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Sample records for breed cattle adapted

  1. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  2. A Quasi-Exclusive European Ancestry in the Senepol Tropical Cattle Breed Highlights the Importance of the slick Locus in Tropical Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Flori, Laurence; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Thevenon, Sophie; Chantal, Isabelle; Pinto, Joar; Berthier, David; Aso, Pedro M.; Gautier, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XXth century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N'Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. Methodology/Principal Fin...

  3. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben J; Bowman, Phil J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Savin, Keith; van Tassell, Curt P; Sonstegard, Tad S; Goddard, Mike E

    2009-08-18

    Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms) associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  4. A validated genome wide association study to breed cattle adapted to an environment altered by climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Hayes

    Full Text Available Continued production of food in areas predicted to be most affected by climate change, such as dairy farming regions of Australia, will be a major challenge in coming decades. Along with rising temperatures and water shortages, scarcity of inputs such as high energy feeds is predicted. With the motivation of selecting cattle adapted to these changing environments, we conducted a genome wide association study to detect DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the sensitivity of milk production to environmental conditions. To do this we combined historical milk production and weather records with dense marker genotypes on dairy sires with many daughters milking across a wide range of production environments in Australia. Markers associated with sensitivity of milk production to feeding level and sensitivity of milk production to temperature humidity index on chromosome nine and twenty nine respectively were validated in two independent populations, one a different breed of cattle. As the extent of linkage disequilibrium across cattle breeds is limited, the underlying causative mutations have been mapped to a small genomic interval containing two promising candidate genes. The validated marker panels we have reported here will aid selection for high milk production under anticipated climate change scenarios, for example selection of sires whose daughters will be most productive at low levels of feeding.

  5. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, Laurence; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Thevenon, Sophie; Chantal, Isabelle; Pinto, Joar; Berthier, David; Aso, Pedro M; Gautier, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The Senepol cattle breed (SEN) was created in the early XX(th) century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT) breed (Red Poll) and a West African taurine (AFT) breed (N'Dama). Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB) cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i) three footprints on chromosome (BTA) 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii) one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14). Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any) might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  6. A quasi-exclusive European ancestry in the Senepol tropical cattle breed highlights the importance of the slick locus in tropical adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Flori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Senepol cattle breed (SEN was created in the early XX(th century from a presumed cross between a European (EUT breed (Red Poll and a West African taurine (AFT breed (N'Dama. Well adapted to tropical conditions, it is also believed trypanotolerant according to its putative AFT ancestry. However, such origins needed to be verified to define relevant husbandry practices and the genetic background underlying such adaptation needed to be characterized. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We genotyped 153 SEN individuals on 47,365 SNPs and combined the resulting data with those available on 18 other populations representative of EUT, AFT and Zebu (ZEB cattle. We found on average 89% EUT, 10.4% ZEB and 0.6% AFT ancestries in the SEN genome. We further looked for footprints of recent selection using standard tests based on the extent of haplotype homozygosity. We underlined i three footprints on chromosome (BTA 01, two of which are within or close to the polled locus underlying the absence of horns and ii one footprint on BTA20 within the slick hair coat locus, involved in thermotolerance. Annotation of these regions allowed us to propose three candidate genes to explain the observed signals (TIAM1, GRIK1 and RAI14. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results do not support the accepted concept about the AFT origin of SEN breed. Initial AFT ancestry (if any might have been counter-selected in early generations due to breeding objectives oriented in particular toward meat production and hornless phenotype. Therefore, SEN animals are likely susceptible to African trypanosomes which questions the importation of SEN within the West African tsetse belt, as promoted by some breeding societies. Besides, our results revealed that SEN breed is predominantly a EUT breed well adapted to tropical conditions and confirmed the importance in thermotolerance of the slick locus.

  7. Breed structure of Senepol cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A R; Hupp, H D; Thompson, C E; Grimes, L W

    1988-01-01

    Data were collected by the Virgin Islands Beef Cattle Improvement Program and the Virgin Islands Agricultural Experiment Station staff to establish the breed structure of the Senepol cattle. Data for the analysis were limited to the two Virgin Islands Senepol breeders with the most complete and largest set of records, representing approximately 65% of the entire Senepol population. Inbreeding (F) and coancestry relationship coefficients (rAB) and the theoretical inbreeding (FT) were determined from each data set and for the combined data from both farms, for each year, ranging from 1947 to 1984 for Annaly Farms, and from 1967 to 1984 for Castle Nugent Farm. The data sets for both farms were examined for the possibility of separation into families. Actual F within the Senepol population was relatively low, averaging less than 1.00%. Some separation into families occurred within Annaly Farms' cattle. The F and FT decreased (1.6 to 0.7% and 1.0 to 0.2%, respectively) as population numbers increased. The low F was accomplished through the breeding programs and exchanges of animals between farms on the island.

  8. National Breeding System of Dairy Cattle Husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Diwyanto

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The husbandry of domestic dairy cattle as one of the components of  livestock sub-sector development is hopefully to increase numerously the capacity and the quality on its milk production, to gradually meet national milk demand and face the competitiveness at the global. The achievement of this purpose should be supported by the production of dairy breeding stock in good quality and sufficient number to increase efficiency of both quantity and quality of domestic milk production. One of important aspect that should be prepared is in determining national breeding system of dairy cattle that can function effectively as guidance and regulation for producing, distributing, and using dairy cattle as “domestic breeding stock”. As in other livestock, breeding system of dairy cattle basically constituted of three main subsystems, i.e. production , distribution and marketing, and quality establishment subsystem. The paper discusses some aspects of these three subsystems to give considerable input in preparing the national concept of dairy cattle breeding system. enterprise (Animal Production 1(2: 43-55 (1999   KeyWords: dairy cattle, breeding stock, milk production.

  9. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  10. (Bunaji) breeds of cattle following artificial insemination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the fertility rate of white Fulani (Bunaji) and Friesian breeds of cattle following artificial insemination (A. I). Artificial insemination was performed following Oestrus synchronization using prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a) in 368 white Fulani and 230 Friesian cows at West Africa Milk Company ...

  11. Leukocyte profile of different breeds of the Nigerian cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An examination of the leukocyte profile of different breeds of cattle was carried out to determine the effects of haemoparasites, sex aand breed on the leukoctes. The effects of haemoparasite, sex and breed on the leukocytes were determined using parasitological methods. A total of 452 cattle comprising of 174 cows and ...

  12. Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: Cattle, blood factors, genetic variation, genetic distance. *Author to .... It was found that phenogroup limitations in indigenous cattle breeds are difficult or impossible to determine ..... The population structure, as determined with.

  13. Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variation in the population of three Polish cattle breeds included into the programme of genetic resources protection and Holstein-Friesian breed, estimation on the basis of polymorphism of 24 microsatellite DNA sequences.

  14. Cholistan and Cholistani Breed of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Farooq, H. A. Samad*, F. Sher1, M. Asim1 and M. Arif Khan2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cholistan, once a green and prosperous land with the source of water being the ancient Hakra River, was also the cradle of great Hakra Valley Civilization. It is sprawled at an area of 26,000 Km2, located between the latitudes 27º42´and 29º45´North and longitudes 69º52´and 75º24´East. The bioclimatic system of Cholistan falls under the category of “tropical desert” with very scanty rainfall. Geomorphologically, the soils of Cholistan are a complex blend of river alluvium and Aeolin sands. Based on topography, type of soil and vegetation, this desert is divided into two geomorphic regions: the Lesser Cholistan (the Northern 7,770 Km² region and the Greater Cholistan (the Southern 18,130 Km² region. The primary source of water is rainfall which is utilized through natural depressions or man-made ponds called “Tobas” and “Dahars.” The secondary source is underground water which is brackish and salty and not fit for human/animal consumption. Two livestock production systems prevail under pastoralism in Cholistan viz. transhumanie and nomadic. Despite an uncertain, unpredictable rainfall, low humidity and extremes in temperatures, Cholistan has long been famous for raising different breeds of livestock, contributing a significant share to national milk, meat and wool output. The total livestock population estimated during 2006 was 12,09528, out of which 47% were cattle. Cholistani cattle are considered to be ancestor of the Sahiwal and are a thermo-tolerant, tick-resistant breed. Preliminary data on some productive and reproductive traits of Cholistani cows maintained at Govt. Livestock Station, Jugait Peer, Bahawalpur during the period 2005 to 2009 revealed the avergae values for the productive traits i.e. lactation length, lactation yield, dry period, service period and fat percentage in milk as 165 days, 1235 liters, 155 days, 121 days and 4.8%, respectively. Similarly, the average values for reproductive traits i.e. age at

  15. Indigenous knowledge in cattle breeding in Sierra Leone | Abdul ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the animals closely on a regular basis. Though individual differences do exists amongst cattle farmers in selecting breeding stock yet they have several parameters that are very common as indicated in this study which can be utilized for further scientific investigation. Key words: indigenous knowledge, cattle, breeding ...

  16. Physiology response of the indigenous cattle breeds to the environment in West Sumbawa, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritonang, S. B.; Yuniati, R.; Abinawanto, Imron, M.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    Heat stress in cattle welfare is a growing concern because of increase in ambient temperature due to global warming. Physiological adaptation is as a way to survive and reproduce by regulation internal body temperature. West Sumbawa is a dry tropic area in eastern Indonesia where its temperature range is 24-38 °C and relative humidity is 50-90 %. This study aimed to determine the physiological response of indigenous cattle i.e. Bali cattle and Sumbawa Ongole cattle to the environment in West Sumbawa. Skin and rectal temperature and respiration rate within one minute were measured as physiology profiles from seven Bali cattle and two Sumbawa Ongole cattle. They were measured every 7.00 am and 15.00 pm for five consecutive days in August 2016. The results of measurements physiology profiles differ significantly between morning and afternoon among cattle breeds. Body temperature and respiration rate were significantly different among breeds (p temperature was lower but respiration rate of Sumbawa Ongole was higher than Bali cattle. Increased respiration rate of breeds was positively correlated with Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) value (p temperature. Physiological response of Bali cattle to environmental West Sumbawa through the increase in body temperature, whereas Sumbawa Ongole cattle through increasing in respiration rate.

  17. The use of clones and dairy cattle breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de I.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to determine a breeding scheme that optimally uses large scale production of genetically identical individuals (clones) in dairy cattle. Such a breeding scheme should optimize the continuous genetic improvement of the breeding population (genetic response), and

  18. Kappa-casein polymorphisms among cattle breeds and bison herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.A.; Cockett, N.

    1993-01-01

    We identified the HindIII restriction site polymorphism Of kappa-casein in cattle reported by Pinder et al. (Animal Genetics 22, 11, 1991) and found an additonal polymorphism (RsaI) in cattle and bison. The Hin dIII and Rsa I restriction sites were mapped and three haplotypes (alleles) were identified. Preliminary screening of 39 cattle and 71 bison revealed one allele restricted to cattle, one restricted to bison, and one shared by the species. No fixed allelic differences were observed among cattle breeds or among bison herds or subspecies.

  19. Phenotypic Characterization of the Bunaji Cattle Breed in Oyo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phenotypic traits observed indicated that Bunaji breed of cattle were predominantly white (78%) in color, while grey and pied are less common (2 and 1% respectively). Ear type was medium and erect with dewlap and penile sheath being prominent. Keywords: Phenotypic, characterization, Bunaji cattle. Sahel Journal ...

  20. Effects of feeding systems and breed of cattle on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Abstract. This study tested the hypothesis that smallholders' feeding systems are not matched with the breed of cattle kept consequently resulting in poor reproductive performance and milk production as smallholders intensify their feeding systems from free- to zero-grazing while replacing Bos indicus with Bos taurus cattle ...

  1. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed was...

  2. Characterisation of White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted in Bauchi state between January, and July, 1997 to characterize White Fulani and Sokoto Gudali cattle breeds. Thirty animals of both sexes from each breed were randomly selected from fifteen farms/herds. Observations were carried out on both quantitative and qualitative characters. Sokoto ...

  3. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa | Banga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-defined breeding objectives form the basis of sound genetic improvement programmes. Breeding objectives for Holstein cattle in South Africa were developed in the current study. Economic values were calculated for those economically relevant traits that had adequate bio-economic data, namely milk volume, fat yield, ...

  4. Major reproductive disorders on Jersey breed dairy cattle at Adea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lence of reproductive disorders and evaluates reproductive performances of Jersey dairy cattle maintained at Adea berga ... Keywords: Adea berga, Jersey breed, Oromia region, Reproductive disorder,. West Shewa,. Introduction. Jersey breed ... (Driba Hunde, 2016, personal communication). The farm has a total of 400.

  5. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average growth and body weight data, which comprised 745 400 weaning records and 14 990 Phase C growth records of young bulls of 16 breeds were obtained from the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize breeds for a variety of important traits.

  6. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avcrage grorvth and body weight data. rvhich corlprised 715 400 weaning records and l4 990 phase C -{ro,uvth records of young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used ... and management levels, consequently cancelling some breed.

  7. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ROMANIAN CATTLE BREEDS USING BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REBEDEA MARIANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a genetic characterization of cattle breeds in Romania based onbiochemical markers in the blood and the milk. The surveyed breeds are: RomanianBlack Spotted Cattle (BNR, Romanian Spotted Cattle (BR, Romanian Brown (Band Romanian Steppe, and the markers identified are represented by some proteins,serum transferrin (Tf, serum albumins (Al, hemoglobin (Hb respectively-from theblood and beta-lactoglobulin (βLg-from the milk. In order to determine thegenotypes in the studied populations electrophoresis was used in three differentvariations, depending on the type of the protein, and the migration substrates usedwere starch and polyacrylamide. The identified genetic structures in the individualsfrom the surveyed breeds allowed their genetic characterization based on gene andgenotype frequencies, as well as using these data in establishing the identity andpaternity of the individuals in the surveyed breeds.

  8. Assessing SNPs in coat colour genes for cattle breed traceability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Crepaldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to identify a panel of SNPs in coat colour genes useful for breed traceability in Rendena, an autochthonous cattle breed raised in the province of Trento, and other 4 Italian cattle breeds. First, we sequenced some regions of several coat colour genes in 10 animals belonging to 5 breeds characterised by different coat colour phenotypes (Rendena, Italian Brown, Grey Alpine, Italian Friesian, and Italian Red Pied, and we detected 21 SNPs in 13 genes. These markers and 6 additional SNPs were used to genotype 180 animals of the same 5 breeds obtaining useful genotyping data for a total of 22 SNPs in 13 genes. Five out of the 22 SNP markers in the MC1R, KIT, MLPH, and SILV genes had the highest discriminating power. The panel of 22 SNPs is useful to trace Rendena particularly from Red Italian Pied and Italian Friesian.

  9. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    of dominance of the Senepol's ability to maintain constant body temperature in a hot environment as measured by rectal temperature in crosses with a non-adapted breed.

  10. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J; Tier, Bruce

    2014-10-24

    The major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Brahman, Belmont Red, Santa Gertrudis and Tropical Composite. This paper presents accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) that were calculated from these PE in the commercial pure-breed beef cattle seed stock sector. PE derived by the Beef CRC from multi-breed and pure-breed training populations were applied to genotyped Angus, Limousin and Brahman sires and young animals, but with no pure-breed Limousin in the training population. The accuracy of the resulting GEBV was assessed by their genetic correlation to their phenotypic target trait in a bi-variate REML approach that models GEBV as trait observations. Accuracies of most GEBV for Angus and Brahman were between 0.1 and 0.4, with accuracies for abattoir carcass traits generally greater than for live animal body composition traits and reproduction traits. Estimated accuracies greater than 0.5 were only observed for Brahman abattoir carcass traits and for Angus carcass rib fat. Averaged across traits within breeds, accuracies of GEBV were highest when PE from the pooled across-breed training population were used. However, for the Angus and Brahman breeds the difference in accuracy from using pure-breed PE was small. For the Limousin breed no reasonable results could be achieved for any trait. Although accuracies were generally low compared to published accuracies estimated within breeds, they are in line with those derived in other multi-breed populations. Thus PE developed by the Beef CRC can contribute to the implementation of genomic selection in

  11. On the Breeds of Cattle - Historic and Current Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felius, Marleen; Koolmees, Peter A; Theunissen, Bert

    2011-01-01

    . The classifications devised during the 19th to the late 20th century were in line with the Linnaean taxonomy and emphasized cranial or horn morphology. Subsequent classifications were based on coat color, geographic origin or molecular markers. Several theories were developed that linked breed characteristics either......Classification of cattle breeds contributes to our understanding of the history of cattle and is essential for an effective conservation of genetic diversity. Here we review the various classifications over the last two centuries and compare the most recent classifications with genetic data...

  12. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Altarriba, Juan; Díaz, Clara; Quintanilla, Raquel; Cañón, Javier; Piedrafita, Jesús

    2003-01-01

    The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds) of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds), Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination), and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127), especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163). PMID:12605850

  13. Pedigree analysis of eight Spanish beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cañón Javier

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic structure of eight Spanish autochthonous populations (breeds of beef cattle were studied from pedigree records. The populations studied were: Alistana and Sayaguesa (minority breeds, Avileña – Negra Ibérica and Morucha ("dehesa" breeds, with a scarce incidence of artificial insemination, and mountain breeds, including Asturiana de los Valles, Asturiana de la Montaña and Pirenaica, with extensive use of AI. The Bruna dels Pirineus breed possesses characteristics which make its classification into one of the former groups difficult. There was a large variation between breeds both in the census and the number of herds. Generation intervals ranged from 3.7 to 5.5 years, tending to be longer as the population size was larger. The effective numbers of herds suggest that a small number of herds behaves as a selection nucleus for the rest of the breed. The complete generation equivalent has also been greatly variable, although in general scarce, with the exception of the Pirenaica breed, with a mean of 3.8. Inbreeding effective population sizes were actually small (21 to 127, especially in the mountain-type breeds. However, the average relatedness computed for these breeds suggests that a slight exchange of animals between herds will lead to a much more favourable evolution of inbreeding. The effective number of founders and ancestors were also variable among breeds, although in general the breeds behaved as if they were founded by a small number of animals (25 to 163.

  14. Comparison of molecular breeding values based on within- and across-breed training in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachman, Stephen D; Spangler, Matthew L; Bennett, Gary L; Hanford, Kathryn J; Kuehn, Larry A; Snelling, Warren M; Thallman, R Mark; Saatchi, Mahdi; Garrick, Dorian J; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Pollak, E John

    2013-08-16

    Although the efficacy of genomic predictors based on within-breed training looks promising, it is necessary to develop and evaluate across-breed predictors for the technology to be fully applied in the beef industry. The efficacies of genomic predictors trained in one breed and utilized to predict genetic merit in differing breeds based on simulation studies have been reported, as have the efficacies of predictors trained using data from multiple breeds to predict the genetic merit of purebreds. However, comparable studies using beef cattle field data have not been reported. Molecular breeding values for weaning and yearling weight were derived and evaluated using a database containing BovineSNP50 genotypes for 7294 animals from 13 breeds in the training set and 2277 animals from seven breeds (Angus, Red Angus, Hereford, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, and Simmental) in the evaluation set. Six single-breed and four across-breed genomic predictors were trained using pooled data from purebred animals. Molecular breeding values were evaluated using field data, including genotypes for 2227 animals and phenotypic records of animals born in 2008 or later. Accuracies of molecular breeding values were estimated based on the genetic correlation between the molecular breeding value and trait phenotype. With one exception, the estimated genetic correlations of within-breed molecular breeding values with trait phenotype were greater than 0.28 when evaluated in the breed used for training. Most estimated genetic correlations for the across-breed trained molecular breeding values were moderate (> 0.30). When molecular breeding values were evaluated in breeds that were not in the training set, estimated genetic correlations clustered around zero. Even for closely related breeds, within- or across-breed trained molecular breeding values have limited prediction accuracy for breeds that were not in the training set. For breeds in the training set, across- and within-breed trained

  15. Incidence of Repeat Breeding Syndrome in Cattle from Four Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the incidence of repeat breeding syndrome in cattle and determined the progesterone profile of repeat breeders in four Local Government Areas of Adamawa State, Nigeria. One hundred herds were sampled during the study and fifty-seven repeat breeders were identified. The proportions of repeat ...

  16. Inbreeding of the Bonsmara cattle breed | Mostert | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Inbreeding of the Bonsmara cattle breed. B.E. Mostert, C.A.J. Exley ...

  17. Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides the first account of genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds from Mozambique. Forty-two blood group factors and six blood proteins revealed genetic variation of 84% (Angone), 88% (Bovine de Tete) and 90% (Landim) at the loci studied. Average heterozygosity values ranged from ...

  18. Species composition and environmental adaptation of indigenous Chinese cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yahui; Gautier, Mathieu; Ding, Xiangdong; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Xi; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Junya; Ye, Shaohui; Gou, Xiao; Han, Jianlin; Lenstra, Johannes A; Zhang, Yi

    2017-11-23

    Indigenous Chinese cattle combine taurine and indicine origins and occupy a broad range of different environments. By 50 K SNP genotyping we found a discontinuous distribution of taurine and indicine cattle ancestries with extremes of less than 10% indicine cattle in the north and more than 90% in the far south and southwest China. Model-based clustering and f4-statistics indicate introgression of both banteng and gayal into southern Chinese cattle while the sporadic yak influence in cattle in or near Tibetan area validate earlier findings of mitochondrial DNA analysis. Geographic patterns of taurine and indicine mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA diversity largely agree with the autosomal cline. The geographic distribution of the genomic admixture of different bovine species is proposed to be the combined effect of prehistoric immigrations, gene flow, major rivers acting as genetic barriers, local breeding objectives and environmental adaptation. Whole-genome scan for genetic differentiation and association analyses with both environmental and morphological covariables are remarkably consistent with previous studies and identify a number of genes implicated in adaptation, which include TNFRSF19, RFX4, SP4 and several coat color genes. We propose indigenous Chinese cattle as a unique and informative resource for gene-level studies of climate adaptation in mammals.

  19. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  20. Inbreeding of the Bonsmara cattle breed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ... the percentage of animals being inbred increased drastically since 1984. Breeders should take note of this and sensibly mate the animals to keep the rate of inbreeding below 1.5% per generation. By doing this, the regression in performance of the breed can be counteracted by natural and artificial selection. References.

  1. Tracing cattle breeds with principal components analysis ancestry informative SNPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamey Lewis

    Full Text Available The recent release of the Bovine HapMap dataset represents the most detailed survey of bovine genetic diversity to date, providing an important resource for the design and development of livestock production. We studied this dataset, comprising more than 30,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for 19 breeds (13 taurine, three zebu, and three hybrid breeds, seeking to identify small panels of genetic markers that can be used to trace the breed of unknown cattle samples. Taking advantage of the power of Principal Components Analysis and algorithms that we have recently described for the selection of Ancestry Informative Markers from genomewide datasets, we present a decision-tree which can be used to accurately infer the origin of individual cattle. In doing so, we present a thorough examination of population genetic structure in modern bovine breeds. Performing extensive cross-validation experiments, we demonstrate that 250-500 carefully selected SNPs suffice in order to achieve close to 100% prediction accuracy of individual ancestry, when this particular set of 19 breeds is considered. Our methods, coupled with the dense genotypic data that is becoming increasingly available, have the potential to become a valuable tool and have considerable impact in worldwide livestock production. They can be used to inform the design of studies of the genetic basis of economically important traits in cattle, as well as breeding programs and efforts to conserve biodiversity. Furthermore, the SNPs that we have identified can provide a reliable solution for the traceability of breed-specific branded products.

  2. Integrating genomic selection into dairy cattle breeding programmes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, A; Juga, J

    2013-05-01

    Extensive genetic progress has been achieved in dairy cattle populations on many traits of economic importance because of efficient breeding programmes. Success of these programmes has relied on progeny testing of the best young males to accurately assess their genetic merit and hence their potential for breeding. Over the last few years, the integration of dense genomic information into statistical tools used to make selection decisions, commonly referred to as genomic selection, has enabled gains in predicting accuracy of breeding values for young animals without own performance. The possibility to select animals at an early stage allows defining new breeding strategies aimed at boosting genetic progress while reducing costs. The first objective of this article was to review methods used to model and optimize breeding schemes integrating genomic selection and to discuss their relative advantages and limitations. The second objective was to summarize the main results and perspectives on the use of genomic selection in practical breeding schemes, on the basis of the example of dairy cattle populations. Two main designs of breeding programmes integrating genomic selection were studied in dairy cattle. Genomic selection can be used either for pre-selecting males to be progeny tested or for selecting males to be used as active sires in the population. The first option produces moderate genetic gains without changing the structure of breeding programmes. The second option leads to large genetic gains, up to double those of conventional schemes because of a major reduction in the mean generation interval, but it requires greater changes in breeding programme structure. The literature suggests that genomic selection becomes more attractive when it is coupled with embryo transfer technologies to further increase selection intensity on the dam-to-sire pathway. The use of genomic information also offers new opportunities to improve preservation of genetic variation. However

  3. The genetic architecture of climatic adaptation of tropical cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laercio R Porto-Neto

    Full Text Available Adaptation of global food systems to climate change is essential to feed the world. Tropical cattle production, a mainstay of profitability for farmers in the developing world, is dominated by heat, lack of water, poor quality feedstuffs, parasites, and tropical diseases. In these systems European cattle suffer significant stock loss, and the cross breeding of taurine x indicine cattle is unpredictable due to the dilution of adaptation to heat and tropical diseases. We explored the genetic architecture of ten traits of tropical cattle production using genome wide association studies of 4,662 animals varying from 0% to 100% indicine. We show that nine of the ten have genetic architectures that include genes of major effect, and in one case, a single location that accounted for more than 71% of the genetic variation. One genetic region in particular had effects on parasite resistance, yearling weight, body condition score, coat colour and penile sheath score. This region, extending 20 Mb on BTA5, appeared to be under genetic selection possibly through maintenance of haplotypes by breeders. We found that the amount of genetic variation and the genetic correlations between traits did not depend upon the degree of indicine content in the animals. Climate change is expected to expand some conditions of the tropics to more temperate environments, which may impact negatively on global livestock health and production. Our results point to several important genes that have large effects on adaptation that could be introduced into more temperate cattle without detrimental effects on productivity.

  4. Genetic diversity among Angus, American Brahman, Senepol and Romosinuano cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, R A; Chase, C C; Olson, T A; Riley, D G; Coleman, S W

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the genetic diversity among breeds under evaluation for tropical adaptability traits that affect the performance of beef cattle at the USDA/ARS SubTropical Agricultural Research Station (STARS) near Brooksville, FL, USA. Twenty-six microsatellite loci were used to estimate parameters of genetic diversity among the breeds American Brahman, Angus, Senepol and Romosinuano; the latter was comprised of two distinct bloodlines (Costa Rican and Venezuelan). Genotypes of 47 animals from each of these STARS herds were analysed for genetic diversity and genetic distance. Using two methods, the greatest genetic distance was detected between the Costa Rican line of Romosinuano and the Senepol. Gene diversity ranged between 0.64 (Costa Rican line of Romosinuano) and 0.75 (American Brahman). The breed relationship inferences, which are based on genetic distance, provide additional tools for consideration in future crossbreeding studies and for testing the relationship between quantified breed diversity and observed heterosis.

  5. Preweaning growth of F1 tropically adapted beef cattle breeds x Angus and reproductive performance of their Angus dams in arid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Forrest, D W; Randel, R D

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the preweaning performance of F1 Brahman (Bos indicus)-, Senepol (Bos taurus)-, and Tuli (Sanga)-Angus calves under semiarid south Texas conditions and to evaluate the reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Four hundred eighty-nine records collected over 4 yr were analyzed. The statistical model for performance traits included the effects of breed of sire, year, sex, age of dam, and breed of sire x year. Year effects were important (P Senepol F1 calves. Senepol F1 calves were intermediate (P Senepol F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in BCS and frame size at weaning. Males were 3.3 kg heavier (P = 0.12) at birth than females, especially for the F1 Brahman males that were 4.5 kg heavier (P Senepol and Tuli F1 were similar (P > 0.05) in these respects but appeared to be more competitive in relative growth rate to the Brahman F1 calves in years of greater nutritional stress. Angus females were observed to have a relatively low reproductive rate and high apparent fetal loss at the first (27.5%) and second (19.2%) compared with the third or later pregnancy (11.2%). Angus females that gave birth to Brahman F1 calves had 20.1% lower (P < 0.05) pregnancy rates in the succeeding year than those that had given birth to the other two breeds.

  6. The origin of Indonesian cattle and conservation genetics of the Bali cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, K; Olsson, M; Andersson, G; Purwantara, B; van Tol, H T A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Colenbrander, B; Lenstra, J A

    2012-01-01

    Both Bos indicus (zebu) and Bos javanicus (banteng) contribute to the Indonesian indigenous livestock, which is supposedly of a mixed species origin, not by direct breeding but by secondary cross-breeding. Here, the analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds with East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle having higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. There was no evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Across Breed QTL Detection and Genomic Prediction in French and Danish Dairy Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Irene; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Hozé, C

    relationships at causative mutations. Prediction of genomic relationships at causative mutations was most accurate when predicted by a selective number of markers within 1 Kb of the causative mutations. Whole-genome sequence data can help to get closer to the causative mutations and therefore improve genomic......Our objective was to investigate the potential benefits of using sequence data to improve across breed genomic prediction, using data from five French and Danish dairy cattle breeds. First, QTL for protein yield were detected using high density genotypes. Part of the QTL detected within breed...... was shared across breed. Second, sequence data was used to quantify the loss in prediction reliabilities that results from using genomic markers rather than the causal variants. 50, 100 or 250 causative mutations were simulated and different sets of prediction markers were used to predict genomic...

  8. Dairy Cattle Breeding Simulation Program: a simulation program to teach animal breeding principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, J F; Ahmadi, A; Casellas, J

    2010-06-01

    A dairy cattle breeding simulation program (DCBSP v.4.9) has been developed to teach undergraduate and graduate students animal breeding principles associated with selection for multiple traits in dairy cattle. The current version of the program was written in FORTRAN 90, and a web-based interface was developed for the students to interact with the program in the teaching environment. This software simulates a population of dairy cattle herds and artificial insemination bulls through several generations by integrating students' decisions about mating, culling, and selection of new heifers and bulls based on a multivariate animal mixed model evaluation and marker-assisted selection. All simulation parameters (e.g., number of herds and cows per herd, variance components, effect of genetic markers) can be defined by the administrator of the program in relation to the animal breeding course. During each running period, the program simulates the composition of each herd during a virtual year, generating new calves and new productive records and performing a genetic evaluation for all productive traits. A herd-specific productive summary of all demographic, productive, and genetic data is provided to the students at the end of each simulation period. After several running periods, the genetic trend can be evaluated, providing a realistic experience for the development of animal breeding skills that will be relevant to students with a basic knowledge of animal breeding. Earlier versions of this program have been used at several universities where it has proven to be a very useful teaching tool to illustrate the theoretical basis of animal breeding in livestock. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure of 20 North European cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    kantanen, J; Olsaker, Ingrid; Holm, Lars-Erik

    2000-01-01

    population structures. The microsatellites BoLA-DRBP1 and CSSM66 were nonneutral markers according to the Ewens-Watterson test, suggesting some kind of selection imposed on these loci. North European cattle breeds displayed generally similar levels of multilocus heterozygosity and allelic diversity. However...... and geographical divisions of native breeding regions of indigenous cattle. Divergence estimates between Icelandic cattle and indigenous breeds suggested a separation time of more than 1,000 years between Icelandic cattle and Norwegian native breeds, a finding consistent with historical evidence....

  10. The use of SNP data for the monitoring of genetic diversity in cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    LD between SNPs contains information about effective population size. In this study, we investigate the use of genome-wide SNP data for marker based estimation of effective population size for two taurine cattle breeds of Africa and two local cattle breeds of Switzerland. Estimated recombination rat...

  11. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B. b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Genetic distances...

  12. Genetic variation in bison (bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation was quantified at 29 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci in nine herds of plains bison (Bison bison bison), three herds of wood bison (B.b. athabascae), fourteen breeds of taurine cattle (Bos Taurus Taurus), and two breeds of indicine cattle (Bos Taurus indicus). Genetic distances,...

  13. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Collado, D; Díaz, C; Mäki-Tanila, A; Colinet, F; Duclos, D; Hiemstra, S J; Gandini, G

    2013-06-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors influencing breed dynamics. We developed a quantified SWOT method as a decision-making tool for identification and ranking of conservation and development strategies of local breeds, and applied it to a set of 13 cattle breeds of six European countries. The method has four steps: definition of the system, identification and grouping of the driving factors, quantification of the importance of driving factors and identification and prioritization of the strategies. The factors were determined following a multi-stakeholder approach and grouped with a three-level structure. Animal genetic resources expert groups ranked the factors, and a quantification process was implemented to identify and prioritize strategies. The proposed SWOT methodology allows analyzing the dynamics of local cattle breeds in a structured and systematic way. It is a flexible tool developed to assist different stakeholders in defining the strategies and actions. The quantification process allows the comparison of the driving factors and the prioritization of the strategies for the conservation and development of local cattle breeds. We identified 99 factors across the breeds. Although the situation is very heterogeneous, the future of these breeds may be promising. The most important strengths and weaknesses were related to production systems and farmers. The most important opportunities were found in marketing new products, whereas the most relevant threats were found in selling the current products. The across-breed strategies utility decreased as they gained specificity. Therefore, the strategies at European level should focus on general aspects and be flexible enough to be adapted to the country and breed

  14. Genetic Diversity of Bali Cattle Based on Microsatellite Marker in Indonesian Breeding Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Septian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetics characterization in livestock based on microsatellite has been widely implemented including for Bali cattle in three different breeding centres in Indonesia. This study aimed to determine diversity of Bali cattle microsatellites in three breeding centers namely BPTU Bali cattle in Bali, BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa in West Nusa Tenggara, and Village Breeding Center in South Sulawesi. The number of animals used in this study was 95 head of cattle consisted of 32 heads from BPTU Bali Province, 32 heads from BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa, and 31 heads from Village Barru Breeding Center Barru distric. Microsatellite loci used to determine the diversity was the locus SPS115, INRA037, MM12, and ETH185 based on flourescently labeled fragment method. Data analysis of microsatellite in Bali cattle at three different locations was performed by using POPGEN 1.2, Cervus, and POPTREE2 programs. The results showed that microsatellite diversity in Bali cattle detected 32 alleles from three different locations, and there were specific alleles at each location. Average values of observed heterozygosity (Ho and expected heterozygosity (He were 0.418 and 0.604 respectively, while the average value of polymorphism informative content (PIC was 0.579. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in general suggested that the loci used in the Bali cattle in three populations were in equilibrium, except INRA037 and ETH185. The genetic diversity between populations of Bali cattle was 0.033 (3%, while the inbreeding coefficient index in all populations was 0.296 (29.6 %. Bali cattle phylogeny tree with three populations showed that the populations of Bali cattle in BPTU Bali and VBC Barru had close genetic distance compared to the population of Bali cattle in BPT-HMT Serading Sumbawa. The results of this study provide information that the characteristics of Bali cattle breeding centers in three locations are different, so we need a directed breeding program in each population.

  15. Development of Czech Software for Managing of Cattle Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Novotná

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeding, a traditional sector of agricultural production, is currently recording a very intensive development caused by the effort of farmers to maximize production and especially their profit. Rapid implementation of new technologies, that help to achieve this goal, cannot be reliably carried out without the use of modern computer and transmission technology controlled by a quality control program. Absence of a similar system on our market led the company Agrosoft to develop a system sorting according to register designed for all types of farming, regardless of the amount of housed animals. The product was created in a Czech company, respects traditional local customs and his undisputable contribution is the subsequent connection to superior organizations operating in the Czech Republic. Complexity of this newly developed product is brought almost to perfection and allows producers to work with the files of needed information fundamentally anywhere and anytime. The new software improves and accelerates the managing work in breeding companies and consequently helps to improve the quality of final products to increase their profitability.

  16. Genetic polymorphism of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein of cattle breeds in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Ivanković

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Profitable milk production respects the interests of producers, processing industries, consumer requirements and welfare of animals. Development of new methods of direct gene analysis responsible for milk proteins polymorphism provide new tools to raise the profitability of milk production and dairy products through implementation of breed genetic profile in breeding program. Because of necessity to determinate genetic profiles of cattle breeds in Croatia using new analytical methods, the ratio of dominant allelic polymorphic variants of beta-lactoglobulin (β-Lg and kappa-casein (κ-CN is defined. The share of beta-lactoglobulin B variant is dominant in all investigated cattle breeds (>52.9 %. Kappa- casein allelic variant A is dominant in selected cattle breeds (60.7-76.4 %, while the share of B variant is significantly more presented in autochthonous cattle breeds (48.2-84.1 %. Knowledge about genetic profile of breeds due to studied polymorphic variants of milk proteins is useful in further breeding development and economic reaffirmation of cattle breeds, especially autochthonous ones.

  17. Use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Sameer D; Schenkel, Flavio S; Verschoor, Chris P; Karrow, Niel A

    2012-01-01

    Emphasis on livestock genetic improvement in the past decades has led to commercialization of different breeds of livestock species. Breed validation has become increasingly important to assess the safety and authenticity of livestock products in global and domestic markets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of breed-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in discriminating between Holstein and Jersey dairy cattle breeds. Two separate resource populations were used, including a reference population consisting of 498 Holstein and 83 Jersey bull DNA samples, and a validation population consisting of 260 Holstein and 34 Jersey cow DNA samples. Five Jersey-specific and four Holstein-specific SNPs were identified and genotyped on the reference and validation resource populations. The reference population was used to validate the breed-specific SNPs used in this study and to predict the allocation efficiencies and misclassification probabilities of different combinations of SNPs. Individual animals in the validation population were allocated to either breed based on the presence of breed-specific alleles. It was found that any combination of three breed-specific SNPs had, on average, high breed allocation efficiency of >95% and low misclassification probability of Holstein cattle breeds. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. Conservation genetics of an endangered Catalonian cattle breed ("Alberes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jordana

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We biochemically analyzed and characterized the genetic structure of a population in danger of extinction ,"Alberes", a local cattle breed of the Catalonian Pyrenees (Spain and France. Ninety-two individuals were analyzed for five polymorphic genetic loci (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc and Ptf2. The animals were grouped according to coat color: Fagina Alberes variety (N = 39 and Black Alberes variety (N = 53. The genetic structures and relationships between these subpopulations and one "outgroup" breed ("Bruna dels Pirineus" were analyzed and compared by using F-statistics. We determined that inbreeding in the Alberes breed is not significant, since negative and nonsignificant FIT and FIS values were obtained. The average genetic differentiation between subpopulations within the Alberes breed was 1.5% (FST = 0.015; P A estrutura génetica de uma população de Alberes, uma raça de gado dos Pirineus catalônicos (Espanha e França em risco de extinção, foi analisada e caracterizada bioquimicamente. Noventa e dois indivíduos foram analisados para 5 loci genéticos polimórficos (Hb, Alb, Tf, Gc e Ptf2. Os animais foram agrupados de acordo com a cor do pêlo: variedade Fagina Alberes (N = 39 e Black Alberes (N = 53. As estruturas genéticas e as relações entre estas subpopulações e uma raça extra ("Bruna dels Pirineus" foram analisadas e comparadas pela estatística F. A endogamia na raça Alberes não foi significante, pois foram obtidos valores FIT e FIS negativos e não significantes. A diferenciação genética média entre as subpopulações dentro da raça Alberes foi 1,5% (FST = 0,015; P < 0,05, com um número efetivo de 4,1 indivíduos trocados entre as subpopulações por geração (fluxo de gene. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo confirmaram o perigo potencial de extinção da raça. A variedade Black Alberes é sugerida como o principal núcleo de conservação genética para esta raça, pois parece mostrar maior grau de isolamento gen

  19. Genetic variation and differentiation of bison (Bison bison) subspecies and cattle (Bos taurus) breeds and subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; MacNeil, Michael D; Vu, Ninh; Leesburg, Vicki; Blackburn, Harvey D; Derr, James N

    2013-01-01

    The genetic relationship of American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) was quantified and compared with that among breeds and subspecies of cattle. Plains bison from 9 herds (N = 136), wood bison from 3 herds (N = 65), taurine cattle (Bos taurus taurus) from 14 breeds (N = 244), and indicine cattle (Bos taurus indicus) from 2 breeds (N = 53) were genotyped for 29 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Bayesian cluster analyses indicate 3 groups, 2 of which are plains bison and 1 of which is wood bison with some admixture, and genetic distances do not show plains bison and wood bison as distinct groups. Differentiation of wood bison and plains bison is also significantly less than that of cattle breeds and subspecies. These and other genetic data and historical interbreeding of bison do not support recognition of extant plains bison and wood bison as phylogenetically distinct subspecies.

  20. Do indigenous Southern African cattle breeds have the right genetics for commercial production of quality meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strydom, P E

    2008-09-01

    The establishment of cattle breeds which are now indigenous to Africa is believed by historians to be very closely associated with man, his development, migration and specific behaviour from 6000 years BC. Today these breeds compete with exotic breeds in a commercial system driven by global economical principles. Results from various trials are discussed to verify if these breeds can adhere to these principles and compete in the South African beef market to produce quality beef economically. Variation in frame size among indigenous breeds will determine their suitability as feedlot cattle depending on the price and feed margins driving profit in this industry sector. Meat quality analyses indicate small or no differences between indigenous and exotic European/British breeds but with potentially superior quality compared to Bos indicus breeds.

  1. An ABC estimate of pedigree error rate: application in dog, sheep and cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, G; Danchin-Burge, C; Palhiere, I; Baumung, R; Fritz, S; Mériaux, J C; Gautier, M

    2012-06-01

    On the basis of correlations between pairwise individual genealogical kinship coefficients and allele sharing distances computed from genotyping data, we propose an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to assess pedigree file reliability through gene-dropping simulations. We explore the features of the method using simulated data sets and show precision increases with the number of markers. An application is further made with five dog breeds, four sheep breeds and one cattle breed raised in France and displaying various characteristics and population sizes, using microsatellite or SNP markers. Depending on the breeds, pedigree error estimations range between 1% and 9% in dog breeds, 1% and 10% in sheep breeds and 4% in cattle breeds. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  2. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  3. Technological Innovation in Dutch Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farming, 1850-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bieleman, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to present the broad outlines of technological change in Dutch cattle breeding and dairy farming over the last 150 years. After 1850, Dutch dairy farmers and cattle breeders profited from the rapidly increasing opportunities offered by expanding foreign markets. Herd book

  4. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  5. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  6. A shared 336 kb haplotype associated with the belt pattern in three divergent cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drögemüller, C; Demmel, S; Engensteiner, M; Rieder, S; Leeb, T

    2010-06-01

    We recently mapped the belt mutation in Brown Swiss cattle to a 922 kb interval on BTA3. In this study, we analysed two additional cattle breeds with the belted phenotype: Galloway and Dutch Belted (Lakenvelder). By genotyping microsatellites in solid-coloured and belted Galloways, we confirmed that the belt mutation in Galloways is strongly associated with the same chromosomal locus as in Brown Swiss cattle. Subsequently, we analysed 36 SNPs in the belt interval in three breeds. We identified a single belt-associated haplotype for each of the analysed breeds. The three breed-specific belt haplotypes share alleles in four blocks. Three of these blocks comprise only one single or two consecutive markers, while the largest shared haplotype block encompasses nine consecutive SNPs in a 336 kb interval. The large shared haplotype across divergent breeds suggests a common mutation for the belt phenotype in all three breeds. We identified a potential candidate gene within this interval coding for the developmental transcription factor HES6. We re-sequenced the complete HES6 coding sequence in belted and solid-coloured cattle but did not find belt-associated polymorphisms. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence in favour of a common founder for the belt phenotype in different cattle breeds and have resulted in an improved fine-mapping of the causative mutation.

