enteroinsular axis warrants further investigation. PMID:26440006

  20. Structure of Allozymatic Diversity of Ten Temperate and Adapted Exotic Breeding Populations of Maize (Zea mays L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Da-hao; YU Yang; WANG Zhen-ping; LI Yan-ru

    2009-01-01

    Ten temperate and adapted exotic breeding populations of maize were studied with electrophoretic techniques. Three isozyme systems coded by nine allozyme loci were used for evaluating the genetic variability within and among populations.The results revealed that 78.57% of allozyme loci were polymorphic. Low allelic variation with a mean number of 1.84 alleles per locus per population was detected. But, these populations still maintained higher level of heterozygosity;moreover, the exotic populations had greater gene diversity than the temperate populations. All the populations were non-panmictic with negative Wright's fixation indexes (-0.091- -0.424). The tropical BS16 was typified by maximum allelic richness, percent of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity. More than 93% of the gene diversity maintained within populations, and the genetic differentiation among populations was low (0.002-0.191). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the tropical BS29 diverged from other populations in the reverse direction. The temperate BS9 and tropical BS 16 were divergent each other, and highly differentiated from other temperate and tropical populations, consequently, these two populations would be analogically postulated as potential germplasms to establish new heterotic groups for temperate maize breeding programs.

  1. Predicting demographically sustainable rates of adaptation : Can great tit breeding time keep pace with climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Lof, Marjolein; Reed, Thomas E.; McNamara, John; Verhulst, Simon; Visser, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Populations need to adapt to sustained climate change, which requires micro-evolutionary change in the long term. A key question is how the rate of this micro-evolutionary change compares with the rate of environmental change, given that theoretically there is a 'critical rate of environmental chang

  2. The cow emerges from the water : myths relating to the origin of cattle in the Chad basin

    OpenAIRE

    Braukämper, U.

    1997-01-01

    The region of Lake Chad is one of the earliest and most important focusses of cattle-breeding in the Sudanic savanna zone. Today, the area is inhabited by three pastoral groups, the Buduma (Yedina), the Fulbe (Fulani) and the Shuwa Arabs, who possess different breeds of cattle. The Buduma are the old-established population, and their animals have extremely well been adapted to their aquatic habitat. Fulbe nomads infiltrated the region from the west from the 13th century onwards, and Shuwa Ara...

  3. Testicular size at weaning in tropically-adapted beef bulls as influenced by breed of sire and dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Randel, R D

    1997-07-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate testicular size at weaning for bulls representing diverse tropically-adapted genotypes. Calves from 2 locations were weighed and castrated at weaning. In one herd, calves were born to Brahman dams and Angus, Tuli, and Brahman sires. Body weights and paired testes weights were heavier (P Brahman (AB) genotype than for Tuli x Brahman (TB) and purebred Brahman (BB) genotype calves. The testes:body weight ratio was greater (P Brahman, Tuli, and Senepol sires. Means were similar between Brahman- (BA), Tuli-(TA), and Senepol-sired (SA) calves for body weight and testes:body weight ratio. Paired testes weight was heavier (P < 0.05) for SA than BA calves. Across locations, paired testes weights were heavier (P < 0.01) for TA than TB calves but their body weights were similar. Within-herd deviations were greater (P < 0.01) for AB than BA calves for paired testes weight and testes:body weight ratio. The correlation between the proportion of Bos indicus genetic contribution and testes:body weight ratio was significantly negative. Tropically-adapted calves differed in testicular size at weaning due to breed of sire and dam effects. PMID:16728125

  4. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. Genomic sel...

  5. Field phenotyping strategies and breeding for adaptation of rice to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ken S; Fukai, Shu; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Jongdee, Boonrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a section of the book "Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice" (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico). The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought-susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought-resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance.

  6. Field Phenotyping Strategies and Breeding for Adaptation of Rice to Drought†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ken S.; Fukai, Shu; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Jongdee, Boonrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a section of the book “Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice” (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico). The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought-susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought-resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance. PMID:22934036

  7. Field phenotyping strategies and breeding for adaptation of rice to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eFukai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a section of the book ‘Drought phenotyping in crops: from theory to practice (Monneveux Philippe and Ribaut Jean-Marcel eds, published by CGIAR Generation Challenge Programme. Texcoco, Mexico. The section describes recent experience in drought phenotyping in rice which is one of the most drought susceptible crops. The section contains genetic and genomic resources for drought adaptation and methods for selection of drought resistant varieties in rice. In appendix, there is experience from Thailand on integration of direct selection for grain yield and physiological traits to confer drought resistance.

  8. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  9. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  10. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  11. POPULATION SIZE OF AUTOCHTHONOUS AND LOCALLY ADAPTED HEN’S BREEDS ON AREA OF THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. WEIS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On basic certificates about acceptation of Oravka Plymouth Rock, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, White Leghorn, Brown Leghorn and Sussex, controlled flocks of Slovak Union of Breeders, we analyzed total number of birds, number of breeding males, number of breeding females and effective population size by Simon and Buchenauer (1993 and we evaluated the populations of observed hen’s breeds to categorisations by Scherf (2000. The highest number of birds we recorded at breed New Hampshire from observed hen’s breeds. Average total number of animals in period of year 2003 - 2008 was 1373 birds with average effective population size 445.103. However, the population of New Hampshire poultry in Slovakia was evaluating by massive decrease in last years as a endangered - maintained breed for which an active conservation programme is in place. By contrast, the smallest number of animals was detected at breed White Leghorn with average total number 18.83 birds in period of year 2003 - 2008 and average effective population size 6.605. The breed White Leghorn in Slovakia we categorized to critical breed. National legislation on Slovakia has been created, the fist experience is being gathered and the European legislation is coming in practice. The conditions for the development and preservation of endangered breeds of poultry in Slovak Republic in the long term are being put in place by means of creative and well aimed utilisation of European and national legislation.

  12. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls. PMID:9331860

  13. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  14. ORGANIZATION OF RATIONAL USE OF BULLS IN THE MEAT CATTLE BREEDING Организация рационального использования быков-производителей в мясном скотоводстве

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenkov P. I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed an effective technology of reproduction in meat cattle breeding, which allows rational use of the bulls-producers, to obtain a high output calves (85-95%, to organize the accuracy of the account of the origin of young animals, to improve the level of selection-breeding work on the improvement of productive and breeding qualities of animals and create in a shorter time highly productive herds of meat cattle

  15. Comparative analyses across cattle genders and breeds reveal the pitfalls caused by false positive and lineage-differential copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Xu, Lingyang; Hay, El Hamidi Abdel; Bickhart, Derek M; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Liu, George E

    2016-01-01

    We compared CNV region (CNVR) results derived from 1,682 Nellore cattle with equivalent results derived from our previous analysis of Bovine HapMap samples. By comparing CNV segment frequencies between different genders and groups, we identified 9 frequent, false positive CNVRs with a total length of 0.8 Mbp that were likely caused by assembly errors. Although there was a paucity of lineage specific events, we did find one 54 kb deletion on chr5 significantly enriched in Nellore cattle. A few highly frequent CNVRs present in both datasets were detected within genomic regions containing olfactory receptor, ATP-binding cassette, and major histocompatibility complex genes. We further evaluated their impacts on downstream bioinformatics and CNV association analyses. Our results revealed pitfalls caused by false positive and lineage-differential copy number variations and will increase the accuracy of future CNV studies in both taurine and indicine cattle. PMID:27381368

  16. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage. PMID:10834561

  17. Interaction of breeds, years, age of bird and pen effects on hen day lay of three layer breeds and their adaptation in the derived Southern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzungwe Ahemen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Egg production of Haco black, Shaver’s brown, Lohman brown and Olympia black werecollected from production records at Big Bam commercial farm Makurdi from 1997 to 2004. The meanhen day lay of the breeds were estimated in percentages at 49-52, 56-60 and 69-73 weeks. The meanhen day lay of effects of breed by year and breed by pen by age of bird interactions were estimated.The hen day lay of Haco black by year interaction were low varied significantly (P1,L2, and L3, were significantly lower than that at 49-56 weeks. The mean hen day lay due to effects ofinteraction of Shavers brown at 56-60 and 69-73 weeks by pen L1, L2, and L3, were significantly higherthan that at 49-56 weeks. The mean hen day lay of interaction of Lohman brown and Olympia black at69-73 weeks by Pen L1, L2, and L3, were significantly higher than that at 56-60 weeks. This resultindicated that the response to the restrictions of the years and their effects on the strategies of aging ofthe breeds on their hen lay varied across the genetic groups. Haco black was more susceptible to thisstress especially at the advanced age. Lohman brown and Olympia black were better than Haco black.Shaver’s brown was superior in this trait as neither the restrictions of the years nor the strategies ofaging affected its hen day lay. In order of fitness, Shavers brown, Lohman brown and Olympia blackwere most adapted to this region. Thus, Shavers brown which is better adapted to the prevailingenvironmental conditions in the Southern Guinea Savannah is recommended for poultry farmers in thislocality.

  18. Use of animal breeds and breeding to overcome the incidence of grass tetany: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L W; Baker, J F; Hardt, P F

    1989-12-01

    British breeds of cattle are not so effective as Zebu in extracting nutrients from low-quality roughages, and these breeds differ in their nutrient metabolism and animal physiology. Breeds of cattle may differ in their requirements for Mg. Brahman cows are less susceptible to death from disease and metabolic disorders than are British breeds of cattle, whereas cows with 50% or greater dairy breeding (Holstein and Jersey) are more susceptible than British or Brahman breeds when maintained in beef production herds. Brahman or Brahman crossbred cows are less susceptible than other breeds to metabolic disorders such as grass tetany. Magnesium absorption has been shown to be greater in Brahman than in Jersey, Holstein and Hereford cows. These differences in the efficiency of Mg absorption between different breeds of cows may be due to genetic variation in the absorptive mechanisms of Mg, in feeding behavior, in gastrointestinal tract motility, in gastrointestinal tract fill or to some combination. PMID:2693421

  19. Effect of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in south-east Brazil: Part 3-Meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A

    1982-02-01

    Significant differences in a number of economically important appearance and palatability traits were recorded between the Bos indicus and Bos taurus breeds. Muscles from the Charolais and Canchim animals were consistently and significantly lighter in colour than those from the zebu breeds, even after pH effects had been taken into account. Differences were shown to be directly related to variations in muscle myoglobin levels, but may have been complicated by observed textural differences. Muscles from the zebu animals were not noticeably coarser grained, having significantly larger fibre diameters and fibre bundle sizes. The inferiority of the Bos indicus breeds in terms of muscle tenderness was clearly demonstrated. Significantly higher shear force values were recorded in all muscles from the Nelore and Guzera breeds, except the Psoas major. These differences were also detected by taste panel evaluation. Major differences between breeds were demonstrated in the thermo-stability of extracted intra-muscular connective tissue elements, being highest in the zebu breeds, intermediate in the Canchim and lowest in the Charolais. These solubility characteristics were thought to be due to differences in the relative proportions of genetically different collagen types in the muscles and an association between coarseness of texture and toughness was shown. PMID:22054790

  20. 张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式%The Path and Mode of High-grade Cattle Local Groups Breeding in Zhangye City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢凤君; 彭涛; 宋建红; 卢凤林

    2011-01-01

    在实地调研、专家访谈、文献查阅的基础上,运用战略管理理论和系统分析方法,深入分析了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的产业基础、主体需求和环境条件,重点从张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的核心群、扩繁群、商品群3大群系的建设,提出了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的路径和模式,并制定了张掖市高档肉牛地方类群培育的保障措施,具体包括建立协作委员会、建综合服务网络、系统开展配套研究、建立合理的运作模式等.%Basing on the consultation about related documents, the interviewing with related experts, and the in-person in-vestigation, this dissertation applied such methods as system analysis, strategic management and so on, deeply analysed the in-dustry base, demand,environment of high-grade cattle groups breeding in Zhangye city, and puted forward the path and mode of high-grade cattle local core groups, propagate groups and merchandise groups breeding, establishes the guarantee measures in order to build committee, service net, reasonable operation mode.