  7. Preweaning breed-of-sire comparisons involving the Senepol breed of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A; Franke, D E; Aaron, D K

    1986-05-01

    Preweaning data collected at two locations (Kentucky, Louisiana) were utilized to evaluate breed-of-sire comparisons involving the Senepol breed of cattle. For the Kentucky study, calves sired by Senepol bulls were 1.3 kg heavier (P less than .05) at birth than calves sired by Hereford bulls; however, weaning weights were similar for the two sire groups. For the Louisiana study, calves sired by Longhorn bulls were 5.3 kg lighter (P less than .01) at birth, 20 kg lighter (P less than .01) at weaning and had weaning condition scores .5 unit less (P less than .01) than the average of calves sired by Red Poll and Senepol bulls. Also, heifers exposed to Longhorn bulls weaned 23 kg less (P less than .01) calf per heifer exposed than the average of heifers exposed to Red Poll and Senepol bulls. Calves sired by Red Poll bulls were 1.2 kg heavier (P less than .01) at birth and 12 kg heavier (P less than .01) at weaning than those sired by Senepol bulls; however, the Senepol-sired calves received higher (P less than .01) condition scores at weaning. Heifers exposed to Red Poll bulls weaned 20 kg more (P less than .05) calf per heifer exposed than did heifers exposed to Senepol bulls.

  8. THE BREEDING OF BEEF CATTLE IN soUTH AFRICA: PAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and even bush clearipg for the establishment of arti- ficial pasfures provide ... preferences. The consuilErs' interest in beef centres around three main factors namely quantity, quality and price. Broadly speaking, there are three classes ... Classification of cattle breeds used mainly for beef production in South Africa. Breeds.

  9. Using breed composition, breed differences, selection tools, and new technologies to optimize commercial cattle production and allocation of beef cattle in research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indicators of breed composition such as hair color and ear length often result in increased or decreased prices of young calves marketed into feedlots. Similarly, feedlot research trials are often initiated with blended cattle from multiple sources with little more than coat color used as a blockin...

  10. Genomic evaluation of cattle in a multi-breed context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain accurate genomic breeding values a large number of reference animals with both phenotype and genotype data are needed. This poses a challenge for breeds with small reference populations. One option to overcome this obstacle is to use a multi-breed reference population. However...... that the effect of multi-breed reference populations on the accuracy of genomic prediction is highly affected by the genetic distance between breeds. When combining populations of the same breeds from different countries, large increases in accuracy are seen, whereas for admixed populations with some exchange...

  11. DGAT1 and ABCG2 polymorphism in Indian cattle (Bos indicus and buffalo (Bubalus bubalis breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Bina

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indian cattle (Bos indicus and riverine buffalo (Bubalus bubalis give a poor yield of milk but it has a high fat and protein percentage compared to taurine cattle. The identification of QTLs (Quantitative Trait Loci on BTA14 and BTA6 and its subsequent fine mapping has led to identification of two non conservative mutations affecting milk production and composition. Our objective was to estimate the frequency of K232A (DGAT1 – diacylglycerol – acyltransferase 1 and Y581S (ABCG2 – ATP binding cassette sub family G member 2 polymorphisms in diverse cattle and buffalo breeds of India having large variation in terms of milk production. Results We screened the reported missense mutations in six cattle and five buffalo breeds. The DGAT1K and ABCG2Y alleles were found to be fixed in Indian cattle and buffalo breeds studied. Conclusion This study provides an indirect evidence that all the Indian cattle and buffalo breeds have fixed alleles with respect to DGAT1 and ABCG2 genes reported to be responsible for higher milk fat yield, higher fat and protein percent.

  12. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  13. On the breeds of cattle : Their history, classification and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felius, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are kept worldwide in various environments and play many different roles in our society. We have analyzed the genetic diversity of cattle by combining zoological, archaeological, historical, topographical, agricultural and molecular-genetic data, This provides context and arguments for

  14. Field study on nematode resistance in Nelore-breed cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricarello, P A; Zaros, L G; Coutinho, L L; Rocha, R A; Kooyman, F N J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331317788; De Vries, E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074757695; Gonçalves, J R S; Lima, L G; Pires, A V; Amarante, A F T

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated Nelore cattle with different degrees of resistance to natural infections by gastrointestinal nematodes. One hundred weaned male cattle, 11-12 months of age, were kept on the same pasture and evaluated from October 2003 to February 2004. Faecal and blood samples were

  15. Zootechnical study of breeding modes of Somba cattle in Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Somba cattle (Bos Taurus brachyceros sp), located in Benin and Togo, has a severe reduction of its livestock in recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the causes of this phenomenon, in order to propose new approaches of conservation. The study consisted of surveys with targeted farmers and cattle.

  16. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga (Ghana Sanga), a crossbreed between WASH and Zebu (Plate3).

  17. Genetic diversity and genomic signatures of selection among cattle breeds from Siberia, eastern and northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Touru, T; Tapio, M; Vilkki, J; Kiseleva, T; Ammosov, I; Ivanova, Z; Popov, R; Ozerov, M; Kantanen, J

    2016-12-01

    Domestication in the near eastern region had a major impact on the gene pool of humpless taurine cattle (Bos taurus). As a result of subsequent natural and artificial selection, hundreds of different breeds have evolved, displaying a broad range of phenotypic traits. Here, 10 Eurasian B. taurus breeds from different biogeographic and production conditions, which exhibit different demographic histories and have been under artificial selection at various intensities, were investigated using the Illumina BovineSNP50 panel to understand their genetic diversity and population structure. In addition, we scanned genomes from eight breeds for signatures of diversifying selection. Our population structure analysis indicated six distinct breed groups, the most divergent being the Yakutian cattle from Siberia. Selection signals were shared (experimental P-value selection signals in the Yakutian cattle were found on chromosomes 7 and 21, where a miRNA gene and genes related to immune system processes are respectively located. In general, genomic regions indicating selection overlapped with known QTL associated with milk production (e.g. on chromosome 19), reproduction (e.g. on chromosome 24) and meat quality (e.g. on chromosome 7). The selection map created in this study shows that native cattle breeds and their genetic resources represent unique material for future breeding. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  19. Variation in pestivirus growth in testicle primary cell culture is more dependent on the individual cell donor than cattle breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) affects cattle from all breeds living in all regions. However, different breeds of cattle appear to have different susceptibilities to developing BRDC. The causes of BRDC are multifactorial and include infection with both viral and bacterial pathogens. Infec...

  20. Simultaneous introgression of three POLLED mutations into a synthetic breed of Chinese cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Yi Chen

    Full Text Available The polled phenotype of cattle is increasingly becoming favourable mainly because of the enhanced emphasis on animal welfare, for which the causative mutations have been reported during the past years. The Shuxuan cattle are a new synthetic breed by crossing the indigenous cattle with both Simmental and Holstein semen in Sichuan of Southwest China, in which about 15% of polled individuals have newly emerged. Because official record about POLLED genotypes for the historically imported sires is unavailable, we therefore genotyped the proposed POLLED variants of P202ID, P80kbID and P219ID among 48 polled and 16 horned Shuxuan cattle. It was first revealed that all three candidate mutations have been simultaneously introgressed into Shuxuan cattle, whereas the P202ID mutation is dominant. Furthermore, one polled animal still remains to carry none of the three candidate mutations, which suggests that further mutation(s would also exist. Additionally, we sequenced mitochondrial DNA and found that Shuxuan cattle are composed of two matrilineal origins of Bos taurus (65.6% and B. indicus (34.4%; and there is no origin-biased distribution of polled phenotype. In conclusion, our study first supports the recently reported novel candidate mutation of P219ID and detects simultaneous presences of all three known POLLED mutations within a cattle breed.

  1. Activity Budgets and Forage Selection of Podolian Cattle, a Semiwild Bovine Breed

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Fabio; Girolami, Antonio; Pacelli, Corrado; Braghieri, Ada

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the behaviour of Podolian breed, a semiwild cattle breed kept in a natural environment (as either a small group of young bulls or cows within a family herd), and the interaction of these animals with the environment in terms of ingestion from natural pastures. Diurnal grazing behavioural pattern was monitored through continuous focal animal recording method. The activity budget of free-ranging animals was characterized by high locomotor and feeding activities. The...

  2. MILK COAGULATION PROPERTIES OF CATTLE BREEDS REARED IN ALPINE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Visentin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to apply mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction models developed for milk coagulation properties (MCP to a spectral dataset of 123,240 records collected over a 2-year period in the Alpine area, and to investigate sources of variation of the predicted MCP. Mixed linear models included fixed effects of breed, month and year of sampling, days in milk, parity, and the interactions between the main effects. Random effects were herd nested within breed, cow nested within breed, and the residual. All fixed effects were significant (P<0.05 in explaining the variation of MCP. In particular, milk clotting characteristics varied significantly among breeds, and local Alpine Grey breed exhibited the most favourable processing characteristics. Milk coagulation properties varied across lactation and were at their worst after the peak.

  3. Preliminary Report on CSN3 and LGB genes Polymorphism Among Two Romanian Cattle Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of A and B variants at the CSN3 (κ-casein and LGB (β-lactoglobulin loci in Romanian Spotted and Romanian Brown breeds using PCR-RFLP and PCR-HRM genotyping methods. Altogether, 280 cattle from Arad county were genotyped. The most frequent allele at the CSN3 locus was A in Romanian Spotted breed (0.723 while the B allele was the most common in the Romanian Brown (0.694. For LGB locus the A and B alleles recorded similar frequencies for Romanian Spotted (0.5141 and 0.4859 compared to Romanian Brown breed where the B allele was the most prevalent (0.5970. Knowledges regarding genetic information of breeds related to milk protein are valuable for economic reassertion of cattle breeds, particularly autochthonous ones. Further, the results would be useful in future breeding programs for the studied population, aimed to improve cattle genetic structure for milk quality traits.

  4. The key elements for genetic response in Finnish dairy cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. JUGA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some key elements of Finnish animal breeding research contributing to the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme and discusses the possibilities and problems in collecting data for genetic evaluation, prediction of breeding values both within and across countries, estimation of the economic value of important traits, and selection of bulls and cows. Economic values are calculated for fertility, udder health and production traits when one genetic standard deviation unit (gen. sd. is changed in each trait independently and the financial returns from selection response in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme are estimated. The following components were used to calculate the economic value of mastitis treatments: 1 cost of mastitis including discarded milk and treatment costs, 2 reduction in milk price due to higher somatic cell count, 3 replacement costs and 4 lower production level of the herd due to involuntary culling of cows because of udder problems. A high somatic cell count lowers the price of milk and eventually leads to involuntary culling. For treatments for fertility disorders the following costs were included: 1 treatment costs 2 higher replacement costs and 3 decreased milk production in the herd. Days open included the following costs: 1 extra insemination, 2 reduced annual milk yield and 3 fewer calves born. Animal breeding was found to be a very cost effective investment, yielding returns of FIM 876.9 per cow from one round of selection when the gene flow was followed for over 25 years in the Finnish dairy cattle breeding programme.;

  5. Frequencies of genes for coat colour and horns in Nordic cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Sigbjørn

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene frequencies of coat colour and horn types were assessed in 22 Nordic cattle breeds in a project aimed at establishing genetic profiles of the breeds under study. The coat colour loci yielding information on genetic variation were: extension, agouti, spotting, brindle, dun dilution and colour sided. The polled locus was assessed for two alleles. A profound variation between breeds was observed in the frequencies of both colour and horn alleles, with the older breeds generally showing greater variation in observed colour, horn types and segregating alleles than the modern breeds. The correspondence between the present genetic distance matrix and previous molecular marker distance matrices was low (r = 0.08 – 0.12. The branching pattern of a neighbour-joining tree disagreed to some extent with the molecular data structure. The current data indicates that 70% of the total genetic variation could be explained by differences between the breeds, suggesting a much greater breed differentiation than typically found at protein and microsatellite loci. The marked differentiation of the cattle breeds and observed disagreements with the results from the previous molecular data in the topology of the phylogenetic trees are most likely a result of selection on phenotypic characters analysed in this study.

  6. Analysis of beta-casein gene (CSN2 polymorphism in different breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of work was identification of b - casein gene polymorphism in different breeds of cow. The beta - casein constitutes up to 45 % of the casein of bovine milk. The most common forms of beta-casein in dairy cattle breeds are A1 and A2, while B is less common. The b-casein A1 variant was associated with the incidence of diabetes mellitus 1st type, coronary heart disease and autism. The A2 variant reduces serum cholesterol. The material involved 287 cows (Simmental breed – 111 cows, Pinzgau breed – 89 cows, Holstein breed – 87 cows. Bovine genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood by using commercial kit and used in order to estimate b - casein genotypes by means of PCR-RFLP method. In the populations included in the study were detected all three genotypes – homozygote genotype A1A1, heterozygote genotype A1A2 and homozygote genotype A2A2 with frequencies 0.1261, 0.3333 and 0.5405 in Simmental breed; 0.1379, 0.4598 and 0.4023 in Holstein breed, 0.3034, 0.5168 and 0.1798 in Pinzgau breed. In population of Simmental breed and Holstein breed was higher frequency of allele A2 (0.7072 and 0.6322. In opposite, in population of Pinzgau breed was present higher frequency of the allele A1 (0.5618.

  7. Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maurice – Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T. (2014). Genetic variation of milk fatty acid composition between and within dairy cattle breeds. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Fat is one of the main components in bovine milk and comprises a large number of

  8. Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of Cameroon ... Individual animals were selected on a weight index calculated as a ratio of an individual's weight at weaning, yearling, twenty four and thirty six ... 1995) together with estimates of variances and covariances for the different performance traits.

  9. The influence of restricting nitrogen losses of dairy farms on dairy cattle breeding goals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steverink, M.H.A.; Groen, A.F.; Berentsen, P.B.M.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of environmental legislation to restrict nitrogen losses on dairy cattle breeding goals. Linear programming was used to model a dairy farm, including multiple restrictions on product output and production factor input. Management was

  10. Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Short paper and poster abstracts: 38th Congress of the South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 36. Genetic trends for growth in the Gudali and Wakwa cattle breeds of Cameroon. A.L. Ebangi, #G.J. Erasmus, F.W.C. Neser ...

  11. Validation of fatty acid predictions in milk using mid-infrared spectrometry across cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Soyeurt, H.; Dehareng, F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy to predict detailed fatty acid (FA) composition of bovine milk by mid-infrared spectrometry, for a cattle population that partly differed in terms of country, breed and methodology used to measure actual FA composition compared with the

  12. Dystocia in dairy cattle breeding [:with special attention to sire evaluation for categorical traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijering, A.

    1986-01-01

    Field data recorded in the early seventies showed that dystocia (calving difficulty) in the main Dutch cattle breeds occurred at a rate of 15-17% in heifers and 5-6% in cows. Corresponding stillbirth rates were 9-12% and 2.5-3.5% respectively. In the sixties and seventies many research papers on

  13. BREEDING AND GENETICS SYMPOSIUM:Breeding heat tolerant dairy cattle: the case for introgression of the "slick" prolactin receptor variant into dairy breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Spelman, R J; Littlejohn, M D

    2017-04-01

    Increasing environmental temperatures are a threat to the sustainability of livestock production and, because of the high metabolic demands of lactation, to dairy production in particular. Summer heat waves in temperate climates reduce feed intake, milk production, and cow comfort. In extreme heat events, there is an increase in cow mortality. In tropical climates, dairy cattle are mostly (zebu) type or zebu crossbred with temperate dairy breeds. Crossbreeding is undertaken to combine the heat tolerance and tick resistance of zebu with the productivity of temperate dairy breeds. In the absence of improved heat tolerance, milk production and fertility of temperate cattle is severely impaired. We have recently identified a key role for the prolactin pathway in regulating heat tolerance. A de novo mutation in prolactin that impairs prolactin activity was discovered in hairy and heat intolerant, New Zealand dairy cattle. The phenotypes produced were remarkably similar to those seen in fescue toxicosis, a syndrome seen in grazing cattle in the U.S. where ingestion of ergovaline, a fungal toxin from infected pasture, inhibits prolactin secretion. Recognition of the role of prolactin in hairy cattle led us to identify a deletion in exon 10 of the long-form of the prolactin receptor in Senepol cattle that causes truncation of the protein and determines the slick coat and heat tolerance traits found in this , beef breed. The short form of the prolactin receptor is predicted to be unaffected by the deletion. Knowledge of this dominant mutation has provided the impetus to begin a crossbreeding program to investigate performance and heat tolerance of temperate dairy cattle carrying the slick, prolactin receptor variant. The perceived opportunity is to introgress this variant into temperate dairy cattle to enable performance and welfare improvement in hot climates. Heat tolerance of cattle with slick coats appears to be mostly associated with coat type although sweating ability

  14. Shelf life of beef from local Spanish cattle breeds stored under modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, K; Beriain, M J; Purroy, A; Alberti, P; Gorraiz, C; Alzueta, M J

    2001-03-01

    Beef steaks from six Spanish cattle breeds (Asturiana de los Valles, Morucha, Parda Alpina, Pirenaica, Rubia Gallega and Retinta) were packaged under modified atmosphere (60% O(2), 30% CO(2) and 10% N(2)). Water loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid values (TBA), aerobic plate counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae counts, CIE L*a*b* colour values and the sensory properties of odour and colour were recorded before packaging (day 0) and after 5, 10 and 15 days of storage. A significant interaction (Pmeat from Retinta breed and between days 10 and 15 in meat from the other breeds, shelf life was probably limited by lipid oxidation.

  15. Seroprevalence of neosporosis in beef and dairy cattle breeds in Northeast Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, S; Edelhofer, Renate; Hajtós, I

    2006-12-01

    In order to assess the seroprevalence of bovine neosporosis with indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), blood samples were collected randomly from 1063 beef and dairy cattle belonging to 12 different breeds in Northeast Hungary. Antibodies to Neospora caninum were detected in 27 (2.5%) of the animals, kept on 19 of the 42 settlements included in this survey. Since samples were collected on 50 farms, herd prevalence amounted to 38%. The percentage of cattle with seroconversion increased with age, suggesting a postnatal source of infection. The highest rate of positivity was detected in Aberdeen Angus (3.3%) and Holstein-Friesian cows (3.2%), and the lowest in Limousine (0.9%), but no breed predisposition was statistically substantiated. Neosporosis was more prevalent in dairy (3.4%) than in beef (1.9%) cattle, although the difference was not significant. Only three out of the seropositive cows, all of them Holstein-Friesians, had a history of abortion.

  16. Genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... accorded with the previous historical and archeological based classification. REFERENCES. Albero M, Haile-Mariam S (1982). The indigenous cattle of Ethiopia. Part I. World Anim. Rev. 41: 2-10. Bruford MW, Hanotte O, Brookfield JFY, Burke T (1992). Single-locus and multilocus DNA fingerprinting.

  17. Clinical Observations on Three Nigerian Zebu Cattle Breeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Signs of trypanosomosis became apparent before detection of parasitaemia, 7 to 10 days post infection (pi) firstly in SG, then RB and lastly in WF. The infected animals were dull, lagged behind the herd, had depressed appetite and pale mucous membranes. The live weight gains of infected cattle were significantly (P <0.05) ...

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of a cattle population to reconstitute the extinct Algarvia breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel-Figueiredo Teresa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decisions to initiate conservation programmes need to account for extant variability, diversity loss and cultural and economic aspects. Molecular markers were used to investigate if putative Algarvia animals could be identified for use as progenitors in a breeding programme to recover this nearly extinct breed. Methods 46 individuals phenotypically representative of Algarvia cattle were genotyped for 27 microsatellite loci and compared with 11 Portuguese autochthonous and three imported breeds. Genetic distances and factorial correspondence analyses (FCA were performed to investigate the relationship among Algarvia and related breeds. Assignment tests were done to identify representative individuals of the breed. Y chromosome and mtDNA analyses were used to further characterize Algarvia animals. Gene- and allelic-based conservation analyses were used to determine breed contributions to overall genetic diversity. Results Genetic distance and FCA results confirmed the close relationship between Algarvia and southern Portuguese breeds. Assignment tests without breed information classified 17 Algarvia animals in this cluster with a high probability (q > 0.95. With breed information, 30 cows and three bulls were identified (q > 0.95 that could be used to reconstitute the Algarvia breed. Molecular and morphological results were concordant. These animals showed intermediate levels of genetic diversity (MNA = 6.0 ± 1.6, Rt = 5.7 ± 1.4, Ho = 0.63 ± 0.19 and He = 0.69 ± 0.10 relative to other Portuguese breeds. Evidence of inbreeding was also detected (Fis = 0.083, P st = 0.028, P > 0.05. Algarvia cattle provide an intermediate contribution (CB = 6.18, CW = -0.06 and D1 = 0.50 to the overall gene diversity of Portuguese cattle. Algarvia and seven other autochthonous breeds made no contribution to the overall allelic diversity. Conclusions Molecular analyses complemented previous morphological findings to identify 33 animals that

  19. Microsatellite, blood group and transferrin protein diversity of Estonian dairy cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. VÄRV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates genetic diversity within and among three Estonian dairy cattle breeds (Estonian Native, Estonian Red and Estonian Holstein. A total of 36 markers (25 microsatellites, 10 blood group systems and transferrin protein were investigated and the within-breed diversity was quantified by expected heterozygosity, number of private alleles and mean allelic richness. The population structure was studied by computing the inbreeding coefficients, breed differentiation and relationships were investigated with random drift-based measures and a factorial correspondence analysis. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree was drawn summarising allele sharing distances for 195 individuals of the Estonian breeds, Western Finncattle, and Danish Jersey. The Estonian breeds displayed generally similar levels of within-population diversity. Depending on the set of markers used 6.2 or 4.3% of the total genetic variation can be explained by differences among the breeds. Construction of the tree for individuals revealed a distinctive pattern of grouping for Estonian Holstein, Estonian Red and Danish Jersey, but Estonian Native and Western Finncattle appeared on the same branches. This indicates that the gene pool of Estonian Native largely overlaps with that of Western Finncattle. However, our genetic marker analysis shows that the three Estonian breeds are genetically differentiated, suggesting that the current gene pool of Estonian dairy cattle is diverse.;

  20. C- and G-banding patterns and chromosomal morphology of some breeds of Australian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W L; Upton, P C; Cooper, J; Blackshaw, A W

    1979-12-01

    A cytogenetical study using metaphase chromosomes from cultured lymphocytes, was made of 2 Banteng (Bibos banteng) steers and 218 bulls representing 13 purebreeds (Bos taurus type, Bos indicus type and Sanga) and 7 cross-breeds. Studies were made of photographic karyotypes of Giemsa stained and C-banded chromosomes of bulls of each breed and of B-banded chromosomes from 3 breeds of Bos indicus and one cross-breed Australian Friesian Sahiwal) cattle. The relative lengths of chromosomes of Bos taurus and Bos indicus bulls were compared and significant difference in relative lengths of the X chromosomes were noted between these two species. There was a differences in morphology of the Y chromosomes; Sanga, Banteng and Bos taurus type breeds had a small submetacentric Y chromosome, except for the Jersey which had a metacentric Y chromosome. All Bos indicus type bulls had an acrocentric Y chromosome but the Droughtmaster breed had two forms of the Y chromosome (submetacentric and acrocentric). The C-banding patterns of the autosomes and X chromosomes were similar for all breeds while those of the Y chromosomes of Bos indicus type cattle allowed their accurate identification. G-banding patterns of Bos indicus resembled those of Bos taurus and enabled pairing of homologous chromosomes. Centromeres of the autosomes were unstained but those of the sex chromosomes were darkly stained.

  1. Exposure to allergens of different cattle breeds and their relevance in occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutelbeck, Astrid R R; Junghans, Carsten; Esselmann, Hermann; Hallier, Ernst; Schulz, Thomas G

    2009-10-01

    Cattle are an important source of allergens in the working area of farmers. Asthma caused by cow allergens is a significant occupational problem. Yet in allergological testing, the results of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests are often inconsistent even in cases with clearly cattle-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate four different commercial cow allergen extracts and to compare them with self prepared extracts of different cattle breeds by means of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using the sera of 42 German farmers with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis caused by cattle contact. The commercial extracts investigated in this study showed only minor differences in protein pattern. Using sera in immunoblotting experiments distinct bands were found for all symptomatic farmers, even in 13 farmers with a negative result in commercially available serological allergy tests. Bands with molecular weights in the range between about 11 and 67 kDa were observed; reactivity with the major allergen Bos d 2 at about 20 kDa was detected in all farmers, although it was not the strongest band in all cases. We demonstrate for the first time the allergenic relevance of additional proteins with molecular weights of 14, 30, 55 and approx. 67-97 kDa in more than 50% of farmers with cattle related symptoms. One of our most striking results was that 32% of the investigated farmers with cattle related symptoms showed negative results with commercial serological tests but distinct reactions with cow allergen in immunoblotting experiments. The Bos d 2 content in hair showed differences between certain breeds whereas German Brown and Simmental had particularly higher quantities of Bos d 2 in their hair than breeds such as Holstein-Friesian. These results strongly support the following recommendation: test results with commercial extracts that are contradictory to the clinical symptoms should be supplemented by skin tests using extracts of the hair of the farmers' own

  2. Strategies for use of reproductive technologies in genomic dairy cattle breeding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian

    of genomic breeding values. The breeding schemes were evaluated according to genetic gain and rate of inbreeding. The relative gain by use of reproductive technologies is 11 to 84 percent points depending on the choice of other breeding scheme parameters. A large donor program with high selection intensity......A simulation study was performed for testing the effect of using reproductive technologies in a genomic dairy cattle young bull breeding scheme. The breeding scheme parameters: 1) number of donors, 2) number of progeny per donor, 3) age of the donor, 4) number of sires, and 5) reliability...... of sires provides the highest genetic gain. A relatively higher genetic gain is obtained for higher reliability of GEBV. Extending the donor program and number of selected bulls has a major effect of reducing the rate of inbreeding without compromising genetic gain....

  3. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  4. MILK FATTY ACID PROFILE IN DIFFERENT BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Kirchnerová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to extend the knowledge about current fatty acids (FAs profile of cow milk fat at herds of cows held in dairy farms in Slovakia. 368 milk samples were taken in total from cows of 5 different breeds, namely Holstein (H, n = 105, Red Holstein (R, n = 120, Pinzgau (P, n = 74, Slovak Pied (S, n = 61, and Braunvieh (B, n = 8. Single milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose content, minerals and fatty acid composition of milk fat using gas chromatography, where 54 FAs were identified and expressed relatively in percentage of peak areas (% and evaluated in segments in accord with their biosynthetic origine. The combination of acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0, as expressed in the sum HCHFA (46.86% for S and 47.35% for P, and also the value of the so-calculated. atherogenic index (2.82 for S and 3.10 for P are the lowest, and thus the most favorable for human health at the breeds S and P. Medically desirable MUFA (27.11% for the S and 25.84% for P and PUFA (3.55% for S and 3.26% for P in these breeds are represented in the highest percentage shares. We conclude that among the observed breeds of dairy cows the Pinzgau and Simental breeds showed a better value of the composition of milk fat from a health perspective.

  5. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988; Schoeman, 1989; Morris et al., 1993; Jenkins & Ferrell,. 1994). However, this is very costly and not always possible. The other is through crossbreeding and the estimation of cross- breeding parameters (viz. direct, maternal en heterotic effects) under different environmental conditions (Alenda et al., 1980: Dillard et al.

  6. Breeding objectives for Jersey cattle in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cuthbert

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... herd model for pasture-based and concentrate-fed systems in South Africa was used to calculate economic values by ... Alternative payment systems were used from four major milk buyers in South Africa. ... Calculation of economic values is a crucial step in the development of breeding objectives. The.

  7. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T. X.; Li, H.; Wang, F.; Liu, X. L.; Li, Q. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah), crossbreed 1st generation (F1), crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3) buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH). SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH. PMID:25049865

  8. Effect of Cattle Breeds on Milk Composition and Technological Characteristics in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. X. Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cattle breeds have a striking effect on milk, including milk composition and technological characteristics. This study aims to compare milk composition, acidification activity, viscosity, milk dispersion system stability and casein molecular weight among three buffalo breeds in China. The technological characteristics of milk produced by three cattle breeds of river buffalo (Murrah, crossbreed 1st generation (F1, crossbreed multiple generation (FH, H≥3 buffaloes were investigated. Cattle breeds showed evident effect on milk protein, fat and total solids content, but little effect on most of buffalo casein molecular weight. Milk fat, protein content and the viscosity of buffalo milk from river buffalo were lower than those of F1 and FH, so was the buffer capacity. The viscosity was negatively correlated to temperature and concentration. Results of stability coefficient showed that milk dispersion system had the best dynamic stability characteristics under pH 6.6 and 6 times dilution, while zeta potential of Murrah milk was slightly higher than that of hybrid offspring (F1, FH. SDS-PAGE results showed that buffalo αs-casein had a slightly faster mobility than standard αs-casein; while buffalo β-casein showed a slightly slower mobility than standard β-casein. There is no clear differences in molecular weight of αs-, β-, and κ-casein among Murrah, F1 and FH.

  9. A genome-wide scan for signatures of differential artificial selection in ten cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothammer, Sophie; Seichter, Doris; Förster, Martin; Medugorac, Ivica

    2013-12-21

    Since the times of domestication, cattle have been continually shaped by the influence of humans. Relatively recent history, including breed formation and the still enduring enormous improvement of economically important traits, is expected to have left distinctive footprints of selection within the genome. The purpose of this study was to map genome-wide selection signatures in ten cattle breeds and thus improve the understanding of the genome response to strong artificial selection and support the identification of the underlying genetic variants of favoured phenotypes. We analysed 47,651 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) using Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). We set the significance thresholds using the maximum XP-EHH values of two essentially artificially unselected breeds and found up to 229 selection signatures per breed. Through a confirmation process we verified selection for three distinct phenotypes typical for one breed (polledness in Galloway, double muscling in Blanc-Bleu Belge and red coat colour in Red Holstein cattle). Moreover, we detected six genes strongly associated with known QTL for beef or dairy traits (TG, ABCG2, DGAT1, GH1, GHR and the Casein Cluster) within selection signatures of at least one breed. A literature search for genes lying in outstanding signatures revealed further promising candidate genes. However, in concordance with previous genome-wide studies, we also detected a substantial number of signatures without any yet known gene content. These results show the power of XP-EHH analyses in cattle to discover promising candidate genes and raise the hope of identifying phenotypically important variants in the near future. The finding of plausible functional candidates in some short signatures supports this hope. For instance, MAP2K6 is the only annotated gene of two signatures detected in Galloway and Gelbvieh cattle and is already known to be associated with carcass weight, back fat thickness and

  10. Development of a breeding objective for Estonian Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PÄRNA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic weights for milk carrier (water plus lactose, fat and protein yields, calving interval, age at first service, interval between the first service and conception of heifers and length of productive life of Estonian Holsteins were estimated under assumed milk production quota and for non-quota conditions. A bio-economic model of an integrated production system of a closed herd was used. Economic values of milk carrier yield and length of productive life differed between quota and non-quota conditions, but there were only minor differences between those marketing systems in economic values for functional traits. The standardised economic values of the most important traits varied in magnitude between18 to 81% of the economic value for milk yield. Discounting had a substantial impact on the economic value of length of productive life. When defining the breeding objective for Estonian Holstein, the interval between the first service and conception of heifers, and the length of productive life should be included in the breeding goal along with the traits with the highest economic value, milk, fat and protein yield. In the optimum breeding objective, relative weights of production vs. functional traits were 79 and 21%, respectively.;

  11. Quantitative trait loci for milk production and functional traits in two Danish Cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V

    2010-01-01

    ), protein percentage (PP), clinical mastitis (CM), somatic cell score (SCS), maternal stillbirth, maternal calf size (MCS) and maternal calving difficulty. For Red breed, nine grandsire families were genotyped for 166 markers on 18 BTAs. Six traits analysed were MY, FP, PP, CM, SCS and female fertility......Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP....... Nine and five QTL were detected in Jersey and Red breed, respectively, in across family tests. In Jersey breed, the results indicate QTL for CM and MCS on BTA 3. Additionally, there is an indication of QTL for MCS and FP on BTA 1 and a tentative evidence for a QTL for MY on BTA 26. There is a high risk...

  12. Preferences for Breeding Goal Traits for Danish Red and Jersey Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David

    The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers with Red Danish Cattle (RDC) or Jersey herds. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize preferences of farmers for improvements in ten traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online software 1000Minds. These pa...... characteristics can be linked to the different farmer clusters. The results from this study give a strong basis for setting up customized indexes or breeding goals for the different farmer clusters, which might increase the uptake of genetic merit....

  13. Adapted breeds for organic and low input dairy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Marco; Ferris, C; Sairanen, A

    2014-01-01

    Part of SOLID is to understand how contrasting genotypes adapt to a systematic restriction of nutrient and energy supply. In new studies, a number of genotypes identified as being adapted to organic and low input systems were compared with conventional breeds....

  14. Comparing profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to compare profitability of Burlina and Holstein Friesian cows in northern Italy. Cow’s profitability was calculated for each breed, with consideration of economic incentive programs and alternative milk pricing scenarios. The difference in annual profitability between Burlina and Holstein Friesian ranged from −€719 to −€274 per cow per year. In a low-input management level with a cow’s incentive payment and a specific cheese market strategy the low milk yield of Burlina can be compensate respect to Holstein Friesian.

  15. Invited review: Reproductive and genomic technologies to optimize breeding strategies for genetic progress in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fleming

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy cattle breeders have exploited technological advances that have emerged in the past in regards to reproduction and genomics. The implementation of such technologies in routine breeding programs has permitted genetic gains in traditional milk production traits as well as, more recently, in low-heritability traits like health and fertility. As demand for dairy products increases, it is important for dairy breeders to optimize the use of available technologies and to consider the many emerging technologies that are currently being investigated in various fields. Here we review a number of technologies that have helped shape dairy breeding programs in the past and present, along with those potentially forthcoming. These tools have materialized in the areas of reproduction, genotyping and sequencing, genetic modification, and epigenetics. Although many of these technologies bring encouraging opportunities for genetic improvement of dairy cattle populations, their applications and benefits need to be weighed with their impacts on economics, genetic diversity, and society.

  16. Aspects of rumen adaptation in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    In dairy cattle the nutrient requirements change rapidly around calving. During the dry period nutrients are required for maintenance, recovery from the previous lactation, and fetal growth. After calving, milk production commences and the energy requirements can increase by a factor 3 to ~184 MJ

  17. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cattle at South Korean national breeding stock farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Goo; Ouh, In-Ohk; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Jong Wan; Rhee, Man Hee; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Dongmi

    2017-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate the serologic and molecular prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in cattle at national breeding stock farms in South Korea. These government farms have well-organized biosecurity and management systems to prevent livestock diseases. Of the 736 cattle in this study, 77 tested positive for antibodies against C. burnetii antigens (10.5%, 95% CI: 8.3-12.7) and 11 were positive for a C. burnetti infection on PCR analysis (1.5%, 95% CI: 0.6-2.4). Since the 16S rRNA sequences of C. burnetii from all 11 PCR-positive samples were identical, three representative samples (C-CN-3 from the southern region, C-JJ-9 from Jeju Island, and C-CB-37 from the central region) are described in this paper. These three sequences had 99.3-100% identity to those of C. burnetii deposited in GenBank. These sequences clustered with those from USA, Japan, and Greenland, underscoring the sequence similarity among C. burnetii isolates in these countries. Because C. burnetii was detected in cattle at well-managed national breeding stock farms, cattle at non-government operated farms may be more likely to be exposed to C. burnetii in South Korea. Thus, continuous surveillance and control strategies in animals and humans are required to prevent the transmission of C. burnetii to humans.

  18. Preliminary study on MC1R polymorphism in some cattle breeds raised in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Renieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Western European cattle breeds consist of standardised breeds with a definite coat colour (Renieri et al., 1984. Thus coat colour could be useful to detect genetic markers for cattle breed identification. In cattle the pigmentation is determined by the distribution of two pigments: eu- and pheomelanin, producing brown or black and red to yellow pigmentation respectively. Tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the synthesis of both melanins, is regulated by the melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH. This hormone and several other melanotropic peptides stimulate melanin formation in melanocytes by binding to the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R, a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by the Extension gene (Robbins et al., 1993. In addition, the amounts of eu- and pheomelanin in the melanocyte are controlled by the agouti gene encoding the Agouti Signal Protein (ASP, that acts as an antagonist of MSH signalling through the MC1R, even if its mechanism of action is controversial (Furumura et al., 1998..........

  19. Growth- and breed-related changes of muscle fiber characteristics in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, J; Albrecht, E; Fiedler, I; Teuscher, F; Papstein, H J; Ender, K

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the growth- and breed-related changes of muscle fiber characteristics in cattle and their importance to meat quality. Four cattle breeds with different growth impetus and muscularity were reared and slaughtered under experimental conditions. German Angus as a beef type, Galloway as a hardy type, Holstein Friesian as a dairy type, and double-muscled Belgian Blue as an extreme type for muscle growth were used. Between 5 and 17 bulls of each breed were slaughtered at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo of age. Muscle fiber traits were determined and classified by computerized image analysis, and several measures of meat quality were also determined, including shear force value, meat color, and i.m. fat content. The postnatal growth of semitendinosus muscle in cattle was characterized by a nearly 10-fold increase of muscle fiber area from birth to 24 mo of age. In the first few months after birth, a transformation of type IIA fibers into IIB fibers was found, whereas type I fibers were nearly unaffected by age. The apparent total muscle fiber number of semitendinosus muscle did not increase during postnatal life. These results confirm that the fiber number is determined in embryonic development. Throughout the study, the double-muscled Belgian Blue (BBDM) bulls had almost twice the fiber number of the other breeds, emphasizing a more extensive hyperplasia of muscle fibers during embryonic development in BBDM compared with the other three breeds. The apparent number of type I fibers was, however, not affected by breed, which suggests that the additional fibers found in BBDM postnatally were type IIB and IIA fibers. We did not find significant differences in muscle fiber total number, muscle fiber type frequencies, or meat quality characteristics among breeds, with the exception of BBDM. Having pooled the four breeds, paler meat was related to a higher frequency of type IIB fibers, a lower area of type IIA and type I fiber, and a

  20. GENEALOGICAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE: A CASE STUDY ON CROATIAN AUTOCHTHONOUS CATTLE BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reljanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective population size (Ne is one of the most important tools used to assess genetic diversity for conservation purposes. Using pedigree data of three Croatian autochthonous cattle breeds (Buša, Istrian and Slavonian Syrmian Podolian the effective maternal (NeF, paternal (NeM and combined maternal-paternal (NeFM population size was estimated. Additionally, we estimated the effective population size based on the census population sex ratio (Nes, the effective population size from the individual increase in inbreeding (NeFi and the effective population size from individual increase in coancestry (NeCi. We compared these sizes with the values obtained for 20 additional cattle populations, as well as with the newly calculated NeFM. The effective population sizes calculated for three autochthonous breeds were consistently the lowest in amongst all the considered cattle breeds. Utilisation of extremely small numbers of breeding males is the main reason for the observed reduction in the effective population size. The decomposition of effective population size into maternal and paternal components is shown to be an informative parameter in detecting the reduction of the effective population size as a consequence of unequal sex contribution. Still, the impact of the pedigree depth and completeness on the NeF, NeM and NeFM estimation remain to be analysed. A large deviation between Nes and all other methods of Ne estimation was observed and it is our recommendation that breeders and stakeholders should consider using alternative methods of Ne estimation when planning breeding programmes as well as in the determination of the endangered status of animal populations.

  1. Incorporation of aurochs into a cattle herd in Neolithic Europe: single event or breeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, Jörg; Elsner, Julia; Schlumbaum, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Domestication is an ongoing process continuously changing the lives of animals and humans and the environment. For the majority of European cattle (Bos taurus) genetic and archaeozoological evidence support initial domestication ca. 11'000 BP in the Near East from few founder aurochs (Bos primigenius) belonging to the mitochondrial DNA T macro-haplogroup. Gene flow between wild European aurochs of P haplogroup and domestic cattle of T haplogroup, coexisting over thousands of years, appears to have been sporadic. We report archaeozoological and ancient DNA evidence for the incorporation of wild stock into a domestic cattle herd from a Neolithic lake-dwelling in Switzerland. A complete metacarpus of a small and compact adult bovid is morphologically and genetically a female. With withers height of ca. 112 cm, it is comparable in size with small domestic cattle from contemporaneous sites in the area. The bone is directly dated to 3360-3090 cal BC and associated to the Horgen culture, a period of the secondary products revolution. The cow possessed a novel mtDNA P haplotype variant of the European aurochs. We argue this is either a single event or, based on osteological characteristics of the Horgen cattle, a rare instance of intentional breeding with female aurochs.

  2. Sustainable long-term conservation of rare cattle breeds using rotational AI sires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avon Laurent

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of inbreeding in rotation breeding schemes, sequentially using artificial insemination (AI sires over generations, was investigated for a full AI scheme. Asymptotic prediction formulae of inbreeding coefficients were established when the first rotation list of AI sires (possibly related was in use. Simulated annealing provided the optimal rotation order of sires within this list, when the sires were related. These methods were also used for subsequent rotation lists, needed by the exhaustion of semen stores for the first bulls. Simulation was carried out starting with groups of independent sires, with different sizes. To generate a yearly inbreeding rate substantially lower than 0.05% (considered to be within reach by conventional conservation schemes using frequent replacements, the results obtained showed that the number of sires should be at least 10–15 and that the same sires should be used during at least 50 years. The ultimate objective was to examine the relevance of implementing rotation in breeding schemes on the actual rare French cattle breeds under conservation. The best candidate for such a test was the Villard-de-Lans breed (27 bulls and 73 000 doses for only 340 females and it turned out to be the best performer with an inbreeding coefficient of only 7.4% after 500 years and five different sire lists. Due to the strong requirements on semen stores and on the stability of population size, actual implementation of this kind of conservation scheme was recommended only in special ('niche' cattle populations.

  3. Genotyping of β-Lactoglobulin gene by PCR-RFLP in Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Neelam

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improvement of efficiency and economic returns is an important goal in dairy farming, as in any agricultural enterprise. The primary goal of dairy industry has been to identify an efficient and economical way of increasing milk production and its constituents without increasing the size of the dairy herd. Selection of animals with desirable genotypes and mating them to produce the next generation has been the basis of livestock improvement and this would continue to remain the same in the coming years. The use of polymorphic genes as detectable molecular markers is a promising alternative to the current methods of trait selection once these genes are proven to be associated with traits of interest in animals. The point mutations in exon IV of bovine β-Lactoglobulin gene determine two allelic variants A and B. These variants were distinguished by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in two indigenous Bos indicus breeds viz. Sahiwal and Tharparkar cattle. DNA samples (228 in Sahiwal and 86 in Tharparkar were analyzed for allelic variants of β-Lactoglobulin gene. Polymorphism was detected by digestion of PCR amplified products with Hae III enzyme, and separation on 12% non-denaturing gels and resolved by silver staining. Results The allele B of β-Lactoglobulin occurred at a higher frequency than the allele A in both Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds. The genotypic frequencies of AA, AB, and BB in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds were 0.031, 0.276, 0.693 and 0.023, 0.733, 0.244 respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.17 and 0.83, and 0.39 and 0.61 in Sahiwal and Tharparkar breeds respectively. The Chi-square test results (at one degree of freedom at one per cent level revealed that the Tharparkar population was not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium as there was a continuous migration of animals in the herd studied, where as, the results are not significant for the Sahiwal

  4. FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF PARASITIASIS CALVES TREATMENT ON CATTLE BREEDING OF SMALLHOLDER IN MAGELANG REGENCY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    Purwaningsih, Purwaningsih; Kusumastuti, Tri Anggraeni; Sumiarto, Bambang; Sumiarto, Bambang

    2017-01-01

     This research was aimed to identify the financial feasibility of parasitiasis treatment for calves in the small holder breeding farm in Piji Subdistrict, Podosoko Village, Magelang Regency. Farmer was taken purposively, considering their objective of keeping cattle (breeding). Eight calves naturally infected gastrointestinal parasites were selected based on consideration of the uniformity of the age (4 months) breeds of Limousin-PO (LimPO) male 120-125 kg of body weight. They were divided in...

  5. Close genetic relationship of early neolithic cattle from Ziegelberg (Freising, Germany) with modern breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, R; Ludt, C; Manhart, H; Peters, J; Neumair, E; Rottmann, O

    2005-04-01

    In 2003 a variety of crafts and bone specimens were found during excavations of a Neolithic settlement near Freising, the southernmost site of the Linear Pottery Culture in Bavaria. Six cattle bones were used to extract ancient DNA (aDNA). Applying nested and touchdown PCR, two fragments of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region could be amplified from specimen 533/III which yielded a total of 230 base pairs (bp). The sequence was compared with the homologous part of 40 extant breeds of Bos taurus and B. indicus and related species, such as Banteng (B. javanicus), Gaur (B. gaurus), the European bison (Bison bonasus) and the aurochs (B. primigenius). A neighbour joining tree was constructed based on the appropriate model of sequence evolution. The control region sequence of the 533/III cattle bone, whose age was determined by radiocarbon dating, clusters close to the extant European breeds, but distinctly apart from the basal aurochs and far distant from the B. indicus group. The archaeological and genetic analyses of Bos Ziegelberg demonstrate that domesticated cattle reached southern Bavaria at least 7000 years ago.