  1. Immunological Profiles of Bos taurus and Bos indicus Cattle Infested with the Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Emily K.; Jonsson, Nicholas N.; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Vance, Megan E.; Jackson, Louise A.

    2009-01-01

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is a major threat to the improvement of cattle production in tropical and subtropical countries worldwide. Bos indicus cattle are naturally more resistant to infestation with the cattle tick than are Bos taurus breeds, although considerable variation in resistance occurs within and between breeds. It is not known which genes contribute to the resistant phenotype, nor have immune parameters involved in resistance to R. microplus been fully ...

  2. Phenotypic diversity of Tuscany’s endangered sheep breeds: a canonical discriminant approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bozzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the degree of differentiation of animal populations at breed level is an important issue for conservation purposes. Morphometric divergences can be an indicator of adaptative or selective differences between breeds. In fact, due to the natural and artificial selection that continuously acts on the adaptative traits, the determination of the level of divergence of the quantitative traits across several populations, allows to make inferences on the degree of adaptation to a certain environment or on the productive specialization of a given population. Somatic measures have already been used to estimate the divergence in Italian cattle (Camussi et al., 1985, goat (Cicogna et al., 1995, Herrera et al. 1996 and sheep breeds (Panella et al., 1993...

  3. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannen Hideyuki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides background information concerning the extent of long range linkage disequilibrium in cattle. Results Linkage disequilibrium was assessed using r2 among all pairs of syntenic markers within eight breeds of cattle from the Bos taurus and Bos indicus subspecies. Bos taurus breeds included Angus, Charolais, Dutch Black and White Dairy, Holstein, Japanese Black and Limousin while Bos indicus breeds included Brahman and Nelore. Approximately 2670 markers spanning the entire bovine autosomal genome were used to estimate pairwise r2 values. We found that the extent of linkage disequilibrium is no more than 0.5 Mb in these eight breeds of cattle. Conclusion Linkage disequilibrium in cattle has previously been reported to extend several tens of centimorgans. Our results, based on a much larger sample of marker loci and across eight breeds of cattle indicate that in cattle linkage disequilibrium persists over much more limited distances. Our findings suggest that 30,000–50,000 loci will be needed to conduct whole genome association studies in cattle.

  4. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  5. Effects of breed and retained heterosis on milk yield and 200-day weight in advanced generations of composite populations of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-08-01

    Retained heterosis in F2 cows nursing F3 progeny was evaluated in 3-, 4-, and greater than or equal to 5-yr-old cows. Traits evaluated included milk yield at three stages of lactation and 200-d weight of progeny. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for 12-h milk yield, estimated 200-d milk yield, and 200-d weight of progeny. Herefords were lowest (P less than .05) for 12-h milk yield and estimated 200-d milk yield, and Braunvieh produced significantly more milk than all breed groups except Pinzgauer and Simmental, for which the difference approached significance. The correlation among breed group means (nine parental breeds and three composites) for 12-h milk yield with 200-d weight of progeny was .91. When 200-d weight was adjusted to a common estimated 200-d milk yield, Hereford, Angus, Red Poll, and Limousin did not differ (P greater than .05); all were significantly lighter than Braunvieh, Pinzgauer, Gelbvieh, Simmental, and Charolais, which did not differ (P greater than .05) from each other.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Molecular Marke rs in Conservation of the Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Berkman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many native breeds are facing the problem of extinction. Therefore, urgently, genetic diversity ofbreeds must be studied and the results must be employed to find out the conservation priority of the breeds .Microsatellites and mtDNA sequences are the two types of genetic markers that have been found useful andhave been employed widely in the studies revealing the genetic diversity of closely related populations.Studies based on these markers, in parallel to Archeological findings , indicated that the native Turkish cattle,goat and sheep breeds are close to one of the centers of domestication. Therefore, it is highly likely that thesebreeds are harboring potential genetic information to be utilized in the future. Hence, they must have highpriority in conservation on the global scale. Again, genetic studies indicated that, morphological characters ofthe breeds may give incomplete/wrong informat ion about the evolutionary history of the breeds.Furthermore, genetic studies indicated that, before the prioritizat ion of the breeds in conservation, first thegroup of breeds having the same evolutionary history must be determined. For this, breeds must be examinedwith respect to several types of genetic markers, differing in their modes of inheritance. Recently, todetermine the conservation priorities of the breeds, new methods, using various criteria, such as: geneticdistinctness, genetic diversity level, adaptation to special environmental conditions, risk of ext inction of thebreed, are being developed. Yet, they are not fully developed.Lastly, it is well known that breeds loose genetic informat ion as they go from one generation to thenext. Simulation studies, give insights about how to minimize this inevitable genetic loss by using molecularmarkers. However, at the current stage of technology, employment of the emerging rules are very expensive.

  7. Prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in dairy cattle (Friesian breeds at nagari integrated dairy farms, Gauta-Nike village, Keffi local government area, Nasarawa state, north central of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Abdullahi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The of prevalence ofhaemoparasites of cattle located in Nagari Integrated Farms, Gauta-NikeVillage, Keffi Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was conducted inOctober 2012 where 50 Friesian cattle (male and females are kept on intensivesystem of management were randomly selected. Blood samples were collected in ananticoagulant sample bottle and submitted to the Parasitology Laboratory ofFaculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Kaduna state ofNigeria for parasitological examination. Giemsa stained thin blood smears wereexamined for hemoparasites and Hematocrit Centrifuge Technique (HCT was usedto determine the presence of motile parasites. An overall prevalence of 90%(82% female and 8% male was recorded for all samples examined, 21 (42% wereinfected with Anaplasma marginale, Theileria mutans shows 20 (40% prevalenceand 4 (8% were infected by Babesia bigemina. Mixed infection between Anaplasmamarginale and Babesia bigemina revealed 2 (4% while Anaplasma marginale andTheileria mutans was 7 (14%. There was a significant difference (P > 0.05in infections caused by Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileriamutans (Table 1 and also between sexes(Table 3,  but there was no significant difference  (P<0.05 between any of the mixedinfections observed (Table 2. The result of this study shows thesehemoparasites are endemic in the cattle under study which may result in seriousdisease conditions when such animals are subjected to stressful condition.

  8. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Imtiaz A S; Khatkar, Mehar S; Thomson, Peter C; Raadsma, Herman W

    2016-01-01

    Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015) investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite) from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS) were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific) and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy) and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production). As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species. PMID:27045296

  9. Estimation of Genetic Parameters, and Genetic and Environmental Effects on Progeny Carcass Traits of a Nucleus Breeding Population in Japanese Black Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    SAKATA, Ken; Hoque, Azharul; Hirai, Tomokazu; TSUKAGUCHI, Daisuke; TOMARU, Mayuko; Suzuki, Keiichi; Oikawa, Takuro

    2004-01-01

    Genetic parameters of body weight at the start of fattening (BSF), carcass weight (CWT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RBT), meat quality grade (MQG), beef marbling score (BMS) and rib eye area (REA) in Japanese Black cattle were estimated. The effects of genetic and environmental factors on fattening performance and carcass quality traits of the progeny were also analyzed. The averages of BSF, CWT, SFT, RBT and REA were 189 kg, 408 kg, 24.9 mm, 69.3 mm and 47.5 cm^2, respe...

  10. Kinetics of selected plasma cytokines during innate-adaptive immune response transition in adult cattle infected with the bovine ephemeral fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, R; Melville, L F; Davis, S; Walsh, S; Hunt, N; Hunt, R

    2016-04-15

    While virus neutralizing antibodies are known to be variably protective against bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) infections, the cytokine events that mediate the nascent adaptive immune response have not been defined in cattle. This study determined the plasma kinetics of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 during the period of innate-immune response transition and evaluated the relationship between the virus neutralizing antibody response and viraemia in BEFV-infected cattle. Plasma from four virus-infected and uninfected negative control animals was tested by cytokine-specific immunoenzymatic assays, viraemia monitored by qRT-PCR, and virus neutralizing antibody titres determined using a standard protocol. Unlike the negative controls, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 were increased in all the virus-infected animals starting several days prior to initiation of viraemia. In one animal, plasma IL-2 and IFN-γ were consistently higher than in the other three virus-infected animals and the negative control mean. The animal with the strongest IL-2 and IFN-γ responses had the shortest viraemia while the heifer with the lowest IL-2/IFN-γ indices demonstrated the longest viraemia. Evidently, increase in plasma IL-6 and IL-10 precedes seroconversion during BEFV infections in cattle suggesting the two cytokines may influence immunological events that pave way to B-cell activation and seroconversion. While there is remarkable variability in IL-2 and IFN-γ expression amongst BEFV-infected animals, increased plasma levels of the two cytokines appear to be associated with a shorter viraemia. Ongoing studies will help define the precise role of T cells in anti-BEFV adaptive immune responses. PMID:27016765

  11. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle. PMID:26559490

  12. 奶牛养殖区布鲁氏菌病预防效果调查分析%Immunization Effect Analysis on Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle Breeding District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁立岗; 蒲敬伟

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】The prevention effect of brucella abortus S19 vaccine was detected.【Method】The nonpregnant cows were immunizated to brucellosis with the S19 vaccine,and the antibody was detected by red plate agglutination test with Hu(RBPT) and tube agglutination test(SAT) method.【Result】The results showed that the brucellosis positive rate was 55.8 % after 4~5 months,and 63.5% after 6~8 months,57.5% after 11~12 months.The average positive rate was 57.7% in a dairy cattle breeding district.And the positive rate was 16.2% with no vaccination.【Conclusion】It showed that vaccine immunization had certain effect on prevention of Brucellosis in dairy cattle%[目的]为了检验S19号疫苗的预防效果。[方法]用S19号疫苗对未孕母牛进行接种,然后用琥红平板凝集试验监测。[结果]不同个体免后4~5个月的转阳率55.8%,免后6~8个月的转阳率63.5%,免后11~12个月的转阳率57.5%,同一养殖区内注苗后的转阳率平均57.7%,未注苗的自然感染率达到16.2。[结论]说明疫苗免疫对奶牛布病预防有一定效果。

  13. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  14. Four Seasons Dynamic Monitoring Research for Pollution Factors of Breeding Cattle Manure in Dairy Cow Breeding of District%奶牛养殖小区育成牛粪中污染因子的四季动态监测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关红民; 王佳; 李和国; 杨孝列; 张登辉; 田宗祥

    2014-01-01

    本文研究了奶牛养殖小区育成牛粪中污染因子的季节变化规律,结果表明,育成牛鲜粪中含水率春季最低,冬季最高;风干粪样中,除夏季全氮和全磷顺序颠倒外,五项检测指标及其年均值的季节变化规律均保持一致,即有机质>全氮>全磷>锌>铜;育成牛全氮含量夏季最低、冬季最高,全磷含量秋季最低、夏季最高,有机质含量夏季最低、秋季最高,铜含量夏季最低、春季最高,锌含量春季最低、夏季最高。%The moisture content of fresh manure was tested by using GB 5576-88, the TN content,. the TP content and the organic matter content in dried fecal samples were tested by using NY 525-2002, the copper content and the zinc content were detected by using GB/T17138-1997 in order to monitor seasonal changes of pollution factors about breeding cattle manure in dairy cow breeding of district. The results showed that the lowest moisture content in fresh manure was in spring, the highest was in winter. The seasonal changing rule of ifve testing indicators and every annual average in dried fecal samples was organic matter>TN>TP>Zn>Cu except reverse order of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in summer. The lowest total nitrogen content of breeding cattle was in summer and the highest was in winter, the lowest total phosphorus was in autumn and the highest was in summer, the lowest organic matter content was in summer and the highest was in autumn, the lowest copper content was in summer and the highest was in spring, the lowest zinc content was in spring and the highest zinc content was in summer.