  6. Genetics of bovine respiratory disease in cattle: can breeding programs reduce the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Donagh P

    2014-12-01

    Genetics is responsible for approximately half the observed change in performance internationally in well-structured cattle breeding programs. Almost all, if not all, individual characteristics, including animal health, have a genetic basis. Once genetic variation exists then breeding for improvement is possible. Although the heritability of most health traits is low to moderate, considerable exploitable genetic variation does exist. From the limited studies undertaken, and mostly from limited datasets, the direct heritability of susceptibility to BRD varied from 0.07 to 0.22 and the maternal heritability (where estimated) varied from 0.05 to 0.07. Nonetheless, considerable genetic variation clearly exists; the genetic standard deviation for the direct component (binary trait), although differing across populations, varied from 0.08 to 0.20 while the genetic standard deviation for the maternal component varied from 0.04 to 0.07. Little is known about the genetic correlation between genetic predisposition to BRD and animal performance; the estimation of these correlations should be prioritized. (Long-term) Breeding strategies to reduce the incidence of BRD in cattle should be incorporated into national BRD eradication or control strategies.

  7. Early Growth Improvement Of Sugarcane Bud Ps-881 Through Cattle Breeding Liquid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of cattle breeding in addition to giving a positive impact providing main products such as meat and milk also have the another advance. As matter of fact the livestock business must produce waste. Within use appropriate technology by utilizing cattle liquid waste into fertilizer material after going through the processing or fermentation process to become an organic fertilizer that is beneficial to the plant. This study proposed to carry out the effect of POC concentration of cattle urine on the germination rate of sugarcane bud that is more effective and efficient. The experiment was conducted at Experimental Garden of Agricultural Faculty at the University of Merdeka Surabaya with an elevation of 5 meters above sea level. This research used Randomized Block Design RAK with 1 treatment factor. The POC concentration of cattle urine P consisted of 8 treatment levels ie 0 ml 10 ml 20 ml 30 ml 40 ml 50 ml 60 ml and 70 ml POC per liter of water. This research revealed two results first the significant influence of POC concentration of cow urine on increasing growth of sugarcane bud plant on the variables studied including bud length root number and dry weight per plant during germination period of sugarcane plant. Second The highest value achieved by treatment P7 is the concentration of 70 ml of POC of cow urine per liter of water at all observation parameters.

  8. High-density marker imputation accuracy in sixteen French cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozé, Chris; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Venot, Eric; Guillaume, François; Dassonneville, Romain; Fritz, Sébastien; Ducrocq, Vincent; Phocas, Florence; Boichard, Didier; Croiseau, Pascal

    2013-09-03

    Genotyping with the medium-density Bovine SNP50 BeadChip® (50K) is now standard in cattle. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip®, which contains 777,609 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was developed in 2010. Increasing marker density increases the level of linkage disequilibrium between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNPs and the accuracy of QTL localization and genomic selection. However, re-genotyping all animals with the high-density chip is not economically feasible. An alternative strategy is to genotype part of the animals with the high-density chip and to impute high-density genotypes for animals already genotyped with the 50K chip. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the error rate when imputing from the 50K to the high-density chip. Five thousand one hundred and fifty three animals from 16 breeds (89 to 788 per breed) were genotyped with the high-density chip. Imputation error rates from the 50K to the high-density chip were computed for each breed with a validation set that included the 20% youngest animals. Marker genotypes were masked for animals in the validation population in order to mimic 50K genotypes. Imputation was carried out using the Beagle 3.3.0 software. Mean allele imputation error rates ranged from 0.31% to 2.41% depending on the breed. In total, 1980 SNPs had high imputation error rates in several breeds, which is probably due to genome assembly errors, and we recommend to discard these in future studies. Differences in imputation accuracy between breeds were related to the high-density-genotyped sample size and to the genetic relationship between reference and validation populations, whereas differences in effective population size and level of linkage disequilibrium showed limited effects. Accordingly, imputation accuracy was higher in breeds with large populations and in dairy breeds than in beef breeds. More than 99% of the alleles were correctly imputed if more than 300 animals were genotyped at high-density. No

  9. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  10. A multi breed reference improves genotype imputation accuracy in Nordic Red cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Ma, Peipei; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    the subsequent effect of the imputed HD data on the reliability of genomic prediction. HD genotype data was available for 247 Danish, 210 Swedish and 249 Finnish Red bulls, and for 546 Holstein bulls. A subset 50 of bulls from each of the Nordic Red populations was selected for validation. After quality control...... 612,615 SNPs on chromosome 1-29 remained for analysis. Validation was done by masking markers in true HD data and imputing them using Beagle v. 3.3 and a reference group of either national Red, combined Red or combined Red and Holstein bulls. Results show a decrease in allele error rate from 2.64, 1......The objective of this study was to investigate if a multi breed reference would improve genotype imputation accuracy from 50K to high density (HD) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker data in Nordic Red Dairy Cattle, compared to using only a single breed reference, and to check...

  11. Invited review: Breeding and ethical perspectives on genetically modified and genome edited cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, S; Jonas, E; Rydhmer, L; Röcklinsberg, H

    2017-10-25

    The hot topic of genetic modification and genome editing is sometimes presented as a rapid solution to various problems in the field of animal breeding and genetics. These technologies hold potential for future use in agriculture but we need to be aware of difficulties in large-scale application and integration in breeding schemes. In this review, we discuss applications of both classical genetic modifications (GM) using vectors and genome editing in dairy cattle breeding. We use an interdisciplinary approach considering both ethical and animal breeding perspectives. Decisions on how to make use of these techniques need to be made based not only on what is possible, but on what is reasonable to do. Principles of animal integrity, naturalness, risk perception, and animal welfare issues are examples of ethically relevant factors to consider. These factors also influence public perception and decisions about regulations by authorities. We need to acknowledge that we lack complete understanding of the genetic background of complex traits. It may be difficult, therefore, to predict the full effect of certain modifications in large-scale breeding programs. We present 2 potential applications: genome editing to dispense with dehorning, and insertion of human genes in bovine genomes to improve udder health as an example of classical GM. Both of these cases could be seen as beneficial for animal welfare but they differ in other aspects. In the former case, a genetic variant already present within the species is introduced, whereas in the latter case, transgenic animals are generated-this difference may influence how society regards the applications. We underline that the use of GM, as well as genome editing, of farm animals such as cattle is not independent of the context, and should be considered as part of an entire process, including, for example, the assisted reproduction technology that needs to be used. We propose that breeding organizations and breeding companies

  12. Study on the introgression of beef breeds in Canchim cattle using single nucleotide polymorphism markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eli Buzanskas

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of introgression of breeds in the Canchim (CA: 62.5% Charolais-37.5% Zebu and MA genetic group (MA: 65.6% Charolais-34.4% Zebu cattle using genomic information on Charolais (CH, Nelore (NE, and Indubrasil (IB breeds. The number of animals used was 395 (CA and MA, 763 (NE, 338 (CH, and 37 (IB. The Bovine50SNP BeadChip from Illumina panel was used to estimate the levels of introgression of breeds considering the Maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and Single Regression method. After genotype quality control, 32,308 SNPs were considered in the analysis. Furthermore, three thresholds to prune out SNPs in linkage disequilibrium higher than 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 were considered, resulting in 15,286, 7,652, and 1,582 SNPs, respectively. For k = 2, the proportion of taurine and indicine varied from the expected proportion based on pedigree for all methods studied. For k = 3, the Regression method was able to differentiate the animals in three main clusters assigned to each purebred breed, showing more reasonable according to its biological viewpoint. Analyzing the data considering k = 2 seems to be more appropriate for Canchim-MA animals due to its biological interpretation. The usage of 32,308 SNPs in the analyses resulted in similar findings between the estimated and expected breed proportions. Using the Regression approach, a contribution of Indubrasil was observed in Canchim-MA when k = 3 was considered. Genetic parameter estimation could account for this breed composition information as a source of variation in order to improve the accuracy of genetic models. Our findings may help assemble appropriate reference populations for genomic prediction for Canchim-MA in order to improve prediction accuracy. Using the information on the level of introgression in each individual could also be useful in breeding or crossing design to improve individual heterosis in crossbred cattle.

  13. Identification of a short region on chromosome 6 affecting direct calving ease in Piedmontese cattle breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bongiorni

    Full Text Available Calving in cattle is affected by calf morphology and by dam characteristics. It is described by two different traits: maternal calving ease, which is the ability to generate dams with good physiological predisposition to calving, and direct calving ease, which is the ability to generate calves that are easily born. The aim of this study was to identify regions of cattle genome harboring genes possibly affecting direct calving ease in the Piedmontese cattle breed. A population of 323 bulls scored for direct calving ease (EBV was analyzed by a medium-density SNP marker panel (54,001 SNPs to perform a genome-wide scan. The strongest signal was detected on chromosome 6 between 37.8 and 38.7 Mb where 13 SNPs associated to direct calving ease were found. Three genes are located in this region: LAP3, encoding for a leucine aminopeptidase involved in the oxytocin hydrolysis; NCAPG, encoding for a non-SMC condensin I complex, which has been associated in cattle with fetal growth and carcass size; and LCORL, which has been associated to height in humans and cattle. To further confirm the results of the genome-wide scan we genotyped additional SNPs within these genes and analyzed their association with direct calving ease. The results of this additional analysis fully confirmed the findings of the GWAS and particularly indicated LAP3 as the most probable gene involved. Linkage Disequilibrium (LD analysis showed high correlation between SNPs located within LAP3 and LCORL indicating a possible selection signature due either to increased fitness or breeders' selection for the trait.

  14. Importance of cattle breeding in the nourishment safety of families in the rural area of Paipa, Boyaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Milena Soler Fonseca

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the rural municipality of Paipa, Boyaca many families rely on cattle breeding to obtain from this activity, suficient income and resources to meet their basic needs, however little is known about the true role of this species in the nourishment safety of rural families in the municipality of Paipa in Boyacá, for that reason, this study aimed to analyze the importance of general breeding cattle in the nourishment safety of thirty peasant families in the municipality of Paipa, Boyacá and get to know the social and cultural roles that are generated by this livestock activity. The obtained result was that the cale are raised as a second choice in the pursuit of economic resources, after the birds. In cattle production an average of  five animals per farm are raised, the widely used breeds are the Normando, Holstein and crosses between them; milk production dominates with an average yield of 150 liters/week per family; income and costs production depend on the number of cattle raised, the gained income is used to purchase food for home, but savings are not encouraged; the consumption of dairy products is very low and beef cattle is not consumed within the household; animals management is in charge of all family members (both genders. In general, cattle farming make interesting economic contributions to the countryside families, but these revenues are used to purchase food of high nutritional value, also a2ecting the nourishment safety of the studied families.

  15. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarre, Charlotte; González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Grit, Rika; Grauwet, Korneel; Van Meulder, Frederik; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-11-19

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 profile, with transcription of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6 and IL-17. Strong IL-17 up-regulation in the skin of BB was associated with an influx of eosinophils and other immune cells, potentially leading towards more severe symptoms. Virtually no changes in cutaneous IFN-γ transcription were detected, while there was substantial IFN-γ up-regulation in re-stimulated PBMC from infested and uninfested animals, potentially indicating a role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the innate immune response. In Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, generally more resistant to P. ovis infection, a largely similar immunologic response was observed. Differences between HF and BB were the lack of cutaneous IL-17 response in infested HF and low transcription levels of IFN-γ and high IL-10 transcription in re-stimulated PBMC from both infested and uninfested animals. Further research is needed to identify potential cell sources and biological functions for these cytokines and to fully unravel the basis of this different breed susceptibility to P. ovis.

  16. Selection with inbreeding control in simulated young bull schemes for local dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, G; Stella, A; Del Corvo, M; Jansen, G B

    2014-03-01

    Local breeds are rarely subject to modern selection techniques; however, selection programs will be required if local breeds are to remain a viable livelihood option for farmers. Selection in small populations needs to take into account accurate inbreeding control. Optimum contribution selection (OCS) is efficient in controlling inbreeding and maximizes genetic gain. The current paper investigates genetic progress in simulated dairy cattle populations from 500 to 6,000 cows undergoing young bull selection schemes with OCS compared with truncation selection (TS) at an annual inbreeding rate of 0.003. Selection is carried out for a dairy trait with a base heritability of 0.3. A young bull selection scheme was used because of its simplicity in implementation. With TS, annual genetic gain from 0.111 standard deviation units with 500 cows increases rapidly to 0.145 standard deviation units with 4,000 cows. Then, genetic gain increases more slowly up to 6,000 cows. At the same inbreeding rate, OCS produces higher genetic progress than TS. Differences in genetic gain between OCS and TS vary from to 2 to 6.3%. Genetic gain is also improved by increasing the number of years that males can be used as sires of sires. When comparing OCS versus TS at different heritabilities, we observe an advantage of OCS only at high heritability, up to 8% with heritability of 0.9. By increasing the constraint on inbreeding, the difference of genetic gain between the 2 selection methods increases in favor of OCS, and the advantage at the inbreeding rate of 0.001 per generation is 6 times more than at the inbreeding rate of 0.003. Opportunities exist for selection even in dairy cattle populations of a few hundred females. In any case, selection in local breeds will most often require specific investments in infrastructure and manpower, including systems for accurate data recording and selection skills and the presence of artificial insemination and breeders organizations. A cost

  17. Genetic variations among Indonesian native cattle breeds based on polymorphisms analysis in the growth hormone loci and mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTARNO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sutarno (2010 Genetic variations among Indonesian native cattle breeds based on polymorphisms analysis in the growth hormone loci and mitochondrial DNA. Biodiversitas 11: 1-5. Genetic variation within breeds is important and its study has become a subject of interest in livestock species, as it has many applications in animal breeding and genetics, such as the identification of animals and parentage testing, gene mapping and identifying markers for performance traits. Two loci of bovine growth hormone genes, and two regions of mitochondrial DNA, D-loop and ND-5 were characterized using polymerase chain reaction – restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP involving 120 Indonesian native cattle of Bali, Madura, PO and West Sumatra breeds. The results indicated that sequence variations were detected both in the growth hormone loci and mitochondrial DNA.

  18. Ancient mtDNA Analysis of Early 16th Century Caribbean Cattle Provides Insight into Founding Populations of New World Creole Cattle Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speller, Camilla F.; Burley, David V.; Woodward, Robyn P.; Yang, Dongya Y.

    2013-01-01

    The Columbian Exchange resulted in a widespread movement of humans, plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds. The late 15th to early 16th century transfer of cattle from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands to the Caribbean laid the foundation for the development of American creole cattle (Bos taurus) breeds. Genetic analyses of modern cattle from the Americas reveal a mixed ancestry of European, African and Indian origins. Recent debate in the genetic literature centers on the ‘African’ haplogroup T1 and its subhaplogroups, alternatively tying their origins to the initial Spanish herds, and/or from subsequent movements of taurine cattle through the African slave trade. We examine this problem through ancient DNA analysis of early 16th century cattle bone from Sevilla la Nueva, the first Spanish colony in Jamaica. In spite of poor DNA preservation, both T3 and T1 haplogroups were identified in the cattle remains, confirming the presence of T1 in the earliest Spanish herds. The absence, however, of “African-derived American” haplotypes (AA/T1c1a1) in the Sevilla la Nueva sample, leaves open the origins of this sub-haplogroup in contemporary Caribbean cattle. PMID:23894505

  19. The genetic variability of the Podolica cattle breed from the Gargano area. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cianci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Podolica cattle breed is autochthonous of Southern Italy and denoted by its particular rusticity. This study presents the preliminary results of the genetic characterization of the Podolica breed using DNA STR markers. A total of 20 microsatellite loci were analysed in 79 individuals reared in the Gargano area. Number of polymorphisms, allele fre- quencies, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg proportions, linkage disequilibrium between loci and genetic similarities between animals were calculated. The results showed a high deficiency of heterozygotes, the observed mean of het- erozygosis being 0.449, whereas the expected mean was 0.766. Many markers showed also deviations from the Hardy- Weinberg proportions and significant linkage disequilibrium between loci. However the genetic similarity within the pop- ulation was low (0.281 and the average number of alleles per locus was high (10, representing a high genetic vari- ability. In order to explain these results, a stratification of the breed in sub-populations with a high interior genetic homo- geneity but markedly differentiated one from each other could be hypothesized; this situation probably derived from non- random mating within each herd (consanguinity and from the lack of exchange of genetic material between the herds. A further study is needed on a wider sample and extending the analysis to FAO-ISAG microsatellite panel in order to con- firm this hypothesis. This could eventually provide the information necessary for the correct management of the repro- ductive schemes and for genomic traceability of meat production.

  20. Effect of misidentification on the estimation of breeding value and heritability in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldermann, H; Pieper, U; Weber, W E

    1986-12-01

    For daughter groups of 15 test bulls, controls of paternity were performed by using blood group factors and biochemical polymorphisms. Data of incorrectly assigned daughters influenced the estimation of breeding values, heritabilities and correlations for milk performance traits. Formulae are given that show the effects of variable misidentification rates on estimation of breeding values, selection intensities, heritabilities, and genetic gains. For example, for milk fat yield, the genetic gains drop at a misidentification rate of 15% between 8.7% (for h2 = .5) and 16.9% (for h2 = .2) below values attained without misidentifications. Consequently, decreasing misidentification rates in progeny of test bulls can be used to diminish the progeny size per test bull for constant genetic gain, to achieve more precise ranking of all or distinct test bulls according to their "true" breeding values and(or) to increase the number of test bulls by using the same amount of test inseminations and the same precision of ranking. Actions to reduce misidentification rates in cattle populations are discussed.

  1. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Shahinfar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  2. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

  3. Prediction of breeding values for dairy cattle using artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

  4. Analysis of genetic and cultural conservation value of three indigenous Croatian cattle breeds in a local and global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramljak, J; Ivanković, A; Veit-Kensch, C E; Förster, M; Medugorac, I

    2011-02-01

    It is widely accepted that autochthonous cattle breeds can be important genetic resources for unforeseeable environmental conditions in the future. Apart from that, they often represent local culture and tradition and thus assist in the awareness of ethnic identity of a country. In Croatia, there are only three indigenous cattle breeds, Croatian Buša, Slavonian Syrmian Podolian and Istrian Cattle. All of them are threatened but specialized in a particular habitat and production system. We analysed 93 microsatellites in 51 animals of each breed to get thorough information about genetic diversity and population structure. We further set them within an existing frame of additional 16 breeds that have been genotyped for the same marker set and cover a geographical area from the domestication centre near Anatolia, through the Balkan and alpine regions, to the north-west of Europe. The cultural value was evaluated regarding the role in landscape, gastronomy, folklore and handicraft. The overall results recognize Croatian Buša being partly admixed but harbouring an enormous genetic diversity comparable with other traditional unselected Buša breeds in the Anatolian and Balkan areas. The Podolian cattle showed the lowest genetic diversity at the highest genetic distance to all remaining breeds but are playing an important role as part of the cultural landscape and thus contribute to the tourist industry. The genetic diversity of the Istrian cattle was found in the middle range of this study. It is already included in the tourist industry as a local food speciality. Current and future conservation strategies are discussed. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Pastoralists' indigenous selection criteria and other breeding practices of the long-horned Ankole cattle in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugonza, Donald Rugira; Nabasirye, Margaret; Hanotte, Olivier; Mpairwe, Denis; Okeyo, A Mwai

    2012-03-01

    The criteria for identification, selection and kinship assignment of Ankole cattle and their roles to pastoralists were studied on 248 farms in Kiboga, Mbarara, Mpigi and Sembabule districts of Uganda using a questionnaire, administered during one-to-one interviews. Farms were randomly sampled along transects originating from the headquarters of each of the 19 sub-counties studied. We found that male Ankole cattle are reared for income from sales, meat for home use and ceremonies, aesthetic value and to maintain cultural heritage. Female cattle are mainly kept for milk production, income from sales, heritage and aesthetics, and in few cases, for home use as meat. Other functions included savings, manure and butter production. All cattle are named at birth with coat colour or pattern being the main identification criterion; hence, it is also useful in assigning kinship. Selection criteria for males are more stringent than for females. On most farms, all females are kept for further breeding and are only culled in cases of poor reproductive health. Primary emphasis in selecting males is on the performance of ancestors in milk and reproductive traits, and then on the qualities of the bull itself. Bulls are selected mainly focusing on a big body frame and size, horns that are white, large and curved upward and a plain dark red "ruhogo" coat colour. The results of this study show that pastoralists have a rich body of indigenous knowledge on this breed, and this should effectively be incorporated into planned selective improvement schemes of the Ankole cattle breed.

  6. Effect of heat stress on rumen temperature of three breeds of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, A. M.; Lees, J. C.; Lisle, A. T.; Sullivan, M. L.; Gaughan, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-six steers (12 of each Angus, Charolais, and Brahman) with an initial BW of 318.5 ± 6.7 kg were used in a 130-day study. Two treatments were imposed: un-shaded and shaded (3 m2/animal; 90% solar block shade cloth). On day 1, steers were administered with rumen temperature boluses. Rumen temperatures ( T RUM) were obtained at 10 min intervals over the duration of the study to determine differences in T RUM between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle. Six feedlot pens (162 m2) were used with six steers (2/breed) per pen with three pens/treatment. Ambient dry bulb temperature ( T A; °C), relative humidity (RH; %), wind speed (WS; m/s) and direction, and solar radiation (SR; W/m2) were recorded at 10 min intervals. Rainfall (mm) was collected daily at 0900 h. From these data, black globe temperature (BGT; °C), temperature humidity index (THI), heat load index (HLI), and accumulated heat load (AHL) were calculated. Individual T RUM were converted to an hourly average and then mean hourly T RUM were converted to a mean within hour T RUM across the 130 days. Rumen temperatures were analyzed using an autoregressive repeated measures model. The model analyzed the effect of breed ( P treatment ( P = 0.3543), time of day (hour, h; P treatment ( P treatment × h ( P treatment × h ( P = 0.0029), pen within treatment ( P = 0.0195), and animal × breed × treatment within pen ( P = 0.1041). Furthermore, there were breed × treatment × hour differences in T RUM ( P = 0.0036), indicating that Bos indicus and Bos taurus regulate T RUM differently.

  7. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of clinical mastitis in three dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govignon-Gion, A; Dassonneville, R; Baloche, G; Ducrocq, V

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, a routine genetic evaluation on occurrence of clinical mastitis in three main dairy cattle breeds-- Montbéliarde (MO), Normande (NO) and Holstein (HO)--was implemented in France. Records were clinical mastitis events reported by farmers to milk recording technicians and the analyzed trait was the binary variable describing the occurrence of a mastitis case within the first 150 days of the first three lactations. Genetic parameters of clinical mastitis were estimated for the three breeds. Low heritability estimates were found: between 2% and 4% depending on the breed. Despite its low heritability, the trait exhibits genetic variation so efficient genetic improvement is possible. Genetic correlations with other traits were estimated, showing large correlations (often>0.50, in absolute value) between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS), longevity and some udder traits. Correlation with milk yield was moderate and unfavorable (ρ=0.26 to 0.30). High milking speed was genetically associated with less mastitis in MO (ρ=-0.14) but with more mastitis in HO (ρ=0.18). A two-step approach was implemented for routine evaluation: first, a univariate evaluation based on a linear animal model with permanent environment effect led to pre-adjusted records (defined as records corrected for all non-genetic effects) and associated weights. These data were then combined with similar pre-adjusted records for others traits in a multiple trait BLUP animal model. The combined breeding values for clinical mastitis obtained are the official (published) ones. Mastitis estimated breeding values (EBV) were then combined with SCSs EBV into an udder health index, which receives a weight of 14.5% to 18.5% in the French total merit index (ISU) of the three breeds. Interbull genetic correlations for mastitis occurrence were very high (ρ=0.94) with Nordic countries, where much stricter recording systems exist reflecting a satisfactory quality of phenotypes as reported by the

  8. Adaptation to climate change--exploring the potential of locally adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Irene

    2013-06-01

    The livestock sector and agriculture as a whole face unprecedented challenges to increase production while improving the environment. On the basis of a literature review, the paper first discusses challenges related to climate change, food security and other drivers of change in livestock production. On the basis of a recent discourse in ecology, a framework for assessing livestock species' and breeds' vulnerability to climate change is presented. The second part of the paper draws on an analysis of data on breed qualities obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization's Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) to explore the range of adaptation traits present in today's breed diversity. The analysis produced a first mapping of a range of ascribed adaptation traits of national breed populations. It allowed to explore what National Coordinators understand by 'locally adapted' and other terms that describe general adaptation, to better understand the habitat, fodder and temperature range of each species and to shed light on the environments in which targeted search for adaptation traits could focus.

  9. Strategies for implementing genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallén, S E; Lillehammer, M; Meuwissen, T H E

    2017-08-01

    Alternative genomic selection and traditional BLUP breeding schemes were compared for the genetic improvement of feed efficiency in simulated Norwegian Red dairy cattle populations. The change in genetic gain over time and achievable selection accuracy were studied for milk yield and residual feed intake, as a measure of feed efficiency. When including feed efficiency in genomic BLUP schemes, it was possible to achieve high selection accuracies for genomic selection, and all genomic BLUP schemes gave better genetic gain for feed efficiency than BLUP using a pedigree relationship matrix. However, introducing a second trait in the breeding goal caused a reduction in the genetic gain for milk yield. When using contracted test herds with genotyped and feed efficiency recorded cows as a reference population, adding an additional 4,000 new heifers per year to the reference population gave accuracies that were comparable to a male reference population that used progeny testing with 250 daughters per sire. When the test herd consisted of 500 or 1,000 cows, lower genetic gain was found than using progeny test records to update the reference population. It was concluded that to improve difficult to record traits, the use of contracted test herds that had additional recording (e.g., measurements required to calculate feed efficiency) is a viable option, possibly through international collaborations. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on the reproductive capacity of bulls of the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed

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    Radka Malinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sperm production of bulls from the autochthonous Rhodope Shorthorn cattle breed was studied. The breed is among the smallest in Europe, the average weight of the cows ranging from 200 to 250 kg, and of the bulls from 330 to 370 kg. It was found that during the first 6 months from the start of exploitation, at the age of the bulls from 18 to 24 months, AI bulls had high reproductive capacity. The ejaculate volume was 1,74±0,09 ml in average (LS, the percentage of motile spermatozoa was 74,3±3,48% and the concentration 1268±13,1 x 106/ml. It was established that the bull had a significant impact on the reproductive performance, but the individual differences in the main characteristics were not high – motility 71,8-77,0%, concentration – 1222-1324 х 106/ml. The season also had a significant effect on the percentage of motile spermatozoa. Within the period from January to June, the highest reproductive capacity of the bulls was observed from February to May and the lowest in June.

  11. Genome-Enabled Prediction of Breeding Values for Feedlot Average Daily Weight Gain in Nelore Cattle

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    Adriana L. Somavilla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nelore is the most economically important cattle breed in Brazil, and the use of genetically improved animals has contributed to increased beef production efficiency. The Brazilian beef feedlot industry has grown considerably in the last decade, so the selection of animals with higher growth rates on feedlot has become quite important. Genomic selection (GS could be used to reduce generation intervals and improve the rate of genetic gains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prediction of genomic-estimated breeding values (GEBV for average daily weight gain (ADG in 718 feedlot-finished Nelore steers. Analyses of three Bayesian model specifications [Bayesian GBLUP (BGBLUP, BayesA, and BayesCπ] were performed with four genotype panels [Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, TagSNPs, and GeneSeek High- and Low-density indicus (HDi and LDi, respectively]. Estimates of Pearson correlations, regression coefficients, and mean squared errors were used to assess accuracy and bias of predictions. Overall, the BayesCπ model resulted in less biased predictions. Accuracies ranged from 0.18 to 0.27, which are reasonable values given the heritability estimates (from 0.40 to 0.44 and sample size (568 animals in the training population. Furthermore, results from Bos taurus indicus panels were as informative as those from Illumina BovineHD, indicating that they could be used to implement GS at lower costs.

  12. A fine structure genetic analysis evaluating ecoregional adaptability of a Bos taurus breed (Hereford.

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    H D Blackburn

    Full Text Available Ecoregional differences contribute to genetic environmental interactions and impact animal performance. These differences may become more important under climate change scenarios. Utilizing genetic diversity within a species to address such problems has not been fully explored. In this study Hereford cattle were genotyped with 50K Bead Chip or 770K Bovine Bead Chip to test the existence of genetic structure in five U.S. ecoregions characterized by precipitation, temperature and humidity and designated: cool arid (CA, cool humid (CH, transition zone (TZ, warm arid (WA, and warm humid (WH. SNP data were analyzed in three sequential analyses. Broad genetic structure was evaluated with STRUCTURE, and ADMIXTURE software using 14,312 SNPs after passing quality control variables. The second analysis was performed using principal coordinate analysis with 66 Tag SNPs associated in the literature with various aspects of environmental stressors (e.g., heat tolerance or production (e.g., milk production. In the third analysis TreeSelect was used with the 66 SNPs to evaluate if ecoregional allelic frequencies deviated from a central frequency and by so doing are indicative of directional selection. The three analyses suggested subpopulation structures associated with ecoregions from where animals were derived. ADMIXTURE and PCA results illustrated the importance of temperature and humidity and confirm subpopulation assignments. Comparisons of allele frequencies with TreeSelect showed ecoregion differences, in particular the divergence between arid and humid regions. Patterns of genetic variability obtained by medium and high density SNP chips can be used to acclimatize a temperately derived breed to various ecoregions. As climate change becomes an important factor in cattle production, this study should be used as a proof of concept to review future breeding and conservation schemes aimed at adaptation to climatic events.

  13. Genetic divergence in cellular resistance to heat shock in cattle: differences between breeds developed in temperate versus hot climates in responses of preimplantation embryos, reproductive tract tissues and lymphocytes to increased culture temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Lopes, F F; Chase, C C; Al-Katanani, Y M; Krininger, C E; Rivera, R M; Tekin, S; Majewski, A C; Ocon, O M; Olson, T A; Hansen, P J

    2003-02-01

    The detrimental effects of heat stress on fertility in cattle are less pronounced in heat-tolerant breeds. Although these genetic differences reflect differences in thermoregulation, cells from heat-tolerant breeds are less adversely compromised by increased temperature (that is, heat shock) than cells from heat-sensitive breeds. Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that cells and tissues from two thermotolerant breeds (Brahman and Senepol) are better able to survive and function after exposure to increased temperature than cells and tissues from two thermosensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus). Exposure of embryos at>eight-cell stage at day 5 after insemination to heat shock of 41.0 degrees C for 6 h decreased development to the blastocyst stage and the number of cells per embryo. However, the deleterious effect of heat shock on blastocyst formation and the number of cells per embryo was less pronounced for Brahman than for Holstein and Angus breeds. Embryos from Senepol cows had very low development and it was not possible to determine heat shock effects in this breed. In contrast to the sensitivity of embryos to heat shock, there was no effect of a 41.0 degrees C heat shock on [(3)H]leucine incorporation into proteins secreted by oviductal or endometrial explants. Lymphocytes from Brahman and Senepol cows were more resistant to heat-induced apoptosis than lymphocytes from other breeds. Heat shock reduced lymphocyte glutathione content but the magnitude of the decrease was not affected by breed. In conclusion, embryos from Brahman cows are more resistant to heat shock than embryos from Holstein or Angus cows. Genetic differences are also present in thermotolerance for apoptosis response in lymphocytes, with Brahman and Senepol cattle being more resistant to heat shock than Angus and Holstein breeds. It is likely that the evolutionary forces that led to the Brahman and Senepol breeds being adapted to hot climates resulted in the selection of genes

  14. Genetic distinctiveness of the Herdwick sheep breed and two other locally adapted hill breeds of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus.

  15. Genetic Distinctiveness of the Herdwick Sheep Breed and Two Other Locally Adapted Hill Breeds of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Dianna; Carson, Amanda; Isaac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in locally adapted breeds of livestock as reservoirs of genetic diversity that may provide important fitness traits for future use in agriculture. In marginal areas, these animals contribute to food security and extract value from land unsuitable for other systems of farming. In England, close to 50% of the national sheep flock is farmed on grassland designated as disadvantaged areas for agricultural production. Many of these areas are in the uplands, where some native breeds of sheep continue to be commercially farmed only in highly localised geographical regions to which they are adapted. This study focuses on three of these breeds, selected for their adaptation to near identical environments and their geographical concentration in regions close to one another. Our objective has been to use retrotyping, microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms to explore the origins of the breeds and whether, despite their similar adaptations and proximity, they are genetically distinctive. We find the three breeds each have a surprisingly different pattern of retrovirus insertions into their genomes compared with one another and with other UK breeds. Uniquely, there is a high incidence of the R0 retrotype in the Herdwick population, characteristic of a primitive genome found previously in very few breeds worldwide and none in the UK mainland. The Herdwick and Rough Fells carry two rare retroviral insertion events, common only in Texels, suggesting sheep populations in the northern uplands have a historical association with the original pin-tail sheep of Texel Island. Microsatellite data and analyses of SNPs associated with RXFP2 (horn traits) and PRLR (reproductive performance traits) also distinguished the three breeds. Significantly, an SNP linked to TMEM154, a locus controlling susceptibility to infection by Maedi-Visna, indicated that all three native hill breeds have a lower than average risk of infection to the lentivirus. PMID

  16. Relationship between genetic polymorphism of κ-casein and quantitative milk yield traits in cattle breeds and crossbreds in Serbia

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    Đedović Radica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality and yield of milk, and therefore of dairy products as well, depends directly on their protein composition. Milk gene proteins represent structural locuses that are functionally associated with milk production. In cattle selection a special importance is attached to the variability of kappa casein (κ-CN as one of the four casein milk proteins. Genotypes of 21 Simmental breed cows, 20 crossbred cows obtained by crossing of Simmental and Red Holstein breed, and 25 cows of autochthonous Busha breed were determined for kappa casein by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR- RFLP of amplified DNA. The κ-CN genotype frequencies for Simmental breed were: 42.8; 47.6 and 9.6 % for AA, and BB genotype, for crossbreds: 75.0; 25.0 and 0.0% and for Busha individuals: 41.7; 50.0 and 8.3 %, respectively. Frequencies of A and B alleles, assessed on the basis of genotypic frequencies were 0.667 and 0.333 for Simmental breed, 0.875 and 0.125 for crossbreds and 0.667 and 0.333 for autochthonous Busha cattle breed, respectively. For confirming the phenotypic variability of milk yield in standard lactation, yield of milk fat and the content of milk fat per κ-CN genotypes within breeds observed the fixed model which included the breed effect, lactation in order and effect of κ-CN genotype (AA, and BB was used. The κ-CN genotype statistically significantly (p ≤0.05 influenced milk yield and highly significantly (p ≤0.01 milk fat yield, while the content of milk fat was not statistically significantly (p>0.05 influenced in examined animals.

  17. Recovery of native genetic background in admixed populations using haplotypes, phenotypes, and pedigree information--using Cika cattle as a case breed.

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    Mojca Simčič

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain unbiased estimates of the diversity parameters, the population history, and the degree of admixture in Cika cattle which represents the local admixed breeds at risk of extinction undergoing challenging conservation programs. Genetic analyses were performed on the genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP Illumina Bovine SNP50 array data of 76 Cika animals and 531 animals from 14 reference populations. To obtain unbiased estimates we used short haplotypes spanning four markers instead of single SNPs to avoid an ascertainment bias of the BovineSNP50 array. Genome-wide haplotypes combined with partial pedigree and type trait classification show the potential to improve identification of purebred animals with a low degree of admixture. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated unique genetic identity of Cika animals. Genetic distance matrix presented by rooted Neighbour-Net suggested long and broad phylogenetic connection between Cika and Pinzgauer. Unsupervised clustering performed by the admixture analysis and two-dimensional presentation of the genetic distances between individuals also suggest Cika is a distinct breed despite being similar in appearance to Pinzgauer. Animals identified as the most purebred could be used as a nucleus for a recovery of the native genetic background in the current admixed population. The results show that local well-adapted strains, which have never been intensively managed and differentiated into specific breeds, exhibit large haplotype diversity. They suggest a conservation and recovery approach that does not rely exclusively on the search for the original native genetic background but rather on the identification and removal of common introgressed haplotypes would be more powerful. Successful implementation of such an approach should be based on combining phenotype, pedigree, and genome-wide haplotype data of the breed of interest and a spectrum of reference breeds which

  18. Description and comparison of growth parameters in Chianina and Nelore cattle breeds

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    Carrijo Sônia Mara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight data from birth to 18 months of age of Nelore and Chianina, both meat-producing cattle breeds, were analyzed. Data were corrected for significant effects of environment and utilized to estimate genetic parameters through the non-linear von Bertalanffy model. Average values found for growth parameters in Nelore were: mature weight (A, 312.87 kg; integration constant (B, 0.49; maturity rate (k, 0.13; age at inflection point (T(I, 3.29 months; weight at inflection point (P(I, 92.70 kg, and maturity interval (1/k, 8.04 months. For the Chianina animals, the values were 751.38 kg, 0.59, 0.10, 6.64 months, 222.63 kg, and 10.98 months, respectively. Nelore animals exhibited higher maturity rate, smaller maturity intervals, reaching mature weights younger than Chianina animals, although lighter than these at maturity. Heritability estimates presented low values, mainly for mature weight (0.093 and 0.212, age at inflection point (0.062 and 0.202, weight at inflection point (0.093 and 0.212 and maturity interval (0.057 and 0.309 (for Nelore and Chianina, respectively. The parameters mature weight and weight at inflection point presented positive genetic correlations with weights at different ages and with similar trends, increasing as age increased, in both breeds. Considering the development period analyzed, from birth to 18 months of age, the parameter maturity rate and the weights at different ages showed genetic correlations which increased until the weight at 150 and 205 days in Nelore and Chianina, respectively, and decreased from these ages on, and the genetic correlations among the parameter maturity interval and the weights at different ages were negative. They decreased until the weights at 150 and 205 days, respectively, in Nelore and Chianina, and increased from these ages on.

  19. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Communod; Silvia Guida; Daniele Vigo; Valentino Beretti; Eleonora Munari; Carla Colombani; Paola Superchi; Alberto Sabbioni

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day ...

  20. Body weight and carcass dressing as affected by sex class, breed type, muscle thickness, age and provenance of Venezuelan cattle

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    Nelson Huerta-Leidnez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data sets of 439 fed males (bulls and steers (MALES and 155 fed cattle (bulls, steers and heifers (MIXED chosen by their good finish and cutting-out potential were used to study variation in body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW and carcass dressing (DRESSING according to muscle thickness score (MUSCLING, breed-type, region of provenance (PROVENANCE, sex class, and age by dentition. Correlations between the dependent variables and carcass conformation were analyzed. In MALES, MUSCLING and PROVENANCE affected DRESSING (P<0.05, 1.4% in favor of cattle with thicker MUSCLING, and 1.6% in favor of cattle originated from the Andean region versus their Mid-Western region counterparts. Sex class (in MIXED, and PROVENANCE (in MALES, affected both BW and CW (P<0.01. In MIXED, an age exceeding 36 months, raised the CW (P<0.05. In MALES, MUSCLING was associated (P<0.01 with carcass conformation (r=0.53 and DRESSING (r=0.18. In MIXED, sex class  breed-type interaction tended to affect DRESSING (P=0.055 with the Zebu type surpassing the Dairy type in DRESSING (64% vs. 54%, respectively while bulls and steers performed different in DRESSING, depending on breed-type (P<0.06.

  1. Applied Genomics in Cattle – Identification of the SLICK locus in tropically adapted cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 3 years, ARS scientists have been working to identify the underlying genetic variants responsible for a heat tolerance phenotype in cattle associated with the SLICK locus typically found in Senepol cattle. This presentation reviews the general field of applied genomics in cattle, and ...

  2. Endometrial cytology as an indicator of subclinical endometritis of dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds

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    Reátegui J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (% PMN-N as an indicator of endometritis sub clinic in dairy cattle Holstein Friesian and Jersey breeds, by the method of endometrial cytology. 94 dairy cows were sampled, and were grouped by genotypic characteristics as: Group 1: 47 Holstein Friesian cows; Group 2: 47 Jersey cows, both between 21 and 56 days postpartum. It were evaluated: age, body condition, lactation number, number of birth, date of birth and days in milk to obtain the sample data were evaluated with a test of homogeneity based on statistical Chi square (p 0.05 was found in any of the variables studied, the% PMN-N reached a range between 0.4% and 4.4%, with an average of 2.2% still below the values indicating the present investigation reports the% PMN-N by genetic group both as multiparous or primiparous cows showed no significant differences between them. It has be concluded that the overall frequency for SE in different genotype cows did show statistically significant differences (p>0.05, however the presence of PMN-N as an indicator of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows of different genotype with 2 and 4 lactations showed differences statistically significant (p<0.05.

  3. Evaluation of breeding strategies for polledness in dairy cattle using a newly developed simulation framework for quantitative and Mendelian traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheper, Carsten; Wensch-Dorendorf, Monika; Yin, Tong; Dressel, Holger; Swalve, Herrmann; König, Sven

    2016-06-29

    Intensified selection of polled individuals has recently gained importance in predominantly horned dairy cattle breeds as an alternative to routine dehorning. The status quo of the current polled breeding pool of genetically-closely related artificial insemination sires with lower breeding values for performance traits raises questions regarding the effects of intensified selection based on this founder pool. We developed a stochastic simulation framework that combines the stochastic simulation software QMSim and a self-designed R program named QUALsim that acts as an external extension. Two traits were simulated in a dairy cattle population for 25 generations: one quantitative (QMSim) and one qualitative trait with Mendelian inheritance (i.e. polledness, QUALsim). The assignment scheme for qualitative trait genotypes initiated realistic initial breeding situations regarding allele frequencies, true breeding values for the quantitative trait and genetic relatedness. Intensified selection for polled cattle was achieved using an approach that weights estimated breeding values in the animal best linear unbiased prediction model for the quantitative trait depending on genotypes or phenotypes for the polled trait with a user-defined weighting factor. Selection response for the polled trait was highest in the selection scheme based on genotypes. Selection based on phenotypes led to significantly lower allele frequencies for polled. The male selection path played a significantly greater role for a fast dissemination of polled alleles compared to female selection strategies. Fixation of the polled allele implies selection based on polled genotypes among males. In comparison to a base breeding scenario that does not take polledness into account, intensive selection for polled substantially reduced genetic gain for this quantitative trait after 25 generations. Reducing selection intensity for polled males while maintaining strong selection intensity among females

  4. Optimum allocation of conservation funds and choice of conservation programs for a set of African cattle breeds

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    Abdulai Awudu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although funds for livestock conservation are limited there is little known about the optimal allocation of conservation funds. A new algorithm was used to allocate Mio US$ 1, 2, 3, 5 or unlimited funds, discounted over 50 years, on 23 African cattle breeds conserved with four different possible conservation programs. Additionally, Mio US$ 1 was preferably allocated to breeds with special traits. The conceptional in situ conservation programs strongly involve breeders and give them part of the responsibility for the conservation of the breed. Therefore, the pure in situ conservation was more efficient than cryoconservation or combined in situ and cryoconservation. The average annual discounted conservation cost for a breed can be as low as US$ 1000 to US$ 4400 depending on the design of the conservation program and the economic situation of the country of conservation. The choice of the breeds and the optimal conservation program and the amount of money allocated to each breed depend on many factors such as the amount of funds available, the conservation potential of each breed, the effects of the conservation program as well as its cost. With Mio US$ 1, 64% of the present diversity could be maintained over 50 years, which is 13% more than would be maintained if no conservation measures were implemented. Special traits could be conserved with a rather small amount of the total funds. Diversity can not be conserved completely, not even with unlimited funds. A maximum of 92% of the present diversity could be conserved with Mio US$ 10, leaving 8% of the diversity to unpredictable happenings. The suggested algorithm proved to be useful for optimal allocation of conservation funds. It allocated the funds optimally among breeds by identifying the most suited conservation program for each breed, also accounting for differences in currency exchange rates between the different countries.

  5. Comparative digestibility of low-quality grass hay by two breeds of cattle differing in mature live weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, A L; Dias-da-Silva, A; Santos, A S; Rodrigues, M A M; Cone, J W; Ferreira, L M M

    2014-06-01

    The digestive capacity of the Portuguese native breed of Barrosão cattle and the Holstein-Friesian breed was measured when fed meadow hay (72-74 g CP and 641-671 g NDF/kg dry matter), offered either alone or supplemented with soya bean meal (150 g/kg dry matter), at maintenance level. Four mature cows of each breed were used. Average initial live weight (LW) was 457 and 635 kg for the Barrosão and the Holstein-Friesian cows respectively. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) of the meadow hay was higher in Holstein-Friesian than in Barrosão cows (p 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest a higher ability to digest fibre in the large dairy breed than in the small native breed. This suggestion is also supported by previous findings with sheep breeds largely differing in mature live weight. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Preliminary study of the influence of red blood cells size on the determinism of the breed in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes.

  7. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Adili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim’Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19 and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10, whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21. This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes.

  8. Preliminary Study of the Influence of Red Blood Cells Size on the Determinism of the Breed in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adili, Nezar; Melizi, Mohamed; Belabbas, Hadj; Achouri, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on five cattle groups, local, cross, Prim'Holstein, Montbeliard, and Brown of the Alps, in order to study the influence of breed on erythrocytes diameter. For each breed, blood samples were taken from 15 adult females by jugular venipuncture; blood smears were made on slides immediately after the blood collection and stained according to the method of May-Gründwald Giemsa. Morphometric study was realized using the OPTIKA Pro Vision software. The statistical analysis was assessed by using the descriptive boxplots test and ANOVA. The size of red blood cells is greater in the imported Brown of the Alps breed (5,32 ± 0,19) and also in our local breed (5,23 ± 0,10), whereas they were smaller in the Montbeliard breed (4,79 ± 0,21). This investigation allowed us to show that from a drop of blood we can have an idea of the bovine breeds, taking into account the size of the erythrocytes. PMID:24660089

  9. An interpretive review of selective sweep studies in Bos taurus cattle populations: identification of unique and shared selection signals across breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, Beatriz; Arranz, Juan J.; Wiener, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles the results of 21 genomic studies of European Bos taurus breeds and thus provides a general picture of the selection signatures in taurine cattle identified by genome-wide selection-mapping scans. By performing a comprehensive summary of the results reported in the literature, we compiled a list of 1049 selection sweeps described across 37 cattle breeds (17 beef breeds, 14 dairy breeds, and 6 dual-purpose breeds), and four different beef-vs.-dairy comparisons, which we subsequently grouped into core selective sweep (CSS) regions, defined as consecutive signals within 1 Mb of each other. We defined a total of 409 CSSs across the 29 bovine autosomes, 232 (57%) of which were associated with a single-breed (Single-breed CSSs), 134 CSSs (33%) were associated with a limited number of breeds (Two-to-Four-breed CSSs) and 39 CSSs (9%) were associated with five or more breeds (Multi-breed CSSs). For each CSS, we performed a candidate gene survey that identified 291 genes within the CSS intervals (from the total list of 5183 BioMart-extracted genes) linked to dairy and meat production, stature, and coat color traits. A complementary functional enrichment analysis of the CSS positional candidates highlighted other genes related to pathways underlying behavior, immune response, and reproductive traits. The Single-breed CSSs revealed an over-representation of genes related to dairy and beef production, this was further supported by over-representation of production-related pathway terms in these regions based on a functional enrichment analysis. Overall, this review provides a comparative map of the selection sweeps reported in European cattle breeds and presents for the first time a characterization of the selection sweeps that are found in individual breeds. Based on their uniqueness, these breed-specific signals could be considered as “divergence signals,” which may be useful in characterizing and protecting livestock genetic diversity. PMID:26029239

  10. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred cattle: postweaning gain and feed efficiency when finished in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G; Olson, T A

    2012-06-01

    Beef cows in the subtropical USA must be adapted to the stressors of the environment, typically supplied by using Brahman (Br) breeding. Calves produced in the region, however, are usually grown and finished in more temperate regions, and have a perceived reputation for poor ADG and feed efficiency during finishing. Compromised fertility and carcass quality often associated with the Br have increased interest in tropically adapted Bos taurus breed types. The objective of this study was to evaluate 3 breeds [An = Angus (Bos taurus, temperate); Br (B. indicus, tropical); and Ro = Romosinuano (B. taurus, tropical)] and all possible crosses during various segments of post-weaning growth, and for feed efficiency during the finishing phase. Steer calves (n = 473) born over 3 yr were weaned in late September, backgrounded for at least 21 d (BKG), shipped 2,025 km to El Reno, OK, in October, fed a preconditioning diet for 28 d (RCV), grazed wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pasture from November to May (WHT), finished on a conventional feedlot diet (FIN), and serially harvested after approximately 95, 125, and 150 d on feed. Body weight and ADG during each segment were tested using a mixed model that included calf age at weaning, year (Y), breed of sire (SB), breed of dam (DB), and interactions. In addition, winter treatment (continuous wheat or reduced grazing of wheat with supplement) was included for the wheat and feedlot phases. Sire within SB × SB [and pen (barn × year) for feedlot phase] were considered random. The SB × DB interaction was significant for all traits (P residual feed intake. No heterosis was evident. These data show that in temperate zones, winter is the period when productivity of tropically adapted cattle is compromised.

  11. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Jay Huson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The slick hair coat (SLICK is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (Chr 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA, haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity, and identity by state (IBS calculations were used to identify a 0.8Mb (37.7-38.5Mb consensus region for the SLICK locus on Chr 20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principle component analysis and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus.

  12. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huson, Heather J; Kim, Eui-Soo; Godfrey, Robert W; Olson, Timothy A; McClure, Matthew C; Chase, Chad C; Rizzi, Rita; O'Brien, Ana M P; Van Tassell, Curt P; Garcia, José F; Sonstegard, Tad S

    2014-01-01

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. Previous studies localized the SLICK locus to a 4 cM region on chromosome (BTA) 20 and identified signatures of selection in this region derived from Senepol cattle. The current study compares three slick-haired Criollo-derived breeds including Senepol, Carora, and Romosinuano and three additional slick-haired cross-bred lineages to non-slick ancestral breeds. Genome-wide association (GWA), haplotype analysis, signatures of selection, runs of homozygosity (ROH), and identity by state (IBS) calculations were used to identify a 0.8 Mb (37.7-38.5 Mb) consensus region for the SLICK locus on BTA20 in which contains SKP2 and SPEF2 as possible candidate genes. Three specific haplotype patterns are identified in slick individuals, all with zero frequency in non-slick individuals. Admixture analysis identified common genetic patterns between the three slick breeds at the SLICK locus. Principal component analysis (PCA) and admixture results show Senepol and Romosinuano sharing a higher degree of genetic similarity to one another with a much lesser degree of similarity to Carora. Variation in GWA, haplotype analysis, and IBS calculations with accompanying population structure information supports potentially two mutations, one common to Senepol and Romosinuano and another in Carora, effecting genes contained within our refined location for the SLICK locus.

  13. Genomic inbreeding estimation in small populations: evaluation of runs of homozygosity in three local dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, S; Tolone, M; Di Gerlando, R; Fontanesi, L; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2016-05-01

    In the local breeds with small population size, one of the most important problems is the increase of inbreeding coefficient (F). High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. The availability of high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays has facilitated the quantification of F by genomic markers in farm animals. Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are contiguous lengths of homozygous genotypes and represent an estimate of the degree of autozygosity at genome-wide level. The current study aims to quantify the genomic F derived from ROH (F ROH) in three local dairy cattle breeds. F ROH values were compared with F estimated from the genomic relationship matrix (F GRM), based on the difference between observed v. expected number of homozygous genotypes (F HOM) and the genomic homozygosity of individual i (F MOL i ). The molecular coancestry coefficient (f MOL ij ) between individuals i and j was also estimated. Individuals of Cinisara (71), Modicana (72) and Reggiana (168) were genotyped with the 50K v2 Illumina BeadChip. Genotypes from 96 animals of Italian Holstein cattle breed were also included in the analysis. We used a definition of ROH as tracts of homozygous genotypes that were >4 Mb. Among breeds, 3661 ROH were identified. Modicana showed the highest mean number of ROH per individual and the highest value of F ROH, whereas Reggiana showed the lowest ones. Differences among breeds existed for the ROH lengths. The individuals of Italian Holstein showed high number of short ROH segments, related to ancient consanguinity. Similar results showed the Reggiana with some extreme animals with segments covering 400 Mb and more of genome. Modicana and Cinisara showed similar results between them with the total length of ROH characterized by the presence of large segments. High correlation was found between F HOM and F ROH ranged from 0.83 in Reggiana to 0.95 in Cinisara and Modicana. The correlations among F ROH and other

  14. Phylogenetic relationships among the European and American bison and seven cattle breeds recon structed using the Bovine SNP50 Illumina Genotyping BeadChip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Wójcik, Jan M; Kawalko, Agata

    2010-01-01

    and wood bison. A linkage disequi librium based program (LDNE) was used to estimate the effective population size (Ne) for the cattle breeds; Ne was generally low, relative to the census size of the breeds (cattle breeds: mean Ne = 299.5, min Ne = 18.1, max Ne = 755.0). BOTTLENECK 1.2 de tected signs...... to have sur vived se vere bottlenecks, which has likely had large effects on genetic diversity within and differentiation among groups....... bison Bi on bison athabascae (WB) and seven (PB), the wood bison (WB) and seven cattle Bostaurus breeds. Our aims were to (1) reconstruct their evolutionary relationships, (2) detect any genetic signature of past bottlenecks and to quantify the con sequences of bottle necks on the genetic distances...

  15. Principles and practicality of organic dairy cattle breeding: different options and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Nauta, MSc W.J.; Roep, Dr. D.

    2008-01-01

    As yet there is no set of generally acknowledged rules for organic animal breeding. Most organic farmers depend on conventional breeding programmes, which conflict with organic principles. Do we need a separate, distinct organic breeding system? And how can we support the development of organic breeding? These questions were explored in a PhD study. In general organic farmers and other interest groups express the need for a separate, fully organic breeding system, particularly in view of the ...

  16. Assisted reproductive techniques for cattle breeding in developing countries: a critical appraisal of their value and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization of animal biotechnologies, including those related to reproduction [also known as assisted reproductive techniques (ARTS)], is an increasing reality in developing countries, following the enormous flow of information around us and the increasing global commercial interests in areas where cattle production has its major assets. The present review discusses the achievements of various biotechnological tools for reproduction in cattle including semen handling for artificial insemination (AI), superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro handling of oocytes and production of embryos, reproductive cloning and emerging technologies (sex selection, gene targeting and nuclear transfer for livestock transgenesis, genomics for marker-assisted selection, etc.). The application of these technologies for cattle breeding is critically discussed in relation to their impact in the improvement of the efficiency of dairy and beef production in developed and - particularly - in developing countries, which ultimately rule the possibilities of a competitive and sound production of food for human consumption. Despite the remarkable progress made and the punctual importance of some of the above-mentioned technologies, AI remains the most important assisted reproductive technology (ART) in developing countries. Any attempt to gain widespread of any other ART under the predominant economical conditions in developing countries ought to match the simplicity and the success of AI as a breeding tool. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Studies of adaptive traits of Bali cattle in Buleleng district, Bali and Barru district, South Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritonang, S. B.; Yuniati, R.; Abinawanto, Imron, M.; Bowolaksono, A.

    2017-05-01

    Bali cattle have high adaptability, so the distribution area is spread across Indonesia. These studies aimed to determine the effect of environmental factors on physiology performance of Bali cattle in Buleleng district and Barru district. Skin and rectal temperature and respiration rate within a minute were measured in cattle across 5-days. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light intensity were measured as environmental factors. Our findings suggest that environmental factors between the two districts were different (pBPM, whereas in Barru it was 22-28 BPM. Our results indicate that the changes in environmental conditions affect changes in the cattle physiology profile in each district. Thus, Bali cattle have adaptability towards a variety of environmental conditions.

  18. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  19. Characterizing emergence and divergence in the first follicular wave in a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles Tortorella, Rodrigo; Nogueira, Guilherme de Paula; Modesto, Mairon Rocha; Passoni Silva, Priscilla Cristine; da Silva, Joseane Padilha; Neves, Jairo Pereira; Ramos, Alexandre Floriani

    2017-01-15

    Tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds are descended from the cattle which were brought from the Iberian Peninsula to Latin America by the colonizers and which adapted over time to local conditions. These breeds have become a genetic treasure that must be preserved. The objective of this study was to characterize ovarian follicular emergence and divergence in tropically adapted B. taurus cows and heifers. Cyclic heifers (n = 11) and nonlactating, multiparous cows (n = 11) were examined at 8-hour intervals using ultrasonography starting on the day following the final application of PGF2α, which was used to synchronize the estrous cycle, and ending 5 days after ovulation. Blood samples were collected immediately following the ultrasonographic examinations in order to evaluate FSH and estradiol-17β (E2) concentrations. The interval between ovulation and follicular wave emergence (11.6 ± 3.3 hours vs. 20.3 ± 2.5 hours, P  0.05). The mean number of small (≤4 mm, 7.2 ± 5.1) and medium (4 to ≤ 8 mm, 6.8 ± 3.5) follicles was greater than that of large follicles (≥8 mm, 0.6 ± 0.5) from ovulation until 5 days after ovulation. The DF diameter (8.1 ± 1 mm) did not differ (P = 0.09) from SF diameter (7.6 ± 0.9 mm) at the time of follicular divergence (around 45 hours after follicular emergence). The DF and SF growth rates were similar (P > 0.05) until follicular divergence, at which point the SF growth rate decreased, whereas the DF growth rate remained constant. Serum E2 concentrations did not change (P > 0.05) during the divergence period, whereas FSH concentrations decreased between 48 and 32 hours before follicular wave divergence. In conclusion, cows and heifers differed only in the interval from ovulation to follicular wave emergence and divergence, which was confirmed by the different patterns of FSH and E2 concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Bilgen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR. In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB, East Anatolian Red (EAR, South Anatolian Red (SAR, Turkish Grey (TG, and Holstein (HOL cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.

  1. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  2. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    The distribution of erythrocyte potassium and sodium concentrations was studied in Sayaguesa (n = 150), Brown Swiss (n = 163) and two populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle (n = 141 and 141 respectively). No polymorphism was detected for red-cell cation content in any of the breeds investigated. Mean values of potassium concentrations varied between 21.42 and 24.92 mmol/l red cells, those of sodium contents ranging from 77.50-93.44 mmol/1. The cattle studied can thus be considered as belonging to the 'low potassium' (LK) type. Significant differences were found both in potassium and sodium concentrations between one of the populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica and the other groups examined. Mean values of sodium levels in Brown Swiss were also significantly different from the other groups. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumblutspiegelwerten in Erythrozyten einiger Rinderrassen Die Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumkonzentrationen in Erythrozyten wurde in vier Gruppen untersucht: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Braunvieh (n = 163) und zwei Gruppen von Avileña-Negra Ibérica Rindern (n = 141). In keiner der untersuchten Gruppen wurde Polymorphismus für den Cationenspiegel gefunden. Mittelwerte für Kaliumkonzentration schwankten zwischen 21,4 und 24,9 mmol/l roter Zellen, die für Natriumgehalt zwischen 77,5 und 93,4 mmol/1. Die Rinder könnten daher als 'niedrigere Kalium' Type bezeichnet werden. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden sowohl für den Kalium-als auch für der Natriumspiegel zwischen den beiden Avileña-Negra Ibérica Gruppen gefunden. Die Mittelwerte für Natriumspiegel in Braunvieh waren ebenfalls significant unterscniedlich im Vergleich zu den anderen. RESUMEN: Distributión del potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en algunas razas de ganado vacuno Se estudió la distribución de las concentraciones de potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en cuatro grupos de ganado vacuno: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Pardo Alpina (n = 163) y dos poblaciones de Avile

  3. Perspectives of Using Ultra-Fine Metals as Universal Safe BioStimulators to Get Cattle Breeding Quality Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishchuk, S.

    2015-11-01

    We have conducted investigations of ultra-fine metals biological activity with lab non-pedigree white rats, rabbits breed “Soviet chinchilla” and cattle young stock of the black and white breed as the most widely spread in the central part of Russia. One can see the possibility of using microelements of ultra-fine iron, cobalt and copper as cheap, non-toxic and highly effective biological catalyst of biochemical processes in the organism that improve physiological state, morphological and biochemical blood parameters increasing activity of the experimental animals’ ferment systems and their productivity and meat biological value. We have proved the ultra-fine powders safety when adding them to the animals’ diet.

  4. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of Aceh cattle breed of Indonesia through mitochondrial D-Loop region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Meutia Sari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to find the basic data on genetic diversity of mtDNA D-Loop in Aceh cattle and its association with Bhutanese, Chinese, and Indian cattle. There were sixty samples of DNA which had been sequenced; i.e. Banda Aceh (11, Saree (20, and Indrapuri (29. To the best of our knowledge this is the first published data on the complete mitochondrial D-Loop sequence of Aceh cattle. Results show that Aceh cattle have the closest relationship to Bos indicus and have been influenced by Bos taurus. The closest genetic ranges among Aceh cattle, Bhutanese, Chinese, Indian and Zebu were Aceh–Zebu (0.0138, Aceh–Bhutanese (0.0156, Aceh–Chinese (0.0190 and Aceh–Indian (0.0193. D-Loop mtDNA analyses showed that there were 27 haplotypes in which twenty-one samples spread in haplotype 1, two samples were in haplotype 2, and the other four haplotypes had various samples in the range of three to seventeen samples. One sample of Aceh cattle from Saree has a closest maternal genetic with B. taurus. One of the four mutations among the star-shaped clusters on median joining network was a new specific haploid-group in Aceh cattle. From this finding it could be assumed that Aceh cattle form a specific haplotype and it can be conclude that Aceh cattle are animal genetic resources from Aceh in Sumatera Island that have to be preserved.

  6. Impact of Parental Bos taurus and Bos indicus Origins on Copy Number Variation in Traditional Chinese Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangzhi; Jia, Shangang; Plath, Martin; Huang, Yongzhen; Li, Congjun; Lei, Chuzhao; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Hong

    2015-08-10

    Copy number variation (CNV) is an important component of genomic structural variation and plays a role not only in evolutionary diversification but also in domestication. Chinese cattle were derived from Bos taurus and Bos indicus, and several breeds presumably are of hybrid origin, but the evolution of CNV regions (CNVRs) has not yet been examined in this context. Here, we of CNVRs, mtDNA D-loop sequence variation, and Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the impact of maternal and paternal B. taurus and B. indicus origins on the distribution of CNVRs in 24 Chinese domesticated bulls. We discovered 470 genome-wide CNVRs, only 72 of which were shared by all three Y-lineages (B. taurus: Y1, Y2; B. indicus: Y3), whereas 265 were shared by inferred taurine or indicine paternal lineages, and 228 when considering their maternal taurine or indicine origins. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered eight taurine/indicine hybrids, and principal component analysis on CNVs corroborated genomic exchange during hybridization. The distribution patterns of CNVRs tended to be lineage-specific, and correlation analysis revealed significant positive or negative co-occurrences of CNVRs across lineages. Our study suggests that CNVs in Chinese cattle partly result from selective breeding during domestication, but also from hybridization and introgression. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Performance and Adaptability of the Dorper Sheep Breed under Hungarian and Romanian Rearing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Budai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dorper (DO is a meat-specialized hair composite breed, intensively selected for growth rates, carcass quality, unselective grazing. The aim of the current comparative study was to evaluate the adaptability and performance of DO breed under Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions. DO breed was introduced into Hungary to Debrecen University in 2008. Under Hungarian rearing conditions the DO breed maintained its non-seasonal reproduction and reproductive precocity, with maiden ewes being put to ram starting the age of 9 months. Lamb crops of 2 weaned per year are common under proper management and feeding conditions. In Romania DO breed was introduced starting 2007, with the heard-book and genetic improvement plan of the breed being established in 2009. Under Romanian farming conditions the DO rams are usually used as terminal sires which are crossed with indigenous Turcana and Tsigai breeds, being preferred by the farmers to sire the crossbreds because of the high growth rates and non-selective grazing of the crossbreds. Fertility of DO ewes and survival rates of the DO sired lambs until weaning were not affected when compared to native Turcana breed. It was concluded that DO breed has adapted and performs extremely well under both Hungarian and Romanian rearing conditions.

  8. Growth hormone genotyping by MspI restriction enzyme and PCR-RFLP method in Aceh cattle breed at Indrapuri District, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDYA PINTAKA BAYU PUTRA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Putra WPB, Hartatik T, Sumadi. 2014. Growth hormone genotyping by MspI restriction enzyme and PCR-RFLP method in Aceh cattle breed at Indrapuri District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 15: 1-5. The objective of this research was to identify growth hormone (GH gene in Aceh cattle at Indrapuri’s Breeding and Forage Centre (IBFC of Aceh Cattle. Fourty one cattle consisting of 21 male and 20 female cattle were used in this study. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and sequencing method was used to detect MspI site on GH gene. Based on the sequencing, it can be concluded that all cattle were monomorphic. The frequency of TT genotype and T allele were 1.00 relatively. The transition of C (cytosine into T (thymine on 1549 position caused the lost of restriction site. The insertion of T and G (guanine on 1542 and 1552 position caused the length of GH gene were 329 bp in Aceh cattle.

  9. Model calculations concerning economic optimalization of AI-breeding with cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of costs on the optimum breeding plan for selection for milk traits and the profitability of performance-test selection according to meat production were studied, including the consequences of beef crossing. Returns from breeding schemes were calculated from the expression of

  10. Economic appraisal of the utilization of genetic markers in dairy cattle breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brascamp, E.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Groen, A.F.

    1993-01-01

    Returns from the utilization of genetic markers in breeding programs have been computed in two ways. In the first approach, returns accrue from additionally improved milk yield that was due to marker utilization in selection. In the second approach, changes in returns from semen sales for a breeding

  11. Reproductive and some peri-natal variables in a mixed breed beef cattle herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, R W; Gifford, D R

    1994-01-12

    Calving success (CS), days to calving (DC), birth weight (BW) and calving ease (CE) were studied in a mixed breed (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford and Simmental × Hereford) beef cattle herd. DC was not normally distributed and a number of transformations failed in normalising it. Repeatabilities were estimated by analysis of variance. Inclusion (or exclusion) of non calvers and the transformations studied had little effect on the repeatability of DC, which ranged from 0.10 to 0.12. The repeatabilities for CS, BW and CE were 0.08, 0.26 and 0.03, respectively. The residual correlations of CS with DC and functions of DC were high (-0.68 or greater), whereas the correlations among DC and functions of DC were close to one. The correlations of DC with BW and CE varied little with the transformation applied to DC, ranging from 0.26 to 0.28 and 0.10 to 0.12, respectively. The correlation between BW and CE was 0.06. The study points to a number of problems associated with the use of DC as a reproductive variable in beef cattle. It is concluded that although DC is currently a useful field reproductive variable, the search for appropriate female reproductive traits should continue. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Reproduktions- und Perinatal-Variable in einer gemischtrassigen Fleisch-Rinderherde Abkalbeerfolg (CS), Tage bis Abkalbung (DC), Geburtsgewicht (BW) und Kalbeleichtigkeit (CE) wurden in einer gemischtrassigen (Hereford, Jersey × Hereford und Simmental × Hereford) Mutterkuhherde untersucht. DC waren nicht normalverteilt und konnte auch durch eine Reihe von Transformationen nicht normalisiert werden. Wiederholbarkeiten wurden mit Varianzanalyse geschätzt. Berücksichtigung (oder Nichtberücksichtigung) von Nichtkalbungen und die Transformationen hatten wenig Wirkung auf Wiederholbarkeit von DC, die zwischen 0,10 und 0,12 war. Wiederholbarkeiten für CS, BW und CE waren 0,08, 0,26 und 0,03. Die Restkorrelation von CS mit DC und Funktionen von DC waren hoch (- 0,68 oder stärker), w

  12. Methods for estimation of daily and lactation milk yields from alternative milk recording scheme in Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Kuterovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare different statistical methods for the estimation of daily and 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields of Holstein and Simmental cattle breeds using an alternative milk recording scheme. Data included 6,824 individual test-day milk yield records collected according to the A4 milk recording method on 668 cows reared on 15 family farms. Daily milk, fat and protein yields were estimated using several statistical methods with regard to breed. The 305-day lactation yields were calculated from estimated daily yields using the Test Interval Method. The correlation between estimated and true yields, as well as the mean difference among estimated and true yield were used as the evaluation criteria for estimation methods. The linear regression of daily to partial milk, fat and protein yields while taking into account the interval between successive milkings was shown to be the most accurate model for estimating daily values, either from morning or evening records. The simple doubling of morning or evening records overestimated and underestimated the daily yields, respectively. When 305-day lactation milk, fat and protein yields were compared no difference between evaluated methods were found. Also, a separate estimation of daily and 305-day lactation yields according to breeds did not result in increased estimation accuracy.

  13. FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF PARASITIASIS CALVES TREATMENT ON CATTLE BREEDING OF SMALLHOLDER IN MAGELANG REGENCY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the financial feasibility of parasitiasis treatment for calves in the small holder breeding farm in Piji Subdistrict, Podosoko Village, Magelang Regency. Farmer was taken purposively, considering their objective of keeping cattle (breeding. Eight calves naturally infected gastrointestinal parasites were selected based on consideration of the uniformity of the age (4 months breeds of Limousin-PO (LimPO male 120-125 kg of body weight. They were divided into two groups, consisting of four calves for each group (Group I without treatment and Group II with improved health management. Farmers income was calculated based on the input and output data gathered from interview. The data were compared between Group I and II. Result showed that the value of additional revenue of the calves was IDR 4,230,000 and the selling price of one head of the treated antiparasitic calf was IDR 6,047,000. The calves net benefit in Group II was IDR 142,661/head/year, while group with improved health management (Group II achieved the net income of IDR 283,621/head/year.

  14. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, WeiZhen; Wang, YaChun; Zhang, Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation. Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized. Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered, i.e., traditional progeny testing breeding scheme (denoted as STANPT), GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information, MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family, GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology, COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT, and three non-progeny testing schemes, i.e. the MOET, GAMO and COMB schemes, corresponding to MOETPT, GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system. Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was estimated under an animal model framework. Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario. The influences of using QTL information and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency, true breeding values, polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated, for five different populations including active sires, lactating cows, bull dams, bull sires, and young bulls. The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed. The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant. The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes. The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year. The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL

  15. Single nucleotide variants and indels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose), Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production). A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer ge...

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of five cattle breeds native to China using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    QC) and Yanbian (YB) located at distinct geographical areas in China. Individual animals of each breed were chosen at random without consideration of the relationships among the animals. Genomic DNA was isolated using whole blood lysis ...

  17. Genomic evaluation, breed identification, and population structure of North American, English and Island Guernsey dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic evaluations of dairy cattle in the United States have been available for Brown Swiss, Holsteins, and Jerseys since 2009 and for Ayrshires since 2013. As of February 2015, 2,281 Guernsey bulls and cows had genotypes from collaboration between the United States, Canada, England, and the island...

  18. Genome-wide association study for longevity with whole-genome sequencing in 3 cattle breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sahana, Goutam

    2016-01-01

    Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy production. Improvements in longevity could increase the average number of lactations per cow, thereby affecting the profitability of the dairy cattle industry. Improved longevity for cows reduces the replacement cost of stock and enables animals

  19. Haplotype Based Genome-Enabled Prediction of Traits Across Nordic Red Cattle Breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Rosa, G J M

    SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training. Predict......SNP markers have been widely explored in genome based prediction. This study explored the use of haplotype blocks (haploblocks) to predict five milk production traits (fertility, mastitis, protein, fat and milk yield), using a mix of Nordic Red cattle as reference population for training....... Predictions were performed under a Bayesian approach comparing a GBLUP and a mixture model. In general, predictions were more reliable when using haploblocks instead of individual SNPs as predictors. The Danish Red cattle presented the largest benefit in predictive ability from haploblocks, achieving 5.......1% higher reliability than with the individual SNP approach in mastitis. This work gives evidence that predictions using haploblocks along with a combined training population of dairy cattle, may improve prediction accuracy of important traits in the individual populations....

  20. Derivation of sustainable breeding goals for dairy cattle using selection index theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, H.M.; Christensen, L.G.; Groen, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to present 2 methods for the derivation of nonmarket values for functional traits in dairy cattle using deterministic simulation and selection index theory. A nonmarket value can be a value representing animal welfare and societal influences for animal production, which can be

  1. Genomic analysis of lactation persistency in four breeds of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine gains in reliability from the addition of genomic information to genetic evaluations for best predictions of lactation persistency in US Ayrshire (AY), Brown Swiss (BS), Holstein (HO), and Jersey (JE) cattle, and to identify genomic regions with large e...

  2. Behavioural linear standardized scoring system of the Lidia cattle breed by testing in herd: estimation of genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, R; Solé, M; Sánchez, M J; Molina, A; Valera, M

    2016-10-01

    Docility is very important for cattle production, and many behavioural tests to measure this trait have been developed. However, very few objective behavioural tests to measure the opposite approach 'aggressive behaviour' have been described. Therefore, the aim of this work was to validate in the Lidia cattle breed a behavioural linear standardized scoring system that measure the aggressiveness and enable genetic analysis of behavioural traits expressing fearless and fighting ability. Reproducibility and repeatability measures were calculated for the 12 linear traits of this scoring system to assess its accuracy, and ranged from 85.3 and 94.2%, and from 66.7 to 97.9%, respectively. Genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model with a Bayesian approach. A total of 1202 behavioural records were used. The pedigree matrix contained 5001 individuals. Heritability values (with standard deviations) ranged between 0.13 (0.04) (Falls of the bull) and 0.41 (0.08) (Speed of approach to horse). Genetic correlations varied from 0.01 (0.07) to 0.90 (0.13). Finally, an exploratory factor analysis using the genetic correlation matrix was calculated. Three main factors were retained to describe the traditional genetic indexes aggressiveness, strength and mobility. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  4. Refining QTL with high-density SNP genotyping and whole genome sequence in three cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    method. Principal components were used to account for population structure. The QTL segregating in all three breeds were selected and a few of the most significant ones were followed in further analyses. The polymorphisms in the identified QTL regions were imputed using 90 whole genome sequences......Genome-wide association study was carried out in Nordic Holsteins, Nordic Red and Jersey breeds for functional traits using BovineHD Genotyping BreadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA). The association analyses were carried out using both linear mixed model approach and a Bayesian variable selection...

  5. Parentage testing and effect of misidentification on the estimation of breeding value in Gir cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E. Baron

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A correct relationship among sires is essential for an efficient breeding program. Microsatellite markers were used in progeny tests, to assess the paternity of seventy-four probable offspring of nine Gir dairy sires. A 36% misidentification rate was observed; however, these errors had minimal effects on the ranking of the nine bulls with regard to their genetic values. The results suggest that paternity tests should be performed in breeding programs, in order to prevent inappropriate paternities from influencing the genetic value of bulls in the future.

  6. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5 and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3 on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (pG of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05. The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP15 in CAPN1 could be

  7. Comparison of Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM Proteins of Chianina and Holstein Cattle Breed Milk Samples Through Proteomics Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Pariset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of proteins involved in milk production is important to understand the biology of lactation. Many studies have advanced the understanding of mammary function and milk secretion, but the critical molecular mechanisms implicated in milk fat secretion is still incomplete. Milk Fat Globules are secreted from the apical surface of the mammary cells, surrounded by a thin membrane bilayer, the Milk Fat Globule Membrane (MFGM, formed by proteins which have been suggested to be cholesterolemia-lowering factors, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders, bactericidal, suppressors of multiple sclerosis. Using a proteomic approach, we compared MFGM from milk samples of individuals belonging to two different cattle breeds, Chianina and Holstein, representative of selection for milk and meat traits, respectively. We were able to isolate some of the major MFGM proteins in the examined samples and to identify differences between the protein fractions of the two breeds. We detected differences in the amount of proteins linked to mammary gland development and lipid droplets formation, as well as host defence mechanisms. We have shown that proteomics is a suitable, unbiased method for the study of milk fractions proteins and a powerful tool in nutritional genomics.

  8. Phenotypic characteristics and trypanosome prevalence of Mursi cattle breed in the Bodi and Mursi districts of South Omo Zone, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Endashaw; Haile, Aynalem; Mulatu, Wudyalew; Dessie, Tadelle; Mwai, Okeyo

    2015-03-01

    The study was conducted to characterize the morphological features of Mursi cattle breed and to identify the species of trypanosome infecting the cattle and its prevalence in these traditionally managed cattle in the Bodi and Mursi pastoral communities. Cattle body description and measurements were made on 201 matured animals. Blood samples were collected from 409 animals into heparin-treated capillary tubes and were centrifuged to 12,000 rpm for 5 min to identify trypanosome species from the wet smeared buffy coat and to estimate the degree of anemia (PCV). Tsetse flies were collected using phenol-treated biconical trap and the caught flies identified to species level. The breed possesses variable coat color pattern, coat color type, and have small to medium hump size on the thoracic vertebrae. Body measurement of Mursi cattle in the two locations did not show significant differences except chest girth, rump width, and horn length. Trypanosome prevalence in the Mursi cattle breed was 6.1%. The highest trypanosome infection was caused by Trypanosoma congolense (56%) followed by Trypanosoma vivax (40%) and Trypanosoma brucei (4%). Trypanosome prevalence significantly varies between dry (2.0%) and late rainy (10.1%) seasons (P < 0.001) and between lean (11.9%) and medium (2.4%) body condition score (P < 0.01). The PCV value was 22.1 ± 0.5%, which is significantly varied with season (P < 0.01) and parasitism (P < 0.001). Parasitaemic cattle show the lowest PCV value (20.4 ± 1%) than aparasitaemic (23.7 ± 0.3%) cattle and cattle with lean BCS showed the lowest (P < 0.0001) PCV value (20.4 ± 0.6%). Tsetse fly species identified in the study area were Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans, and Glossina fuscipes. The number of flies captured in late rainy season was higher than in dry season (P < 0.01). Despite the existence of trypanosome and high tsetse fly infestation in the areas, large proportion of the Mursi

  9. Milk Yield and Quality of Holstein and Jersey Breeds of Cattle in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Friesian cows were used to evaluate the effects of breed, month of lactation and milking time on the milk yield and quality of commercial dairy cows under the tropical climate of Nigeria. Mean milk yield and milk protein were significantly higher ...

  10. Milk yield and quality of Aosta cattle breeds in Alpine pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bianchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine breeding systems are an example of sustainable integration between land management and productive processes; the inherent forage exploitation has characterized and modified landscape and environment. Moreover, alpine pasture has increased its importance for the multifunctional features attributed in the recent years to mountain productive activities (Agabriel et al., 2001.

  11. Productivity of Indigenous and Exotic Cattle on Kenya Ranches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison of productivity and adaptability of indigenous (Boran and Small East African Zebu) and the exotic (Sahiwal and Ayrshire) cattle on Kenyan ranches located in semi-arid areas of the Rift Valley Provinces was done. Data sets of the cattle breeds over the 1979-1993 period on Deloraine, Elkarama, Ilkerin, ...

  12. ASAS centennial paper: Contributions in the Journal of Animal Science to the development of protocols for breeding management of cattle through synchronization of estrus and ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, J W

    2009-02-01

    American Society of Animal Science members, publishing in Journal of Animal Science (JAS), completed research that resulted in understanding the estrous cycle of cattle, which led to the ability to inseminate cattle on a given day with pregnancy rates similar to those achieved by 21-d breeding by a fertile and sound bull. Research published in JAS led to understanding estrus, ovulation, the estrous cycle, and postpartum interval for cattle (1930s through 1960s) and hormonal factors affecting corpus luteum lifespan of cattle (1950s through 1980s). Research during the 1940s to 1960s, using gonadotropins and progesterone to manage the estrous cycle of cattle, established the concepts for estrous synchronization and stimulated commercial research directed at developing cost-effective progestogen estrous synchronization products, leading to commercially available products from 1967 through today (Repromix, melengestrol acetate, Syncro-Mate-B, controlled internal drug release). Prostaglandin F(2alpha) products were approved for estrous synchronization (1970s, 1980s), and GnRH products were approved for use in cattle to treat ovarian follicular cysts (1970s, 1980s). Research published in JAS was essential for understanding the biology of and potential value of both PGF(2alpha) and GnRH and contributed both to new knowledge and scientific bases for future Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine approval of those products. Research during the1980s through 2000s led to understanding ovarian follicular waves and described the timing of follicular recruitment, selection, dominance, and atresia; this research was essential for the ability to effectively manage follicles to achieve success with timed AI. The knowledge gained through research published in JAS resulted in development of the numerous estrous synchronization and breeding management protocols that are cost-effective and meet the breeding management needs of most beef and dairy enterprises.

  13. Fine Mapping QTL for mastitis resistance on BTA9 in three Nordic red cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, G; Lund, M S; Andersson-Eklund, L

    2008-01-01

    A QTL affecting clinical mastitis and/or somatic cell score (SCS) has been reported previously on chromosome 9 from studies in 16 families from the Swedish Red and White (SRB), Finnish Ayrshire (FA) and Danish Red (DR) breeds. In order to refine the QTL location, 67 markers were genotyped over...... mastitis to be mapped to a small interval (BM4208 and INRA084. This QTL showed a pleiotropic effect on SCS in the DR and SRB breeds. Haplotypes associated with variations in mastitis resistance were identified. The haplotypes were predictive in the general population and can be used in marker......-assisted selection. Pleiotropic effects of the mastitis QTL were studied for three milk production traits and eight udder conformation traits. This QTL was also associated with yield traits in DR but not in FA or SRB. No QTL were found for udder conformation traits on chromosome 9...

  14. Adapting spring wheat breeding to the needs of the organic sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, A.M.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Struik, P.C.; Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.

    2016-01-01

    Organic farmers and food processors need plant varieties that are adapted to their crop husbandry and processing practices. Such varieties are scarce as the mainstream breeding sector focuses on developing varieties for the conventional product chain that has different goals and practices. In

  15. Georeferenced evaluation of genetic breeding value patterns in Brazilian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, N S; Hermuche, P; Cobuci, J A; Paiva, S R; Guimaraes, R F; Carvalho, O A; Gomes, R A T; Costa, C N; McManus, C M

    2014-11-27

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between environmental and genetic values for milk production and type traits in Holstein cattle in Brazil. The genetic value of 65,383 animals for milk production and 53,626 for type classification were available. Socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the National Institute of Meteorology. Five to six clusters were generated for each of the groups of type traits and production levels. The relationships between these traits were assessed using the STEPDISC, DISCRIM and CANDISC procedures in SAS(®). Traits within the clusters behaved differently, but, in general, animals with lower genetic values were found in environments that were more stressful for animal production. These differences were mainly associated with temperature, humidity, precipitation and the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index. Genetic values for milk production showed best discrimination between different environments, while type traits showed poor discrimination, possibly because farmers mainly select for milk production. Environmental variations for genetic values in dairy cattle in Brazil should be further examined.

  16. Polymorphisms in the Prion Protein Gene of cattle breeds from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Sanches

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: One of the alterations that occur in the PRNP gene in bovines is the insertion/deletion (indel of base sequences in specific regions, such as indels of 12-base pairs (bp in intron 1 and of 23- bp in the promoter region. The deletion allele of 23 bp is associated with susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE as well as the presence of the deletion allele of 12 bp. In the present study, the variability of nucleotides in the promoter region and intron 1 of the PRNP gene was genotyped for the Angus, Canchim, Nellore and Simmental bovine breeds to identify the genotype profiles of resistance and/or susceptibility to BSE in each animal. Genomic DNA was extracted for amplification of the target regions of the PRNP gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR and specific primers. The PCR products were submitted to electrophoresis in agarose gel 3% and sequencing for genotyping. With the exception of the Angus breed, most breeds exhibited a higher frequency of deletion alleles for 12 bp and 23 bp in comparison to their respective insertion alleles for both regions. These results represent an important contribution to understanding the formation process of the Brazilian herd in relation to bovine PRNP gene polymorphisms.

  17. PCR diagnosis of tick-borne pathogens in Maharashtra state, India indicates fitness cost associated with carrier infections is greater for crossbreed than native cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil W Kolte

    Full Text Available Tick-borne pathogens (TBP are responsible for significant economic losses to cattle production, globally. This is particularly true in countries like India where TBP constrain rearing of high yielding Bos taurus, as they show susceptibility to acute tick borne disease (TBD, most notably tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata. This has led to a programme of cross breeding Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian or Jersey with native Bos indicus (numerous breeds to generate cattle that are more resistant to disease. However, the cost to fitness of subclinical carrier infection in crossbreeds relative to native breeds is unknown, but could represent a significant hidden economic cost. In this study, a total of 1052 bovine blood samples, together with associated data on host type, sex and body score, were collected from apparently healthy animals in four different agro-climatic zones of Maharashtra state. Samples were screened by PCR for detection of five major TBPs: T. annulata, T. orientalis, B. bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma spp.. The results demonstrated that single and co-infection with TBP are common, and although differences in pathogen spp. prevalence across the climatic zones were detected, simplistic regression models predicted that host type, sex and location are all likely to impact on prevalence of TBP. In order to remove issues with autocorrelation between variables, a subset of the dataset was modelled to assess any impact of TBP infection on body score of crossbreed versus native breed cattle (breed type. The model showed significant association between infection with TBP (particularly apicomplexan parasites and poorer body condition for crossbreed animals. These findings indicate potential cost of TBP carrier infection on crossbreed productivity. Thus, there is a case for development of strategies for targeted breeding to combine productivity traits with disease resistance, or to prevent transmission of TBP in India for economic

  18. Genome-wide association study and ancestral origins of the slick-hair coat in tropically adapted cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted cattle that are from Criollo descent through Spanish colonization of cattle into the New World. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-t...

  19. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curves with the exception of curves from spring calving cows. Only 74.5% of lactations with an adjusted R2 >0.75 showed a standard curve, with low persistence (7.7%, high value of d at peak (103 d and peak production of 20.18 kg of milk. Moreover, 100 milk samples (40 to 220 d of lactation were submitted to a granulometric survey by laser scatter technique in order to evaluate the dimensions of fat globules; then milk fat was analyzed by gas chromatography, and desaturase indexes were determined. Cabannina cows showed small fat globules with high specific surface. Furthermore mean diameter of milk fat globules decreased during lactation then rose. Milk fat contained high levels of cis-MUFA, and high desaturase indexes. In conclusion, the low size of Cabannina cattle orients for a limited meat production. Instead milk production has a higher economic potential, aimed at cheese production and human nutrition.

  20. Selection for breed-specific growth hormone and IGF-I alleles in a synthetic beef cattle cross, Canchim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regitano L.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate selection effects on gene frequencies in a synthetic beef cattle cross (5/8 Charolais, 3/8 Zebu named Canchim. A sample of 154 Canchim animals, representing three generation classes, was analyzed for seven molecular markers. Thirty-six Charolais cattle were also studied for comparison. A highly significant variation (P < 0.01, with a linear increase of the allele coding for valine at position 127 of the growth hormone peptide, was observed through generations. This allele was found in the Charolais sample but is not observed in Brazilian Bos indicus breeds. Four alleles were found for a microsatellite in the 5' flanking region of insulin-like growth factor I gene in Canchim. Allele sizes ranged from 231 to 225 bp. There was a significant (P < 0.05 nonlinear increase in the 225-bp allele frequency. This allele was not observed in Charolais. Six alleles were observed for microsatellite CSFM50 in the Canchim population. A significant (P < 0.05 linear reduction of the 168-bp allele was observed over the generations. The hypothesis of preferential mating for growth hormone polymorphism was supported by Wright's F-statistics. Estimated FIS value for growth hormone was 0.59 (P < 0.01. These results suggest that selection influenced three out of seven loci analyzed. The simultaneous increases of a Bos taurus-specific growth hormone allele and a Bos indicus-specific insulin-like growth factor I allele indicate that phenotypic selection favored different regions of both genomes.