  15. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  16. Molecular characterization of GPR50 gene and study of its comparative genetic variability in sheep breeds adapted to different thermo-contrasting climatic regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, S. M. K.

    2016-09-01

    GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2

  17. Short communication: Genotyping of cows to speed up availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits in Austrian Fleckvieh (Simmental) cattle--genetic and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger-Danner, C; Schwarzenbacher, H; Willam, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes for direct health traits on annual monetary genetic gain (AMGG) and discounted profit. The calculations were based on a deterministic approach using ZPLAN software (University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany). It was assumed that increases in reliability of the total merit index (TMI) of 5, 15, and 25 percentage points were achieved through genotyping 5,000, 25,000, and 50,000 cows, respectively. Costs for phenotyping, genotyping, and genomic estimated breeding values vary between €150 and €20 per cow. The gain in genotyping cows for traits with medium to high heritability is more than for direct health traits with low heritability. The AMGG is increased by 1.5% if the reliability of TMI is 5 percentage points higher (i.e., 5,000 cows genotyped) and 6.53% higher AMGG can be expected when the reliability of TMI is increased by 25 percentage points (i.e., 50,000 cows genotyped). The discounted profit depends not only on the costs of genotyping but also on the population size. This study indicates that genotyping cows with reliable phenotypes is feasible to speed up the availability of genomic estimated breeding values for direct health traits. But, because of the huge amount of valid phenotypes and genotypes needed to establish an efficient genomic evaluation, it is likely that financial constraints will be the main limiting factor for implementation into breeding program such as Fleckvieh Austria. PMID:24835973

  18. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Ppractices were significantly associated with brucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. PMID:26464048

  19. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial.

  20. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  1. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  2. The Effect of Holstein X Meat Cattle Breeds Crosses(F1) on Meat Production Increasing in Small Scale Farms Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, L; Kume, K.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 % of Albanian small scale farms farming 1-2 dairy cows. The small agriculture land surface on farm property (1-1,5 ha) is the main limiting factor for cow’s number increasing. So the farmer interest is not to increasing the number of cows in their farm but to fattening of calf’s born both for nutritive need of the family and market. The main objective of the study was to show the effect of industrial crosses (F1) of Holstein Frison cows with meat breeds like as Piementese(P), Limousi...

  3. Variations in the Regulatory Region of Alpha S1-Casein Milk Protein Gene among Tropically Adapted Indian Native (Bos Indicus) Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Amit; Mukesh, Manishi; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Mishra, Bishnu P.; Sodhi, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory region of milk protein alpha S1-casein (αS1-CN) gene was sequenced, characterized, and analyzed to detect variations among 13 Indian cattle (Bos indicus) breeds. Comparative analysis of 1,587 bp region comprising promoter (1,418 bp), exon-I (53 bp), and partial intron-I (116 bp) revealed 35 nucleotide substitutions (32 within promoter region, 1 in exon-I, and 2 in partial intron-I region) and 4 Indels. Within promoter, 15 variations at positions −1399 (A > G), −1288 (G > A), −1259 (T > C), −1158 (T > C), −1016 (A > T), −941 (T > G), −778 (C > T), −610 (G > A), −536 (A > G), −521 (A > G), −330 (A > C), −214 (A > G), −205 (A > T), −206 (C > A), and −175 (A > G) were located within the potential transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), namely, NF-κE1/c-Myc, GATA-1, GATA-1/NF-E, Oct-1/POU3F2, MEF-2/YY1, GATA-1, AP-1, POU1F1a/GR, TMF, GAL4, YY1/Oct-1, HNF-1, GRalpha/AR, GRalpha/AR, and AP-1, respectively. Seventy-four percent (26/35) of the observed SNPs were novel to Indian cattle and 11 of these novel SNPs were located within one or more TFBSs. Collectively, these might influence the binding affinity towards their respective nuclear TFs thus modulating the level of transcripts in milk and affecting overall protein composition. The study provides information on several distinct variations across indicine and taurine αS1-CN regulatory domains. PMID:25937984

  4. Spatial structure and climatic adaptation in African maize revealed by surveying SNP diversity in relation to global breeding and landrace panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change threatens maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure food security, access to locally adapted genetic resources and varieties is an important adaptation measure. Most of the maize grown in Africa is a genetic mix of varieties introduced at different historic times following the birth of the trans-Atlantic economy, and knowledge about geographic structure and local adaptations is limited. METHODOLOGY: A panel of 48 accessions of maize representing various introduction routes and sources of historic and recent germplasm introductions in Africa was genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 array. Spatial genetic structure and genetic relationships in the African panel were analysed separately and in the context of a panel of 265 inbred lines representing global breeding material (based on 26,900 SNPs and a panel of 1127 landraces from the Americas (270 SNPs. Environmental association analysis was used to detect SNPs associated with three climatic variables based on the full 43,963 SNP dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic structure is consistent between subsets of the data and the markers are well suited for resolving relationships and admixture among the accessions. The African accessions are structured in three clusters reflecting historical and current patterns of gene flow from the New World and within Africa. The Sahelian cluster reflects original introductions of Meso-American landraces via Europe and a modern introduction of temperate breeding material. The Western cluster reflects introduction of Coastal Brazilian landraces, as well as a Northeast-West spread of maize through Arabic trade routes across the continent. The Eastern cluster most strongly reflects gene flow from modern introduced tropical varieties. Controlling for population history in a linear model, we identify 79 SNPs associated with maximum temperature during the growing season. The associations located in genes of known importance for abiotic stress

  5. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; V. Muchenje; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4...

  6. Genetic diversity in mazandaranian native cattle: a comparison with Holstein cattle, using ISSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Azari, M A; Hasani, S; Khanahmadi, A; Rostamzadeh, J

    2009-05-01

    This study was carried out to investigate genetic diversity in Mazandaranian native cattle population comparised to the Holstein breed, using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) marker. A total of 175 animals, including 71 native and 104 cattle of Holstein breed were screened. The extraction of DNA samples were carried out, using modified salting out method. A 19-mer oligonucleotide, (GA)9C, was used as primer in PCR reactions. The PCR products showed 15 different fragments with length ranged from 120 to 1600 bp in the two breeds.. Genetic variation indexes, including effective number of alleles, Shannon index, Nei's gene diversity and standard genetic distance were estimated, using POPGene software. Generally, the estimated genetic variation indexes showed low levels of diversity in the two breeds. However, Nei's gene diversity and Shannon index estimation was observed almost two folds in native cattle compared to Holstein breed. Less levels of diversity in Holstein cattle may be because of applying intensive selection programs. Conversely, native cattle have been less affected by selection. Therefore, it seems that Mazandaranian native cattle probably are better for breeding programs than Holstein cattle. Results showed that ISSR Markers are reliable and can be used in genetic diversity investigations. PMID:19634477

  7. Genetic diversity in South African Nguni cattle ecotypes based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanarana, Yandisiwe; Visser, Carina; Bosman, Lydia; Nephawe, Khathutshelo; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; van Marle-Köster, Este

    2016-02-01

    The Nguni cattle breed is a landrace breed adapted to different ecological regions of South Africa. A number of ecotypes are recognised based on phenotype within the breed, but it is not known if they are genetically distinct. In this study, molecular characterisation was performed on Makhathini (MAK), Pedi (PED), Shangaan (SHA) and Venda (VEN) Nguni cattle ecotypes. Two Nguni cattle populations, not kept as separate ecotypes, from the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and Agricultural Research Council Loskop South farm (LOS) were also included. Genotypic data was generated for 189 unrelated Nguni cattle selected based on pedigree records using 22 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity values varied from 69 % (UFH) to 72 % (PED) with a mean number of alleles ranging from 6.0 to 6.9. The F ST estimate demonstrated that 4.8 % of the total genetic variation was due to the genetic differentiation between the populations and 92.2 % accounted for differences within the populations. The genetic distances and structure analysis revealed the closest relationship between MAK, PEDI and SHA ecotypes, followed by SHA and VEN. The UFH population clustered with the MAK ecotype, indicating that they are more genetically similar, while the LOS cattle grouped as a distinct cluster. Results suggest that the genetic differentiation between the PED and SHA ecotypes is low and can be regarded as one ecotype based on limited genetic differences. The results of this study can be applied as a point of reference for further genetic studies towards conservation of Nguni cattle ecotypes.

  8. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  9. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  10. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  11. [B-vitamins (thiamine, vitamin b6, pantothenic acid) in lean muscle tissue of growing cattle of the German Simmental breed under different feeding intensities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Roth-Maier, D A; Heindl, U; Schwarz, F J

    1995-07-01

    In a comparative slaughter experiment the thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid content of lean tissue of foreloin of growing cattle was determined by whole body analyses. 54 bulls, 45 heifers and 45 steers were fed until a live mass of 200 kg, 350 kg, 425 kg (only heifers) 500 kg and 575 kg, 650 kg, respectively (only bulls and steers). One half of each carcass was divided into 13 cuts and afterwards the cuts were each divided into lean, adipose and bone tissue and tendons. The lean tissue of the foreloin was subjected to analysis of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid. The mean thiamin content of 0.75 mg kg-1 fresh matter (200 kg live mass) decreased with rising live mass and under intensive feeding conditions in bulls and steers to 0.53 mg and in heifers to 0.61 mg. Restrictively feeding caused a mean thiamin content of 0.60 mg per kg fresh matter in bulls, steers and heifers. Under both feeding conditions in the lean tissue of the foreloin on average a vitamin B6 content of 2.6 mg (bulls), 3.1 mg (heifers) and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh matter (steers) was analysed. A mean content of pantothenic acid of 2.6 mg kg-1 fresh matter was determined in bulls independent of live mass and feeding intensity. In heifers the content of pantothenic acid on average was 3.0 mg under intensive feeding system and 2.6 mg under low feeding conditions, whereas steers reached contents of 2.7 mg (high feeding) and 2.2 mg kg-1 fresh matter (low feeding). PMID:7571861

  12. Breed differences in the frequency of bovine lymphocyte antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stear, M J; Brown, S C; Dimmock, C K; Dufty, J H; Hetzel, D J; Mackie, J T; Nicholas, F W; Tierney, T J; Wetherall, J D

    1987-01-01

    Lymphocytes from 1,564 cattle of 18 breeds and cross-bred groups in Australia were tested for major histocompatibility system class 1 antigens. Gene frequencies were calculated for the Angus, Belmont Red, Brahman, Hereford and Holstein-Friesian breeds. There were substantial differences among these breeds in antigen and gene frequency. There were striking differences among all 18 breeds in the presence or absence of certain antigens. Two antigens, CA13 and CA36, were strongly associated in Hereford cattle but occurred independently of each other in the other breeds. PMID:3273412

  13. Genomic selection in small dairy cattle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind

    on optimization of genomc selction for a small dairy cattle breed such as Danish Jersey. Implementing genetic superior breeding schemes thus requires more accurate genomc predictions. Besides international collaboration, genotyping of cows is an efficient way to obtain more accurate genomic predictions...