  1. Cluster analysis of breeding values for milk yield and lactation persistency in Guzerá cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Campos da Cruz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of genetic lactation curves of Guzerá cattle using cluster analysis. Test-day milk yields of 5,274 first-lactation Guzerá cows were recorded in a progeny test. A total of 34,193 monthly records were analyzed with a random regression animal model using Legendre polynomials to fit additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects and mean trends. Hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analyses were performed based on the EBVs for monthly test-day milk yield, peak yield, lactation persistency, and partial cumulative and 305-day yields. The heritability estimates for test-day milk yields ranged from 0.24 to 0.52. Cluster analysis identified animals in the population that belong to different groups according to milk production level and lactation persistency.

  2. Tag SNP selection for prediction of tick resistance in Brazilian Braford and Hereford cattle breeds using Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollero, Bruna P; Junqueira, Vinícius S; Gomes, Cláudia C G; Caetano, Alexandre R; Cardoso, Fernando F

    2017-06-15

    Cattle resistance to ticks is known to be under genetic control with a complex biological mechanism within and among breeds. Our aim was to identify genomic segments and tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with tick-resistance in Hereford and Braford cattle. The predictive performance of a very low-density tag SNP panel was estimated and compared with results obtained with a 50 K SNP dataset. BayesB (π = 0.99) was initially applied in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this complex trait by using deregressed estimated breeding values for tick counts and 41,045 SNP genotypes from 3455 animals raised in southern Brazil. To estimate the combined effect of a genomic region that is potentially associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL), 2519 non-overlapping 1-Mb windows that varied in SNP number were defined, with the top 48 windows including 914 SNPs and explaining more than 20% of the estimated genetic variance for tick resistance. Subsequently, the most informative SNPs were selected based on Bayesian parameters (model frequency and t-like statistics), linkage disequilibrium and minor allele frequency to propose a very low-density 58-SNP panel. Some of these tag SNPs mapped close to or within genes and pseudogenes that are functionally related to tick resistance. Prediction ability of this SNP panel was investigated by cross-validation using K-means and random clustering and a BayesA model to predict direct genomic values. Accuracies from these cross-validations were 0.27 ± 0.09 and 0.30 ± 0.09 for the K-means and random clustering groups, respectively, compared to respective values of 0.37 ± 0.08 and 0.43 ± 0.08 when using all 41,045 SNPs and BayesB with π = 0.99, or of 0.28 ± 0.07 and 0.40 ± 0.08 with π = 0.999. Bayesian GWAS model parameters can be used to select tag SNPs for a very low-density panel, which will include SNPs that are potentially linked to functional genes. It can be useful for cost

  3. Analysis of runs of homozygosity and their relationship with inbreeding in five cattle breeds farmed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, Gabriele; Gaspa, Giustino; Sorbolini, Silvia; Dimauro, Corrado; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Valentini, Alessio; Williams, John L; Macciotta, Nicolò P P

    2015-04-01

    Increased inbreeding is an inevitable consequence of selection in livestock populations. The analysis of high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) facilitates the identification of long and uninterrupted runs of homozygosity (ROH) that can be used to identify chromosomal regions that are identical by descent. In this work, the distribution of ROH of different lengths in five Italian cattle breeds is described. A total of 4095 bulls from five cattle breeds (2093 Italian Holstein, 749 Italian Brown, 364 Piedmontese, 410 Marchigiana and 479 Italian Simmental) were genotyped at 54K SNP loci. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH ), which were compared with inbreeding coefficients estimated from pedigree information (FPED ) and using the genomic relationship matrix (FGRM ). The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 54 ± 7.2 in Piedmontese to 94.6 ± 11.6 in Italian Brown. The highest number of short ROH (related to ancient consanguinity) was found in Piedmontese, followed by Simmental. The Italian Brown and Holstein had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. The FPED were moderately correlated with FROH > 1 Mb (0.662, 0.700 and 0.669 in Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively) but poorly correlated with FGRM (0.134, 0.128 and 0.448 for Italian Brown, Italian Holstein and Italian Simmental respectively). The inclusion of ROH > 8 Mb in the inbreeding calculation improved the correlation of FROH with FPED and FGRM . ROH are a direct measure of autozygosity at the DNA level and can overcome approximations and errors resulting from incomplete pedigree data. In populations with high linkage disequilibrium (LD) and recent inbreeding (e.g. Italian Holstein and Italian Brown), a medium-density marker panel, such as the one used here, may provide a good estimate of inbreeding. However, in populations with low LD and ancient

  4. Estimation of inbreeding using pedigree, 50k SNP chip genotypes and full sequence data in three cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Calus, Mario P L; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S; Sahana, Goutam

    2015-07-22

    Levels of inbreeding in cattle populations have increased in the past due to the use of a limited number of bulls for artificial insemination. High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. Various estimators based on different sources, e.g., pedigree or genomic data, have been used to estimate inbreeding coefficients in cattle populations. However, the comparative advantage of using full sequence data to assess inbreeding is unknown. We used pedigree and genomic data at different densities from 50k to full sequence variants to compare how different methods performed for the estimation of inbreeding levels in three different cattle breeds. Five different estimates for inbreeding were calculated and compared in this study: pedigree based inbreeding coefficient (F(PED)); run of homozygosity (ROH)-based inbreeding coefficients (F(ROH)); genomic relationship matrix (GRM)-based inbreeding coefficients (F(GRM)); inbreeding coefficients based on excess of homozygosity (F(HOM)) and correlation of uniting gametes (F(UNI)). Estimates using ROH provided the direct estimated levels of autozygosity in the current populations and are free effects of allele frequencies and incomplete pedigrees which may increase in inaccuracy in estimation of inbreeding. The highest correlations were observed between F(ROH) estimated from the full sequence variants and the F(ROH) estimated from 50k SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) genotypes. The estimator based on the correlation between uniting gametes (F(UNI)) using full genome sequences was also strongly correlated with F(ROH) detected from sequence data. Estimates based on ROH directly reflected levels of homozygosity and were not influenced by allele frequencies, unlike the three other estimates evaluated (F(GRM), F(HOM) and FU(NI)), which depended on estimated allele frequencies. F(PED) suffered from limited pedigree depth. Marker density affects ROH estimation. Detecting ROH based on 50k chip

  5. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (Peffect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. INTRA-VARIETAL CROSSING AS METHOD TO IMPROVE ADAPTATION CHARACTERISTICS IN INITIAL BREEDING ACCESSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kozlovskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The important goal of breeding program is to achieve the heterosis effect and develop the appropriate breeding lines to be used for crossing. The cultivation of the variety or breeding line for a long time and selection process under the same environmental factors lead to decrease of livability and productivity of the variety or breeding line. The intra-varietal and intra-line crossing is the method that enables to improve the genetic basis of the existing breeding accessions, when increasing the recombination ability, particular-ly among valuable and rare characteristics. The accessions of sweet pepper of different ecological origin: local varieties ‘Aeneas’, ‘Ivanhoe’ (Ukraine, ‘Sladkiy’ (Italy, breeding line ‘n 138d’ (Russia were taken to study the influence of intra-varietal crossing on recovery of combining ability in breeding lines. The progeny produced from intra-varietal crossing has been assessed for the fruit number, average fruit weight, yielding ability and marketability, and then consequently compared with control accession. As results showed the yielding ability had increased by 2.3-25.7%, depending on genotype, while the fruit weight had increased by 2-11%. Phenological observation showed that there is no significant difference at the phase of growing and development between control plants and plants produced through intra-varietal crossing. The detailed progeny assessment has revealed the different effect of adaptive ability among different plants when the plants crossing within the same accession. This enables to select the best accessions to be used in further heterosis breeding pro-gram.

  7. THE ADAPTABILITY OF SIMMENTALER CATTLE IN SOUTH AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparison bctw'ecn thc Simmentaler ll'om (iermany and thc Afrikaner. proved that both breeds in the environment to which they have. b e c t > m c a d a p t e d s h o u c d l ( ) $ \\ a l u c s 1 o r b o t h t h e g r o w t h a n d t h c a b r a s i o n o 1 ' t h e c l a r r ' h o r n . w h i l e a n i m a l s e x p o r t e d t o S o u t h a n d S o u t h ...

  8. Six Different Models for Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Breeding Values for Pre-weaning and Post-weaning Weights in Suckler Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ulutaş, Zafer

    2001-01-01

    Estimates of (co)variance components and breeding values for pre-weaning (100-day) and post-weaning (300-day) weights were obtained for a commercial herd of Welsh Black cattle recorded from 1976 to 1996. Estimates were obtained from six animal models ranging from a model with only an additive direct effect to a model that also included an additive maternal effect, a maternal permanent environmental effect and a covariance between additive direct and additive maternal effects. The most appropr...

  9. Mitogenomes from Egyptian Cattle Breeds: New Clues on the Origin of Haplogroup Q and the Early Spread of Bos taurus from the Near East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Anna; Gandini, Francesca; Achilli, Alessandro; Fichera, Alessandro; Rizzi, Ermanno; Bonfiglio, Silvia; Battaglia, Vincenza; Brandini, Stefania; De Gaetano, Anna; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Lancioni, Hovirag; Agha, Saif; Semino, Ornella; Ferretti, Luca; Torroni, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic studies support the scenario that Bos taurus domestication occurred in the Near East during the Neolithic transition about 10 thousand years (ky) ago, with the likely exception of a minor secondary event in Italy. However, despite the proven effectiveness of whole mitochondrial genome data in providing valuable information concerning the origin of taurine cattle, until now no population surveys have been carried out at the level of mitogenomes in local breeds from the Near East or surrounding areas. Egypt is in close geographic and cultural proximity to the Near East, in particular the Nile Delta region, and was one of the first neighboring areas to adopt the Neolithic package. Thus, a survey of mitogenome variation of autochthonous taurine breeds from the Nile Delta region might provide new insights on the early spread of cattle rearing outside the Near East. Methodology Using Illumina high-throughput sequencing we characterized the mitogenomes from two cattle breeds, Menofi (N = 17) and Domiaty (N = 14), from the Nile Delta region. Phylogenetic and Bayesian analyses were subsequently performed. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses of the 31 mitogenomes confirmed the prevalence of haplogroup T1, similar to most African cattle breeds, but showed also high frequencies for haplogroups T2, T3 and Q1, and an extremely high haplotype diversity, while Bayesian skyline plots pointed to a main episode of population growth ~12.5 ky ago. Comparisons of Nile Delta mitogenomes with those from other geographic areas revealed that (i) most Egyptian mtDNAs are probably direct local derivatives from the founder domestic herds which first arrived from the Near East and the extent of gene flow from and towards the Nile Delta region was limited after the initial founding event(s); (ii) haplogroup Q1 was among these founders, thus proving that it underwent domestication in the Near East together with the founders of the T clades. PMID:26513361

  10. Conservation priorities of genetic diversity in domesticated metapopulations: a study in taurine cattle breeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medugorac, Ivica; Veit-Kensch, Claudia E; Ramljak, Jelena; Brka, Muhamed; Marković, Božidarka; Stojanović, Srđan; Bytyqi, Hysen; Kochoski, Ljupche; Kume, Kristaq; Grünenfelder, Hans-Peter; Bennewitz, Jörn; Förster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    .... Because of the impact of neutral genetic diversity on long-term population adaptive capacity, we discuss the long-term outcome of different conservation priorities in a subdivided metapopulation...

  11. A first genotyping assay of French cattle breeds based on a new allele of the extension gene encoding the melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Raymond

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seven transmembrane domain melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r encoded by the coat color extension gene (E plays a key role in the signaling pathway of melanin synthesis. Upon the binding of agonist (melanocortin hormone, α-MSH or antagonist (Agouti protein ligands, the melanosomal synthesis of eumelanin and/or phaeomelanin pigments is stimulated or inhibited, respectively. Different alleles of the extension gene were cloned from unrelated animals belonging to French cattle breeds and sequenced. The wild type E allele was mainly present in Normande cattle, the dominant ED allele in animals with black color (i.e. Holstein, whereas the recessive e allele was identified in homozygous animals exhibiting a more or less strong red coat color (Blonde d'Aquitaine, Charolaise, Limousine and Salers. A new allele, named E1, was found in either homozygous (E1/E1 or heterozygous (E1/E individuals in Aubrac and Gasconne breeds. This allele displayed a 4 amino acid duplication (12 nucleotides located within the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor, a region known to interact with G proteins. A first genotyping assay of the main French cattle breeds is described based on these four extension alleles.

  12. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase intramuscular fat deposition and decrease subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Dong, Xianwen; Wang, Zhisheng; Zhou, Aiming; Peng, Quanhui; Zou, Huawei; Xue, Bai; Wang, Lizhi

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on intramuscular and subcutaneous fat deposition in Yellow Breed × Simmental cattle. The experiment was conducted for 60 days. The results showed that the average backfat thickness, (testicles + kidney + pelvic) fat percentage and subcutaneous fat percentage in dietary CLA were significantly lower than in the control group, while intramuscular the fat percentage was significantly higher. Compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in dietary CLA and the subcutaneous fat enzyme activities of LPL, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) were significantly increased. Similarly, compared to the control group, the Longissimus muscle sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), FAS, stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD), ACC, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), heart fatty-acid binding protein (H-FABP) and LPL gene expression in dietary CLA were significant increased, as were the subcutaneous fat of PPARγ, H-FABP, LPL, CPT-1 and HSL in dietary CLA. These results indicated that dietary CLA increases IMF deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipogenic gene expression, while decreasing subcutaneous fat deposition mainly by the up-regulation of lipolytic gene expression. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. USAGE OF PLASTIC LITTER MADE FROM SEPARATED SLURRY IN FARM ANIMAL BREEDINGS ESPECIALLY IN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŠOCH

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The observation was performed in two dairy cows´ herds of Holstein breeding stabled in brick buildings with loose box stabling system. The separated slurry was used as litter in one of the building, classical stabling regime with straw litter was used in the other one. The experiment ascertained a significant tendency to reduction of microorganisms and parasites quantity in separated slurry modified by biometric treatment through the method of managed composting process. There was quite a small quantity of microorganisms and parasites in samples taken from litter of separated slurry and only after three weeks a gradual proliferation of them began. From the viewpoint of the dairy cows´ state of health, the quantity and quality of their milk production, the cleanness of their body surface, the periods of their lying and other ascertained welfare parameters under given microclimatic conditions the application of separated slurry as plastic litter fully complied.

  14. Association between land cover and Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) breeding sites on four Danish cattle farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Biting midges of the genus Culicoides are vectors of bluetongue virus. Their larval habitats are poorly known in Northern Europe. Three classes of the CORINE land cover index, found within 300 in of four farms in Denmark, were used to stratify sampling sites for a total of 360 soil core samples...... from 30 sampling points. Soil samples were set up in emergence chambers for hatching adult Culicoides. Two species of Culicoides (C punctatus and C pulicaris) emerged from nine of 12 soil samples from a wet, grazed field with manure. Seventy-two other samples from similar land cover on the three other...... farms were negative. Seven sampling points from pastures were incorrectly classified by CORINE. The remaining 23 sampling points were classified correctly. The visually observed land use was not sufficiently detailed to adequately predict Culicoides breeding sites in this study. The CORINE index failed...

  15. Rooms for genetic improvement in Indonesian Bali cattle population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Nugroho, T.; Prastowo, S.

    2017-04-01

    Bali cattle is a species of Bos javanicus d’Alton, a local cattle in Indonesia. They are loaded with potential as meat producer and well adapted to tropical climate and limited feed resources. Studies have been made to characterize the species. This paper presents a rough estimate of the opportunity to improve the Bali cattle population genetically. Our aim is to endorse that the Bali cattle could be both superior and efficient as tropical meat producer cattle. Results shows that Bali cattle population size is decreasing for the last years with a possibility to be accompanied by genetic quality decline. However, there is hope in improving Bali cattle genetically by a proper breeding strategy. This could also be an answer to the challenge of climate change which leads to global warming; where species adaptable to such environment is more beneficial in the future.

  16. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and associated risk factors in intensive or semi-intensively managed dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, K; Regassa, F; Robertson, L J; Skjerve, E

    2013-03-31

    A cross-sectional study of Neospora caninum infection was conducted in major milksheds of Ethiopia. Cattle (n=2334) from 273 farms were bled and the sera screened for antibodies against N. caninum using a commercial ELISA kit. Herd and individual animal level data were collected from farm records and a semi-structured questionnaire format. The overall animal level seroprevalence was 13.3%, while the prevalence at farm level was 39.6%. In urban and peri-urban smallholder dairy farms, the seroprevalence was 14.9%, while 12.9% and 9.8% reactors were found among commercial dairy farms and breeding cattle, respectively. At farm level, 35.7% of urban and peri-urban farms, 47.5% of the commercial farms and five of the breeding farms were found to have at least one infected animal. Purchased cows (OR: 2.3) and cows with history of maternal reproductive disorders (OR: 2.1) were associated with seropositivity at the individual animal level. Crossbred cattle (Holstein-Friesian crossed with indigenous zebu) were associated with lower risk than pure breeds (OR: 0.6). A trend of prevalence increment was observed for large herd sizes (OR: 1.8). Other factors that were associated with seropositivity were: presence of farm dogs for more than 5 years (OR: 1.9), access to farm by wild carnivores (OR: 3.1) and compromised farm hygienic status (OR: 3.4). Abortion, retention of foetal membrane and metritis were the most frequently reported clinical reproductive disorders among seropositive cattle. Together, these finding indicate that N. caninum infection is highly prevalent, widely distributed and clinically important in dairy and breeding cattle of Ethiopia. N. caninum should be considered an important infectious cause of reproductive disorders in Ethiopian cattle, and the risk factors for exposure identified here should be used as basis for implementing control measures that could limit the transmission of this infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. ADAPTATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT OF RUSTIC ANIMAL BREEDS IN BANAT WITH CO-ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Luminita Matiuti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 19th and the 20th centuries, they developed in the Banat of Temeswar animalbreeds with economic performances comparable to those of other breeds in Europe.Traditionally, they also breed animal breeds and populations developed in Transylvania, amulti-cultural, multi-ethnic historical region that resembles the Banat of Temeswar verymuch from this point of view. Some of the rustic breeds from the Banat of Temeswar orfrom Transylvania are economically behind other specialised breeds. These rustic breedsare, in exchange, well adapted to the areas and they have genes that endow them withparticular disease-resistance. Reform of farm support policies in OECD countries is awelcome step which has led to a decline in the aggregate trade distortion coefficient from0.96 in 1986 to 0.74 in 2007. Climate change and increased biofuel production representmajor risks for long-term food security. Although countries in the Southern hemisphere arenot the main originators of climate change, they may suffer the greatest share of damage inthe form of declining yields and greater frequency of extreme weather events. Nowadays asustainable economy must become rural, based on Agrifood Biodiversity. Bioeconomy andEco-Economy scientifically applied to the rural economy, in the context of a sustainablerural development, the possibility exists to issue the following tentative terms forconsideration in the future: a. Bioeconomic sustainable development of the rural areas;b.Eco-Economic sustainable development of the agrifood production; c. Eco-Bioeconomicsustainable development of the agrifood green power.

  18. Cross-sectional estimation of Babesia bovis antibody prevalence in an area of Argentina used for extensive cattle breeding as an aid to control babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmone, A A; de Echaide, S T; Pérez y Santaella, M; Iglesias, J A; Vanzini, V R; Lugaresi, C I; Dellepiane, E L

    1997-05-01

    The prevalence of Babesia bovis antibodies was estimated by using an ELISA (98% sensitivity and 95% specificity). Sera were obtained from 165 calves (mean age and standard deviation: 9.7 +/- 2.7 months) from an area in Argentina known to be unfavourable for the development of the vector tick, Boophilus microplus. The area comprised about 300,000 ha used for cattle breeding. The cattle population of 55,000 included 12,000 cattle under 1 year of age. Cattle were maintained mainly on natural grasses in communal lands. The true prevalence of antibodies to Babesia bovis was 12.2% with a confidence interval of 7.6% to 18.2%, and an inoculation rate (h; daily probability of infection) of 0.0004. This confidence interval has its lower boundary in the area of endemic stability due to low h of Babesia bovis by the vector tick and the upper limit in the area of endemic instability. This type of analysis could help to decide the implementation of preventive measures (e.g. vaccination) rationally, even in remote areas (such as the one of the present study) with an extensive cattle industry.

  19. THE ADAPTABILITY OF SIMMENTALER CATTLE IN SOUTH AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    w h i l e a n i m a l s e x p o r t e d t o S o u t h a n d S o u t h W e s t. Alrica crhihitcd highe r r,i.rlues. Evaluation ol'the growth and abrasion of the clau'horn as well as the histological investigations indicated that adaptation ol thc Simmentaler in South and South West Africa is a continuous process, but is unlikely'that the level ...

  20. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance.

  1. Detection of Theileria annulata carriers in Holstein-Friesian (Bos taurus taurus) and Sistani (Bos taurus indicus) cattle breeds by polymerase chain reaction in Sistan region, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidiani, Hamidreza; Nabavi, Reza; Ganjali, Maryam; Saadati, Dariush

    2016-12-01

    Theileria annulata is common in tropical and subtropical regions especially in Iran and causes great economic losses in cattle industry. In Iran the epidemiological aspects of bovine theileriosis in different breeds of cattle is poorly understood. The aim of present study is comparison of the number of T. annulata carriers in the two major cattle breeds (Holstein-Friesian and Sistani) in Sistan of Iran by giemsa and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. During winter 2013, 160 native cattle, from the two major breeds in Sistan, with the mean age of more than one year and without typical clinical symptoms of theileriosis were selected. At first, a thin layer smear was held from their ear sublime vein blood for Giemsa staining method. In order to do PCR assay, jugular vein blood sample of each cow was taken. The PCR employs primers specific for the 721-bp gene fragment encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. By PCR method, 38 (47.5 %) Holstein blood samples and 22 (27.5 %) Sistani blood samples had DNA of T. annulata and considered positive (The correlation was significant at values of P < 0.05). By checking 160 blood smears with light microscope and lens × 100, only 10 samples (6.25 %) were positive for T. annulata. Statistical comparison between PCR and smear method showed that the PCR method is more sensitive and accurate in comparison to Giemsa staining method to diagnose the asymptomatic carriers of T. annulata.

  2. Single nucleotide variants and InDels identified from whole-genome re-sequencing of Guzerat, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein cattle breeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedenia Bonvino Stafuzza

    Full Text Available Whole-genome re-sequencing, alignment and annotation analyses were undertaken for 12 sires representing four important cattle breeds in Brazil: Guzerat (multi-purpose, Gyr, Girolando and Holstein (dairy production. A total of approximately 4.3 billion reads from an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer generated for each animal 10.7 to 16.4-fold genome coverage. A total of 27,441,279 single nucleotide variations (SNVs and 3,828,041 insertions/deletions (InDels were detected in the samples, of which 2,557,670 SNVs and 883,219 InDels were novel. The submission of these genetic variants to the dbSNP database significantly increased the number of known variants, particularly for the indicine genome. The concordance rate between genotypes obtained using the Bovine HD BeadChip array and the same variants identified by sequencing was about 99.05%. The annotation of variants identified numerous non-synonymous SNVs and frameshift InDels which could affect phenotypic variation. Functional enrichment analysis was performed and revealed that variants in the olfactory transduction pathway was over represented in all four cattle breeds, while the ECM-receptor interaction pathway was over represented in Girolando and Guzerat breeds, the ABC transporters pathway was over represented only in Holstein breed, and the metabolic pathways was over represented only in Gyr breed. The genetic variants discovered here provide a rich resource to help identify potential genomic markers and their associated molecular mechanisms that impact economically important traits for Gyr, Girolando, Guzerat and Holstein breeding programs.

  3. Development of a Bioinformatics Framework for the Detection of Gene Conversion and the Analysis of Combinatorial Diversity in Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains in Four Cattle Breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Stefanie; Tietze, Manfred; Czerny, Claus-Peter; König, Sven; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new bioinformatics framework for the analysis of rearranged bovine heavy chain immunoglobulin (Ig) variable regions by combining and refining widely used alignment algorithms. This bioinformatics framework allowed us to investigate alignments of heavy chain framework regions (FRHs) and the separate alignments of FRHs and heavy chain complementarity determining regions (CDRHs) to determine their germline origin in the four cattle breeds Aubrac, German Black Pied, German Simmental, and Holstein Friesian. Now it is also possible to specifically analyze Ig heavy chains possessing exceptionally long CDR3Hs. In order to gain more insight into breed specific differences in Ig combinatorial diversity, somatic hypermutations and putative gene conversions of IgG, we compared the dominantly transcribed variable (IGHV), diversity (IGHD), and joining (IGHJ) segments and their recombination in the four cattle breeds. The analysis revealed the use of 15 different IGHV segments, 21 IGHD segments, and two IGHJ segments with significant different transcription levels within the breeds. Furthermore, there are preferred rearrangements within the three groups of CDR3H lengths. In the sequences of group 2 (CDR3H lengths (L) of 11-47 amino acid residues (aa)) a higher number of recombination was observed than in sequences of group 1 (L≤10 aa) and 3 (L≥48 aa). The combinatorial diversity of germline IGHV, IGHD, and IGHJ-segments revealed 162 rearrangements that were significantly different. The few preferably rearranged gene segments within group 3 CDR3H regions may indicate specialized antibodies because this length is unique in cattle. The most important finding of this study, which was enabled by using the bioinformatics framework, is the discovery of strong evidence for gene conversion as a rare event using pseudogenes fulfilling all definitions for this particular diversification mechanism.

  4. Differences in the biological stress responses of two cattle breeds to walking up to mountain pastures in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Belenguer, S; Palacio, J; Gascón, M; Aceña, C; Revilla, R; Mormède, P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the biological responses of Pirenaica and Parda Alpina cows (2-4 years old, n = 32) and their calves (2-4 months old, n = 32) to the physical exercise of climbing to mountain pastures in spring. These two breeds have a different sensitivity to stress-induced myopathy, the Pirenaica calves being highly sensitive. The animals walked 14 km with an elevation increase of 600 m, in approximately 3 h. Blood samples were obtained the day before, immediately after the move to the mountain pastures and the following day. The plasma cortisol levels in Pirenaica cows were significantly higher than in Parda Alpina cows under basal conditions, but disappeared in later samples. There were also significant differences in the hematological parameters. Under basal conditions, the red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin content of blood were higher in Parda Alpina than in Pirenaica cows, but calves of both breeds did not differ. On the other hand, the calves of both breeds were more sensitive than their dams to the exercise, as shown by the large increase in white blood cell counts with a reversal of the lymphocytes:neutrophils ratio, a consequence of cortisol secretion. In calves the largest differences were observed in the muscle enzyme activity levels measured in serum (creatin kinase, lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase), which were always higher in the Pirenaica calves both under basal conditions and after exercise. These biological changes reflected the sensitivity of Pirenaica calves to muscular problems when they walk up to the pasture. It was concluded that genetic factors and age might play essential roles in the neuroendocrine and metabolic adaptation to this unusual physical exercise.

  5. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolahad Shadparvar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy farms in Tehran province. The EVs were estimated at farm level for three breeding perspectives (maximized profit, minimized costs, and economic efficiency and two restrictions in production system (fixed herd size and fixed total input. The average absolute EVs on profit perspective and herd size restriction for milk, fat, and protein yields (based on $/kg and longevity ($/month were 0.11, 0.89, -0.20, and 6.20, respectively. The average absolute EVs under minimized costs per unit of product interest for milk, fat, protein yields and longevity were -0.30, -3.43, 0.88 and -20.40, respectively. The average absolute EVs under maximized economic efficiency for milk, fat and protein yields and longevity were 0.34, 2.73, -0.99 and 36.33, respectively. Relative emphasis for three production traits and longevity were 59.7, 14.3, -3.0 and 23.1, respectively. The comparison of the proposed Iranian index with those countries where most of the semen and embryos are imported points out that developing a national selection index to improve cow profitability and optimum generic trends is necessary. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the influence of milk payment changes on EVs was the greatest as its influence on fat and protein EVs is substantial. EVs for milk and fat yields, with respect to price changes (milk, feed and non-feed, were the least sensitive and most sensitive, respectively.

  6. A novel point mutation within the EDA gene causes an exon dropping in mature RNA in Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariset Lorraine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia is a disorder characterized by abnormal development of tissues and organs of ectodermal origin caused by mutations in the EDA gene. The bovine EDA gene encodes the ectodysplasin A, a membrane protein expressed in keratinocytes, hair follicles and sweat glands, which is involved in the interactions between cell and cell and/or cell and matrix. Four mutations causing ectodermal dysplasia in cattle have been described so far. Results We identified a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the 9th base of exon 8 in the EDA gene in two calves of Holstein Friesian cattle breed affected by ectodermal dysplasia. This SNP is located in the exonic splicing enhancer (ESEs recognized by SRp40 protein. As a consequence, the spliceosome machinery is no longer able to recognize the sequence as exonic and causes exon skipping. The mutation determines the deletion of the entire exon (131 bp in the RNA processing, causing a severe alteration of the protein structure and thus the disease. Conclusion We identified a mutation, never described before, that changes the regulation of alternative splicing in the EDA gene and causes ectodermal dysplasia in cattle. The analysis of the SNP allows the identification of carriers that can transmit the disease to the offspring. This mutation can thus be exploited for a rational and efficient selection of unequivocally healthy cows for breeding.

  7. Effect of heat stress on six beef breeds in the Zastron district: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LA Foster

    because the animal responds functionally to uphold homeostasis (Du Preez, 2000). Breed specific adaptation characters may be of the utmost importance for proper selection of cattle for specific environments. However any attention to heat tolerance of cattle should include coat colour. Colour is a feature that mediates the ...

  8. Optimization of a genomic breeding program for a moderately sized dairy cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner-Benaim, A; Ezra, E; Weller, J I

    2017-04-01

    Although it now standard practice to genotype thousands of female calves, genotyping of bull calves is generally limited to progeny of elite cows. In addition to genotyping costs, increasing the pool of candidate sires requires purchase, isolation, and identification of calves until selection decisions are made. We economically optimized via simulation a genomic breeding program for a population of approximately 120,000 milk-recorded cows, corresponding to the Israeli Holstein population. All 30,000 heifers and 60,000 older cows of parities 1 to 3 were potential bull dams. Animals were assumed to have genetic evaluations for a trait with heritability of 0.25 derived by an animal model evaluation of the population. Only bull calves were assumed to be genotyped. A pseudo-phenotype corresponding to each animal's genetic evaluation was generated, consisting of the animal's genetic value plus a residual with variance set to obtain the assumed reliability for each group of animals. Between 4 and 15 bulls and between 200 and 27,000 cows with the highest pseudo-phenotypes were selected as candidate bull parents. For all progeny of the founder animals, genetic values were simulated as the mean of the parental values plus a Mendelian sampling effect with variance of 0.5. A probability of 0.3 for a healthy bull calf per mating, and a genomic reliability of 0.43 were assumed. The 40 bull calves with the highest genomic evaluations were selected for general service for 1 yr. Costs included genotyping of candidate bulls and their dams, purchase of the calves from the farmers, and identification. Costs of raising culled calves were partially recovered by resale for beef. Annual costs were estimated as $10,922 + $305 × candidate bulls. Nominal profit per cow per genetic standard deviation was $106. Economic optimum with a discount rate of 5%, first returns after 4 yr, and a profit horizon of 15 yr were obtained with genotyping 1,620 to 1,750 calves for all numbers of bull sires

  9. Genomic selection strategies in dairy cattle breeding programmes: Sexed semen cannot replace multiple ovulation and embryo transfer as superior reproductive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    . However, when all young bull candidates were born following MOET, the results showed that the use of Y-semen in the breeding nucleus tended to decrease the rate of inbreeding as it enabled GS to increase within-family selection. This implies that the benefit from using sexed semen in a modern dairy cattle......The aim of this study was to test whether the use of X-semen in a dairy cattle population using genomic selection (GS) and multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) increases the selection intensity on cow dams and thereby the genetic gain in the entire population. Also, the dynamics of using...... different types of sexed semen (X, Y or conventional) in the nucleus were investigated. The stochastic simulation study partly supported the hypothesis as the genetic gain in the entire population was elevated when X-semen was used in the production population as GS exploited the higher selection intensity...

  10. Selection for adaptation to dietary shifts: towards sustainable breeding of carnivorous fish.

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    Richard Le Boucher

    Full Text Available Genetic adaptation to dietary environments is a key process in the evolution of natural populations and is of great interest in animal breeding. In fish farming, the use of fish meal and fish oil has been widely challenged, leading to the rapidly increasing use of plant-based products in feed. However, high substitution rates impair fish health and growth in carnivorous species. We demonstrated that survival rate, mean body weight and biomass can be improved in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss after a single generation of selection for the ability to adapt to a totally plant-based diet (15.1%, 35.3% and 54.4%, respectively. Individual variability in the ability to adapt to major diet changes can be effectively used to promote fish welfare and a more sustainable aquaculture.

  11. Observations on cattle dairy breeds in Pakistan; need to curb unseen economic losses through control of mastitis and endemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Kenyanjui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In October 2005 a devastating earthquake caused extensive damage among populations in Pakistan administered Kashmiri Region and parts of North Western Frontier. In addition to the loss of more than 87`000 human lives and 70`000 injured, many livestock namely buffaloes, cattle and goats were lost. This eroded the livelihoods of families that solely relied on livestock and agriculture for their economic survival. The International Committee of the Red Cross together with the German Red Cross (ICRC/ GRC and the Kashmiri authorities formulated a project that sought to restore the livelihoods of the most vulnerable households to a level comparable to before the earthquake. The project adapted an agro-vet and micro-economic approach, part of which included the provision of a milking cow and calf. This report indicates that antibiotics and homoeopathic medicines provide similar levels of protection against mastitis (Spranger, 2000. Preventive measures like vaccinations, disinfectant footbaths and reducing stress during the critical time of calving goes a long way towards improving the overall health of the dairy cows (Dettloff, 2005. Although milking is in many cases still done by hand, pre-milking and post-milking hygienic procedures, such as udder washing and drying greatly decrease prevalence of mastitis.

  12. The performance of the Nguni, Afrikander and Bonsmara cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    derivatives are tolerance to climatic stresses, especially to heat, genetic adaptation to poor quality forages and resistance to pest and diseases. As a result of natural selection, indigenous cattle (Sanga breeds) which evolved in this part of Africa have become adapted to the prevailing conditions and have a most important ...

  13. Effect of thermal stress on physiological parameters, feed intake and plasma thyroid hormones concentration in Alentejana, Mertolenga, Frisian and Limousine cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alfredo M. F.; Baccari, Flávio; Titto, Evaldo A. L.; Almeida, J. A. Afonso

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the heat tolerance of animals of two Portuguese (Alentejana and Mertolenga) and two exotic (Frisian and Limousine) cattle breeds, through the monitoring of physiological acclimatization reactions in different thermal situations characterized by alternate periods of thermoneutrality and heat stress simulated in climatic chambers. In the experiment, six heifers of the Alentejana, Frisian and Mertolenga breeds and four heifers of the Limousine breed were used. The increase in chamber temperatures had different consequences on the animals of each breed. When submitted to heat stress, the Frisian animals developed high thermal polypnea (more than 105 breath movements per minute), which did not prevent an increase in the rectal temperature (from 38.7°C to 40.0°C). However, only a slight depression in food intake and in blood thyroid hormone concentrations was observed under thermal stressful conditions. Under the thermal stressful conditions, Limousine animals decreased food intake by 11.4% and blood triiodothyronine (T3) hormone concentration decreased to 76% of the level observed in thermoneutral conditions. Alentejana animals had similar reactions. The Mertolenga cattle exhibited the highest capacity for maintaining homeothermy: under heat stressful conditions, the mean thermal polypnea increased twofold, but mean rectal temperature did not increase. Mean food intake decreased by only 2% and mean T3 blood concentration was lowered to 85,6% of the concentration observed under thermoneutral conditions. These results lead to the conclusion that the Frisian animals had more difficulty in tolerating high temperatures, the Limousine and Alentejana ones had an intermediate difficulty, and the Mertolenga animals were by far the most heat tolerant.

  14. Impact of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) adaptation on rumen microbiota in dairy cattle using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, S Y; Zhang, R Y; Wang, D S; Zhu, W Y

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in bacterial populations in the rumen of dairy cattle following adaptation to subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Rumen contents were collected from four cattle adapted to either a 40% (control diet, COD) or 70% (SARA induction diet, SAID) concentrate feeds. DNA was extracted from each of the samples. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes of ruminal DNA extracts were PCR amplified with 2 bar coded primer sets and sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing. At a high taxonomic level, the percentage of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were reduced by SAID feeding, whereas Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in the SAID than in the COD group. At the genus level, as compared with the COD group, the abundances of Prevotella, Treponema, Anaeroplasma, Papillibacter, Acinetobacter and unclassified populations including unclassified Lentisphaerae, and unclassified bacteria were lower (P rumen microbial community. Taken together, our findings provide a comprehensive picture of current knowledge of the community structure of the rumen bacterial ecosystem during SARA, and enhance our understanding about the ruminal microbial ecology that may be useful in the prevention of ruminal acidosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance. PMID:25358328

  16. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. F. Katiyatiya

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality, gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3% reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%, and Nguni (45.3% cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%, tick resistance (54.7%, and milking ability (28.2% traits. Excessive panting (56.6% and disease transmission (76% were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%, and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  17. Assessing the impact of natural service bulls and genotype by environment interactions on genetic gain and inbreeding in organic dairy cattle genomic breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, T; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Simianer, H; Swalve, H H; König, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare genetic gain and inbreeding coefficients of dairy cattle in organic breeding program designs by applying stochastic simulations. Evaluated breeding strategies were: (i) selecting bulls from conventional breeding programs, and taking into account genotype by environment (G×E) interactions, (ii) selecting genotyped bulls within the organic environment for artificial insemination (AI) programs and (iii) selecting genotyped natural service bulls within organic herds. The simulated conventional population comprised 148 800 cows from 2976 herds with an average herd size of 50 cows per herd, and 1200 cows were assigned to 60 organic herds. In a young bull program, selection criteria of young bulls in both production systems (conventional and organic) were either 'conventional' estimated breeding values (EBV) or genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) for two traits with low (h 2=0.05) and moderate heritability (h 2=0.30). GEBV were calculated for different accuracies (r mg), and G×E interactions were considered by modifying originally simulated true breeding values in the range from r g=0.5 to 1.0. For both traits (h 2=0.05 and 0.30) and r mg⩾0.8, genomic selection of bulls directly in the organic population and using selected bulls via AI revealed higher genetic gain than selecting young bulls in the larger conventional population based on EBV; also without the existence of G×E interactions. Only for pronounced G×E interactions (r g=0.5), and for highly accurate GEBV for natural service bulls (r mg>0.9), results suggests the use of genotyped organic natural service bulls instead of implementing an AI program. Inbreeding coefficients of selected bulls and their offspring were generally lower when basing selection decisions for young bulls on GEBV compared with selection strategies based on pedigree indices.

  18. Breeding and Domesticating Crops Adapted to Drought and Salinity: A New Paradigm for Increasing Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fita, Ana; Rodríguez-Burruezo, Adrián; Boscaiu, Monica; Prohens, Jaime; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    World population is expected to reach 9.2 × 10(9) people by 2050. Feeding them will require a boost in crop productivity using innovative approaches. Current agricultural production is very dependent on large amounts of inputs and water availability is a major limiting factor. In addition, the loss of genetic diversity and the threat of climate change make a change of paradigm in plant breeding and agricultural practices necessary. Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main factors responsible for yield reduction. Therefore there is the need to enhance crop productivity by improving crop adaptation. Here we review the present situation and propose the development of crops tolerant to drought and salt stress for addressing the challenge of dramatically increasing food production in the near future. The success in the development of crops adapted to drought and salt depends on the efficient and combined use of genetic engineering and traditional breeding tools. Moreover, we propose the domestication of new halophilic crops to create a 'saline agriculture' which will not compete in terms of resources with conventional agriculture.

  19. South-East Asia bovine populations and the Japanese cattle breeds do not harbour the E211K variant of the PRNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Msalya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An important outcome of intensive worldwide Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE obtained with the surveillance by The National Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Unit (http://www.cjd.ed.ac.uk/figures. htm, has been the detection of atypical BSE in cattle. The discovery of a prion protein gene (PRNP E211K variant in an atypical BSE case is particularly remarkable because it is analogous to the most common pathogenic mutation in humans (E200K, which causes hereditary Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Knowledge of the distribution and frequency of PRNP E211K variants in cattle populations is critical for understanding and managing atypical BSE. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of the E211K variant in the South-East Asia bovine populations and in the Japanese cattle breeds. It was discovered that E211K variant was monomorphic for a G allele and the GG genotype in the 745 animals analyzed in this study. Therefore, neither the Bos indicus nor the Bos taurus animals analyzed are presently known to harbor the 211K variant predicting that the number of carriers for this variant will also be vanishingly low.

  20. Reserves of Dairy Cattle Breeding Growth in the Vologda Oblast in the Context of Solving State Strategic Tasks to Develop the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Chekavinskii

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the expediency of conducting research to assess the state of the agrofood system in the regions of the European North of Russia due to the increased geopolitical risks and the need to achieve strategic objectives of the Arctic territories development. Based on the analysis of statistical information, materials of the Department of Agriculture and Food Resources of the Vologda Oblast the author analyzes the change in the value of milk production, identifies municipal regions where agricultural producers boost agricultural economics, describes trends in the structure of livestock in 2000–2014. The work shows that the major resource potential for the dairy cattle breeding development in the region is concentrated in Vologdsky District, Gryazovetsky District and Cherepovetsky District. The analytical grouping helps determine that given current market conditions, state of material and technical base of the industry and level of state support it is economically feasible to increase the productivity of cows to 7083 kg, as it allows to reduce unit costs and enhance profitability. However, for agricultural producers to raise the productivity of dairy cattle, it is necessary to implement systematic measures for their promotion on the part of public authorities. The article draws special attention to the scale of modern technological means used by agricultural enterprises for keeping, milking and feeding cows, as well as to the measures undertaken to improve breeding and productive qualities of cattle. The conclusion of the article proves that the dramatic changes in agrarian policy of the Vologda Oblast can make the region an “outpost” providing the population of Arctic areas with quality agricultural products

  1. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  2. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  3. Association of an insulin-like growth factor 1 gene microsatellite with phenotypic variation and estimated breeding values of growth traits in Canchim cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, P C; Grossi, D A; Paz, C C P; Alencar, M M; Regitano, L C A; Munari, D P

    2008-10-01

    A population of 1398 Canchim (CA) cattle was genotyped to assess the association of an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene microsatellite with phenotypic variation and estimated breeding values of pre-weaning, weaning and post-weaning growth traits. After an initial analysis, the IGF1 genotype only had a significant effect (P weaning weight adjusted to 240 days (WW240). For these two traits, direct and maternal breeding values were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood (reml). Two analyses were carried out. In the first (Model I), all fixed effects were fitted. In the second (Model II), the fixed effect of the IGF1 genotype was omitted. The estimated genetic and phenotypic components of variance were similar for every trait in both models. For Model I, estimated direct and maternal heritabilities were 0.26 and 0.16 for BW and 0.23 and 0.14 for WW240 respectively. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between BW and WW240 were 0.38 and 0.38 (Model I) and 0.19 and 0.38 (Model II) respectively. Fifty animals were classified according to their direct and maternal breeding values for both traits. Spearman rank-order correlation between animal rankings in the two models was used to assess the effect of including the IGF1 genotype in the model. Non-significant values from this correlation were indicative of a difference in breeding value rankings between the two approaches. The IGF1 gene was found to be associated with phenotypic variation and breeding values in the early phase of growth.

  4. Conservation of indigenous cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa’s smallholder areas: turning threats into opportunities — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Nyamushamba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current review focuses on characterization and conservation efforts vital for the development of breeding programmes for indigenous beef cattle genetic resources in Southern Africa. Indigenous African cattle breeds were identified and characterized using information from refereed journals, conference papers and research reports. Results of this current review reviewed that smallholder beef cattle production in Southern Africa is extensive and dominated by indigenous beef cattle strains adaptable to the local environment. The breeds include Nguni, Mashona, Tuli, Malawi Zebu, Bovino de Tete, Angoni, Landim, Barotse, Twsana and Ankole. These breeds have important functions ranging from provision of food and income to socio-economic, cultural and ecological roles. They also have adaptive traits ranging from drought tolerant, resistance to ticks and tick borne diseases, heat tolerance and resistance to trypanosomosis. Stakeholders in the conservation of beef cattle were also identified and they included farmers, national government, research institutes and universities as well as breeding companies and societies in Southern Africa. Research efforts made to evaluate threats and opportunities of indigenous beef cattle production systems, assess the contribution of indigenous cattle to household food security and income, genetically and phenotypically characterize and conserve indigenous breeds, and develop breeding programs for smallholder beef production are highlighted. Although smallholder beef cattle production in the smallholder farming systems contributes substantially to household food security and income, their productivity is hindered by several constraints that include high prevalence of diseases and parasites, limited feed availability and poor marketing. The majority of the African cattle populations remain largely uncharacterized although most of the indigenous cattle breeds have been identified.

  5. Main principles of compensation to breeders with the occurence of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE in breeding cattle and with regards to their disbursement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mad cow disease first appeared in the 80´s of last century and has gradually spread in series to high breeding countries, incurring major breeding and economic loses. In June of 2001, the disease was first doccumented in the Czech Republic and by year end 2006, there were discovered 26 cases. In accor­dance to the broader conception of the Common agricultural policy od the European Union, whose one pillar is pillar in the protection of agricultural industry, the European Union has paid breeders in particular EU states with financial compensation, which are the boundaries of the EU budget. For this purpose, there was established in the Czech Republic legal assignment for the distribution of this compensation, and this is reflected in act No. 166/1999, veterinary act and act No. 147/2006. Financial compensation will be paid by the Czech Republic´s Minister of finance after the proposed approval by the Minister of Agriculture and the State Veterinary Administration. Submitted work will deal the majority of compensation to breeders with the occurence of BSE in breeding cattle and with regards to their disbursement.

  6. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  7. Current warming will reduce yields unless maize breeding and seed systems adapt immediately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, A. J.; Koehler, A.-K.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Whitfield, S.; Das, B.

    2016-10-01

    The development of crop varieties that are better suited to new climatic conditions is vital for future food production. Increases in mean temperature accelerate crop development, resulting in shorter crop durations and reduced time to accumulate biomass and yield. The process of breeding, delivery and adoption (BDA) of new maize varieties can take up to 30 years. Here, we assess for the first time the implications of warming during the BDA process by using five bias-corrected global climate models and four representative concentration pathways with realistic scenarios of maize BDA times in Africa. The results show that the projected difference in temperature between the start and end of the maize BDA cycle results in shorter crop durations that are outside current variability. Both adaptation and mitigation can reduce duration loss. In particular, climate projections have the potential to provide target elevated temperatures for breeding. Whilst options for reducing BDA time are highly context dependent, common threads include improved recording and sharing of data across regions for the whole BDA cycle, streamlining of regulation, and capacity building. Finally, we show that the results have implications for maize across the tropics, where similar shortening of duration is projected.

  8. Strategies for imputation to whole genome sequence using a single or multi-breed reference population in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Sahana, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    autosome 29 using 387,436 bi-allelic variants and 13,612 SNP markers from the bovine HD panel. Results A combined breed reference population led to higher imputation accuracies than did a single breed reference. The highest accuracy of imputation for all three test breeds was achieved when using BEAGLE...... with un-phased reference data (mean genotype correlations of 0.90, 0.89 and 0.87 for Holstein, Jersey and Nordic Red respectively) but IMPUTE2 with un-phased reference data gave similar accuracies for Holsteins and Nordic Red. Pre-phasing the reference data only lead to a minor decrease in the imputation...

  9. Estimation of inbreeding using pedigree, 50k SNP chip genotypes and full sequence data in three cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Calus, Mario P L; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Levels of inbreeding in cattle populations have increased in the past due to the use of a limited number of bulls for artificial insemination. High levels of inbreeding lead to reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding depression. Various estimators based on different sources, e...

  10. Polymorphisms in twelve candidate genes are associated with growth, muscle lipid profile and meat quality traits in eleven European cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevane, N; Armstrong, E; Wiener, P; Pong Wong, R; Dunner, S

    2014-07-01

    Current customers' demands focus on the nutritional and sensory quality of cattle meat. Candidate gene approach allows identification of genetic polymorphisms that have a measurable effect on traits of interest. The aim of this work is to identify new molecular markers for beef production through an association study using 27 candidate genes and 314 purebred bulls from 11 European cattle breeds. Twelve genes were found associated with different lipid and meat quality traits, and among these stand out the considerable effect of CAST on fatness score, CGGBP1 on growth traits, HSPB1 on the percentage of lauric acid (12:0) and phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6 n - 3), RORA on the ratio of light absorption (K) to light scattering (S) (K/S), and TNFA on lightness (L*). Most of these traits are related to post-mortem muscle biochemical changes, which are key factors controlling meat quality and consumers' acceptance. Also, the variations produced on muscle fatty acid profiles, such as those of AANAT, CRH, CSN3, HSPB1, and TNFA, give insights into the genetic networks controlling these complex traits and the possibility of future improvement of meat nutritional quality.

  11. Reliability of molecular breeding values for Warner-Bratzler shear force and carcass traits of beef cattle - an independent validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, E C; Plastow, G; Woodward, B W; Bauck, S; Okut, H; Wu, X-L; Sun, C; Aalhus, J L; Moore, S S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2014-07-01

    Interest in genetic improvement of carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle using genome-based selection (GS) and marker-assisted management programs is increasing. The success of such a program depends on the presence of linkage disequilibrium between the observed markers and the underlying QTL as well as on the relationship between the discovery, validation, and target populations. For molecular breeding values (MBV) predicted for a target population using SNP markers, reliabilities of these MBV can be obtained from validation analyses conducted in an independent population distinct from the discovery set. The objective of this study was to test MBV predicted for carcass and tenderness traits of beef cattle in a Canadian-based validation population that is largely independent of a United States-based discovery set. The discovery data set comprised of genotypes and phenotypes from >2,900 multibreed beef cattle while the validation population consisted of 802 crossbred feeder heifers and steers. A bivariate animal model that fitted actual phenotype and MBV was used for validation analyses. The reliability of MBV was defined as square of the genetic correlation (R(2) g) that represents the proportion of the additive genetic variance explained by the SNP markers. Several scenarios involving different starting marker panels (384, 3K, 7K, and 50K) and different sets of SNP selected to compute MBV (50, 100, 200, 375, 400, 600, and 800) were investigated. Validation results showed that the most reliable MBV (R(2) g) were 0.34 for HCW, 0.36 for back fat thickness, 0.28 for rib eye area, 0.30 for marbling score, 0.25 for yield grade, and 0.38 for Warner-Bratzler shear force across the different scenarios explored. The results indicate that smaller SNP panels can be developed for use in genetic improvement of beef carcass and tenderness traits to exploit GS benefits.

  12. Adaptation and prospects of breeding flies Black lvink (Hermetia illucens in circumpolar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology has recently become pervasive, as a prospective branch of science that study the possibilities of using living organisms, systems or products of their vital activity to solve technological problems. American type of fly - the Black lvink (Hermetia illucens is used as a research object. The species lives in countries with warm climate, but recently the issue of flies breeding in the regions with cold climatic conditions has been actively discussed. Unlike America and countries of Western Europe, in Russia this issue is underexplored. The analysis of literature sources will allow determining the optimal conditions for the growth, development and reproduction of the species in artificially created laboratory conditions. The insect has gained widespread appreciation due to its highly effective bioconversion of various solid organic wastes as well as high nutrition of larvae with the possibility of using them in feeding farm animals and aquaculture. However, this is not the full range of research areas of fly use. The larva of the fly is characterized by the ability to absorb virtually any biowastes. As a result, its body accumulates a complex of substances, the percentage of which depends on the diet. The larva contains about 40% amino acids which produce a favorable effect on the growth and development of farm animals and birds, and confirm the possibility of using dry larvae as a fodder additive. Black lvink causes great scientific and practical interest. Artificial creation of the necessary conditions for the life of the species when studying and adaptation of an insect in cold climate as well as the development of technologies for the development and reproduction of insects in laboratory and industrial conditions will provide fly breeding in circumpolar regions and allow developing a number of biotechnology directions in Arkhangelsk region.

  13. Influence of model specifications on the reliabilities of genomic prediction in a Swedish-Finnish red breed cattle population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandberg, E; Fikse, W F

    2012-01-01

    Using a combined multi-breed reference population, this study explored the influence of model specification and the effect of including a polygenic effect on the reliability of genomic breeding values (DGV and GEBV). The combined reference population consisted of 2986 Swedish Red Breed (SRB...... effects. The influence of the inclusion of a polygenic effect on the reliability of DGV varied across traits and model specifications. Average correlation between DGV with the Mendelian sampling term, across traits, was highest (R =0.25) for the GBLUP model and decreased with increasing proportion...... of markers with large effects. Reliabilities increased when DGV and parent average information were combined in an index. The GBLUP model with the largest gain across traits in the reliability of the index achieved the highest DGV mean reliability. However, the polygenic models showed to be less biased...

  14. Estimation of economic values in three breeding perspectives for longevity and milk production traits in Holstein dairy cattle in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolahad Shadparvar; Ardeshir Nejati-Javaremi; Mohammad Moradi-Shahrbabak; Ali Ali Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate economic values (EVs) for three production traits (milk, fat and protein yields) and longevity and to develop a national selection index. The proposed Iranian selection index was compared with selection indices of three other countries in the world. A simple and appropriate model was used to describe the Holstein dairy cattle industry under an Iranian production system. Production parameters and economic data were collected from two Holstein dairy...

  15. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  16. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM, and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  17. Assessing the spatial dependence of adaptive loci in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds using AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Licia; Joost, Stéphane; Negrini, Riccardo; Nicoloso, Letizia; Crepaldi, Paola; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    During the past decades, neutral DNA markers have been extensively employed to study demography, population genetics and structure in livestock, but less interest has been devoted to the evaluation of livestock adaptive potential through the identification of genomic regions likely to be under natural selection. Landscape genomics can greatly benefit the entire livestock system through the identification of genotypes better adapted to specific or extreme environmental conditions. Therefore we analyzed 101 AFLP markers in 43 European and Western Asian goat breeds both with Matsam software, based on a correlative approach (SAM), and with Mcheza and Bayescan, two FST based software able to detect markers carrying signatures of natural selection. Matsam identified four loci possibly under natural selection--also confirmed by FST-outlier methods--and significantly associated with environmental variables such as diurnal temperature range, frequency of precipitation, relative humidity and solar radiation. These results show that landscape genomics can provide useful information on the environmental factors affecting the adaptive potential of livestock living in specific climatic conditions. Besides adding conservation value to livestock genetic resources, this knowledge may lead to the development of novel molecular tools useful to preserve the adaptive potential of local breeds during genetic improvement programs, and to increase the adaptability of industrial breeds to changing environments.

  18. The use of SWOT analysis to explore and prioritize conservation and development strategies for local cattle breeds..

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Collado, D.; Diaz, D.; Mäki-Tanila, A.; Colinet, F.; Duclos, D.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Gandini, G.

    2013-01-01

    SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis is a tool widely used to help in decision making in complex systems. It suits to exploring the issues and measures related to the conservation and development of local breeds, as it allows the integration of many driving factors

  19. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without recording the efficiency of recovery. The present study was aimed at adapting and evaluating an ovum pick-up (OPU) system for the in vivo recovery of FF and GC from individual follicles of different diameters. Methods In the first trial, the losses of fluid inside the tubing system were calculated using a conventional or an adapted-OPU system. Blood plasma volumes equivalent to the amount of FF in follicles of different diameters were aspirated using a conventional OPU Teflon circuit. The OPU system was then adapted by connecting 0.25 mL straws to the circuit. A second trial evaluated the efficiency of FF recovery in vivo. Follicles ranging from 4.0 to 16.8 mm in diameter were aspirated individually using the conventional or adapted-OPU systems. A third trial assessed the in vivo recovery of GC and the subsequent amount of RNA obtained from the follicles of different diameters from Holstein and Gir cattle. Results In Trial I, the plasma recovery efficiency was similar (P > 0.05) for the volumes expected for 12 and 10 mm follicles, but decreased (P  0.05) by follicle size, but differed according to breed (615,054+/−58,122 vs 458,095+/−36,407 for Holstein and Gir, respectively; P < 0.05). Conclusions The adapted-OPU system can be successfully used for the in vivo collection of FF and GC from follicles of different diameters. This will enable further endocrine, cellular, and gene expression analyses. PMID:23915143

  20. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...... million SNPs and more than one million short indels. Annotation of the genetic variants identified a substantial number of functional SNPs and variants. The number of genetic variants identified in the Icelandic cattle breed is on the same level as previously seen in other studies on Holstein cattle...

  2. Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Amparo M; Gama, Luis T; Cañón, Javier; Ginja, Catarina; Delgado, Juan V; Dunner, Susana; Landi, Vincenzo; Martín-Burriel, Inmaculada; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Rodellar, Clementina; Vega-Pla, Jose Luis; Acosta, Atzel; Alvarez, Luz A; Camacho, Esperanza; Cortés, Oscar; Marques, Jose R; Martínez, Roberto; Martínez, Ruben D; Melucci, Lilia; Martínez-Velázquez, Guillermo; Muñoz, Jaime E; Postiglioni, Alicia; Quiroz, Jorge; Sponenberg, Philip; Uffo, Odalys; Villalobos, Axel; Zambrano, Delsito; Zaragoza, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation to a wide range of environmental conditions.

  3. Genetic footprints of Iberian cattle in America 500 years after the arrival of Columbus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo M Martínez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: American Creole cattle presumably descend from animals imported from the Iberian Peninsula during the period of colonization and settlement, through different migration routes, and may have also suffered the influence of cattle directly imported from Africa. The introduction of European cattle, which began in the 18th century, and later of Zebu from India, has threatened the survival of Creole populations, some of which have nearly disappeared or were admixed with exotic breeds. Assessment of the genetic status of Creole cattle is essential for the establishment of conservation programs of these historical resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sampled 27 Creole populations, 39 Iberian, 9 European and 6 Zebu breeds. We used microsatellite markers to assess the origins of Creole cattle, and to investigate the influence of different breeds on their genetic make-up. The major ancestral contributions are from breeds of southern Spain and Portugal, in agreement with the historical ports of departure of ships sailing towards the Western Hemisphere. This Iberian contribution to Creoles may also include some African influence, given the influential role that African cattle have had in the development of Iberian breeds, but the possibility of a direct influence on Creoles of African cattle imported to America can not be discarded. In addition to the Iberian influence, the admixture with other European breeds was minor. The Creoles from tropical areas, especially those from the Caribbean, show clear signs of admixture with Zebu. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nearly five centuries since cattle were first brought to the Americas, Creoles still show a strong and predominant signature of their Iberian ancestors. Creole breeds differ widely from each other, both in genetic structure and influences from other breeds. Efforts are needed to avoid their extinction or further genetic erosion, which would compromise centuries of selective adaptation

  4. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  5. Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sire breed and breed genotype of dam effects in crossbreeding beef cattle in the subtropics. 1. Birth and ... Simmentaler and Bonsmara cattle, as well as Fl> and two- and three-breed rotational crosses between Afrikaner,. Hereford and Simmentaler were ... ination and semen evaluation of bulls. Breeding lasted from.

  6. Breeding of transgenic cattle for human coagulation factor IX by a combination of lentiviral system and cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzani, P S; Sangalli, J R; De Bem, T H C; Bressan, F F; Fantinato-Neto, P; Pimentel, J R V; Birgel-Junior, E H; Fontes, A M; Covas, D T; Meirelles, F V

    2013-02-28

    Recombinant coagulation factor IX must be produced in mammalian cells because FIX synthesis involves translational modifications. Human cell culture-based expression of human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) is expensive, and large-scale production capacity is limited. Transgenic animals may greatly increase the yield of therapeutic proteins and reduce costs. In this study, we used a lentiviral system to obtain transgenic cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic animals. Lentiviral vectors carrying hFIX driven by 3 bovine β-casein promoters were constructed. Bovine epithelial mammary cells were transduced by lentivirus, selected with blasticidin, plated on extracellular matrix, and induced by lactogenic hormones; promoter activity was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Transcriptional activity of the 5.335-kb promoter was 6-fold higher than the 3.392- and 4.279-kb promoters, which did not significantly differ. Transgenic bovine fibroblasts were transduced with lentivirus carrying the 5.335-kb promoter and used as donor cells for SCNT. Cloned transgenic embryo production yielded development rates of 28.4%, similar to previous reports on cloned non-transgenic embryos. The embryos were transferred to recipient cows (N = 21) and 2 births of cloned transgenic cattle were obtained. These results suggest combination of the lentiviral system and cloning may be a good strategy for production of transgenic cattle.

  7. Use of linear discriminant analysis to characterise three dairy cattle breeds on the basis of several milk characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Leotta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterise individuals of differents breeds on the basis of milk composition and to identify the best set of variablesa linear discriminant analysis (LDA, on 14 milk production traits, was performed on milk samples from 199 cows of differentbreeds (respectively, 127 subjects were Italian Friesians (IF, 62 were German Friesians (GF, and 10 were Jerseys(J and all came from the same breeding farm in Tuscany. The variables were: test day milk yield (kg milk, % Fat, %Protein,% Lactose, % solid non fat (SNF, % total solid (TS, pH and titratable acidity (TA; five rheological variables: r,k20, a30, a45, and somatic cell counts /ml (SCC; and one hygiene-related variable: total bacterial count (TBC. The analysisperformed on the 14 variables, with regard to the three breeds, allowed us to identify 10 of these as variables usefulfor discrimination (leaving out kg milk, pH, a45, and TBC. The most important variables were the percentage of Fat andTS for the first canonical variate and SNF, Lactose and Protein for the second. Fat and TS play an important role sincethey present significant values (even if opposite sign in the two variates. The resulting classification of subjects was satisfactory:79% of the Italian Friesians, 73% of German Friesians and 100% of the Jersey cows were classified correctly.

  8. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  9. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland and extensive (upland production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity. Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001, leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001. While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001. Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  10. Distribution of allele frequencies at TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A between Japanese Black and four other cattle breeds with differing historical selection for marbling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu Youji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. Our previous study detected 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, g.231054C > T, g.3109537C > T and c.*188G > A, respectively, in the 5' flanking region of the titin (TTN, the 5' flanking region of the ribosomal protein L27a (RPL27A and the 3' untranslated region of the akirin 2 genes (AKIRIN2, which have been considered as positional functional candidates for the genes responsible for marbling, and showed association of these SNPs with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. In the present study, we investigated the allele frequency distribution of the 3 SNPs among the 5 cattle breeds, Japanese Black, Japanese Brown, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds. Findings We genotyped the TTN g.231054C > T, RPL27A g.3109537C > T and AKIRIN2 c.*188G > A SNPs by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method, using 101 sires and 1,705 paternal half sib progeny steers from 8 sires for Japanese Black, 86 sires and 27 paternal half sib progeny steers from 3 sires for Japanese Brown, 79 sires and 264 paternal half sib progeny steers from 14 sires for Japanese Shorthorn, 119 unrelated cows for Holstein, and 118 unrelated cows for Brown Swiss breeds. As compared to the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T, g.3109537C > T T and c.*188G > A A alleles, associated with high marbling, in Japanese Black breed that has been subjected to a strong selection for high marbling, those in the breeds, Japanese Shorthorn, Holstein and Brown Swiss breeds, that have not been selected for high marbling were null or lower. The Japanese Brown breed selected slightly for high marbling showed lower frequency than Japanese Black breed in the g.3109537C > T T allele, whereas no differences were detected between the 2 breeds in the frequencies of the g.231054C > T T and c

  11. The impact of 3 strategies for incorporating polled genetics into a dairy cattle breeding program on the overall herd genetic merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, D M; Stock, M L; Coetzee, J F

    2014-01-01

    Dehorning in cattle has been associated with behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses indicative of pain. Unaddressed, the pain associated with a routine production procedure could contribute to a negative public perception of livestock production practices. Alternative considerations of dehorning include the selection of polled cattle within herds, thereby avoiding pain and production loss. As polledness results from an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, genetic selection for polled cattle could reduce the prevalence of the horned trait. Herein we discuss 3 strategies to incorporate polled genetics into a cow herd and the estimated impact on the overall genetic merit of the herd. Furthermore, the availability and genetic merit of polled artificial insemination bulls in the United States is summarized. Both Holstein and Jersey dairy bulls registered with the National Association of Animal Breeders from December 2010 through April 2013 were queried. Polled bulls were identified as either being homozygous (PP) or heterozygous (Pp) and the average net merit (NM) predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of each sire group was calculated. The percentage of polled calves born each year over a 10-yr period was calculated for the following 3 scenarios: (A) various percentages of horned cows were randomly mated to Pp bulls, (B) various percentages of horned cows were preferentially mated to Pp bulls, and (C) horned cows were selectively mated to PP bulls, heterozygous cows to Pp bulls, and homozygous polled cows to horned bulls. Additionally, the change in NM PTA of the cow herd was calculated over the same period. The highest percentage of polled animals (87%) was achieved in scenario C. An evaluation of the herd NM PTA highlights the trade-offs associated with increasing polled genetics. Given the current genetic merit of horned and polled bulls, increasing the percentage of polled calves will decrease the NM PTA in Holstein, but may have minimal impact

  12. Comparison of tick resistance of crossbred Senepol × Limousin to purebred Limousin cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüe, Thomas; Hurlin, Jean-Claude; Teurlai, Magali; Naves, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The comparison of resistance to natural tick infestation by Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1887) of crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle was investigated. The Senepol breed, originated from St Croix Island in the Caribbean is considered as a Bos taurus breed adapted to tropical conditions. Despite its B. taurus genetic background, it is believed to have a good tick resistance, but this resistance has never been assessed previously. Tick counts under natural infestation were carried out to investigate the difference of susceptibility between crossbred Senepol × Limousin and purebred Limousin cattle. Mixed-effect models were used to assess the effect of the breed on the number of ticks. Results show that Senepol × Limousin are five times less infested by ticks than purebred Limousin. These results underline the opportunity to use Senepol cattle for crossing with susceptible B. taurus breeds in tick infested areas, to combine tick resistance with beef production abilities.

  13. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the metabolic response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Carroll, J A; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-11-01

    The response of the immune and stress systems have been assessed in response to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, yet the role of metabolism in mediating energy requirements during the acute phase response has not been sufficiently studied. This study tested heat-tolerant (Romosinuano [RO]) and heat-sensitive (Angus [ANG]) Bos taurus breeds at different ambient temperatures (Ta) to determine differential metabolic responses to LPS challenge. Twenty-one heifers (ANG: n = 11, 306 ± 26 kg BW; RO: n = 10, 313 ± 32 kg BW) were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled chambers. Initially, Ta in all 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. Five ANG and 5 RO heifers were housed at TN, whereas 6 ANG and 5 RO heifers were housed at HS. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), and blood samples were collected from -2 to 8 h and at 24 h relative to LPS challenge. Serum was analyzed for glucose, insulin, and NEFA concentrations. In addition, feed intake was measured 3 d before and on the day of the challenge. Feed intake decreased over time (P heat-sensitive ANG heifers in response to LPS challenge, thus providing physiological evidence that may explain differences observed in the acute phase response between heat-sensitive ANG and heat-tolerant RO cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Multiple criteria decision-making process to derive consensus desired genetic gains for a dairy cattle breeding objective for diverse production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; van Arendonk, J A M; Kahi, A K; Komen, H

    2017-06-01

    Dairy cattle industries contribute to food and nutrition security and are a source of income for numerous households in many developing countries. Selective breeding can enhance efficiency in these industries. Developing dairy industries are characterized by diverse production and marketing systems. In this paper, we use weighted goal aggregating procedure to derive consensus trait preferences for different producer categories and processors. We based the study on the dairy industry in Kenya. The analytic hierarchy process was used to derive individual preferences for milk yield (MY), calving interval (CIN), production lifetime (PLT), mature body weight (MBW), and fat yield (FY). Results show that classical classification of production systems into large-scale and smallholder systems does not capture all differences in trait preferences. These differences became apparent when classification was based on productivity at the individual animal level, with high and low intensity producers and processors as the most important groups. High intensity producers had highest preferences for PLT and MY, whereas low intensity producers had highest preference for CIN and PLT; processors preferred MY and FY the most. The highest disagreements between the groups were observed for FY, PLT, and MY. Individual and group preferences were aggregated into consensus preferences using weighted goal programming. Desired gains were obtained as a product of consensus preferences and percentage genetic gains (G%). These were 2.42, 0.22, 2.51, 0.15, and 0.87 for MY, CIN, PLT, MBW, and FY, respectively. Consensus preferences can be used to derive a single compromise breeding objective for situations where the same genetic resources are used in diverse production and marketing circumstances. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

  15. Relationship between Copper and Zinc Content in the Soil and Plants and their Consequent Content in Blood and Excrements of Cattle and Sheep under Various Forms of Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav Šoch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explain the relationship between copper and zinc content in the soil and plants and their consequent content in blood and excrements of cattle and sheep while various forms of breeding. Apart from the Cu and Zn concentration in the soil samples we were investigating also the concentrations of the elements Ca, Mg, P, Na, K, Mn and Mo. In excrements and feeding rations the concentration of copper and zinc were investigated. Beef cows and heifers (143 without the market milk production, dairy cows and heifers (182 with the market milk production and sheep (191 were included in the project. Altogether 325 blood (excrement samples were collected and examined. The relations between haematological indicators and copper and zinc metabolism appear more often in animals (cows, heifers, sheep with nonconventional way of farming and it is impacted by many the impact of an antagonistic influence of elements than in dairy animals. The results also show the necessity of the controlling of the supplementation with the mineral elements accumulation in the soil samples, plants and organism.

  16. BREED AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON BIRTH WEIGHT, WEANING WEIGHT AND CALVING INTERVAL OF ZEBU CATTLE IN SOUTHEASTERN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. Segura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Records of beef cows from a ranch in southern Mexico gave 1967 birth weights (BW, 1587 weaning weights adjusted to 210 days of age (AWW and 2001 calving intervals (CI for the comparison of the breed groups: Brahman (BR, Guzerat (GU, Nellore (NE and crosses born to zebu dams by Brown Swiss sires. Animals were fed mainly pasture. Data were analysed using general linear procedures. The statistical model that described the data for BW and AWW included the fixed effects of breed group (BR, GU, NE, BS x BR, BS x GU and BS x NE; year of birth or calving (2005 to 2014, season of parity of the cow (dry, rainy, windy, sex of the calf (female or male, parity (1 to =>8 and the simple interaction of year x season of birth or calving. The model for CI was similar to the previous one, except that only the Zebu purebreds were included. The overall means and standard deviations for BW, AWW and CI were 33.5+0.75 kg, 178.9+19.7 kg and 456.4+79.2 days. All effects included in the model had significant effect on BW and AWW, but season and sex on CI. The smallest least squares means for BW corresponded to the cross of BR x NE and the largest to the cross of BS x BR (33.3 and 33.7 kg, respectively; whereas the lowest and largest least squares means for AWW corresponded to the NE (173.8 kg and BS x BR (191.8 kg. NE cows had shorter CI than BR and GU cows (413.9, 446.2 and 481.3, respectively. Male calves weighed more at birth and weaning than females. Year x season interaction indicate that season effects on performance of calves or cows were not similar throughout the years studied.

  17. Invited review: Large-scale indirect measurements for enteric methane emissions in dairy cattle: A review of proxies and their potential for use in management and breeding decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, E; de Haas, Y; Dehareng, F; Dewhurst, R J; Dijkstra, J; Gengler, N; Morgavi, D P; Soyeurt, H; van Gastelen, S; Yan, T; Biscarini, F

    2017-04-01

    shortcomings in the other(s). The most important applications of CH4 proxies are in dairy cattle management and breeding for lower environmental impact. When breeding for traits of lower environmental impact, single or multiple proxies can be used as indirect criteria for the breeding objective, but care should be taken to avoid unfavorable correlated responses. Finally, although combinations of proxies appear to provide the most accurate estimates of CH4, the greatest limitation today is the lack of robustness in their general applicability. Future efforts should therefore be directed toward developing combinations of proxies that are robust and applicable across diverse production systems and environments. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  18. Impact of whole-genome amplification on the reliability of pre-transfer cattle embryo breeding value estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei Saadi, Habib A; Vigneault, Christian; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Gagné, Dominic; Fournier, Éric; de Montera, Béatrice; Chesnais, Jacques; Blondin, Patrick; Robert, Claude

    2014-10-12

    Genome-wide profiling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms is receiving increasing attention as a method of pre-implantation genetic diagnosis in humans and of commercial genotyping of pre-transfer embryos in cattle. However, the very small quantity of genomic DNA in biopsy material from early embryos poses daunting technical challenges. A reliable whole-genome amplification (WGA) procedure would greatly facilitate the procedure. Several PCR-based and non-PCR based WGA technologies, namely multiple displacement amplification, quasi-random primed library synthesis followed by PCR, ligation-mediated PCR, and single-primer isothermal amplification were tested in combination with different DNA extractions protocols for various quantities of genomic DNA inputs. The efficiency of each method was evaluated by comparing the genotypes obtained from 15 cultured cells (representative of an embryonic biopsy) to unamplified reference gDNA. The gDNA input, gDNA extraction method and amplification technology were all found to be critical for successful genome-wide genotyping. The selected WGA platform was then tested on embryo biopsies (n = 226), comparing their results to that of biopsies collected after birth. Although WGA inevitably leads to a random loss of information and to the introduction of erroneous genotypes, following genomic imputation the resulting genetic index of both sources of DNA were highly correlated (r = 0.99, P<0.001). It is possible to generate high-quality DNA in sufficient quantities for successful genome-wide genotyping starting from an early embryo biopsy. However, imputation from parental and population genotypes is a requirement for completing and correcting genotypic data. Judicious selection of the WGA platform, careful handling of the samples and genomic imputation together, make it possible to perform extremely reliable genomic evaluations for pre-transfer embryos.

  19. Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Rustgi

    Full Text Available Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW, since it comprises ∼23% (335,000 ha of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

  20. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  1. Breeding and regulatory opportunities and constraints for developing broccoli cultivars adapted to organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the regulatory and technical challenges to the organic seed and breeding sector. This study specifically explored the mutual influence of the regulatory environment for organic seed sector development in the United States (US), Europe Union (EU) and Mexico, and the extent to

  2. Use of biological priors enhances understanding of genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits within and between dairy cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingzhao; Sahana, Goutam; Ma, Peipei; Su, Guosheng; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Shengli; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sørensen, Peter

    2017-08-10

    A better understanding of the genetic architecture underlying complex traits (e.g., the distribution of causal variants and their effects) may aid in the genomic prediction. Here, we hypothesized that the genomic variants of complex traits might be enriched in a subset of genomic regions defined by genes grouped on the basis of "Gene Ontology" (GO), and that incorporating this independent biological information into genomic prediction models might improve their predictive ability. Four complex traits (i.e., milk, fat and protein yields, and mastitis) together with imputed sequence variants in Holstein (HOL) and Jersey (JER) cattle were analysed. We first carried out a post-GWAS analysis in a HOL training population to assess the degree of enrichment of the association signals in the gene regions defined by each GO term. We then extended the genomic best linear unbiased prediction model (GBLUP) to a genomic feature BLUP (GFBLUP) model, including an additional genomic effect quantifying the joint effect of a group of variants located in a genomic feature. The GBLUP model using a single random effect assumes that all genomic variants contribute to the genomic relationship equally, whereas GFBLUP attributes different weights to the individual genomic relationships in the prediction equation based on the estimated genomic parameters. Our results demonstrate that the immune-relevant GO terms were more associated with mastitis than milk production, and several biologically meaningful GO terms improved the prediction accuracy with GFBLUP for the four traits, as compared with GBLUP. The improvement of the genomic prediction between breeds (the average increase across the four traits was 0.161) was more apparent than that it was within the HOL (the average increase across the four traits was 0.020). Our genomic feature modelling approaches provide a framework to simultaneously explore the genetic architecture and genomic prediction of complex traits by taking advantage of

  3. Cattle Differ in Ability to Adapt to Small Intestinal Digestion of Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of post-ruminal starch digestion on inflammatory response in dairy cattle. Six cull, nonpregnant, nonlactating, multiparous cannulated Holstein dairy cows (BW 804±101 kg) were fed a high forage diet ad libitum starting 15 d before the infusion p...

  4. Buffaloes breeding in Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bernardes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Differently from what one could formerly imagine, that buffalo breeding activity would be solely directed to fill the so called cattle breeding gaps determined by inadequate environmental conditions for ordinary cattle breeding, it has been actually seen that in those areas where breeders could successfully organize industrial-agricultural chains, either on meat or milk and its related products production, there has been an expressive expansion .Buffalo breeding has shown to be an important alternative not only in farms of higher technological level as also , and mainly, on small farms where it has become a key factor for increasing the average income, besides keeping labor force in country areas. This article intends to point out and examine some aspects of buffalo breeding and its potentialities in Brazil.

  5. The identification of a putative mutation for SLICK hair coat in Senepol cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The slick hair coat (SLICK) is a dominantly inherited trait typically associated with tropically adapted, Criollo-derived cattle breeds. The trait is of interest relative to climate change, due to its association with improved thermo-tolerance and subsequent increased productivity. The goal of thi...

  6. Postweaning performance and carcass merit of F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, D E

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons were made among F1 steers sired by Brahman and alternative subtropically adapted breeds of bulls for feedlot and carcass traits when steers were produced from Angus- and Hereford-type dams. Brahman-derivative breeds included Brangus, Beefmaster, and Santa Gertrudis. Brangus- and Beefmaster-sired steers weighed less at slaughter, whereas carcasses of Brangus- and Santa Gertrudis-sired steers had more marbling than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area than carcasses of Santa Gertrudis-sired steers. Other Zebu breeds compared to Brahman were Boran, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Nellore, Red Brahman, and Sahiwal. Steers by Brahman sires had higher slaughter weights than steers by Boran, Gir, Nellore, or Sahiwal sires. Hot carcass weights of Brahman-sired steers were also higher than those of Boran- and Sahiwal-sired steers. Steer carcasses by Brahman sires had greater longissimus muscle area than those of steers by Sahiwal sires. Non-Zebu breeds included Tuli and Senepol. Steers by Tuli sires grew slower, had lower slaughter weights, and their carcasses weighed less than those of Brahman-sired steers. Brahman-sired steer carcasses had greater longissimus muscle area but less marbling than carcasses of Tuli-sired steers. These data suggest that steers by Brahman sires have an advantage for slaughter weight over steers by Brangus, Beefmaster, Boran, Gir, Nellore, Sahiwal, and Tuli sires, but their carcasses are at a disadvantage for marbling score compared with those by Brangus, Boran, Nellore, and Tuli sires.

  7. Breeding for plant adaptations and agricultural measures in response to climatic changes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving the production of different cultivated plant species is of great importance for both human and animals, as well as for industrial processing. In the light of global climate changing and searching for renewable sources of energy, this task becomes even more important. Scientists from different areas of research, are actively involved in solving this complex task. Climate changes represent a big challenge not only for agricultural practices, but also for the process of shaping agricultural strategies. Recent studies indicate that climate changes can not be stopped. Constantly growing problems brought by global climate changes could be, to a larger extent, overcome by breeding programs, along with application of adequate agrotechnical measures. Thus, development of new varieties and hybrids with improved performances in response to more frequent and unfavorable environmental conditions, is of prime importance in breeding centers.

  8. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Bucafusco, D; Di Giacomo, S; Schammas, J M; Malacari, D; Capozzo, A V; Arzt, J; Pérez-Beascoechea, C; Maradei, E; Rodríguez, L L; Borca, M V; Pérez-Filgueira, M

    2013-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wild biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract for up to 72 h postinfection, followed by hematogenous dissemination and vesicular lesions at oral and foot epithelia. The role of the early local adaptive immunity of the host in the outcome of the infection is not well understood. Here we report the kinetics of appearance of FMDV-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) in lymphoid organs along the respiratory tract and the spleen in cattle infected by aerosol exposure. While no responses were observed for up to 3 days postinfection (dpi), all animals developed FMDV-ASC in all the lymphoid organs studied at 4 dpi. Tracheobronchial lymph nodes were the most reactive organs at this time, and IgM was the predominant isotype, followed by IgG1. Numbers of FMDV-ASC were further augmented at 5 and 6 dpi, with an increasing prevalence in upper respiratory organs. Systemic antibody responses were slightly delayed compared with the local reaction. Also, IgM was the dominant isotype in serum at 5 dpi, coinciding with a sharp decrease of viral RNA detection in peripheral blood. These results indicate that following aerogenous administration, cattle develop a rapid and vigorous genuine local antibody response throughout the respiratory tract. Time course and isotype profiles indicate the presence of an efficient T cell-independent antibody response which drives the IgM-mediated virus clearance in cattle infected by FMDV aerosol exposure.

  9. Adaptation of livestock systems to climate change: functions of grassland, breeding, health and housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, I.E.; Stienezen, M.W.J.; Hiemstra, S.J.; Dooren, van H.J.C.; Buisonjé, de F.E.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the available knowledge and relevant research questions related to 1) grassland based livestock production systems and GHG emissions, and 2) adaptation of livestock systems to climate change, to provide information for prioritization research and other actions on adaptation and

  10. The future of livestock breeding: genomic selection for efficiency, reduced emissions intensity, and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben J; Lewin, Harris A; Goddard, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    As the global population and global wealth both continue to increase, so will the demand for livestock products, especially those that are highly nutritious. However, competition with other uses for land and water resources will also intensify, necessitating more efficient livestock production. In addition, as climate change escalates, reduced methane emissions from cattle and sheep will be a critical goal. Application of new technologies, including genomic selection and advanced reproductive technologies, will play an important role in meeting these challenges. Genomic selection, which enables prediction of the genetic merit of animals from genome-wide SNP markers, has already been adopted by dairy industries worldwide and is expected to double genetic gains for milk production and other traits. Here, we review these gains. We also discuss how the use of whole-genome sequence data should both accelerate the rate of gain and enable rapid discovery and elimination of genetic defects from livestock populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  12. Predicting demographically sustainable rates of adaptation : Can great tit breeding time keep pace with climate change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gienapp, Phillip; Lof, Marjolein; Reed, Thomas E.; McNamara, John; Verhulst, Simon; Visser, Marcel E.

    2013-01-01

    Populations need to adapt to sustained climate change, which requires micro-evolutionary change in the long term. A key question is how the rate of this micro-evolutionary change compares with the rate of environmental change, given that theoretically there is a 'critical rate of environmental

  13. Local and global patterns of admixture and population structure in Iranian native cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Karim; Strucken, Eva M; Moghaddar, Nasir; Ferdosi, Mohammad H; Esmailizadeh, Ali; Gondro, Cedric

    2016-07-15

    Two separate domestication events gave rise to humped zebu cattle in India and humpless taurine cattle in the Fertile Crescent of the Near and Middle East. Iran covers the Eastern side of the Fertile Crescent and exhibits a variety of native cattle breeds, however, only little is known about the admixture patterns of Iranian cattle and their contribution to the formation of modern cattle breeds. Genome-wide data (700 k chip) of eight Iranian cattle breeds (Sarabi N = 19, Kurdi N = 7, Taleshi N = 7, Mazandarani N = 10, Najdi N = 7, Pars N = 7, Kermani N = 9, and Sistani N = 9) were collected from across Iran. For a local assessment, taurine (Holstein and Jersey) and indicine (Brahman) outgroup samples were used. For the global perspective, 134 world-wide cattle breeds were included. Between breed variation amongst Iranian cattle explained 60 % (p populations most accurately explained the admixture of 44 selected representative cattle breeds (standard error 0.4617). Low levels of African ancestry were identified in Iranian cattle breeds (on average 7.5 %); however, the signal did not persist through all analyses. Admixture and migration analyses revealed minimal introgression from Iranian cattle into other taurine cattle (Holstein, Hanwoo, Anatolian breeds). The eight Iranian cattle breeds feature a discrete genetic composition which should be considered in conservation programs aimed at preserving unique species and genetic diversity. Despite a complex admixture pattern among Iranian cattle breeds, there was no strong introgression from other world-wide cattle breeds into Iranian cattle and vice versa. Considering Iran's central location of cattle domestication, Iranian cattle might represent a local domestication event that remained contained and did not contribute to the formation of modern breeds, or genetics of the ancestral population that gave rise to modern cattle is too diluted to be linked directly to any current cattle

  14. Perspectives to breed for improved baking quality wheat varieties adapted to organic growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Aart M; Struik, Paul C; van Bueren, Edith T Lammerts

    2012-01-30

    Northwestern European consumers like their bread to be voluminous and easy to chew. These attributes require a raw material that is rich in protein with, among other characteristics, a suitable ratio between gliadins and glutenins. Achieving this is a challenge for organic growers, because they lack cultivars that can realise high protein concentrations under the relatively low and variable availability of nitrogen during the grain-filling phase common in organic farming. Relatively low protein content in wheat grains thus needs to be compensated by a high proportion of high-quality protein. Organic farming therefore needs cultivars with genes encoding for optimal levels of glutenins and gliadins, a maximum ability for nitrogen uptake, a large storage capacity of nitrogen in the biomass, an adequate balance between vegetative and reproductive growth, a high nitrogen translocation efficiency for the vegetative parts into the grains during grain filling and an efficient conversion of nitrogen into high-quality proteins. In this perspective paper the options to breed and grow such varieties are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-09-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of 'production diseases' in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment.

  16. Evolutionary process of Bos taurus cattle in favourable versus unfavourable environments and its implications for genetic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Christopher J; Swain, David L; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary processes that have enabled Bos taurus cattle to establish around the globe are at the core to the future success of livestock production. Our study focuses on the history of cattle domestication including the last 60 years of B. taurus breeding programmes in both favourable and unfavourable environments and its consequences on evolution and fitness of cattle. We discuss the emergence of ‘production diseases’ in temperate production systems and consider the evolutionary genetics of tropical adaptation in cattle and conclude that the Senepol, N'Dama, Adaptaur and Criollo breeds, among others with similar evolutionary trajectories, would possess genes capable of improving the productivity of cattle in challenging environments. Using our own experimental evidence from northern Australia, we review the evolution of the Adaptaur cattle breed which has become resistant to cattle tick. We emphasize that the knowledge of interactions between genotype, environment and management in the livestock systems will be required to generate genotypes for efficient livestock production that are both economically and environmentally sustainable. Livestock producers in the 21st century will have less reliance on infrastructure and veterinary products to alleviate environmental stress and more on the animal's ability to achieve fitness in a given production environment. PMID:25567936

  17. Testicular size at weaning in tropically-adapted beef bulls as influenced by breed of sire and dam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, R; Warrington, B G; Holloway, J W; Randel, R D

    1997-07-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate testicular size at weaning for bulls representing diverse tropically-adapted genotypes. Calves from 2 locations were weighed and castrated at weaning. In one herd, calves were born to Brahman dams and Angus, Tuli, and Brahman sires. Body weights and paired testes weights were heavier (P Senepol sires. Means were similar between Brahman- (BA), Tuli-(TA), and Senepol-sired (SA) calves for body weight and testes:body weight ratio. Paired testes weight was heavier (P < 0.05) for SA than BA calves. Across locations, paired testes weights were heavier (P < 0.01) for TA than TB calves but their body weights were similar. Within-herd deviations were greater (P < 0.01) for AB than BA calves for paired testes weight and testes:body weight ratio. The correlation between the proportion of Bos indicus genetic contribution and testes:body weight ratio was significantly negative. Tropically-adapted calves differed in testicular size at weaning due to breed of sire and dam effects.

  18. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    felixgg

    cattle breeds (N'Dama, Lagunaire, Lobi and Somba) using multivariate statistical methods, including canonical ..... Table 3 Frequencies (in percentage) of each level of the 11 qualitative traits assessed in Kuri cattle and other four West African taurine cattle breeds. Class. Kuri. Trait ..... Lack of specific alleles for the bovine.

  19. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    felixgg

    cattle breeds (N'Dama, Lagunaire, Lobi and Somba) using multivariate statistical methods, including ..... Table 3 Frequencies (in percentage) of each level of the 11 qualitative traits assessed in Kuri cattle and other four West African taurine cattle breeds. Class. Kuri. Trait ..... AGRI 26, 75-94 (in Spanish, English abstract).