  14. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  15. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  16. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-01-01

    University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the ...

  17. Implicit prices of traits of indigenous cattle - Implications for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    marketing system is semi-subsistence, cows have other functions more important than milk production. Fertility, disease resistance and strength of the calves they bear are as much or more important than milk. The breed concept, which is very much associated in Ethiopia with the area where the animal is brought from, was found to be less important as such and it appears that farmers are interested in obtaining animals from the district or locations in which they live in. This is essentially because cattle buyers, who are mostly farmers, are more concerned about adaptability and therefore give high value to the fact that they know the pedigree of the cattle they buy. The results of the CE for bulls indicate that cattle buyers assign high values for good traction potential, disease resistance, calf vigour, and for places of origin when choosing bulls in the market. The preferences cattle buyers have for these attributes do vary essentially due to differences in occupation, education and age. The primary objective of the rural community to produce sufficient food for the family for each year was manifested through the value assigned to traction potential which is more than twice that of disease resistance. These results are consistent with the basic reasons why animals are kept in the area, but appear to be incoherent with the government funded interventions of livestock development. Given the importance of livestock, bulls in particular, for the livelihoods of the communities in rural Ethiopia, such consistent valuation of the traits show that the objectives of the agrarian life are quite clear among the community - farmers, farmer traders, traders, and others - that production and marketing decisions are made on broader considerations than just milk and meat production. The government of Ethiopia needs to revise the structure of the livestock improvement programs still running and needs to make note of the important details that influence the production, marketing and

  18. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.05) at 30 and 60 d of the breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous

  19. Ovarian, hormonal, and reproductive events associated with synchronization of ovulation and timed appointment breeding of Bos indicus-influenced cattle using intravaginal progesterone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, and prostaglandin F2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J P; Cooper, D A; Cartmill, J A; Zuluaga, J F; Stanko, R L; Williams, G L

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1) compare cumulative pregnancy rates in a traditional management (TM) scheme with those using a synchronization of ovulation protocol (CO-Synch + CIDR) for timed AI (TAI) in Bos indicus-influenced cattle; 2) evaluate ovarian and hormonal events associated with CO-Synch + CIDR and CO-Synch without CIDR; and 3) determine estrual and ovulatory distributions in cattle synchronized with Select-Synch + CIDR. The CO-Synch + CIDR regimen included insertion of a controlled internal drug-releasing device (CIDR) and an injection of GnRH (GnRH-1) on d 0, removal of the CIDR and injection of PGF2alpha (PGF) on d 7, and injection of GnRH (GnRH-2) and TAI 48 h later. For Exp. 1, predominantly Brahman x Hereford (F1) and Brangus females (n = 335) were stratified by BCS, parity, and day postpartum (parous females) before random assignment to CO-Synch + CIDR or TM. To maximize the number of observations related to TAI conception rate (n = 266), an additional 96 females in which TM controls were not available for comparison also received CO-Synch + CIDR. Conception rates to TAI averaged 39 +/- 3% and were not affected by location, year, parity, AI sire, or AI technician. Cumulative pregnancy rates were greater (P breeding season in CO-Synch + CIDR (74.1 and 95.9%) compared with TM (61.8 and 89.7%). In Exp. 2, postpartum Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows (n = 100) were stratified as in Exp. 1 and divided into 4 replicates of 25. Within each replicate, approximately one-half (12 to 13) received CO-Synch + CIDR, and the other half received CO-Synch only (no CIDR). No differences were observed between treatments, and the data were pooled. Percentages of cows ovulating to GnRH-1, developing a synchronized follicular wave, exhibiting luteal regression to PGF, and ovulating to GnRH-2 were 40 +/- 5, 60 +/- 5, 93 +/- 2, and 72 +/- 4%, respectively. In Exp. 3, primiparous Brahman x Hereford, (F1) heifers (n = 32) and pluriparous cows (n = 18) received the

  20. Breeding tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Jank

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest commercial beef cattle herd and is the main beef exporter in the world. Cultivated pastures arethe basis for the Brazilian beef production, and occupy an area of 101.4 million hectares. However, very few forage cultivars arecommercially available, and the majority of these are of apomictic reproduction, thus genetically homogeneous. Tropical foragebreeding is at its infancy, but much investment and efforts have been applied in the last three decades and some new cultivars havebeen released. In this paper, origin of different species, modes of reproduction, breeding programs and targets are discussed andthe resulting new cultivars released are presented.

  1. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi......Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait...

  2. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  3. DETERMINATION OF LEPTIN EXPRESSION IN BEEF CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USED BY RTQ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect the presence and concentration of leptin in different breeds of cattle by PCR and Real time PCR method. Blood of different breeds of bulls was used as biological material in our experiments: Slovak pied cattle (10 samples, Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed (10 samples and Holstein breed (10 samples. The presence of leptin was detected in all samples based on the results of molecular-genetic detection of leptin gene. The average concentration of leptinin 30 samples of beef cattle was 22.1477 μg.μl-1. Differences in leptin concentrations were statistically significant between Holstein breed and Slovak pied cattle and between Slovak pied cattle and Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed.

  4. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril;

    2011-01-01

    cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs......Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...... from the O/UKG/34/2001 or A/Turkey 2/2006 field viruses, were constructed using the backbone from the O1K B64 cDNA, and viable viruses (O1K/O-UKG and O1K/A-Tur, respectively) were successfully rescued in each case. These viruses grew well in primary bovine thyroid cells but grew less efficiently in BHK...

  5. Improving artificial breeding of cattle in Africa. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation regional AFRA project on increasing and improving milk and meat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the African Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA), with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a technical cooperation project entitled Improving and Increasing Milk and Meat Production. The objectives of this project were to be achieved by (a) assessing the performance of existing artificial insemination (AI) programmes for small-scale dairy farmers and identifying constraints; (b) formulating and assisting in the implementation of remedial measures including appropriate strategies; (c) establishing sustainable routine non-pregnancy diagnosis (N-PD) and related services to farmers; and (d) harmonizing managerial and field practices and sharing of expertise within the region. The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and blood of cattle and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) are important components of an integrated approach to these activities. The project commenced in 1999 and, in addition to other national and regional activities, two meetings were held specifically to address objective (d) above: - Task Force Meeting on Training of Artificial Insemination (AI) Technicians, Field Assessment of Fertility and Database Management, November 1999 in Pretoria, South Africa. - Task Force Meeting to Harmonize Procedures for Selection and Management of AI Bulls and Use of Semen Technology in African Countries, May 2001 in Arusha, Tanzania. The meeting in Tanzania provided a comprehensive overview of the current practices being adopted for selection and management of AI bulls and use of semen technology in five African countries, and compared these with international practices. It also provided an opportunity for participants to discuss technical issues related to provision of improved breeding services to

  6. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Egito, Andrea Alves do; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula E; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-29

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  7. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001. Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001. Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05 showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  8. Whole-Genome Resequencing Analysis of Hanwoo and Yanbian Cattle to Identify Genome-Wide SNPs and Signatures of Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Woo; Choi, Bong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Soo; Kim, Hyeong-Cheol; Yu, Dayeong; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chai, Han-Ha; Cho, Yong-Min; Lim, Dajeong

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, Hanwoo has been selectively bred to improve economically important traits. Hanwoo is currently the representative Korean native beef cattle breed, and it is believed that it shared an ancestor with a Chinese breed, Yanbian cattle, until the last century. However, these two breeds have experienced different selection pressures during recent decades. Here, we whole-genome sequenced 10 animals each of Hanwoo and Yanbian cattle (20 total) using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequ...

  9. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  10. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BOVINE BREED (TABAPUA) UNDER ARTIFICIAL SELECTION LOCATED IN THE AMAZON REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Ednaldo da Silva Filho; Marcone Helmer da Silva; Jose Elivalto Guimaraes Campelo; Maria Lucia Harada; Marcia Rocha DeRosia

    2012-01-01

    Brazil currently has the biggest commercial bovine cattle population in the world. Several different breeds that come from Europe and India compose it. They are primarily used for dairy and meat production. In Brazil, several high quality genetic background cattle are kept in a condition known as pure breed, meaning no other animal of different genetic background is interbreeding with them and consequently, affecting their genetic variability. Hence, these cattle are apparently vulnerable to ...

  11. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling. PMID:9110198

  12. Feedlot cattle with calm temperaments have higher average daily gains than cattle with excitable temperaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisinet, B D; Grandin, T; Tatum, J D; O'Connor, S F; Struthers, J J

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of temperament on the average daily gains of feedlot cattle. Cattle (292 steers and 144 heifers) were transported to Colorado feedlot facilities. Breeds studied included Braford (n = 177), Simmental x Red Angus (n = 92), Red Brangus (n = 70), Simbrah (n = 65), Angus (n = 18), and Tarentaise x Angus (n = 14). Cattle were temperament rated on a numerical scale (chute score) during routine weighing and processing. Data were separated into two groups based on breed, Brahman cross (> or = 25% Brahman) and nonBrahman breeding. Animals that had Brahman breeding had a higher mean temperament rating (3.45 +/- .09) or were more excitable than animals that had no Brahman influence (1.80 +/- .10); (P < .001). These data also show that heifers have a higher mean temperament rating than steers (P < .05). Temperament scores evaluated for each breed group also showed that increased temperament score resulted in decreased average daily gains (P < .05). These data show that cattle that were quieter and calmer during handling had greater average daily gains than cattle that became agitated during routine handling.

  13. Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, van der D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Van der Spek, D. (2015). Genetic background of claw health in dairy cattle. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands. Claw disorders affect cow welfare and profitability of farms and as such are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding. Aim of this thesi

  14. Predicting Breed Composition Using Breed Frequencies of 50,000 Markers from the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center 2,000 Bull Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to evaluate whether breed composition of crossbred cattle could be predicted using reference breed frequencies of SNP markers on the BovineSNP50 array. Semen DNA samples of over 2,000 bulls from 16 common commercial beef breeds were genotyped using the array and used to estimate cu...

  15. Associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, K E; Morton, J M; Mahony, T J; Clements, A C A; Barnes, T S

    2016-03-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was conducted in a population of Australian feedlot cattle to assess associations between animal characteristic and environmental risk factors and risk of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Animal characteristics were recorded at induction, when animals were individually identified and enrolled into study cohorts (comprising animals in a feedlot pen). Environmental risk factors included the year and season of induction, source region and feedlot region and summary variables describing weather during the first week of follow-up. In total, 35,131 animals inducted into 170 cohorts within 14 feedlots were included in statistical analyses. Causal diagrams were used to inform model building and multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models were fitted within the Bayesian framework. Breed, induction weight and season of induction were significantly and strongly associated with risk of BRD. Compared to Angus cattle, Herefords were at markedly increased risk (OR: 2.0, 95% credible interval: 1.5-2.6) and tropically adapted breeds and their crosses were at markedly reduced risk (OR: 0.5, 95% credible interval: 0.3-0.7) of developing BRD. Risk of BRD declined with increased induction weight, with cattle in the heaviest weight category (≥480kg) at moderately reduced risk compared to cattle weighing risk compared to animals inducted during spring. Knowledge of these risk factors may be useful in predicting BRD risk for incoming groups of cattle in Australian feedlots. This would then provide the opportunity for feedlot managers to tailor management strategies for specific subsets of animals according to predicted BRD risk.

  16. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  17. Objetivos de seleção para sistemas de produção de gado de corte em pasto: ponderadores econômicos Economic values for breeding goal traits for Brazilian beef cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference

  18. New single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu-calpain gene in Spanish maternal beef breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés, C; Azor, P J; Pannier, L; Hamill, R M; Membrillo, A; Molina, A

    2009-01-01

    Calpains play an important role in the postmortem tenderization process of meat and several SNP in the mu-calpain gene (CAPN1) have been reported to be associated with tenderness in beef cattle. Our objectives were to identify the previously reported CAPN1 331G>C SNP and to detect new polymorphisms in this gene in Spanish maternal beef breeds. A fragment (exon 8 to 10) of the bovine CAPN1 gene was sequenced and genotyped in a sample of the main Spanish maternal beef breeds including Retinta, Morucha, and Avilenã Negra-Ibérica. These breeds are characterized for their high meat quality, their adaptation to adverse environmental conditions, and their good maternal aptitude. This adaptation makes it possible to rear these breeds in the south and west of Spain, where drought and feed shortages occur frequently. Six SNP in the mu-calpain gene were found, five of which (CAPN1 80C>T, 302C>G, 310G>A, 445C>T, 524A>C) have not been reported previously. Sequences obtained for these five newly found SNP were submitted to GenBank (Accessions EU386166 to EU386183).

  19. Proliferation rates of bovine primary muscle cells relate to liveweight and carcase weight in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Chantal A; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P; Siddell, Jason P; Greenwood, Paul L; White, Jason D; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5-20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle.

  20. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Status of Luxi Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Yong-jiang; CHANG Hong; YANG Zhang-ping; XU Ming; ZHANG Liu; CHANG Guo-bin; SONG Wei-tao; WANG Dong-lei

    2006-01-01

    A total of 87 individuals of Luxi cattle from Juanchen and Liangshan counties, Shangdong Province, China, were sampled by simple random sampling in typical colony. Twenty-one blood proteins and enzymes loci were detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE). In the meantime, the data of 7 loci of 13 cattle populations in China and other countries were collected and phylogeny relationships were studied. The results indicated that 9 out of 21 loci showed polymorphism (42.86%); the level of genetic variation in Luxi cattle population was relatively high, the mean heterozygosity was 0.1416. The Luxi cattle have a close phylogenetic relationship with the cattle populations of east and south of Asia, and this further confirmed the fact that Luxi cattle were the cross-breed between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus in China, but it is impossible that yellow cattle contained the blood of of Bali.

  1. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    Rasali Hakim Matondang; C. Talib

    2015-01-01

    Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried ou...

  2. Comparative study of fattening and slaughter traits of male Simmental breed and crosses with Charolais breed

    OpenAIRE

    Petričević M.; Aleksić S.; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Stanišić N.; Nikšić D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the slaughter traits, conformation score and fat covering of carcass and composition of carcasses of young cattle of two genotype groups: domestic Simmental breed (A) and its crosses with Charolais breed (B). The sample included a total of 30 animals, 15 in each group. Both groups were slaughtered at final weight of about 660 kg. After the slaughtering, warm carcass sides with and without kidney fat were weighed ...

  3. Análise de fatores genéticos e ambientais que afetam a infestação de fêmeas bovinas da raça Caracu por carrapatos (Boophilus microplus Genetic analysis of the infestation of Caracu female cattle breed by cattle tick (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Bossi Fraga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de fatores de meio sobre a infestação de bovinos Caracu pelo carrapato Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 e estimar parâmetros genéticos do grau de infestação por esse ectoparasita. Foram realizadas contagens em fêmeas de dois rebanhos, nas quatro estações, por dois anos consecutivos (setembro/1998 a julho/2000. Contou-se o número de carrapatos (NC em um dos lados do animal e atribuiu-se escore visual (EC de acordo com a quantidade de carrapatos no animal. Foram feitas de uma a oito avaliações, totalizando-se 4.079 e 3.994 observações de NC e EC, respectivamente, em 718 animais. Os dados foram analisados pelo método dos quadrados mínimos com um modelo que incluiu efeitos de rebanho (R, cor do animal (C, R x C, animal dentro de R x C como erro a, ano e estação da avaliação, espessura de pelame e idade do animal como covariável. As estimativas dos componentes de variância foram obtidas pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita livre de derivadas, utilizando-se um modelo que incluiu os efeitos fixos de grupo de contemporâneos (fazenda-ano-época, espessura do pelame e idade do animal como covariável e os efeitos aleatórios aditivos diretos e de ambiente permanente. Antes das análises, a variável NC foi transformada para log10 (n + 1 e EC para (x + 0,5½, em que n é o número de carrapatos contados no animal e x, o escore (0 a 4. A incidência de carrapatos foi maior no verão e, quanto maior a espessura do pelame, maior o nível de infestação. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade foram, respectivamente, 0,22 e 0,29 para NC e 0,15 e 0,21 para EC; a correlação genética entre NC e EC foi igual a 1,00. Os resultados sugerem que é possível obter progresso genético para resistência a carrapato pela seleção.The objective of this study was to evaluate environmental aspects that affect the infestation of the Caracu cattle breed by the

  4. Most important types of cattle behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of cattle is a simple and easily established indicator of their health condition, production characteristics and welfare, showing whether and how the animal has adapted to the maintenance conditions. Essentially, all forms of cattle behavior are accompanied by certain physiological changes in the organism, and the basic moving forces of behavior are congenital. The moving forces of behavior of cattle are narrowed down to a certain number of biological needs (the need for food, water, sexual and other biological needs and congenital urges and instincts, such as the combative and maternal instincts. Cattle are grazing animals and they cannot exhibit all their congenital natural activities of behavior under intensive maintenance conditions. Different internal and external stimuli influence the types of behavior of cattle, changing the motivational activities of their organism. In the course of domestication, certain forms of behavior of cattle have sustained changes, some have adapted to the new conditions, and new ones have appeared as well. The social, reproductive, maternal, and feeding behavior of cattle in closed maintenance conditions has not changed fundamentally, but the model of its manifesting has changed. Furthermore, certain disorders in the behavior of cattle also appear as a consequence of the maintenance conditions, and they can also be of hereditary character. In order to promote welfare, cattle should be enabled to exhibit their natural behavior, but they should also be provided with an environment that has natural characteristics.

  5. Selection for body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis deals with selection for body weight (BW) in dairy cattle. The economic efficiency of present breeding schemes might increase further when selection decisions also consider information on BW as BW relates to feed costs and revenues from beef production. However, the practical implementat

  6. Whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine whole genome linkage disequilibrium maps were constructed for eight breeds of cattle. These data provide fundamental information concerning bovine genome organization which will allow the design of studies to associate genetic variation with economically important traits and also provides bac...

  7. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    [Background]Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleoti...

  8. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotid...

  9. Liver copper concentrations in cull cattle in the UK: are cattle being copper loaded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, N R; Holmes-Pavord, H R; Bone, P A; Ander, E L; Young, S D

    2015-11-14

    With the release of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs/Advisory Committee on Animal Feed Guidance Note for Supplementing Copper to Bovines it was noted that the current copper status of the national herd was not known. Liver samples were recovered from 510 cull cattle at a single abattoir across a period of three days. The samples were wet-ashed and liver copper concentrations determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Breed, age and previous location information were obtained from the British Cattle Movement Service. Dairy breeds had higher liver copper concentrations than beef breeds. Holstein-Friesian and 'other' dairy breeds had 38.3 per cent and 40 per cent of cattle above the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) reference range (8000 µmol/kg dry matter), respectively, whereas only 16.9 per cent of animals in the combined beef breeds exceeded this value. It was found that underlying topsoil copper concentration was not related to liver copper content and that age of the animal also had little effect on liver concentration. In conclusion, over 50 per cent of the liver samples tested had greater-than-normal concentrations of copper with almost 40 per cent of the female dairy cattle having liver copper concentrations above the AHVLA reference range, indicating that a significant proportion of the UK herd is at risk of chronic copper toxicity.

  10. Influence of breed, heterozygosity, and disease incidence on estimates of variance components of respiratory disease in preweaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowder, G D; Van Vleck, L D; Cundiff, L V; Bennett, G L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genetic and environmental factors influencing bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle. Records from nine purebred and three composite breeds and a variety of F1 and three-way crosses, including the progeny of 12 additional different sire breeds produced over a 20-yr period (1983 to 2002), were evaluated for breed and heterozygosity effects on the observed incidence of BRD. Heterozygosity fractions for calves and dams were defined by generalized breed origins: British, Continental, and tropically adapted. Variance components were estimated for each pure and composite breed, and across all breeds and crossbreeds. The effect of incidence of observed BRD was determined by comparing groups of low and high years of incidence. Respiratory disease in this herd followed a standard epidemiological pattern of initial introduction, reaching an epidemic stage at 70 to 170 d of age, followed by a period of rapid decrease to weaning. Estimates of heritability of incidence of BRD were low, ranging from 0.00 to 0.26, with overall estimates of 0.07 and 0.19 depending on the data set analyzed. The highest incidence of BRD in preweaned calves occurred in the Braunvieh breed (18.8%). The genetic correlation between the direct and maternal genetic effects was generally large and negative, suggesting dams genetically superior for resisting BRD raise calves that are more susceptible. Perhaps maternally superior dams provide passive immunity to their calves, which delays the development of the calves' direct immune system, making them more prone to BRD during the preweaning period. Heterozygosity of calves decreased the incidence of BRD compared with purebred cattle. Calves that were Continental x British or tropically adapted x British breeds had a lower incidence of BRD than did calves of British x British breeds. As the annual incidence of BRD increased, there was an associated increase in the heritability estimate. The estimated

  11. Cow genotyping strategies for genomic selection in small dairy cattle population

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares how different cow genotyping strategies increase the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (EBV) in dairy cattle breeds with low numbers. In these breeds there are few sires with progeny records and genotyping cows can improve the accuracy of genomic EBV. The Guernsey bre...

  12. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  13. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV.

  14. Adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Pathogenesis and micro-anatomic characterization of a cell-adapted mutant foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle: impact of the route of inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a companion study, we reported that the cellular Jumonji-C Domain containing Protein 6 (JMJD6) protein is involved in an alternate integrin- and HS-independent pathway of FMDV infection in CHO cells. Here, we investigated the JMJD6 localization in animal tissues from cattle infected with either ...