  20. SCREENING OF BREEDING BULLS OF DIFFERENT BREEDS THROUGH KARYOTYPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ahmad, K. Javed1 and A. Sattar

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of chromosomal analysis for 200 breeding bulls of different breeds of cattle (Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Sahiwal and Cross-bred and Nili-Ravi buffalo, maintained at Semen Production Unit, Qadirabad and Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki was carried out. Micromethod was adopted for leukocyte culture and chromosomes were trapped at metaphase stage. The diploid number of chromosomes in all breeds of cattle was found to be 60 (58 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY, while this number in Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls was 50 (48 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes: XY. All the autosomes and sex chromosomes in males of both species were found normal.

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. Comparative analyses across cattle genders and breeds reveal the pitfalls caused by false positive and lineage-differential copy number variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Xu, Lingyang; Hay, El Hamidi Abdel; Bickhart, Derek M; Sonstegard, Tad S; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Liu, George E

    2016-07-06

    We compared CNV region (CNVR) results derived from 1,682 Nellore cattle with equivalent results derived from our previous analysis of Bovine HapMap samples. By comparing CNV segment frequencies between different genders and groups, we identified 9 frequent, false positive CNVRs with a total length of 0.8 Mbp that were likely caused by assembly errors. Although there was a paucity of lineage specific events, we did find one 54 kb deletion on chr5 significantly enriched in Nellore cattle. A few highly frequent CNVRs present in both datasets were detected within genomic regions containing olfactory receptor, ATP-binding cassette, and major histocompatibility complex genes. We further evaluated their impacts on downstream bioinformatics and CNV association analyses. Our results revealed pitfalls caused by false positive and lineage-differential copy number variations and will increase the accuracy of future CNV studies in both taurine and indicine cattle.

  3. Acquisition of thermotolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by breeding via stepwise adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Atsushi; Katsuyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Natsuko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Tomio, Ayako; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, YK60-1, was bred from a parental strain, MT8-1, via stepwise adaptation. YK60-1 grew at 40°C, a temperature at which MT8-1 could not grow at all. YK60-1 exhibited faster growth than MT8-1 at 30°C. To investigate the mechanisms how MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance, DNA microarray analysis was performed. The analysis revealed the induction of stress-responsive genes such as those encoding heat shock proteins and trehalose biosynthetic enzymes in YK60-1. Furthermore, nontargeting metabolome analysis showed that YK60-1 accumulated more trehalose, a metabolite that contributes to stress tolerance in yeast, than MT8-1. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae MT8-1 acquired thermotolerance by induction of specific stress-responsive genes and enhanced intracellular trehalose levels. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Production objectives and management strategies of livestock keepers in south-east Kenya: implications for a breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwacharo, J M; Drucker, A G

    2005-11-01

    A survey of pastoralist and agropastoralist households in south-east Kenya was conducted to determine their production objectives and management strategies in order to optimize and extend a breeding programme for indigenous small East African Shorthorn Zebu cattle. The reasons for keeping cattle and the breed/trait preferences identified reflect the multiple objectives of the livestock keepers, with both adaptive traits and productive/reproductive traits rated as important. Although the Maasai and Kamba zebu (M&KZ) breeds were ranked highly with regard to adaptive traits, the population is considered to have been in decline over recent years. In order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of the M&KZ cattle, the formation of an open nucleus breeding scheme is recommended. In particular, such a scheme would be able to address several existing constraints (e.g. individual herds are very small and communal use of pastures/water makes controlled mating difficult). Such interventions would require the full participation of the livestock keepers, as well as ensuring that a holistic approach to species and breed attributes is taken into account in setting breeding goals, such that the full array of contributions that livestock make to livelihoods and the genetic characteristics related to these contributions are fully incorporated into the programme.

  5. A novel SNP of Chemerin gene in cattle and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... SNP 2692C>T. It was shown that associations do exist between chemerin gene and carcass and meat quality traits. As a result of the small sample size of this study, it is ..... HW, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; QC, Qinchuan cattle breed; CYR, Caoyuan red cattle breed; JR, Jiaxian red cattle breed; LX, Luxi.

  6. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Osorio-Arce

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects from data obtained for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental, Brown Swiss breeds in a beef herd in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman, 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and 5 backcrosses. Cows were fed in paddocks of Jaragua grass (Hyparrenia rufa of poor condition and invaded with native grass of Paspalum and Axonopous genera. Calves remained with their dams until weaning. They were weighed at weaning and about one year of age. Calve weights from the record cards kept at the ranch were used to calculate adjusted weaning (W240 and yearling weights (W365. During the 13 year period of data collection, 711 cows and heifers were inseminated with semen of 23 Charolais (Ch, 50 Simmental (Si, 19 Brown Swiss (BS and 15 Brahman (Br unrelated sires. Also 32 Br bulls were used for natural mating. A multiple regression procedure was used to obtain estimates of the breed-direct, breed-maternal and direct heterosis effects for W240 and W365. The overall means and standard errors for W240 and W365 were 178.5+0.89 and 219.9+1.78 kg, respectively. The analysis of variance showed significant (P0.20 for W365. Except for the Si x Br negative heterosis value for W240, all heterosis effects were positive but nonsignicant (P>0.12.

  7. Aspects of the breeding biology of the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in Montserrat, West Indies, and its impact on nest vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Arendt; A.I. Arendt

    1988-01-01

    Aspects of the Cattle Egret's reproductive ecology and habitat use in an insular environment were studied on Montserrat, West Indies. Average size of 290 nests (17.9 cm) was smaller than sizes reported in the literature and was attributed to a paucity of available nesting materials. We measured 330 eggs to determine: egg volume (24,117.04 mm3), fresh egg weight (...

  8. Can I compare EPD's across breeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper comparison of the genetic merit of animals across breeds can be difficult and confusion for beef cattle producers. With the advent of a new genetic evaluation system where several breeds are evaluated in the same genetic analysis, confusion on direct comparison of animals across breeds has i...

  9. Reproductive performance of cows mated to and preweaning performance of calves sired by Brahman vs alternative subtropically adapted breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrift, F A

    1997-10-01

    Comparisons involving Brahman and Brahman-derivative (Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beef-master, Simbrah, Braford) sires indicate the following: 1) cows mated to Brangus and Santa Gertrudis bulls had a shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls, 2) calves sired by Brangus and Beefmaster bulls were lighter at birth and weaning than calves sired by Brahman bulls, and 3) birth and weaning weights were similar for calves sired by Santa Gertrudis and Brahman bulls and for calves sired by Simbrah and Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and other Zebu (Sahiwal, Nellore, Gir, Indu-Brazil, Boran, Romana Red) sires indicate that gestation length was slightly longer for cows mated to Sahiwal and Nellore bulls and that, relative to the Brahman, birth and weaning weights were similar to or lighter for calves sired by bulls of the other Zebu breeds. The only exception to this pattern was birth weight of Indu-Brazil-sired calves, which were heavier than calves sired by Brahman bulls. Comparisons involving Brahman and non-Zebu subtropically adapted (Tuli, Senepol) sires indicate that cows mated to Tuli bulls had a slightly shorter gestation length than cows mated to Brahman bulls and that birth and weaning weights of calves sired by Tuli and Senepol bulls were lighter than those of calves sired by Brahman bulls.

  10. Anti-inflammatory salicylate treatment alters the metabolic adaptations to lactation in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farney, Jaymelynn K.; Mamedova, Laman K.; Coetzee, Johann F.; KuKanich, Butch; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Stoakes, Sara K.; Minton, J. Ernest; Hollis, Larry C.

    2013-01-01

    Adapting to the lactating state requires metabolic adjustments in multiple tissues, especially in the dairy cow, which must meet glucose demands that can exceed 5 kg/day in the face of negligible gastrointestinal glucose absorption. These challenges are met through the process of homeorhesis, the alteration of metabolic setpoints to adapt to a shift in physiological state. To investigate the role of inflammation-associated pathways in these homeorhetic adaptations, we treated cows with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sodium salicylate (SS) for the first 7 days of lactation. Administration of SS decreased liver TNF-α mRNA and marginally decreased plasma TNF-α concentration, but plasma eicosanoids and liver NF-κB activity were unaltered during treatment. Despite the mild impact on these inflammatory markers, SS clearly altered metabolic function. Plasma glucose concentration was decreased by SS, but this was not explained by a shift in hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression or by altered milk lactose secretion. Insulin concentrations decreased in SS-treated cows on day 7 compared with controls, which was consistent with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. The revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI) was then used to assess whether altered insulin sensitivity may have influenced glucose utilization rate with SS. The RQUICKI estimate of insulin sensitivity was significantly elevated by SS on day 7, coincident with the decline in plasma glucose concentration. Salicylate prevented postpartum insulin resistance, likely causing excessive glucose utilization in peripheral tissues and hypoglycemia. These results represent the first evidence that inflammation-associated pathways are involved in homeorhetic adaptations to lactation. PMID:23678026

  11. Effect of Simulated Heat Stress on Digestibility, Methane Emission and Metabolic Adaptability in Crossbred Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of simulated heat stress on digestibility and methane (CH4 emission. Four non-lactating crossbred cattle were exposed to 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, and 40°C temperature with a relative humidity of 40% to 50% in a climatic chamber from 10:00 hours to 15:00 hours every day for 27 days. The physiological responses were recorded at 15:00 hours every day. The blood samples were collected at 15:00 hours on 1st, 6th, 11th, 16th, and 21st days and serum was collected for biochemical analysis. After 21 days, fecal and feed samples were collected continuously for six days for the estimation of digestibility. In the last 48 hours gas samples were collected continuously to estimate CH4 emission. Heat stress in experimental animals at 35°C and 40°C was evident from an alteration (p<0.05 in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, water intake and serum thyroxin levels. The serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activity and protein, urea, creatinine and triglyceride concentration changed (p<0.05, and body weight of the animals decreased (p<0.05 after temperature exposure at 40°C. The dry matter intake (DMI was lower (p<0.05 at 40°C exposure. The dry matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05 at 35°C compared to 25°C and 30°C exposure whereas, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fibre digestibilities were higher (p<0.05 at 35°C than 40°C thermal exposure. The CH4 emission/kg DMI and organic matter intake (OMI declined (p<0.05 with increase in exposure temperature and reached its lowest levels at 40°C. It can be concluded from the present study that the digestibility and CH4 emission were affected by intensity of heat stress. Further studies are necessary with respect to ruminal microbial changes to justify the variation in the digestibility and CH4 emission during differential heat stress.

  12. Genomic regions and pathways associated with gastrointestinal parasites resistance in Santa Inês breed adapted to tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Mariana Piatto; de Oliveira Silva, Rafael Medeiros; Peripolli, Elisa; Stafuzza, Nedenia Bonvino; Martin, Jesús Fernández; Álvarez, Maria Saura; Gavinã, Beatriz Villanueva; Toro, Miguel Angel; Banchero, Georgget; Oliveira, Priscila Silva; Eler, Joanir Pereira; Baldi, Fernando; Ferraz, José Bento Sterman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate variance components and to identify genomic regions and pathways associated with resistance to gastrointestinal parasites, particularly Haemonchus contortus, in a breed of sheep adapted to tropical climate. Phenotypes evaluations were performed to verify resistance to gastrointestinal parasites, and were divided into two categories: i) farm phenotypes, assessing body condition score (BCS), degree of anemia assessed by the famacha chart (FAM), fur score (FS) and feces consistency (FC); and ii) lab phenotypes, comprising blood analyses for hematocrit (HCT), white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB), platelets (PLT) and transformed (log10) egg per gram of feces (EPGlog). A total of 576 animals were genotyped with the Ovine SNP12k BeadChip (Illumina, Inc.), that contains 12,785 bialleleic SNP markers. The variance components were estimated using a single trait model by single step genomic BLUP procedure. The overall linkage disequilibrium (LD) mean between pairs of markers measured by r2 was 0.23. The overall LD mean between markers considering windows up to 10 Mb was 0.07. The mean LD between adjacent SNPs across autosomes ranged from 0.02 to 0.10. Heritability estimates were low for EPGlog (0.11), moderate for RBC (0.18), PLT (0.17) HCT (0.20), HGB (0.16) and WBC (0.22), and high for FAM (0.35). A total of 22, 21, 23, 20, 26, 25 and 23 windows for EPGlog for FAM, WBC, RBC, PLT, HCT and HGB traits were identified, respectively. Among the associated windows, 10 were shown to be common to HCT and HGB traits on OAR1, OAR2, OAR3, OAR5, OAR8 and OAR15. The traits indicating gastrointestinal parasites resistance presented an adequate genetic variability to respond to selection in Santa Inês breed, and it is expected a higher genetic gain for FAM trait when compared to the others. The level of LD estimated for markers separated by less than 1 Mb indicated that the Ovine SNP12k BeadChip might be a

  13. Simulated Breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemi, Tatsuo

    This chapter describes a basic framework of simulated breeding, a type of interactive evolutionary computing to breed artifacts, whose origin is Blind Watchmaker by Dawkins. These methods make it easy for humans to design a complex object adapted to his/her subjective criteria, just similarly to agricultural products we have been developing over thousands of years. Starting from randomly initialized genome, the solution candidates are improved through several generations with artificial selection. The graphical user interface helps the process of breeding with techniques of multifield user interface and partial breeding. The former improves the diversity of individuals that prevents being trapped at local optimum. The latter makes it possible for the user to fix features he/she already satisfied. These methods were examined through artistic applications by the author: SBART for graphics art and SBEAT for music. Combining with a direct genome editor and exportation to another graphical or musical tool on the computer, they can be powerful tools for artistic creation. These systems may contribute to the creation of a type of new culture.

  14. Effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth of F1 Angus calves and reproductive performance of their Angus dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; Olson, T A

    2000-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tropically adapted sire breeds on preweaning growth performance of F1 calves and on reproductive performance of their Angus dams. Angus (A) cows were bred in two consecutive years (1992 and 1993) by AI using semen from Brahman (B; Bos indicus; n = 10), Senepol (S; Bos taurus; n = 10), and Tuli (T; Sanga; n = 9) bulls. A total of 82 B x A, 85 S x A, and 91 T x A calves were born. The statistical model included the fixed effects of year, sire breed, calf sex, sire breed x calf sex, and cow parity and the random effect of sire within sire breed. Birth weight, weaning weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight, ADG from birth to weaning, and hip height at weaning were greater (P .10) length of gestation, and sire breed did not affect the interval from calving to first observed estrus or pregnancy in Angus dams. These results demonstrate that preweaning growth performance of B x A calves was greater than that of either S x A or T x A calves. However, use of Brahman sires on Angus dams led to calving problems and tended to reduce the percentage of calves that survived until weaning. Thus, heavier weaning weights of B x A calves would be an advantage for cow-calf producers marketing calves, but heavier birth weights and calving difficulty attributed to Brahman sires would be a disadvantage.

  15. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: Influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    The difference in the response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kilograms body weight) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 31...

  16. Climate change, cattle herd vulnerability and food insecurity : adaptation through livestock diversification in the Borana pastoral system of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megersa Bati, Bekele

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is one of the dominant drivers of changing patterns in precipitation, rise in temperature and increasing frequency of extreme weather events that present a major challenge to livestock production in arid and semi-arid environments. In the Borana region of southern Ethiopia, the resulting reduction in the resilience of rangelands and heavy cattle losses associated with recurrent droughts pose serious challenges to cattle pastoralism. This study aimed at investigating regional ma...

  17. Association of a genetic marker at the bovine Janus kinase 2 locus (JAK2/RsaI) with milk production traits of four cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczuk, Małgorzata

    2015-08-01

    In addition to the main components of the somatotrophic axis (GH/GHR/IGF-I/IGF-IR), great importance in the control of growth and development is also attached to the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) pathway. Induced by the GH/GHR complex, JAK2 activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and in consequence, may be involved in the regulation of expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the mammary gland. Silent mutation (rs110298451) has been identified within exon 20 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A total of 904 individuals of four dairy or dual-purpose breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian, Montbeliarde, Simmental and Jersey) were genotyped. A genotypic imbalance in the populations was observed. In the case of dual-purpose breeds (Montbeliarde and Simmental), the frequencies of both alleles were almost equal. In contrary, the JAK2G allele was predominant in the Polish Holstein-Friesian breed while JAK2A allele in Jersey. A pronounced relationship between JAK2/RsaI polymorphism and milk production traits was found where, irrespective of breed and lactation order, the GG genotype was significantly associated with higher milk, protein and fat yields, as compared to the AA genotype. Heterozygous individuals were generally characterised by intermediate values of the analysed milk traits. It can be argued that the JAK2 gene polymorphism is a potential marker for milk production traits. However, due to the fact that rs110298451 SNP does not directly affect amino acid sequence, other association studies involving missense mutation should also be performed.

  18. A Meta-Assembly of Selection Signatures in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz A S Randhawa

    Full Text Available Since domestication, significant genetic improvement has been achieved for many traits of commercial importance in cattle, including adaptation, appearance and production. In response to such intense selection pressures, the bovine genome has undergone changes at the underlying regions of functional genetic variants, which are termed "selection signatures". This article reviews 64 recent (2009-2015 investigations testing genomic diversity for departure from neutrality in worldwide cattle populations. In particular, we constructed a meta-assembly of 16,158 selection signatures for individual breeds and their archetype groups (European, African, Zebu and composite from 56 genome-wide scans representing 70,743 animals of 90 pure and crossbred cattle breeds. Meta-selection-scores (MSS were computed by combining published results at every given locus, within a sliding window span. MSS were adjusted for common samples across studies and were weighted for significance thresholds across and within studies. Published selection signatures show extensive coverage across the bovine genome, however, the meta-assembly provides a consensus profile of 263 genomic regions of which 141 were unique (113 were breed-specific and 122 were shared across cattle archetypes. The most prominent peaks of MSS represent regions under selection across multiple populations and harboured genes of known major effects (coat color, polledness and muscle hypertrophy and genes known to influence polygenic traits (stature, adaptation, feed efficiency, immunity, behaviour, reproduction, beef and dairy production. As the first meta-assembly of selection signatures, it offers novel insights about the hotspots of selective sweeps in the bovine genome, and this method could equally be applied to other species.

  19. Capsid proteins from field strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus confer a pathogenic phenotype in cattle on an attenuated, cell-culture-adapted virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Kakker, Naresh K.; Barbezange, Cyril

    2011-01-01

    cells than the rescued parental O1K B64 virus. The two chimeric viruses displayed the expected antigenicity in serotype-specific antigen ELISAs. Following inoculation of each virus into cattle, the rescued O1K B64 strain proved to be attenuated whereas, with each chimeric virus, typical clinical signs......Chimeric foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) have been generated from plasmids containing full-length FMDV cDNAs and characterized. The parental virus cDNA was derived from the cell-culture-adapted O1Kaufbeuren B64 (O1K B64) strain. Chimeric viruses, containing capsid coding sequences derived...

  20. Wide adaptation of Green Revolution wheat: international roots and the Indian context of a new plant breeding ideal, 1960-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranski, Marci R

    2015-04-01

    Indian wheat cultivation changed radically in the 1960s due to new technologies and policy reforms introduced during the Green Revolution, and farmers' adoption of 'packages' of modern seeds, fertilizer, and irrigation. Just prior to the Green Revolution, Indian scientists adopted a new plant breeding philosophy--that varieties should have as wide an adaptation as possible, meaning high and stable yields across different environments. But scientists also argued that wide adaptation could be achieved by selecting only plants that did well in high fertility and irrigated environments. Scientists claimed that widely adapted varieties still produce high yields in marginal areas. Many people have criticized the Green Revolution for its unequal spread of benefits, but none of these critiques address wide adaptation-the core tenant held by Indian agricultural scientists to justify their focus on highly productive land while ignoring marginal or rainfed agriculture. This paper also describes Norman Borlaug's and the Rockefeller Foundation's research program in wide adaptation, Borlaug's involvement in the Indian wheat program, and internal debates about wide adaptation and selection under ideal conditions among Indian scientists. It argues that scientists leveraged the concept of wide adaptation to justify a particular regime of research focused on high production agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y.; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed)...

  2. Improving the reliability of female fertility breeding values using type and milk yield traits that predict energy status in Australian Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, O; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to propose changing the selection criteria trait for evaluating fertility in Australia from calving interval to conception rate at d 42 after the beginning of the mating season and (2) to use type traits as early fertility predictors, to increase the reliability of estimated breeding values for fertility. The breeding goal in Australia is conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season. Currently, the Australian model to predict fertility breeding values (expressed as a linear transformation of calving interval) is a multitrait model that includes calving interval (CVI), lactation length (LL), calving to first service (CFS), first nonreturn rate (FNRR), and conception rate. However, CVI has a lower genetic correlation with the breeding goal (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) than conception rate. Milk yield, type, and fertility data from 164,318 cow sired by 4,766 bulls were used. Principal component analysis and genetic correlation estimates between type and fertility traits were used to select type traits that could subsequently be used in a multitrait analysis. Angularity, foot angle, and pin set were chosen as type traits to include in an index with the traits that are included in the multitrait fertility model: CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and conception rate at d 42 (CR42). An index with these 8 traits is expected to achieve an average bull first proof reliability of 0.60 on the breeding objective (conception within 6 wk of the start of the mating season) compared with reliabilities of 0.39 and 0.45 for CR42 only or the current 5-trait Australian model. Subsequently, we used the first eigenvector of a principal component analysis with udder texture, bone quality, angularity, and body condition score to calculate an energy status indicator trait. The inclusion of the energy status indicator trait composite in a multitrait index with CVI, LL, CFS, FNRR, and CR42 achieved a 12-point increase in

  3. Inbreeding and purging at the genomic Level: the Chillingham cattle reveal extensive, non-random SNP heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J L; Hall, S J G; Del Corvo, M; Ballingall, K T; Colli, L; Ajmone Marsan, P; Biscarini, F

    2016-02-01

    Local breeds of livestock are of conservation significance as components of global biodiversity and as reservoirs of genetic variation relevant to the future sustainability of agriculture. One such rare historic breed, the Chillingham cattle of northern England, has a 350-year history of isolation and inbreeding yet shows no diminution of viability or fertility. The Chillingham cattle have not been subjected to selective breeding. It has been suggested previously that the herd has minimal genetic variation. In this study, high-density SNP genotyping with the 777K SNP chip showed that 9.1% of loci on the chip are polymorphic in the herd, compared with 62-90% seen in commercial cattle breeds. Instead of being homogeneously distributed along the genome, these loci are clustered at specific chromosomal locations. A high proportion of the Chillingham individuals examined were heterozygous at many of these polymorphic loci, suggesting that some loci are under balancing selection. Some of these frequently heterozygous loci have been implicated as sites of recessive lethal mutations in cattle. Linkage disequilibrium equal or close to 100% was found to span up to 1350 kb, and LD was above r(2) = 0.25 up to more than 5000 kb. This strong LD is consistent with the lack of polymorphic loci in the herd. The heterozygous regions in the Chillingham cattle may be the locations of genes relevant to fitness or survival, which may help elucidate the biology of local adaptation in traditional breeds and facilitate selection for such traits in commercial cattle. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  4. Serological survey of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic cattle breeds (Bos indicus) of North-central Nigeria: Potential risk factors and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Wungak, Y S; Bertu, W J

    2016-01-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence and associated risk factors of bovine brucellosis in Fulani nomadic herds in the 3 agro-ecological zones of Niger State, North-central Nigeria between January and August 2013. A total of 672 cattle in 113 herds were screened for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and confirmed by Lateral flow Assay (LFA). Data on herd characteristics and zoonotic factors were collected using structured questionnaire administered on Fulani herd owners. Factors associated with Brucella infection were tested using Chi-square test and multivariable logistic model. The overall cattle-level seroprevalence was 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1-3.2) with highest in agro-zone C (3.2%). Herd-level seroprevalence was 9.7% (95% CI: 5.23-16.29) and highest in agro-zone C (13.5%). Sex and agro-ecological zones were significantly (Pbrucellosis occurrence. Inhalation of droplets from milk of infected cows, and drinking raw milk were less likely [OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09-0.82 and OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, respectively] not to predisposed to brucellosis in humans. Eating infected raw meat, and contact with infected placenta were more likely [OR 7.49; 95% CI: 2.06-28.32 and OR 5.74; 95% CI: 1.78-18.47, respectively] to be risks for the disease in humans. These results highlighted the important risk factors for bovine brucellosis in Fulani herds. Thus, brucellosis control programs which take these factors into consideration will be beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Craniometrical estimation of the native Japanese Mishima cattle, using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Daigo, M; Amasaki, H

    1989-01-01

    The present study on measurement of the skull of Mishima cattle, which has been postulated as the only pure representative breed of native Japanese cattle, was performed using craniometrical multivariate analysis. The data of the skull of Mishima cattle was compared with 17 breeds of cattle, i.e. Korean cattle (Hamhung, Pyongyang, Chinju Suwon, and Kwangju), Mongolian cattle, Hainan Tao cattle, northeastern Chinese cattle (Shuangliao, Shenyang, Tongliao, Lüta, and Chilin), Astatic Water Buffalo, Yak, Bos Banteng, American Bison, and Holstein-Friesian. The Mishima cattle was included in the group of Korean breeds, especially it was closed on the group of Pyongyang and Chinju breeds. The distance on the craniometrical multivariate analyzing co-ordinate between Mishima cattle and Hainan Tao breed of Zebu cattle was larger than the distance between Mishima cattle and Korean breeds. While result, as a above the present study was very important for the origin of "Wagyu" (native Japanese cattle). Since the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle has been reported on the type of serum enzymes and hemotypes. It was suggested that the craniometrical multivariate analysis supported to the northern route theory of the origin of Mishima cattle.

  6. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  7. Morphological assessment of Niger Kuri cattle using multivariate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were analysed jointly with 377 individuals from four other West African taurine cattle breeds (N'Dama, Lagunaire, Lobi and Somba) using multivariate statistical methods, including canonical and correspondence analyses. Among the breeds analysed, Kuri cattle had the highest mean values for all body measurements: ...

  8. Recent research into the production potential of indigenous cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lubout (1988). 223. Hamburger. & Ramsay (1984). 211. 297. Omatjenne. Progress Reports. 229. 319. Omatjenne. Progress Reports. Table 9 Growth rates of males of different breeds of cattle in Phase C National Beef. Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing. Scheme (Irene; Scholtz, 1988). Growth rate. Final mass. Breed.

  9. Analysis on The Roles of Stakeholders in The Management of Integrated Breeding Beef Cattle Farm Program at PT KPC East Kutai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ariansyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the roles of stakeholders was conducted as a continuity program of Peternakan Sapi Terpadu (PESAT; integrated beef cattle farm following the coal mining deactivation by PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC of East Kutai, East Kalimantan. The purpose of this study was to formulate stakeholders relation in the future program. The stakeholders involved in this program were PT KPC, local breeders, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Pertanian (STIPER; Agriculture Academy of East Kutai, and the local government of East Kutai. The stakeholders analysis was based on the variables of the importance and influence from every analyzed stakeholder. The analysis model used here was the model introduced by Reed et al. (2009. According to the result of the stakeholders analysis, PT KPC was in the key-player quadrant, which score is 25 in both of the interest and the influencial level, while the three others, such as, local breeders, STIPER of East Kutai, and the East Kutai Government were in the subject quadrant. Their score were 24 and 7 for Local breeders, 21 and 9 for STIPER of East Kutai, and 16 and 13 for The East Kutai Government. It means, they had high interest but low influence to the program. The conclusion of this analysis shows that PT KPC is still dominating in the PESAT program management, whereas the three other stakeholders are acting merely as program users that have low involvement in the program management.

  10. Identification of SNPs in growth-related genes in Colombian creole cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R; Rocha, J F; Bejarano, D; Gomez, Y; Abuabara, Y; Gallego, J

    2016-09-19

    Colombian creole cattle have important adaptation traits related to heat tolerance and reproductive and productive efficiency. Romosinuano (ROMO) and Blanco Orejinegro (BON) are the most common breeds used by Colombian cattle breeders. Growth traits are of prime importance in these animals, which are mainly raised for beef production. Genes encoding growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, homeobox protein, insulin growth factor binding protein 3, leptin, and myostatin have been associated with physiological growth pathways in cattle and other species. We therefore aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these genes in ROMO, BON, and Zebu cattle. DNA regions of these genes were sequenced in 386 animals; 47 new SNPs were found, of which 14 were located in the exonic regions, thereby changing the protein sequence. An association of SNPs with weaning weight (WW), daily weight gain at weaning (DWG), and weight at 16 months (W16M) traits was deduced. The genetic analysis revealed several SNPs related to these traits. The SNP GhRE06.2 had a significant association with WW and the SNP Lep03.4 was highly associated with DWG and W16M. Other polymorphisms were significantly associated with WW and DWG, although they did not surpass the Bonferroni significance threshold. The new mutations identified may indicate important points of genetic control in the DNA that could be responsible for changes in the expression of the analyzed traits. These SNPs might be used in future breeding programs to improve the productive performance of cattle in beef farms.

  11. Mean EPDs reported by different breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle genetic evaluations result in expected progeny differences (EPDs), which can be used to select animals for growth, productivity, carcass composition, and, most recently, economic value. Breed averages allow producers to compare the genetic value of potential breeding stock against their ...

  12. Molecular characterization of GPR50 gene and study of its comparative genetic variability in sheep breeds adapted to different thermo-contrasting climatic regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Vijay Kumar; Kumar, Davendra; Naqvi, S. M. K.

    2017-04-01

    GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2

  13. The Role of Biodiversity, Traditional Knowledge and Participatory Plant Breeding in Climate Change Adaptation in Karst Mountain Areas in SW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Center for Chinese Agricultural Policy (China)

    2011-07-15

    This is a report of a country case study on the impacts of climate change and local people's adaptation. The research sites are located in the karst mountainous region in 3 SW China provinces - Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan – an area inhabited by 33 ethnic groups of small farmers and the poor, with rich Plant Genetic Resources (PGR) and culture. Climate change is exacerbating already harsh natural conditions and impacting on biodiversity of remote farmers living in extreme poverty, with very limited arable land. Genetic diversity has also suffered from the adoption of high yielding hybrids. Yet traditional varieties, related TK and Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) for maize and rice are showing real potential for resilience and adaptation.

  14. Economic evaluation of progeny-testing and genomic selection schemes for small-sized nucleus dairy cattle breeding programs in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariuki, C M; Brascamp, E W; Komen, H; Kahi, A K; van Arendonk, J A M

    2017-03-01

    In developing countries minimal and erratic performance and pedigree recording impede implementation of large-sized breeding programs. Small-sized nucleus programs offer an alternative but rely on their economic performance for their viability. We investigated the economic performance of 2 alternative small-sized dairy nucleus programs [i.e., progeny testing (PT) and genomic selection (GS)] over a 20-yr investment period. The nucleus was made up of 453 male and 360 female animals distributed in 8 non-overlapping age classes. Each year 10 active sires and 100 elite dams were selected. Populations of commercial recorded cows (CRC) of sizes 12,592 and 25,184 were used to produce test daughters in PT or to create a reference population in GS, respectively. Economic performance was defined as gross margins, calculated as discounted revenues minus discounted costs following a single generation of selection. Revenues were calculated as cumulative discounted expressions (CDE, kg) × 0.32 (€/kg of milk) × 100,000 (size commercial population). Genetic superiorities, deterministically simulated using pseudo-BLUP index and CDE, were determined using gene flow. Costs were for one generation of selection. Results show that GS schemes had higher cumulated genetic gain in the commercial cow population and higher gross margins compared with PT schemes. Gross margins were between 3.2- and 5.2-fold higher for GS, depending on size of the CRC population. The increase in gross margin was mostly due to a decreased generation interval and lower running costs in GS schemes. In PT schemes many bulls are culled before selection. We therefore also compared 2 schemes in which semen was stored instead of keeping live bulls. As expected, semen storage resulted in an increase in gross margins in PT schemes, but gross margins remained lower than those of GS schemes. We conclude that implementation of small-sized GS breeding schemes can be economically viable for developing countries. The

  15. Spatial structure and climatic adaptation in African maize revealed by surveying SNP diversity in relation to global breeding and landrace panels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola T Westengen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change threatens maize productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. To ensure food security, access to locally adapted genetic resources and varieties is an important adaptation measure. Most of the maize grown in Africa is a genetic mix of varieties introduced at different historic times following the birth of the trans-Atlantic economy, and knowledge about geographic structure and local adaptations is limited. METHODOLOGY: A panel of 48 accessions of maize representing various introduction routes and sources of historic and recent germplasm introductions in Africa was genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 array. Spatial genetic structure and genetic relationships in the African panel were analysed separately and in the context of a panel of 265 inbred lines representing global breeding material (based on 26,900 SNPs and a panel of 1127 landraces from the Americas (270 SNPs. Environmental association analysis was used to detect SNPs associated with three climatic variables based on the full 43,963 SNP dataset. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic structure is consistent between subsets of the data and the markers are well suited for resolving relationships and admixture among the accessions. The African accessions are structured in three clusters reflecting historical and current patterns of gene flow from the New World and within Africa. The Sahelian cluster reflects original introductions of Meso-American landraces via Europe and a modern introduction of temperate breeding material. The Western cluster reflects introduction of Coastal Brazilian landraces, as well as a Northeast-West spread of maize through Arabic trade routes across the continent. The Eastern cluster most strongly reflects gene flow from modern introduced tropical varieties. Controlling for population history in a linear model, we identify 79 SNPs associated with maximum temperature during the growing season. The associations located in genes of known importance for abiotic stress

  16. Fatty acid profile of humpback muscle (Rhomboideus m. from zebu breed (Nellore cattle - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i4.16614

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    Mayka Reghiany Pedrão

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to characterize the lipidic profile of the Rhomboideus muscle (humpback present in the Nelore breed, and compare it to the Longissimis dorsi muscle (tenderloin. Male animals with 24 months of age, raised in pasture were slaughtered in a regional slaughterhouse and the Longissimus dorsi (LD and Rhomboideus (RH muscles were excised from the remaining of the carcass and analyzed after 24 hours refrigeration. Moisture, protein and total lipids were quantified and the fatty acid profile was analyzed. The results obtained show significant differences (p < 0.05 in the characterization between the muscles analyzed in relation to their composition. Most of the fatty acids detected were monounsaturated (MUFA, with the oleic acid (C18:1n-9 being the fatty acid with the largest amount present, with the value of 48.11% for the RH muscle and 45.58% for LD. For saturated fatty acids (SFA, palmitic acid (C16:0 were quantified in largest quantity with 25.67 and 25.19% content for RH and LD muscles, respectively. Regarding saturation, RH muscle has greater quantity of MUFA, 56.46%, but lower PUFA/SFA ratio, with 0.081.

  17. Conservation of the genetic material of Macedonian Busha cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunevski Gjoko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Busha is an indigenous breed of cattle in many Balkan countries. It has been bred for centuries. It belongs to primitive shorthorn cattle (Bos brachyceros europaeus. These cattle used to be the dominant and most important breed in almost all Balkan countries until the 1950s and 1960s, but today in lowland areas where intensive farming is practiced they have already been replaced by more productive and specialized breeds of cattle. In Macedonia this breed has officially been classified as a triple purpose breed (raised for meat, milk and draft but considering its low production capabilities it is more similar to some primitive draft breeds. This breed is part of the National Biodiversity Program for the conservation of indigenous breeds of animals in the Republic of Macedonia. Economic, cultural and scientific reasons underlie the need to protect the biological diversity of autochthonous breeds of cattle such as the Busha. The aim of the research was to establish a gene bank for different strains of adult Busha cattle in the Republic of Macedonia. To this end, 998 samples of blood, 1100 hair coat samples and 958 doses of semen were collected from adult Busha cattle. Also, a phenotypic characterization was done on adult Busha cattle for their major productive and morphological traits. During the last few years, there have been certain negative trends in the population size of Busha cattle in accordance with the decline of the rural population in the hills and uplands and young people's disinterest in rearing indigenous breeds of cattle such as the Busha.

  18. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J B; Douglas, M L; Williams, S R O; Wales, W J; Marett, L C; Nguyen, T T T; Reich, C M; Hayes, B J

    2016-09-29

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events.

  19. Zoonotic and Potentially Host-Adapted Enterocytozoon bieneusi Genotypes in Sheep and Cattle in Northeast China and an Increasing Concern about the Zoonotic Importance of Previously Considered Ruminant-Adapted Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanxue; Tao, Wei; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Yuqi; Lin, Yongchao; Zhang, Siwen; Li, Wei

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated fecal specimens from 489 sheep and 537 cattle in multiple cities in northeast China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer. Sixty-eight sheep specimens (13.9%) and 32 cattle specimens (6.0%) were positive for E. bieneusi. Sequence polymorphisms enabled the identification of 9 known genotypes (BEB4, BEB6, CM7, CS-4, EbpC, G, I, J, and OEB1) and 11 new genotypes (NESH1 to NESH6 and NECA1 to NECA5). The genotypes formed two genetic clusters in a phylogenetic analysis, with CS-4, EbpC, G, NESH1 to NESH3, and NECA1 to NECA5 distributed in zoonotic group 1 and BEB4, BEB6, CM7, EbpI, J, OEB1, and NESH4 to NESH6 distributed in potentially host-adapted group 2. Nearly 70% of cases of E. bieneusi infections in sheep were contributed by human-pathogenic genotypes BEB6, CS-4, and EbpC, and over 80% of those in cattle were by genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J. The cooccurrence of genotypes BEB4, CS-4, EbpC, I, and J in domestic ruminants and children in northeast China and the identification of BEB6 and EbpC in humans and water in central China imply the possibility of zoonotic transmission. This study also summarizes E. bieneusi genotypes obtained from ruminants worldwide and displays their host ranges, geographical distributions, and phylogenetic relationships. The data suggest a host range expansion in some group 2 genotypes (notably BEB4, BEB6, I, and J) that were previously considered to be adapted to ruminants. We should be concerned about the increasing zoonotic importance of group 2 genotypes with low host specificity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Evaluation of tropically adapted straightbred and crossbred beef cattle: Cortisol concentration and measures of temperament at weaning and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate circulating concentrations of plasma cortisol and measures of temperament at weaning in calves (steers and heifers) and transport in steers. Calves (n = 938) were produced from a 3-breed diallel mating design that included calves from 3 consecutive yea...

  1. Potential Impact of Biotechnology on Adaption of Agriculture to Climate Change: The Case of Drought Tolerant Rice Breeding in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chandra Babu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Asia and Africa the poor tend to live in marginal environments where droughts and floods are frequent. Global warming is expected to increase the frequency of these weather-induced perturbations of crop production. Drought tolerance (DT has been one of the most difficult traits to improve in genetic crop improvement programs worldwide. Biotechnology provides breeders with a number of new tools that may help to develop more drought tolerant varieties such as marker assisted selection (MAS, molecular breeding (MB, and transgenic plants. This paper assesses some preliminary evidence on the potential impact of biotechnology using data from surveys of the initial DT cultivars developed through one of the main programs in Asia that has been funding DT rice breeding since 1998—The Rockefeller Foundation’s Resilient Crops for Water-Limited Environments program in China, India, and Thailand. Yield increases of DT rice varieties are 5 to 10 percent better than conventional varieties or currently grown commercial varieties than it has been in years. So far we only have experiment station evidence that DT varieties yielded better than conventional or improved varieties during moderate drought years (the one drought year during our study period in South India gave inconclusive results and in severe drought both the DT and the conventional varieties were either not planted or, if planted, did not yield. We find that the governments could help overcome some of the constraints to the spread of DT cultivars by increasing government funding of DT research programs that take advantage of new biotech techniques and new knowledge from genomics. Secondly, public scientists can make breeding lines with DT traits and molecular markers more easily available to the private seed firms so that they can incorporate DT traits into their commercial hybrids particularly for poor areas. Third, governments can subsidize private sector production of DT seed or provide more

  2. Selection for longevity in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollema, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of longevity of dairy cattle. When breeding organizations want to implement longevity in their breeding programs they have to make several decisions. This thesis aims to give tools to make those decisions.

    Chapter 2 gives an overview

  3. Identification and characterisation of the polymorphic growth hormone gene of the Bali cattle, the Madura cattle and Ongole cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIS JUNAIDI

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 150 cattle consisting of 3 breeds (Bali, Madura and Ongole of Indonesian native cattle were used in this study. The aims of the study were to identify and characterize polymorphisms in the growth hormone loci of those breeds of cattle. The genomic DNA was extracted using Wizard genomic DNA purification system from Promega. Two fragments of growth hormone gene were amplified using PCR and continued with RFLP using restriction enzymes of AluI and MspI. Polymorphisms were found at both loci of GH-L1 and GH-L2 of the growth hormone gene by PCR-RFLP analysis in all breeds of those cattle.

  4. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study the efficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of these two breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with an average body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard, soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6 h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h post-feeding, being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding at a level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were 53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acid were 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. In addition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. Rumen pH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while the PO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similar efficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  5. RUMINAL CONDITION BETWEEN MADURA CATTLE AND ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE RAISED UNDER INTENSIVE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Each four young bulls of Madura cattle and Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle were used to study theefficiency of ruminal fermentation by comparing the proportion of Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA of thesetwo breeds which were raised under intensive feeding. All the cattle were in about 1.5 years-old with anaverage body weight of 147.75 ± 14.57 kg and 167 ± 22.57 kg, for Madura and OC cattle, respectively.They were fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum hay, and concentrate feeding consists of pollard,soybean meal and rice bran for 10 weeks. Parameters measured were concentration of VFA at 0, 3 and 6h post-feeding and pH. The concentration of VFA in both Madura and OC cattle was peaked at 3 h postfeeding,being 136.1 mmol and 158.9 mmol, respectively, and then were decreased at 6 h post-feeding ata level of 58.1 and 98.2 mmol, respectively. The proportion of acetic acid in Madura and OC cattle were53.33% and 52.0% of total VFA, respectively, while the proportion of propionic acid and butyric acidwere 28.80% and 17.87% for Madura cattle, and 30.71% and 17.28% for OC cattle, respectively. Inaddition, the Acetic/Propionic ratios were 1.85 and 1.69 for Madura and OC cattle, respectively. RumenpH conditions of both cattle breeds tended to be basic, i.e. Madura cattle was ranged at 8.0-8.4, while thePO cattle was ranged at 7.6-8.4. In conclusion, both cattle breeds (Madura and OC cattle have a similarefficiency to utilize the feeds in the rumen.

  6. Genetic comparison of breeding schemes based on semen importation and local breeding schemes: Framework and application to Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Local breeding schemes for Holstein cattle of Costa Rica were compared with the current practice based on continuous semen importation (SI) by deterministic simulation. Comparison was made on the basis of genetic response and correlation between breeding goals. A local breeding goal was defined on

  7. Blood Protein Polymorphism of Small Cattle Bred in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Marmaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochemical and genetic markers have not yet been used in selection and breeding of agricultural animals in Armenia. The objective behind the experiments was to assess the small cattle bred in Armenia- the semi-coarse wool and semi-fine wool sheep, as well as goats of different genotypes characterized by different milk productivity, polymorphic blood proteins-transferrin, ceruloplasmin, aiming to use them in breeding. Another objective was to study the genetic distance between the researched breeds and crossbreeds aiming to reveal the genetic similarity. The findings of research studies come to show that goats with polymorphic transferrin locus and a big set of genotypes are characterized by higher milk productivity; therefore it is recommended that they be used in selection as a supplementary milk productivity marker. The genetic distance between the researched goats comprised 0,60 which comes to show that semi-fine wool sheep were also bred with the help of semi-coarse wool crossbreeds. The high coefficients of genetic distance of crossbreed goats compared to both the highly milk producing imported breeds and the locals are indicative of inherited high adaptability qualities of locals and high milk producing quality of pure breeds.