  16. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (resistance to Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature. PMID:25715822

  17. Geographical assessment of body measurements and qualitative traits in West African cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Amadou; Koudandé, Delphin Oloronto; Fernández, Iván; Soudré, Albert; Granda, Víctor; Álvarez, Isabel; Diarra, Siaka; Diarra, Fousseyni; Kaboré, Adama; Sanou, Moumouni; Tamboura, Hamidou Hamadou; Goyache, Félix

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1015 adult cows belonging to nine West African cattle breeds were assessed for 16 body measurements and 18 qualitative traits to ascertain the existence of geographical patterns of variation. Sampling was carried out in 29 different provinces of Mali, Burkina Faso and Benin. For body measurements, taurine breeds took lower average values than the zebu breeds. Sanga cattle took intermediate values. Qualitative traits did not allow to differentiate among cattle groups (taurine, zebu or sanga) or breeds. Principal component analysis identified two factors explaining 56.4 and 9.2 % of the variance for body measurements, respectively. Two correspondence analysis dimensions computed on qualitative traits explained a small proportion of the variability (20.8 and 13.5 %, respectively). Contour plots were constructed using the eigenvalues computed for each individual and either factor or dimension identified; confidence regions calculated confirmed that body measurements clearly differentiated zebu and taurine cattle breeds while qualitative traits did not. Factor 1 was projected on a geographical map, using provinces as nodes, to assess breed-free variation for body measurements. A pattern of continuous variation from the Sahel area southwards was identified. Probably, breeding decisions promoting the crosses between zebu-like and taurine cattle are underlying this geographical pattern of variation. The implementation of selection strategies aiming at the increase of the productivity of native West African taurine cattle breeds while avoiding looses in trypanotolerant ability would be highly advisable.

  18. Estimation of Genetic Gain on Growth and Carcass Traits over Direct and Index Selection for Growth and Feed Efficiency of Japanese Black Cattle by computer simulation(Animal Production Science Animal Breeding and Genetics)

    OpenAIRE

    HOQUE,Md. Azharul / SUZUKI,Keiichi / OIKAWA,Takuro

    2007-01-01

    A simulation study was performed for performance traits on 740 bulls and carcass traits on 1,774 progeny in Japanese Black cattle to compare the efficiency of direct and index selection. Performance traits included average daily gain (ADG), final body weight (BWF), metabolic body weight (MWT), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). Progeny traits were carcass weight (CWT), rib eye area (REA), rib thickness (RBT), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), marblin...

  19. Engineering disease resistant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Kerr, David E; Wall, Robert J

    2005-10-01

    Mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens that find their way into the lumen of the gland through the teat canal. Mammary gland infections cost the US dairy industry approximately $2 billion dollars annually and have a similar impact in Europe. In the absence of effective treatments or breeding strategies to enhance mastitis resistance, we have created transgenic dairy cows that express lysostaphin in their mammary epithelium and secrete the antimicrobial peptide into milk. Staphylococcus aureus, a major mastitis pathogen, is exquisitely sensitive to lysostaphin. The transgenic cattle resist S. aureus mammary gland challenges, and their milk kills the bacteria, in a dose dependent manner. This first step in protecting cattle against mastitis will be followed by introduction of other genes to deal with potential resistance issues and other mastitis causing organisms. Care will be taken to avoid altering milk's nutritional and manufacturing properties. Multi-cistronic constructs may be required to achieve our goals as will other strategies possibly involving RNAi and gene targeting technology. This work demonstrates the possibility of using transgenic technology to address disease problems in agriculturally important species.

  20. Characterization of bovine MHC class II DRB3 diversity in South American Holstein cattle populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, S-N; Giovambattista, G; Okimoto, N; Matsumoto, Y; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Acosta, T J; Onuma, M; Aida, Y

    2015-12-01

    Holstein cattle dominate the global milk production industry because of their outstanding milk production, however, this breed is susceptible to tropical endemic pathogens and suffers from heat stress and thus fewer Holstein populations are raised in tropical areas. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (BoLA)-DRB3 class II gene is used as a marker for disease and immunological traits, and its polymorphism has been studied extensively in Holstein cattle from temperate and cold regions. We studied the genetic diversity of the BoLA-DRB3 gene in South American Holstein populations to determine whether tropical populations have diverged from those bred in temperate and cold regions by selection and/or crossbreeding with local native breeds. We specifically studied Exon 2 of this gene from 855 South American Holstein individuals by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sequence-based typing method. We found a high degree of gene diversity at the allelic (Na > 20 and He > 0.87) and molecular (π > 0.080) levels, but a low degree of population structure (FST = 0.009215). A principal components analysis and tree showed that the Bolivian subtropical population had the largest genetic divergence compared with Holsteins bred in temperate or cold regions, and that this population was closely related to Bolivian Creole cattle. Our results suggest that Holstein genetic divergence can be explained by selection and/or gene introgression from local germplasms. This is the first examination of BoLA-DRB3 in Holsteins adapted to tropical environments, and contributes to an ongoing effort to catalog bovine MHC allele frequencies by breed and location.

  1. Ovarian Response to Different Dose Levels of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) in Different Genotypes of Bangladeshi Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Ali; Khandoker, M.A.M.Y.; Afroz, M. A.; Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted under the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh from June, 2001 to December, 2005 in two different locations (Central Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm and Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute in Savar, Dhaka) to observe ovarian response to different doses of FSH in three different genotypes of cattle- indigenous Local, Pabna cattle and Friesian×Local cross. Five different dose levels used were 200, 240, 2...

  2. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Heaton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in global beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene (EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S. The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses.

  3. Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared E Decker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation.

  4. Breeding hop

    OpenAIRE

    Langrová, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    Summary The subject of the provided extended essay is Hop Breeding. The work is aimed at the hops biology. Concretely it describes the biology and morfology of hop plant, underground and above-ground part of the plant, infructescence and inflorescence, the morphology and chemical composition of the head. Subsequently it defines qualitative characteristics of hops head, surcharges and substractions of damaged or destroyed hops. It describes a new system of hop certification and imp...

  5. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

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    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  6. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W; Lenstra, Johannes A; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  8. Distribution of allele frequencies at TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A between Japanese Black and four other cattle breeds with differing historical selection for marbling

    OpenAIRE

    Muramatsu Youji; Kose Hiroyuki; Ohta Takeshi; Fujita Tatsuo; Satoh Youichi; Watanabe Naoto; Yamamoto Takuji; Yamada Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. Our previous study detected 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), g.231054C > T, g.3109537C > T and c.*188G > A, respectively, in the 5' flanking region of the titin (TTN), the 5' flanking region of the ribosomal protein L27a (RPL27A) and the 3' untranslated region of the akirin 2 genes (AKIRIN2), which have been conside...

  9. Age and lactation specific disposal pattern in Sahiwal cattle and influence of various genetic and non-genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Upadhyay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premature disposal of female calves before reaching milch herd and undesirable disposal of lactating cows are the major constraints in achieving larger herd size. During the early lactations, younger cows are supposed to give higher milk yield and undesirable disposal of early calvers, thereby, greatly hampers profitability of a dairy farm. Knowledge of the incidence of disposal along with reasons in various age groups and at various parities is essential to identify which age group or parity is more vulnerable for disposal. Moreover, knowledge of various genetic and non-genetic factors associated with disposal of animals may also be helpful in developing breeding and management strategies to reduce the incidence of disposal. In most of the studies, it was found that major reasons of disposal of dairy cattle were mortality among female calves and involuntary culling among adult lactating cows. Maximum mortality in female calves was observed during earlier ages and pneumonia, gastro-enteritis and debility were major reasons of female calf mortality. Whereas, most of the adult cows left the herd, due to teat and udder and reproductive problems. Moreover, indigenous breeds were found to be more adapted to Indian tropical climatic conditions in comparison to crossbred and exotic cattle breeds.

  10. [Relationship between genotypes at MyoD locus and carcass traits in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Xu, Shang-Zhong; Yue, Wen-Bin; Li, Jun-Ya; Gao, Xue; Ren, Hong-Yan

    2007-03-01

    A 261 bp sequence of the bovine MyoD gene intron 2 was cloned and was found to bear no similarities to the human MyoD gene sequence. Polymorphisms of the Myod gene in cattle including three Chinese breeds (Luxi cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle) and four cross-breeding populations (Limousin x Luxi cattle, Simmental x Luxi cattle, Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle) were detected by PCR-SSCP. Two SSCP alleles (A and B) were detected, which caused by a C-->T at 39 bp and a C-->G transition at 112 bp. Only two genotypes AA and AB occurred in the population. In Chinese local cattle, B allele was dominant, and this locus was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except for the Charolais x Luxi cattle and Angus x Luxi cattle. The association of these polymorphisms with cattle carcass traits was analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). Statistical analysis revealed a higher value of living weight, carcass weight and loin eye area for individuals with genotype AA than AB (P carcass quality traits. PMID:17369152

  11. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  12. USDA lettuce breeding and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lettuce industry of California requires continued development of improved, adapted cultivars to meet new disease and insect problems, changes in the market, and changes in growing procedures. The USDA lettuce breeding and genetics project aims to incorporate valuable traits into crisphead, mixed...

  13. Distribución de polimorfismos asociados al grado de infiltración de grasa intramuscular en siete razas bovinas de carne utilizadas en la Región de La Araucanía, Chile Polymorphism distribution associated with marbling degree in seven beef cattle breeds being present in La Araucanía Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Piñeira

    2012-01-01

    of molecular markers. Several multinational companies have made available to producers commercial tests based on these technologies, which allow assessing the predisposition of animals to express a specific phenotype. However, some doubts have begun to arise about negative effects of improper use of molecular markers, these are problems associated with inbreeding depression and long-term loss of response to selection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess allele and genotype frequencies of 4 polymorphisms associated with marbling in 7 beef cattle breeds being present in La Araucanía Region of Chile. We evaluated leptin, thyroglobulin, DGAT1 and FABP4 genes, which showed different frequency distributions among breeds with higher allele frequency for marbling in Aberdeen Angus breed and a low frequency in Belgian Blue and Hereford breeds. We conclude that it is feasible to use these tools in genetic programs, but it is also necessary to have reliable genealogical records and advice of professional or technical institutions that can integrate genotypic information from molecular markers in prediction models used for selection of breeding stock.

  14. Tick-susceptible Bos taurus cattle display an increased cellular response at the site of larval Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus attachment, compared with tick-resistant Bos indicus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Gondro, Cedric; Lew-Tabor, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2010-03-15

    Cattle demonstrate divergent and heritable phenotypes of resistance and susceptibility to infestation with the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Bos indicus cattle are generally more resistant to tick infestation than Bos taurus breeds although large variations in resistance can occur within subspecies and within breed. Increased tick resistance has been previously associated with an intense hypersensitivity response in B. taurus breeds; however, the mechanism by which highly resistant B. indicus cattle acquire and sustain high levels of tick resistance remains to be elucidated. Using the commercially available Affymetrix microarray gene expression platform, together with histological examination of the larval attachment site, this study aimed to describe those processes responsible for high levels of tick resistance in Brahman (B. indicus) cattle that differ from those in low-resistance Holstein-Friesian (B. taurus) cattle. We found that genes involved in inflammatory processes and immune responsiveness to infestation by ticks, although up-regulated in tick-infested Holstein-Friesian cattle, were not up-regulated in Brahman cattle. In contrast, genes encoding constituents of the extracellular matrix were up-regulated in Brahmans. Furthermore, the susceptible Holstein-Friesian animals displayed a much greater cellular inflammatory response at the site of larval R. microplus attachment compared with the tick-resistant Brahman cattle. PMID:19852965

  15. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  16. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  17. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  18. Hematological and serum biochemical profile of apparently healthy hariana cattle heifers in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Singh, Krishna Veer; Verma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Roy, Debashis

    2013-11-01

    The 'Hariana' breed of cattle has been proved to be highly adaptable to harsh climatic conditions and resistant to common diseases prevalent in India. In this study, the normal reference values of hematological and serum proteins and other blood biochemical parameters were determined in the heifers of Hariana breed maintained at Instructional livestock farm complex, DUVASU, Mathura, India. A total of twenty four animals were used in this study. Blood was taken aseptically from all the animals and transported to laboratory for hematological and biochemical analysis. The hematological parameters (Hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, packed cell volume) and biochemical parameters (Total protein, total albumin, albumin globulin ratio, urea, creatinine, calcium, phosphorous, calcium phosphorous ratio, AST, ALT) values were statistically analyzed, mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as reference values. This study reported hematological and serum biochemical values which could serve as baseline information for comparison in conditions of nutrient deficiency, physiological and health status of Hariana cattle heifers in India.

  19. Proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphisms and its association with meat quality traits by ultrasound measurement in Chinese cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zan, Linsen; Li, Linqiang; Xin, Yaping

    2013-10-15

    Ultrasound technology was used to measure live animal meat traits instead of true carcass meat traits for beef production and cattle breeding by an increasing number of institutions. In this study, we analyzed the association between genetic polymorphisms of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ultrasound measurement traits in Chinese cattle. Using direct DNA sequencing in 322 individuals of 7 different cattle subpopulation, 7 SNPs were identified for genotyping within 790bp region of intron 2 and exon 3 of POMC. 6586 T>G in intron 2 and 6769 C>T and 7216 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ultrasound backfat thickness (UBF) (PT, 6706 T>C, 6796 C>T and 6810 C>T in exon 3 were significantly associated with ULMA (Pmeat in Chinese cattle breeding program. Following validation in other populations and breeds, these markers could be incorporated into breeding programs to increase the rate of improvement in carcass and meat quality traits.

  20. RESEARCH REGARDING NATIVE DOMESTICATED ENDANGERED ANIMAL BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MATIUłI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The research done in this paper was made in Transylvania and Banat. The autochthon domestic endangered animal breeds were inventoried, zonal maps on where to encounter these breeds being drawn. The list of these species contains: the gray cattle, the Mocanitza (the mountain breed sheep, the Transylvanian Pinzgau, the black Pinzgau, the Transylvanian bull, the Nonius horse, the Western mountain hores breed, the Mangalitza breed, the Bazna breed, the black of Strei, the Transylvanian Merino, the curly haired sheep of Banat, the white goat of Banat, the hound of Ardeal region. In the last 20 years, in these species there was a significant drop in numbers and, in some cases, even in quality. If urgent measures to preserve these species will not be taken, there is a possibility that in the next 10 years, some of them will disappear. The protection plans for these breeds are, in the majority of the cases, just simple projects that no one is applying. Since 2007, in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine there is a Data Base to monitor the native domestic animals from the western area of Romania. The data from this data base are used by farmers, pickers and specialists from the food industry.

  1. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  2. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  3. Adaptação de linhagens de galinhas para corte ao sistema de criação semi-intensivo Adaptation of meat-type chickens lines to semi-intensive breeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAN Silva

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Aves de quatro linhagens de galinhas para corte foram criadas no sistema semi-intensivo, em 16 boxes, sendo 4 boxes por linhagens, com 4,5 m² de área interna (abrigo e 35 m² de área de pastejo, com o objetivo de analisar a adaptação dessas linhagens a esse sistema de criação, através de parâmetros ambientais e comportamentais. O período experimental desenvolveu-se entre 35 e 75 dias de idade, durante o qual foram coletados dados relativos à quantidade de aves presentes no pasto, temperatura e umidade relativa nos boxes e no pasto e porcentagem de sombra no pasto. Os parâmetros ambientais monitorados influenciaram o comportamento das aves. A análise bioclimática e a observação do comportamento permitiram diferenciar as linhagens estudadas no que diz respeito à adaptação das linhagens ao sistema semi-intensivo de criação. As aves das linhagens avaliadas mostraram-se adaptadas ao sistema semi-intensivo por demonstrar o comportamento esperado para esse sistema de criação.Birds of four meat-type chicken lines were reared at the semi-intensive system with the objective of evaluate the adaptation to these breeding systems through environmental and behavioural parameters. The experimental period took place between 35 and 75 days of age during which it was collected data of number of broilers in the pasture, air temperature and relative humidity inside the boxes and in the pasture areas, and percentage of shadow in the pasture areas. Environmental factors influenced the behaviour of the evaluated lines. The bioclimatic analysis and the observation of the chicken behaviour allowed to discriminate the studied lines regarding to the adaptation to the semi-intensive breeding system. The broilers of the evaluated lines showed adaptation to the semi-intensive system, presenting the expected behaviour for this breeding system.

  4. Simulation of Livestock Breeding Economics in Conditions of the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Foltyn, Ivan; Kopecek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    In the paper there are described mathematical principles of biological, technological and economic model relations and connections in animal breeding on which the mathematical model AGRO-ZV is based. With the model it is possible to simulate impacts of the agricultural policy on livestock breeding economics and commodity economics in dependence on different agricultural policy variants. In the article there is illustrated a usage of the model for simulation of dairy cattle economics before (2...

  5. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of artificial insemination in cattle breeding Worldwide leads to reduced effective population sizes and increased inbreeding levels. Increased inbreeding result in increased probalility of expression of recessive defective alleles, which probably is reflected in a decline...... in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  6. Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD AMIN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Amin M (2010 Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi. Biodiversitas 10: 69-74. The aims of the present research are two folds: to know the phenotypic diversity and to reconstruct the cross-breeding pattern of local cattle in Banyuwangi. Based on three sampling areas, it was found that there were 32 phenotypic cattle (10 in the sub districts of Rogojampi, 16 in Tegaldlimo and 6 in Glagah areas. The phenotypic varieties were caused by two factors, namely the flow of genetic intervention of the other local cattle (Bali, Ongole, and Brahman cattle and the artificial insemination program using the semen of Limousine, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus and Santa Gertrudis cattle.

  7. Gene expression in the skin of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle infested with the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Emily K; Jackson, Louise A; Bagnall, Neil H; Kongsuwan, Kritaya K; Lew, Ala E; Jonsson, Nicholas N

    2008-11-15

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (formerly Boophilus microplus) is responsible for severe production losses to the cattle industry worldwide. It has long been known that different breeds of cattle can resist tick infestation to varying degrees; however, the mechanisms by which resistant cattle prevent heavy infestation are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether gene expression varied significantly between skin sampling sites (neck, chest and tail region), and whether changes in gene expression could be detected in samples taken at tick attachment sites (tick attached to skin sample) compared with samples taken from non-attachment sites (no tick attachment). We present here the results of an experiment examining the expression of a panel of forty-four genes in skin sections taken from Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle of known high resistance, and Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian) cattle of known low resistance to the cattle tick. The forty-four genes chosen for this study included genes known to be involved in several immune processes, some structural genes, and some genes previously suggested to be of importance in tick resistance by other researchers. The expression of fifteen gene transcripts increased significantly in Holstein-Friesian skin samples at tick attachment sites. The higher expression of many genes involved in innate inflammatory processes in the Holstein-Friesian animals at tick attachment sites suggests this breed is exhibiting a non-directed pathological response to infestation. Of the forty-four genes analysed, no transcripts were detected in higher abundance at tick attachment sites in the Brahman cattle compared with similar samples from the Holstein-Friesian group, nor difference between attachment site and non-attachment site samples within the Brahman group. The results presented here suggest that the means by which these two cattle breeds respond to tick infestation differ and warrant further investigation. PMID

  8. Productivity of Thai Brahman and Simmental-Brahman crossbred (Kabinburi) cattle in central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonprong, S.; Choothesa, A.; Sribhen, C.; Parvizi, N.; Vajrabukka, C.

    2008-05-01

    The productivity of the new crossbred cattle Kabinburi (K) was compared to that of Thai Brahman (TB) using 756 production records from K cattle and 1,316 production records from TB cattle kept at three locations in Thailand. The data were analyzed for the effect of breeds and locations. The ambient temperature, the humidity, the Temperature-Humidity Index (THI) and the rainfall of the three locations were different. Lamphayaklang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (LP) had the highest rainfall/year followed by Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center (NK), and Prachinburi Livestock Breeding Station (PC). Kabinburi cattle had a higher bodyweight at birth as well as at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than TB cattle. Furthermore, K heifers gave birth to their first calf at a younger age and had a shorter calving interval than TB cows. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP had significantly higher bodyweight at 400 and 600 days than the animals kept at NK, but bodyweight at birth and 600 days of age were not significantly different. Thai Brahman cattle kept at LP were younger at first calving and had a shorter calving interval than the animals kept at NK. K cattle kept at NK were heavier at birth and at 200, 400 and 600 days of age than the animals kept at PC. Furthermore, Kabinburi cows kept at NK were younger at first calving ( P < 0.01), but the calving interval was not different between the two groups kept at NK or PC.

  9. Whole-genome resequencing of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) and insight into regions of homozygosity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Tai; Chung, Won-Hyong; Lee, Sung-Yeoun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jiwoong; Lim, Dajeong; Lee, Seunghwan; Jang, Gul-Won; Kim, Bumsoo; Choy, Yun Ho; Liao, Xiaoping; Stothard, Paul; Moore, Stephen S; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ahn, Sungmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Hanwoo (Korean cattle), which originated from natural crossbreeding between taurine and zebu cattle, migrated to the Korean peninsula through North China. Hanwoo were raised as draft animals until the 1970s without the introduction of foreign germplasm. Since 1979, Hanwoo has been bred as beef cattle. Genetic variation was analyzed by whole-genome deep resequencing of a Hanwoo bull. The Hanwoo genome was compared to that of two other breeds, Black Angus and Holstein, and genes with...

  10. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, J.E.; Taylor, J. F.; Kantanen, J.; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L. J.; MacNeil, M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut ...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  12. Effect of increased adiposity on insulin sensitivity and adipokine concentrations in different equine breeds adapted to cereal-rich or fat-rich meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, N J; Potter, S J; Baskerville, C L; Harris, P A; Bailey, S R

    2016-08-01

    The relationships between diet, obesity and insulin dysregulation in equids require further investigation due to their association with laminitis. This study examined the effect of dietary glycaemic load and increased adiposity on insulin sensitivity and adipokine concentrations in different equine breeds. Equal numbers of Standardbred horses, mixed-breed ponies and Andalusian horses were provided with ad libitum hay plus either cereal-rich (CHO; n = 12), fat-rich (FAT; n = 12) or control (CON; n = 9) meals over 20 weeks. The isocaloric CHO and FAT diets were fed to induce obesity by gradually increasing the supplementary feeds to provide 200% of daily digestible energy requirements by Week 20. The CON group were fed a basal ration only and maintained moderate body condition. At Week 20, the CHO and FAT groups demonstrated significantly increased body condition score, bodyweight, total body fat mass and plasma leptin concentrations compared with the CON group (P <0.001). The CHO group had lower insulin sensitivity (SI; P <0.001) and higher acute insulin response to glucose (P = 0.002) than the CON group. In contrast, the FAT group was no different to the control group. Ponies and Andalusians had lower SI values compared with Standardbreds, regardless of diet group (P = 0.001). Adiponectin concentrations were similar between the FAT and CON groups, but were significantly lower in the CHO group (P = 0.010). The provision of cereal-rich meals appeared to be a more important determinant of insulin sensitivity than the induction of obesity per se. Whether hypoadiponectinaemia is a cause or consequence of insulin dysregulation warrants further investigation. PMID:27387720

  13. Climate Adaptability and Artificial Breeding Technology of the Nanling Antheraea yamamai%南岭天蚕生态气候适应性及人工养殖技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈标新; 唐曼琳; 刘卫平; 曹成书; 吴重池

    2012-01-01

    在海拔300、400、500、600、700、800、900 m等7个不同高度上建立气象天蚕养饲基地,研究了南岭天蚕的气候适应性.结果表明:南岭天蚕适宜的温度范围为17.0~25.0℃,最适宜温度为22℃,适宜相对湿度60%~70%;最适宜海拔高度在500~800 m之间.南岭天蚕养殖的关键技术如下:3月底4月初日平均温度稳定通过10℃初日后,栎树萌动开苞时即孵化;小蚕(1~3龄)采取人工增温至26~24℃室内养饲;大蚕(4~5龄)以野外大棚或网罩林养为佳.%In order to research the climate adaptability of the Nanling Antheraea yamamai, the breeding bases of Antheraea yamamai were set at seven different altitudes (300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 m). The results showed that the suitable conditions for breeding Antheraea yamamai were as follows: temperature was between 17.0~25.0t, and the optimum temperature was 22?; the suitable relative humidity was between 60%~70%; the optimum altitude was between 500~800 m. The core technologies for breeding Antheraea yamamai were as follows: when the average daily temperature is stable at 10癈 in late March and early April for a day, or when robur germination, incubation of Antheraea yamamai; when yong Antheraea yamamai at instar 1~3, breeding it indoor by artificial increasing temperature to 26~24?; adult Antheraea yamamai is better to be bred in wild shed or in forest covered by net.

  14. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  15. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Heaton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene (EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S. The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses.

  16. NUTRITIONAL, HYGIENIC, HEALTH AND ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MEAT OF BOVINE BREED PIEMONTESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Adriano

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The autochthonous “Piemontese” bovine breed is primarily raised for meat due to the high quality of production. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbiological, nutritional and chemical aspects of samples meat from cattle breeding “Piemontese”.

  17. Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMAD AMIN

    2010-01-01

    Amin M (2010) Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi. Biodiversitas 10: 69-74. The aims of the present research are two folds: to know the phenotypic diversity and to reconstruct the cross-breeding pattern of local cattle in Banyuwangi. Based on three sampling areas, it was found that there were 32 phenotypic cattle (10 in the sub districts of Rogojampi, 16 in Tegaldlimo and 6 in Glagah areas)....

  18. Validation of Deleterious Mutations in Vorderwald Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Sina; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    In Montbéliarde cattle two candidate mutations on bovine chromosomes 19 and 29 responsible for embryonic lethality have been detected. Montbéliarde bulls have been introduced into Vorderwald cattle to improve milk and fattening performance. Due to the small population size of Vorderwald cattle and the wide use of a few Montbéliarde bulls through artificial insemination, inbreeding on Montbéliarde bulls in later generations was increasing. Therefore, we genotyped an aborted fetus which was inbred on Montbéliarde as well as Vorderwald x Montbéliarde crossbred bulls for both deleterious mutations. The abortion was observed in an experimental herd of Vorderwald cattle. The objectives of the present study were to prove if one or both lethal mutations may be assumed to have caused this abortion and to show whether these deleterious mutations have been introduced into the Vorderwald cattle population through Montbéliarde bulls. The aborted fetus was homozygous for the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation (ss2019324563) on BTA29 and both parents as well as the paternal and maternal grandsire were heterozygous for this mutation. In addition, the parents and the paternal grandsire were carriers of the MH2-haplotype linked with the T-allele of the SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation. For the SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation (rs38377500) on BTA19 (MH1), the aborted fetus and its sire were heterozygous. Among all further 341 Vorderwald cattle genotyped we found 27 SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T heterozygous animals resulting in an allele frequency of 0.0396. Among the 120 male Vorderwald cattle, there were 12 heterozygous with an allele frequency of 0.05. The SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T mutation could not be found in further nine cattle breeds nor in Vorderwald cattle with contributions from Ayrshire bulls. In 69 Vorderwald cattle without genes from Montbéliarde bulls the mutated allele of SLC37A2:g.28879810C>T could not be detected. The SHBG:g.27956790C>T mutation appeared unlikely to be responsible

  19. Chromosome changes in cattle on the farms in Serbia

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    Košarčić Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented five-year investigations of numeric and structural changes in cattle karyotype on five farms and two centers for reproduction in Serbia. There were 371 breeding animals (215 male and 156 female, out of which 267 Holstein Friesian breed (193 male and 74 female, 62 Simmental (17 male and 45 female and 42 Grey Steppe breed (5 male and 37 female. Cultivating of lymphocytes and karyotype analyses, according to the international standards for karyotypization of domestic animals, were applied. The aim of the investigation was to test genetic material on chromosome level of animals introduced into reproduction. The following changes were discovered in the karyotype: 6 animals of Holstein-Friesian breed were with chimeras 2n=60XX/XY and there was one Robertson's translocation in Simmental breed. Structural changes as breakage and a ring were discovered in two animals of Holstein-Friesian and Simmental breed raised in the area of bombing in Serbia. The animals of Grey Steppe breed had normal karyotype. There is a total of 9 animals with changes (2.42%, while 362 were with normal karyotype, total 97.57%. According to the results, it may be concluded that cytogenetical attestation of the breeding animals will have to be continued for the purpose of protecting the genofond on cattle farms.

  20. Diet and fertility in cattle

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    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  1. Renitelo cattle dermatophilosis and PCR-RFLP analysis of MHC gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafindraibe, Hanta; Raliniaina, Modestine; Maillard, Jean-Charles; Rakotondravao

    2006-10-01

    Renitelo breed is a cattle breed created at Kianjasoa station (Madagascar) by a triple crossing Malagasy Zebu x Limousine x Afrikander. This breed besides many valuable advantages, such as rapid growth and drought power, presents a huge disadvantage which is sensitivity to skin disease, dermatophilosis, previously known as streptotrichosis. This disease caused by Dermatophilus congolensis is one of the major threats for the population of Renitelo cattle. An allele of MHC gene has been shown to be dramatically associated to hypersensitivity to the disease in other cattle breed. To bring further information to tick borne disease clinical survey, mainly dermatophilosis, we wanted to verify if such allele could be found in this breed. Renitelo cattle included in this study were chosen for the presence of dermatophilosis lesions in more or less severe form (N = 17). These animals were blood sampled and a genetic analysis on the MHC gene BoLA-DRB3 was performed, by PCR amplification using BOD 31 & BOD 32 primers. Amplified products were analyzed by RFLP using enzymes. Restriction band profiles were characterized according to previously defined patterns. Three cows out of the 17 cattle analyzed for MHC gene presented the hypersensitive allele FDA. Two out of the three hypersensitive cows were pure breed while one was half breed. All the cows presented dermatophilosis lesions at least during rainy season but one of them particularly suffered from severe lesions covering all its body and died of the illness. This study shows that hypersensitivity allele found in other bovine breeds can be found in Renitelo breed. This result seemed to suggest that this characterization could be utilized in breeding program for this breed.

  2. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

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    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  3. The importance of haplotype lenght and heritability using genomic selection in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, T M; Janss, L; Lund, M S

    2009-01-01

    Reliabilities for genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were investigated by simulation for a typical dairy cattle breeding setting. Scenarios were simulated with different heritabilites (h2) and for different haplotype sizes, and seven generations with only genotypes were generated to investi...

  4. High-resolution haplotype block structure in the cattle genome

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    Choi Jungwoo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bovine HapMap Consortium has generated assay panels to genotype ~30,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from 501 animals sampled from 19 worldwide taurine and indicine breeds, plus two outgroup species (Anoa and Water Buffalo. Within the larger set of SNPs we targeted 101 high density regions spanning up to 7.6 Mb with an average density of approximately one SNP per 4 kb, and characterized the linkage disequilibrium (LD and haplotype block structure within individual breeds and groups of breeds in relation to their geographic origin and use. Results From the 101 targeted high-density regions on bovine chromosomes 6, 14, and 25, between 57 and 95% of the SNPs were informative in the individual breeds. The regions of high LD extend up to ~100 kb and the size of haplotype blocks ranges between 30 bases and 75 kb (10.3 kb average. On the scale from 1–100 kb the extent of LD and haplotype block structure in cattle has high similarity to humans. The estimation of effective population sizes over the previous 10,000 generations conforms to two main events in cattle history: the initiation of cattle domestication (~12,000 years ago, and the intensification of population isolation and current population bottleneck that breeds have experienced worldwide within the last ~700 years. Haplotype block density correlation, block boundary discordances, and haplotype sharing analyses were consistent in revealing unexpected similarities between some beef and dairy breeds, making them non-differentiable. Clustering techniques permitted grouping of breeds into different clades given their similarities and dissimilarities in genetic structure. Conclusion This work presents the first high-resolution analysis of haplotype block structure in worldwide cattle samples. Several novel results were obtained. First, cattle and human share a high similarity in LD and haplotype block structure on the scale of 1–100 kb. Second, unexpected

  5. Improving artificial breeding of cattle and buffalo in Asia. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA Technical Cooperation Regional RCA Project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency', with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency. The dual objectives of this project are (a) strengthening and extending the field applications of Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB) and other feed supplementation strategies, and (b) monitoring and improving the reproductive management and fertility of smallholder dairy cattle subjected to Artificial Insemination (AI). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) play important roles in the success of the latter objective. The first meeting to plan project activities was held in January 1999 in Yangon, Myanmar and the second meeting to review progress and develop further work plans was held in February 2000 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The latter meeting concluded that the procedures currently used by different Asian countries for evaluation of breeding bulls should be standardized and unified protocols developed for ensuring quality control of semen during processing, storage and field use. It was recommended that this should be accomplished through a regional workshop of national consultants. A workshop of national consultants from 10 RCA Member States was therefore held in April 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan, to consider and discuss the following aspects and arrive at a consensus on the best procedures and practices to be adopted to suit conditions and needs in developing countries of Asia: - Selection, management and health control of AI bulls; - Semen technologies from collection through processing to storage; - Delivery and follow-up of field AI services to farmers The IAEA has also supported a similar project in

  6. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

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    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  7. The Polymorphism of Pituitary Factor 1 (POU1F1 in Cattle

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    Teodora Crina Carsai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of mammary gland is mainly controlled by growth hormone and prolactin, twoprotein hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Their synthesis is under regulatory influence of pituitaryfactor 1 (PIT1 or POU1F1, a protein factor produced in hypothalamic nuclei. In cattle, it was shown that a HinfIpolymorphism located in exon 6 of PIT1 gene may have significant influence on milk quantity. In particular A allelewas associated with a higher milk yield and could be a valuable genetic marker for improving milk quantity in cattle.In an effort to better understand the possible influence of this polymorphism on mammary gland development andfunction in cattle, we have studied the frequency this polymorphism in Romanian Black and White breed, a highmilk production cattle breed versus Romanian Grey Steppe breed, a primitive breed with very low milk production.In both breeds the frequency of B allele is much higher as compared with the frequency of A allele. The study ofPIT1 polymorphism in Romanian cattle breeds is a part of a more complex study targeting several key genesinvolved in mammary gland function.

  8. Dairy buffalo breeding in countrysi