  8. Indigenous Bali cattle is most suitable for sustainable small farming in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martojo, H

    2012-01-01

    Livestock husbandry is essential for Indonesia. This study reviews cattle characteristics and husbandry methods in the country with special interest in describing the importance of indigenous breeds of cattle. As a conclusion, the Bali cattle ought to be considered the most suitable indigenous cattle breed for the low-input, high stress production system still practised by millions of families in Indonesia. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Environmental regulation of annual schedules in opportunistically-breeding songbirds: adaptive specializations or variations on a theme of white-crowned sparrow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas P; Cornelius, Jamie M; Sewall, Kendra B; Kelsey, T Rodd; Hau, Michaela; Perfito, Nicole

    2008-07-01

    How birds use environmental cues to time breeding, migration and molt has been the subject of intensive study for nearly 90 years. Most work has focused on seasonal breeders; opportunistic breeders have been presumed to differ fundamentally from seasonal taxa in ways that facilitate coping with unpredictable environments. Understanding patterns and mechanisms of opportunists' responses to environmental cues can reveal the extent to which different environments require specialized adaptations of cue response systems. In this review we will present our perspective on how patterns and mechanisms of environmental cue response of three groups of opportunists--zebra finches, crossbills and Darwin's finches--compare with seasonal breeders. Long-standing predictions regarding tonic activity of the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone system have been confirmed in at least some opportunists. However, opportunists resemble seasonal breeders in some surprising ways, illustrating basic similarity among taxa facing very different timing challenges. For instance, many opportunists completely regress the gonads outside breeding times, rely on initial predictive cues (both photic and non-photic) to regulate timing and rate of reproductive development, and in some cases even appear to display internal changes in responsiveness to environmental cues (i.e., cycles of reproductive refractoriness and sensitivity). Although advantages of unrestricted temporal flexibility are intuitively clear for animals coping with unpredictable habitats, the available data on these opportunists indicate that in all but the most extremely capricious situations the advantages of flexibility may be at least partly outweighed by contrasting advantages of following a reliable temporal schedule.

  10. Banteng and Bali cattle in Indonesia: status and forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwantara, B; Noor, R R; Andersson, G; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2012-01-01

    Bali cattle still represents 27% of the total cattle population in Indonesia, and it is considered the pillar breed for small farmers. Moreover, it is a breed of evolutionary importance regarding its direct ancestry from Banteng. However, there is a need for the establishment of a rational system for the evaluation of breeding soundness for indigenous Bali bulls to be used as sires for artificial insemination breeding programmes. Moreover, there is a need for cryobanking of well-identified genetic resources pertaining their use in evolutionary research and application as essential germplasm in breeding programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Objetivos de seleção e valores econômicos em sistemas de produção de gado de corte no Brasil Breeding goals and economic values for beef cattle production systems in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jorge Júnior

    2007-10-01

    importance of possible traits to be included in breeding goals, for different production systems of Nelore cattle. Two types of production systems (cow-calf and complete breeding cycles were simulated for two types of herds. Herd 1 was defined as a nucleus herd (where selection was carried out and a percentage of animals were also raised for commercial purposes, with cow-calf (Cc, complete breeding cycle (Cbc and complete breeding cycle with sales of animals for reproduction (CbcR. Herd 2 was defined as an exclusively commercial herd, with cow-calf cycle (Cc and complete breeding cycle (Cbc. Using a bio-economic model, economic values were calculated for the following traits: weaning weight (WW, weaning rate (WR, mature weight (MW, average daily gain in feed-lot (DAG, slaughter (WS and carcass weights (WC, young bulls' final weight (FWYB, dressing percentage (DP, feed-lot (FLFI and pasture feed intakes (PFI. The economic values for Cbc and CbcR (herds 1 and 2 ranged from R$ 0.34 to R$ 0.40 for WW, R$ 3.51 to R$ 10.15 for WR, -R$ 0.16 to R$ 0.09 for MW, R$ 0.32 to R$ 0.76 for FLFI, R$ 1.09 to R$ 1.17 for WS; R$ 2.03 to R$ 2.19 for WC, R$ 23.89 to R$ 28.61 for YG, R$ 11.85 for FWYB, - R$ 0.45 for FLFI and - R$ 0.03 for PFI. WR and DP presented the largest impacts on annual profits in both herds. Sensitivity analyses indicated that, in general, possible changes in prices of production components and products would exert a greater influence on the economic values for those production systems with higher prices in the basic situation.

  12. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Jovanovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available University textbook Principles of Animal Breeding is intended for students of agriculture and veterinary medicine. The material is the adapted curricula of undergraduate and graduate level studies in the framework of which the modules Principles of animal breeding as well as Basics of genetics and selection of animals attended are listened. The textbook contains 14 chapters and a glossary of terms. Its concept enables combining fundamental and modern knowledge in the breeding and selection of animals based on balanced and quality manner. The textbook material can be divided into several thematic sections. The first one relates to the classical notions of domestic animals breeding such as the history of breeding, domestication, breed, hereditary and non-hereditary variability and description of general and production traits. The second section focuses on the basic concepts in population and quantitative genetics, as well as biometrics. The third unit is dedicated to the principles of selection and domestic animals improving. The fourth unit relates to the current concepts and objectives of the molecular markers use in domestic animals selection and breeding. The above material has been submitted to the Croatian universities, but so far it has not been published as a textbook. The Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of Republic of Croatia approved financial support for the textbook publication.

  13. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajas.v33i3.3768 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

  14. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mnr J F Kluyts

    For a meat enterprise, w is the carcass weight of individual animals sold and α is a constant. The exponents ..... when the economic value of a trait depends on management decisions (e.g. herd size, cost of buildings, age ..... reduce the level of risk and uncertainty, increase the protection and effective management of natural.

  15. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in South Africa ... negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be ..... health disorders and measures of fertility in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle. Anim. Sci.

  16. Is artificial selection in Italian Holstein Friesian cattle favouring heterozygotes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Valentini

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the genetic analysis of cattle breeds has shown that most of the genetic variability is located within breeds instead that between breeds (Mac Hugh et al., 1998. Moreover, the amount of genetic diversity assessed within breeds is quite high (Edwards et al., 2000. A selection pressure in favour of the heterozygotes can be a possible explanation for this. In this case the management of cattle breeds would represent a tool to preserve genetic variability, instead of the cause of its decline. The Italian Friesian is the main Italian dairy cattle breed. The herd book has been created in 1959 and is managed by the ANAFI (National Association of Italian Friesian Breeders. Each year ANAFI updates the herd book and uses productive data for computing genetic evaluations by an animal model analysis. These genetic evaluations are available to the farmers who use them to choose semen for artificial insemination.........

  17. Characterizing physiological status in three breeds of bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Osadchuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and climatic factors have an impact on the health, productivity and reproduction of the cattle. The goal of this work is the study of physiological status of servicing bulls reared under ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region, by defining the differences between Red-Steppe, Simmental and Black-and-White breeds in spermatogenic, hormonal, biochemical and hematological parameters. Samples of peripheral blood and ejaculates were taken from 48 grown-up servicing bulls (average age 5.6±0.3 years in autumn period. It was established that Red-Steppe bulls have higher concentrations of nonorganic phosphorus, leucocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in comparison with animals of Simmental breed, and the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit are also higher in comparison with Black-and-White breed. It was noted that bulls of Black-and-White breed have a higher level of cortisol in comparison with the other breeds. The lowest level of serum urea and total protein and increased serum activity of creatine kinase and γ-glutamyl transferase, as well as the heaviest body weight were observed in Simmental breed bulls. The differences between breeds in a wide spectrum of physiological measures reflect not only genetically determined peculiarities of homeostatic mechanism, but also may reflect different ability to adapt to local ecological and climate conditions of the Altai region. Spermatogenic, biochemical and hematological measures in bull sires reared in the Altai region were similar to those in bulls bred in other Russian regions and some other countries. The measures reported could serve as reference values and therefore represent ‘normal’ values of physiological status for these bull sires reared in this ecological and climatic zone, but could be utilized in further studies for comprehensive monitoring of cattle breeding stock in other ecological and climatic zones of the Siberian

  18. What drives cooperative breeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter D Koenig

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative breeding, in which more than a pair of conspecifics cooperate to raise young at a single nest or brood, is widespread among vertebrates but highly variable in its geographic distribution. Particularly vexing has been identifying the ecological correlates of this phenomenon, which has been suggested to be favored in populations inhabiting both relatively stable, productive environments and in populations living under highly variable and unpredictable conditions. Griesser et al. provide a novel approach to this problem, performing a phylogenetic analysis indicating that family living is an intermediate step between nonsocial and cooperative breeding birds. They then examine the ecological and climatic conditions associated with these different social systems, concluding that cooperative breeding emerges when family living is favored in highly productive environments, followed secondarily by selection for cooperative breeding when environmental conditions deteriorate and within-year variability increases. Combined with recent work addressing the fitness consequences of cooperative breeding, Griesser et al.'s contribution stands to move the field forward by demonstrating that the evolution of complex adaptations such as cooperative breeding may only be understood when each of the steps leading to it are identified and carefully integrated.

  19. Genetic analysis of female fertility traits in South African Holstein cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bobby

    Abstract. Female fertility is increasingly gaining importance in national dairy cattle breeding objectives worldwide. In South Africa, there is no routine prediction of breeding values for reproductive performance in dairy cattle and selection is mainly focused on production traits. The objective of this study was to estimate ...

  20. Haemoglobins in cattle and buffalo. Haemoglobin types of Bos taurus, Bos indicus, Bos banteng and Bubalis bubalis in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, A W; Campbell, R S; Yellowlees, D

    1978-10-01

    The frequency of haemoglobin types in several major breeds of cattle in northern Austrailia was determined. In all Boss taurus cattle examined only the three common bovine haemoglobin types (AA, AB, BB) were found. F2 Africander cross-breeds showed only AA patterns. The frequency of haemoglobin B was significantly higher in Bos indicus type cattle than in Bos taurus breeds. In the pure breed Banteng cattle (Bos banteng) three genotypes (BB, CB, CC) were present. The eleven buffaloes types each showed two haemoglobins (A1 and A2) in proporotions of 71 to 29 respectively.

  1. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait...

  2. Differences in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle with high and low genetic merit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, K.A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of genetic diversity in Holstein cattle based on pedigree data, indicate a decrease in genetic diversity in Holstein cattle, because of a lower effective population size and a higher relatedness compared to other cattle breeds. However, pedigree based diversity reflects only the overall

  3. Objetivos de seleção para sistemas de produção de gado de corte em pasto: ponderadores econômicos Economic values for breeding goal traits for Brazilian beef cattle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference

  4. Validating the breeding value for maternal gain from birth to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike MacNeil

    Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef cattle with measured milk ... maternal breeding value for preweaning gain may be nearly as effective in changing milk production as direct selection. ... eastern Montana and the Northern Great Plains Region provided annual support for a cow-calf pair on.

  5. Predicting breeding values in animals by kalman filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karacaören, Burak; Janss, Luc; Kadarmideen, Haja

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate usefulness of Kalman Filter (KF) Random Walk methodology (KF-RW) for prediction of breeding values in animals. We used body condition score (BCS) from dairy cattle for illustrating use of KF-RW. BCS was measured by Swiss Holstein Breeding Association during...

  6. Diversity and Evolution of 11 Innate Immune Genes in Bos Taurus Taurus and Bos Taurus Indicus Cattle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christopher M. Seabury; Paul M. Seabury; Jared E. Decker; Robert D. Schnabel; Jeremy F. Taylor; James E. Womack

    2010-01-01

    ...) for 37 cattle breeds. Bayesian haplotype reconstructions and median joining networks revealed haplotype sharing between Bos taurus taurus and Bos taurus indicus breeds at every locus, and we were unable to differentiate...

  7. Current Condition and directions of Livestock Breeding in the Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Central Anatolia Region is one of the seven geographical regions which are 151 thousand square meters of surface area and it is about 21.0% of Turkey's land area. The population rate of cattle breeds in the Central Anatolia Region is 20.4% exotic cattle breeds, 19.1% crossbred, 11.6% native cattle breeds and total 18.1% in Turkey. The Central Anatolia Region cattle population is consists of 43.9% of exotic breed, 43.5% crossbred and 12.6% the native cattle breeds. The population of exotic cattle breeds (69.5% in Nigde province is the first place and followed by Eskisehir provinces rate of 65.6% in the Central Anatolia Region. The rate of crossbred cattle population is the highest rate (65.0% province of Sivas and followed by Çankırı province (62.8%. Ankara and Yozgat province has the highest rate of native cattle breed 28.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The total populations of cattle breeds in Konya and Kırıkkale provinces were found maximum 518.291 cattle and minimum 45.426 cattle, respectively, in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of exotic and crossbred cattle breeds has increased 67.0% and 11.8%, respectively, while population rate of native cattle breeds has decreased 30.3% from 2007 to 2011 in the Central Anatolia Region. The 20.1% of sheep, 8.2% of goat and 18.3% rates of total livestock population in Turkey are in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of sheep and goat of the Central Anatolia Region is 20.1% and 9.5%, sheep and goat respectively and 18.3% total in Turkey. The 70.9% for Angora goats, 8.2% hair of goats, and 17.7% indigenous of sheep breeds and 66.0% crossbreed to national Sheep and Goat population has risen in the Central Anatolia Region. All of these results are evaluated, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, the contribution of animal products grown by population of cattle and small ruminants is important and can be considered a center of attraction for investment in animal breeding

  8. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending...

  9. Prevalence of Taenia Saginata in Cattle Slaughtered at Tudun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out between March and June 2009 to determine the prevalence of Taenia Saginata among different breeds of cows slaughtered at Tudun Wada Abattoir, Kaduna. Two hundred (200) specimens of the different breeds of cattle feces were screened for T. Saginata eggs. Wet mount and centrifugal ...

  10. Methods to estimate effective population size using pedigree data: Examples in dog, sheep, cattle and horse

    OpenAIRE

    Mary-Huard, Tristan; Verrier, Etienne; Danvy, Sophie; Charvolin Lemaire, Eleonore; Danchin-Burge, Coralie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective population sizes of 140 populations (including 60 dog breeds, 40 sheep breeds, 20 cattle breeds and 20 horse breeds) were computed using pedigree information and six different computation methods. Simple demographical information (number of breeding males and females), variance of progeny size, or evolution of identity by descent probabilities based on coancestry or inbreeding were used as well as identity by descent rate between two successive generations or individual ...

  11. Analyze of the milk yield and economics indicators in dairy cows of Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    ZNAMENANÁ, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the trial was to analyze selected indicators of milk yield and economics of milk production in dairy herd of Holstein cattle. Economics of dairy cows is critical to keeping cattle on the farm. Among the main priorities that can improve the economic results of cattle, are mainly production conditions corresponding milk yields, good fertility, high quality market products, quality dairy nutrition, good health, appropriate management of breeding and compliance of welfare in the cattle...

  12. Comparative phenotypic profile of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in European (Bos taurus taurus) and Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macêdo, A A; Marciano, A P V; Rocha, L M; Alves-Júnior, J R F; Faria, A M C; Bittar, J F F; Araújo, M S S; Santos, R L; Martins-Filho, O A

    2013-12-19

    Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Hereford) and Zebu (including Gir, Nelore, and Guzera) breeds, by assessing their peripheral blood leukocyte profiles (i.e., monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD21(+) B cells). Higher frequencies of cells involved in innate immunity were observed in Zebu breeds, particularly monocytes and non-T and non-B cells (13.37 ± 0.9058 and 37.67 ± 1.55, respectively). This finding may contribute to the increased resistance of B. taurus indicus to certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Considering other leukocyte populations in the peripheral blood, among-breed variation was greater than differences between the two subspecies. This study will serve as a basis for further investigations regarding comparative immunology and resistance to infectious and parasitic diseases of cattle.

  13. On the origin of Indonesian cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad, Kusdiantoro; Olsson, Mia; van Tol, Helena T A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817; Mikko, Sofia; Vlamings, Bart H.; Andersson, Göran; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto; Purwantara, Bambang; Paling, Robert W.; Colenbrander, Ben; Lenstra, Johannes A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067852335

    2009-01-01

    Background: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus) and banteng (Bos javanicus), respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been

  14. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa) Based Detection of Antibodies to Mycoplasma bovis in Cattle Naturally Infected with Haemoparasites in Institutional farms in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    F.M. Tambuwal; L. Stipkovits; G.O. Egwu; A.U. Junaidu; M.B. Abubakar and U.A. Turaki

    2011-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study involving cattle from four (4) institutional farms (Prison farm, Livestock Investigation and Breeding Centre (LIBC), Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching and Research (UDUTRF) and Kebbe Cattle Ranch (KCR) in Sokoto state, Nigeria. A total of 62 cattle comprising 49 females and 13 males were randomly selected and bled from a total population of 205. The cattle sampled were local breeds comprising Gudali, Rahaji, White-Fulani and their crosses. They were aged 1-...

  15. Morphological characterization ofMadura Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiadi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characterization of Madura cattle in Madura islands was done as an input for "action plans" of national animals genetic resources management according to the global system ofFAO. Assessments were done in Sumenep District and Pamekasan District, East Java. According to the body measurements, Madura cattle can be classified as a small to medium type with withers height of about 120 cm. Because of potential productivity in the limitation of environmental resources, Madura cattle can be classified as a "superior" cattle . Body measurements of Madura cattle in the present study were relatively the same with those of 50 years ago, indicating that there is no breeding improvement activities except natural selection . The variability of body measurements is relatively narrow . Improving productivity by outbreeding is needed . To conserve the unique germ plasm of the Indonesian genotype, such as Madura cattle and a possibility to improve their productivity by a complete prevention of cross breeding in the Madura islands needs further evaluation .

  16. Rumen epithelial adaptation to ruminal acidosis in lactating cattle involves the coordinated expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, M A; Dionissopoulos, L; AlZahal, O; Doelman, J; McBride, B W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the mRNA expression of metabolic and proliferative genes in the rumen epithelium during ruminal acidosis. To meet our objectives, 16 rumen-fistulated, lactating Holstein dairy cattle (618±35 kg of body weight, 221±32 d in milk) were used in a randomized complete block design. All cattle were fed a high-forage diet (HF; 88.9% of dry matter) for 5 wk before the experiment. After the baseline week (wk 0), half of the cattle were randomly assigned and transitioned to a high-concentrate diet (HC; 62.2% of dry matter) which was fed for 3 wk (wk 1, 2, and 3). For the last 48 h of each week, continuous ruminal pH, short-chain fatty acids, and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate were assessed, followed by a rumen papillae biopsy. Milk production was higher in HC cattle compared with HF during wk 1, 2, and 3 (17.4±0.5 vs. 23.4±0.9 kg/d, respectively); however, the mean ruminal pH was decreased (5.75±0.03 vs. 6.30±0.02). The HC cattle spent more time below pH 5.6 (594±54 vs. 3±3 min/d) and displayed greater concentrations of ruminal butyrate (15.8±0.9 vs. 10.2±0.4 mmol) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (1,036±63 vs. 778±20 μM) compared with the HF cattle. The mRNA expression of genes involved in ketogenesis (HMGCS2 and PPARA) and short-chain fatty acid transport (MCT1) was unchanged by treatment. However, a downregulation in HMGCS1 (0.72±0.09), one of the cholesterol biosynthesis genes, was observed in HC cattle during wk 1 of the grain challenge. In addition, the relative mRNA expression value of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 was lower (0.78±0.06), whereas insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 was higher (1.79±0.15) in HC compared with HF cattle. These results suggest that grain-induced ruminal acidosis alters the mRNA expression of IGF-binding proteins and a cholesterolgenic enzyme in the rumen epithelium of lactating dairy cattle. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  17. Serological and molecular detection of bovine leukemia virus in cattle in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, Yahia Ismail; Hasso, Saleem Amin; Yaseen, Nahi Y; Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Iraq, and it impacts the beef and dairy industries. The current study sought to determine the percentage of BLV infection and persistent lymphocytosis (PL) in cattle in central Iraq. Hematological, serological, and molecular observations in cross breeds and local breeds of Iraqi cattle naturally infected with BLV were conducted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 400 cattle (340 cross breed and 60 local breed) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). On the basis of the absolute number of lymphocytes, five of the 31 positive PCR cases had PL. Among these leukemic cattle, one case exhibited overt neutrophilia. Serum samples were used to detect BLV antibodies, which were observed in 28 (7%) samples. PCR detected BLV provirus in 31 samples (7.75%). All 28 of the seropositive samples and the 3 seronegative samples were positive using PCR. Associations were observed between bovine leukosis and cattle breed, age and sex. Age-specific analysis showed that the BLV percentage increased with age in both breeds. Female cattle (29 animals; 7.34%) exhibited significantly higher infectivity than male cattle (two animals; 4.34%). In conclusion, comprehensive screening for all affected animals is needed in Iraq; programs that segregate cattle can be an effective and important method to control and/or eliminate the BLV. PMID:27273225

  18. STOCK BREEDING IN TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Knežević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Stock Breeding in Tropical and Subtropical Conditions contains the following chapters: General part, Cattle and camels, Sheep and goats, Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies, Index and Appendix with photographs of domestic animals in tropical and subtropical area. The textbook is written for students of the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and serves as a reading recommended within the module of the same title. Since 1997, when this module was introduced to curriculum as an elective course, students have showed great interest for gaining knowledge on cattle breeding in specific tropical and subtropical conditions. They prepared numerous seminary papers and final theses on the mentioned topic. Gaining of such knowledge contributes to openness and mobility of students to other European universities, which further promotes Bologna Process principles. The textbook covers all topics that are planned to be elaborated within the module. The handbook content is divided into two parts. The first part overviews numerous problems that producers of cattle in tropical and subtropical conditions are faced with. Some of those problems are also present in Croatia, especially in the warmer part of a year, becoming more obvious because of global climatic changes. Some breeds of cattle typical for tropical and subtropical areas are presented in the second part of the textbook within three chapters (Cattle and camels, Sheep and goats, Horses, donkeys, mules and hinnies. According to historical records, some of these animals, such as buffalos lived in our areas, particularly in Slavonia, while some other breeds live today across Europe and are treated as exotic animals.

  19. Models of bovine babesiosis including juvenile cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad-Roy, C M; Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2015-03-01

    Bovine Babesiosis in cattle is caused by the transmission of protozoa of Babesia spp. by ticks as vectors. Juvenile cattle (Bovine Babesiosis, rarely show symptoms, and acquire immunity upon recovery. Susceptibility to the disease varies between breeds of cattle. Models of the dynamics of Bovine Babesiosis transmitted by the cattle tick that include these factors are formulated as systems of ordinary differential equations. Basic reproduction numbers are calculated, and it is proved that if these numbers are below the threshold value of one, then Bovine Babesiosis dies out. However, above the threshold number of one, the disease may approach an endemic state. In this case, control measures are suggested by determining target reproduction numbers. The percentage of a particular population (for example, the adult bovine population) needed to be controlled to eradicate the disease is evaluated numerically using Columbia data from the literature.

  20. Short tandem repeat (STR based genetic diversity and relationship of indigenous Niger cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grema

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.

  1. Smallholder experiences with dairy cattle crossbreeding in the tropics: from introduction to impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschinsky, R; Kluszczynska, M; Sölkner, J; Puskur, R; Wurzinger, M

    2015-01-01

    Crossbreeding of indigenous tropical and improved western dairy cattle breeds as tool to improve dairy cattle performance on smallholder farms has been widely advocated, criticised and yet applied. The government of Ethiopia supported this technology for decades but adoption rate is low. Constraints are documented but there is little information about farm level introduction and development of crossbreeding. A total 122 smallholders with mixed crop livestock farms and at least 8 years of successful crossbreeding were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire in two contexts in Amhara Regional state in north-western Ethiopia. Crossbreeding initiator was either uncoordinated government extension or a coordinated development project, also implemented with governmental support. Qualitative and quantitative data on farmers' motivations, crossbreeding introduction, initiator support, breeding adaptation and impacts at farm level were analysed. Results show that even though motives vary between contexts the underlying reason to introduce crossbreeding was economic profit. To be able to introduce crossbreeding support of initiators (e.g. extension) and other farmers was essential. The crossbreeding introduction context had some influence. Governmental actors were the main source of support and supplier of exotic genetics but the farmer network acted as safety net filling gaps of government support. Breeding strategies focused on performance increase. A lack of basic understanding of crossbreeding has been identified. A surprising, probably biased, result was general satisfaction with initiator support and with breeding services. It was challenged by the high proportion of farmers unable to follow a breeding strategy due to insufficient bull and/or semen supply. Crossbreeding changed the smallholder production system to a high input - high output system. Except for crossbred adaptation problems, challenges were ranked context specific and influenced by the initiator

  2. Genetics of animal health and disease in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berry Donagh P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There have been considerable recent advancements in animal breeding and genetics relevant to disease control in cattle, which can now be utilised as part of an overall programme for improved cattle health. This review summarises the contribution of genetic makeup to differences in resistance to many diseases affecting cattle. Significant genetic variation in susceptibility to disease does exist among cattle suggesting that genetic selection for improved resistance to disease will be fruitful. Deficiencies in accurately recorded data on individual animal susceptibility to disease are, however, currently hindering the inclusion of health and disease resistance traits in national breeding goals. Developments in 'omics' technologies, such as genomic selection, may help overcome some of the limitations of traditional breeding programmes and will be especially beneficial in breeding for lowly heritable disease traits that only manifest themselves following exposure to pathogens or environmental stressors in adulthood. However, access to large databases of phenotypes on health and disease will still be necessary. This review clearly shows that genetics make a significant contribution to the overall health and resistance to disease in cattle. Therefore, breeding programmes for improved animal health and disease resistance should be seen as an integral part of any overall national disease control strategy.

  3. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Heaton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in global beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene (EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S. The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of the world's sheep breeds reveals high levels of historic mixture and strong recent selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Kijas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species.

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis of the World's Sheep Breeds Reveals High Levels of Historic Mixture and Strong Recent Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijas, James W.; Lenstra, Johannes A.; Hayes, Ben; Boitard, Simon; Porto Neto, Laercio R.; San Cristobal, Magali; Servin, Bertrand; McCulloch, Russell; Whan, Vicki; Gietzen, Kimberly; Paiva, Samuel; Barendse, William; Ciani, Elena; Raadsma, Herman; McEwan, John; Dalrymple, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Through their domestication and subsequent selection, sheep have been adapted to thrive in a diverse range of environments. To characterise the genetic consequence of both domestication and selection, we genotyped 49,034 SNP in 2,819 animals from a diverse collection of 74 sheep breeds. We find the majority of sheep populations contain high SNP diversity and have retained an effective population size much higher than most cattle or dog breeds, suggesting domestication occurred from a broad genetic base. Extensive haplotype sharing and generally low divergence time between breeds reveal frequent genetic exchange has occurred during the development of modern breeds. A scan of the genome for selection signals revealed 31 regions containing genes for coat pigmentation, skeletal morphology, body size, growth, and reproduction. We demonstrate the strongest selection signal has occurred in response to breeding for the absence of horns. The high density map of genetic variability provides an in-depth view of the genetic history for this important livestock species. PMID:22346734

  6. "Boldness" in the domestic dog differs among breeds and breed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-07-01

    "Boldness" in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies on boldness in dogs have found differences among breeds, but grouping breeds on the basis of behavioural similarities has been elusive. This study investigated differences in the expression of boldness among dog breeds, kennel club breed groups, and sub-groups of kennel club breed groups by way of a survey on dog personality circulated among Australian dog-training clubs and internet forums and lists. Breed had a significant effect on boldness (F=1.63, numDF=111, denDF=272, pbreed group (F=10.66, numDF=8, denDF=772, pbreed purpose. Retrievers were significantly bolder than flushing and pointing breeds (Reg. Coef.=2.148; S.E.=0.593; pbreeds were bolder than heading and cattle-herding breeds (Reg. Coef.=1.744; S.E.=0.866; p=0.045 and Reg. Coef.=1.842; S.E.=0.693; p=0.0084, respectively). This study supports the existence of the shy-bold continuum in dogs. Differences in boldness among groups and sub-groups suggest that behavioural tendencies may be influenced by historical purpose regardless of whether that purpose still factors in selective breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heritability of performance test traits in Chianina, Marchigiana and Romagnola breeds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sbarra, Fiorella; Mantovani, Roberto; Bittante, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    .... Data of 2422 young bulls (735 Marchigiana, 863 Chianina and 824 Romagnola) were used to update estimates of heritability for performance test traits of aforementioned Italian beef cattle breeds...

  8. Kegiatan Bisnis Layanan Pemeliharaan Ternak : Studi Kasus di Unit Breeding Services Elders Limited Australia (Animal Breeding Services Business Activity : Study Case in Breeding Services Unit at Elders Limited Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Maharani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the business activity of animal breeding services in livestock services company at Elders Limited Australia. Primary and secondary data in this paper were collected from Elders Limited Australia database and Elders staff interviewed. Data were analyzed in full descriptively. The study indicated that the business of breeding services can help the farmer especially breeder to improve the genetic performance of their cattle farm and help them to make the decision of breeding program. The product of Elders Breeding Services are semen sales, breed exact and next exact program (breeding program, Taylor Made Seedstock (embryo transfer program. The breeding services also help farmers to promote their product by using Elders Limited website. In Australia, the using breeding services are more effective and efficient than the farmers conducting their farm by their own program. (Key words: Business activity, Breeding services, Elders Limited

  9. Erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle: influence of age factors, sex factors and Nelore breed lines Diâmetro eritrocitário de zebuínos da raça Nelore: influência de fatores etários, sexual e do tipo racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Roque de Barros Filho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle raised in the State of São Paulo were determined with aim of the analyzing the influence of age factors, sex factors and breed lines factors. In order to get up the subject, blood samples from 170 healthy animals free of blood parasites were collected and submitted to standard hematological techniques and mensuration of the erythrocyte diameter by blood smears glass with Rosenfeld color. To evaluate the influence of age, 140 Nelore Standard were divided into seven age groups, from birth to over 72 month, including 20 animals for each groups. The influence of sex factors, were evaluated using 80 adult animals: 40 male and 40 female. The influence of the breed lines factors, were evaluated using 60 zebus, 15 animals of different varieties or strain, the Nelore: Standard, Lemgruber, “Mocho” and Kuleia. The results demonstrated significant differences (p< 0,05 into the age group: the erythrocyte diameter increase, from the group of calves neonates up to three months (4,72 ± 0,29µm to the group formed by adult animal above of 72 months (5,45 ± 0,17µm. No had influence of the sex and breed lines factors in this study. The average standard values of the erythrocyte diameter of the Nelore cattle were 5,24 ± 0,62µm and the range from 3,5 to 7,5µm. The results demonstrated the influence of age on the erythrocyte diameter of zebu Nelore cattle.O diâmetro eritrocitário (DME de zebuínos da raça Nelore, criados no Estado de São Paulo, foi determinado avaliando-se a influência de fatores relacionados à idade, ao sexo e ao tipo racial. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 170 animais sadios, livre de hemoparasitas, realizando-se o eritrograma e os esfregaços corados com o corante Rosenfeld. A influência de fatores etários foi realizada utilizando-se 140 esfregaços de Nelore do tipo Padrão, distribuídos em sete grupos etários, compostos cada um deles por 20 animais, incluindo-se esfrega

  10. Short communication: Importance of introgression for milk traits in the German Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Wellmann, R; Emmerling, R; Hamann, H; Bennewitz, J

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the present study was to analyze the influence of genetic introgression on milk yield performance of the German local Vorderwald and Hinterwald cattle breeds. Deviations of milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield of cows as well as pedigree information were analyzed. A sire model was used to estimate genetic trend and effects of the migrant breeds. Migrant contributions to Vorderwald cattle were high and have been rising even in the recent past. The effects of these breeds on milk yield performance were positive. Montbéliarde cattle not only had the largest effect on milk production of Vorderwald cattle but also the highest genetic contribution to this breed. Genetic introgression with Montbéliarde continued until recently. This suggests that introgression of high-yielding breeds is still a preferred method for genetic improvement of local breeds, even though it diminishes their value for conservation. Hence, the current population management has too little focus on the preservation of genetic uniqueness. In comparison, migrant breed contributions to the Hinterwald cattle, a breed with a unique phenotype and an own niche, were moderate and almost constant over the time. For the Hinterwald cattle, no significant effect of migrant breeds could be detected, which suggests that population management has different priorities in different endangered breeds. We conclude that not only the registration of animals from local breeds but also the breeding programs themselves should be supported and need to be controlled. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo collection of follicular fluid and granulosa cells from individual follicles of different diameters in cattle by an adapted ovum pick-up system

    OpenAIRE

    Arashiro, Eduardo KN; Palhao, Miller P; Wohlres-Viana,Sabine; Siqueira, Luiz GB; Camargo, Luiz SA; Henry, Marc; Viana, Joao HM

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies on granulosa cell (GC) function in cattle have been performed using GC and follicular fluid (FF) samples collected from slaughterhouse ovaries. Using this approach, the follicular developmental stage and functional status are unknown and indirectly inferred, limiting data interpretation. Ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration has previously been used to recover GC or FF samples, but this was mostly carried out in large follicles or pools of small follicles, without reco...

  12. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; Martínez-González, Juan C.; Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Moreno-Medina, Victor R.; Ortega-Rivas, Eligio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Zebu cattle are represented by a diverse group of breeds in México. Traditionally these breeds have been associated with the tough beef characteristic. Validated genetic markers have the potential to be included in marker-assisted selection and management programs in order to improve traits such as beef tenderness. The incidence and distribution of Calpain and Calpastatin polymorphisms strongly associated with beef tenderness were estimated in registered cattle of five Zebu br...

  13. The cattle farming activities in Aǧrı province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahinler, Zeki; Demir, Yücel

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to present the current data in the existing situation and potential of the cattle breeding. East Anatolia has an important place in Turkey's cattle breeding sector. Thus, Aǧrı is one of the key cities in the region and livestock breeding is a major resource of income for the population. According to Turkish Statistical Institute's data, the city of Aǧrı has the 8th place with its 321 710 head of cattle currently. In cattle gene types, with 170 583 head in local breeds it is in the first place, while it is in the 10thplace with a total of 131 195 head in crossbreeding and it stands in 63th place with 19 932 head culture race. Once again, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute's data, cattle farming brought in 382 987 750 TL as a result of 259 011 tons of the milk, 5 665 tons of meat and 8 887 skins. In 2014, Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock subsidized cattle farming in the city by paying 20 551 816 TL. Therefore, it is important to determine the existing conditions of livestock sector of the city, especially cattle farming, with regard to its potential and problems. Consequently, it would be possible to develop short term, mid-term, long term goals and solutions for the problems. As a conclusion, the city has a remarkable place in the region with its cattle population, characteristics of animal production and its position in the employment. Aǧrı represents a small model in local level for Turkey's overall livestock farming.

  14. Sustaining N'dama cattle for the resource-poor farmers in the Gambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , rural poverty and climate change. This study assesses the genetic improvement, sustainable production, utilization and conservation of this breed of cattle in order to strengthen them through relevant technical strategies and policy measures.

  15. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  17. Nutritive value of fodder mixes for nutrition of cattle in territory of Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šefer Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of five years (2005-2009, the laboratory of the Department for Nutrition and Botanic analyzed 22 samples of mixes from the territory of Serbia, intended for the diet of two categories of cattle (fattening calves I and dairy cows with over 20 liters of milk. The analysis was performed using standard methods, and the obtained results were compared with the quality conditions prescribed under the Regulations on quality and other requirements for animal feed (SRY Official Gazette numbers 20/00 and 38/01. Intensive breeding of cattle implies the use of concentrated mixes for all categories which are adapted to the age and purpose of maintenance of the animals. The mixes are products of the animal food industry, and they are obtained through an established technological procedure using the required raw materials. The inadequate quality of raw materials causes problems involving the quality of the finished products, so that strict adherence to the established recipes does not necessary result in a satisfactory quality of the mixes. All of the above imposes the need for the constant monitoring of the nutritive value of the mixes, and consequently also of their quality. On the grounds of the analysis of the presence of the elementary nutritive matter, no significant differences were established with regard to the prescribed quantity of nutritive matter, so that the use of the examined mixes in the diets of the respective categories of cattle can be expected to yield satisfactory production results. .

  18. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of artificial insemination in cattle breeding Worldwide leads to reduced effective population sizes and increased inbreeding levels. Increased inbreeding result in increased probalility of expression of recessive defective alleles, which probably is reflected in a decline...... in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...

  19. Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMAD AMIN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Amin M (2010 Intervention of genetic flow of the foreign cattle toward diversity of phenotype expressions of local cattle in the District of Banyuwangi. Biodiversitas 10: 69-74. The aims of the present research are two folds: to know the phenotypic diversity and to reconstruct the cross-breeding pattern of local cattle in Banyuwangi. Based on three sampling areas, it was found that there were 32 phenotypic cattle (10 in the sub districts of Rogojampi, 16 in Tegaldlimo and 6 in Glagah areas. The phenotypic varieties were caused by two factors, namely the flow of genetic intervention of the other local cattle (Bali, Ongole, and Brahman cattle and the artificial insemination program using the semen of Limousine, Simmental, Aberdeen Angus and Santa Gertrudis cattle.

  20. Microsatellite genotyping of medieval cattle from central Italy suggests an old origin of Chianina and Romagnola cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eGargani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of DNA from archaeological remains is a valuable tool to interpret the history of ancient animal populations. So far most studies of ancient DNA target mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, which reveals maternal lineages, but only partially the relationships of current breeds and ancient populations. In this study we explore the feasibility of nuclear DNA analysis. DNA was extracted from 1000-years old cattle bone collected from Ferento, an archaeological site in central Italy. Amplification of 15 microsatellite FAO-recommended markers with PCR products yielded genotypes for four markers. Expected heterozygosity was comparable with values of modern breeds, but observed heterozygosity was underestimated due to allelic loss. Genetic distances suggested a position intermediate between (1 Anatolian, Balkan, Sicilian and South-Italian cattle and (2 the Iberian, North-European and Central-European cattle, but also a clear relationship with two central-Italian breeds, Chianina and Romagnola. This suggests that these breeds are derived from medieval cattle living in the same area. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA for reconstructing the history of local cattle husbandry.

  1. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF THE ZEBU CATTLE BREED (Bos indicus IN THE DEPARTAMENT OF HUILA, COLOMBIA USING MICROSATELLITE MOLECULAR MARKERS Variabilidad genética de Zebú (Bos indicus en el departamento del Huila, Colombia, usando marcadores moleculares por microsatélites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS HERNÁNDEZ ESCOBAR

    Full Text Available The polymorphism of 11 microsatellites from zebu cattle (Bos indicus was studied using a commercial multiplex system to estimate genetic variability. Allele frequencies polymorphism information content and heterozygosis were calculated. Allele frequencies revealed that in the analyzed sample the markers were not equally polymorphic. The average allele was 14.2 with the highest values for the TGLA122 microsatellites. The mean heterozygocity was 0.7056 and the polymorphism information content was 0.668. This multiplex analysis could be used for pedigree information and for adequate genetic improvements in breeding programs and paternity test.Para estimar la variabilidad genética, el polimosfismo de 11 microsatélites de vacunos zebú (Bos indicus fue estudiado mediante el sistema comercial multiplex system. Se calcularon frecuencias alélicas, contenido de información polimórfica y heterocigosis. Las frecuencias alélicas de la muestra analizada revelan que los marcadores no fueron equitativamente polimórficos. El alelo promedio fue 14,2 con el mayor valor para los microsatélites TGLA122. El promedio de heterocigosidad fue 0,7056 y el contenido de información polimórfica de 0,668. Este tipo de análisis puede ser usado para información de pedigrí y mejoramiento genético en programas de cría y pruebas de paternidad.

  2. Runs of homozygosity and distribution of functional variants in cattle genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Bosse, Mirte

    Runs of homozygosity (ROH) are identified in four dairy cattle breeds using NGS data. Cattle populations have been exposed to strong artificial selection for some generations. Genomic regions under selection will show increased levels of ROH. By investigating the relationship between ROH and dist...

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF INTEGRATED CATTLE GENOMICS KNOWLEDGE BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minja Zorc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology approaches being applied to animal breeding represent an opportunity to derive greater benefits from animal production systems. The increasingly detailed investigations in systems biology have led to a large amount of data dispersed over various sources; therefore, a centralized knowledge base is in demand. In this study, we have integrated cattle genomics data of heterogeneous sources and types and developed a bioinformatics tool to study genotype-phenotype associations in cattle: http://integromics-time.com/integromics-database/. The tool enables revealing genomic overlaps within trait-associated loci and identification of potential functional candidates. It might be also used as a tool for planning genotype– phenotype research in cattle.

  4. Daya Hidup Spermatozoa Babi Large White Dengan Penambahan Ekstrak Cairan Vesikula Seminalis Sapi Bali (VITALITY OF SPERMATOZOA IN WHITE LARGE BREED SWINES ADDED BY EXTRACTED LIQUID OF BALI CATTLE SEMINAL VESICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaza Aini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study was to know the vitality of spermatozoa from large white breedswines in diluents phosphat egg yolk added by extracted liquid of bali cattle seminal vesicle storedin a temperature of four to five degree celcius. this study used completely randomized design with 4 treated group, each group repeated five times. first group were semen dilueted with phosphat eggyolk without added by extracted liquid of seminal vesicle as control; second group were semendilueted with phosphat egg yolk added by zero point five percent concentration of extracted liquidof seminal vesicle; third group were semen diluted with phosphat egg yolk added by one percentconcentration of extracted liquid of seminal vesicle, and fourth group were semen dilueted withphosphat egg yolk added by one point five percent concentration of extracted liquid of seminalvesicle. the observation was conducted to know the percentage of alive spermatozoa every 12 hour.the results of this study showed that the addition of extracted liquid of seminal vesicle wassignificant effected the vitality of spermatozoa in which the best concentration of extracted liqud od seminal vesicle was one percent.

  5. Tracing the maternal roots of the domestic Red Mountain Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hesse, Uwe G W; Froelich, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Red Mountain Cattle (RHV) is an important native ancient breed from the lower mountain ranges of Central Europe, which was originally raised for milk and meat production and as draught animal. In the 1980s, the RHV was close to extinction and only the sperm of a single purebreed bull and a few cows were available for breed formation. In this study the mitogenomes were sequenced of RHV from six maternal founder lineages. We observed six novel mitogenomes which have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. The RHV mitogenomes are grouped phylogenetically in the T-haplogroup indicating a South European origin and supporting their primitive position within the taurine breeds.

  6. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Kusdiantoro; Olsson, Mia; van Tol, Helena T A; Mikko, Sofia; Vlamings, Bart H; Andersson, Göran; Rodríguez-Martínez, Heriberto; Purwantara, Bambang; Paling, Robert W; Colenbrander, Ben; Lenstra, Johannes A

    2009-01-01

    Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus) and banteng (Bos javanicus), respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30%) and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura) or even complete (Galekan) maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  7. On the origin of Indonesian cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusdiantoro Mohamad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Two bovine species contribute to the Indonesian livestock, zebu (Bos indicus and banteng (Bos javanicus, respectively. Although male hybrid offspring of these species is not fertile, Indonesian cattle breeds are supposed to be of mixed species origin. However, this has not been documented and is so far only supported by preliminary molecular analysis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of mitochondrial, Y-chromosomal and microsatellite DNA showed a banteng introgression of 10-16% in Indonesian zebu breeds. East-Javanese Madura and Galekan cattle have higher levels of autosomal banteng introgression (20-30% and combine a zebu paternal lineage with a predominant (Madura or even complete (Galekan maternal banteng origin. Two Madura bulls carried taurine Y-chromosomal haplotypes, presumably of French Limousin origin. In contrast, we did not find evidence for zebu introgression in five populations of the Bali cattle, a domestic form of the banteng. CONCLUSIONS: Because of their unique species composition Indonesian cattle represent a valuable genetic resource, which potentially may also be exploited in other tropical regions.

  8. Analysis of the genetic structure of endangered bovine breeds from the Western Pyrenees using DNA microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendo, F; Iriondo, M; Jugo, B M; Aguirre, A; Mazón, L I; Vicario, A; Gómez, M; Estonba, A

    2004-04-01

    In the Western Pyrenees, three out of four native cattle breeds are in grave danger of extinction. Genetic variation of all four breeds was assessed by analyzing 478 animals using 11 microsatellite markers. A moderate/high within-breed variability was found, a favorable factor to consider when planning conservation and improvement programs. Interestingly, the only selected commercial breed, the Pirenaica, showed depressed heterozygosity levels and a low average number of alleles, perhaps explainable by intensive human selection exacerbated by a bottleneck effect. The Pirenaica also exhibited pronounced genetic differences and was the largest contributor of diversity among the breeds from the Western Pyrenees. Among endangered cattle breeds from this region, our results highlight the singularity of the Betizu. Geographic isolation among herds may be responsible for the large F(IS) value found in the Betizu breed. Lastly, our study suggests that the use of highly selected breeds may be one of the causes of distortion in phylogenetic analyses.

  9. Consequences of splitting whole-genome sequencing effort over multiple breeds on imputation accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of splitting sequencing effort over multiple breeds for imputation accuracy from a high-density SNP chip towards whole-genome sequence. Such information would assist for instance numerical smaller cattle breeds, but also pig and chicken

  10. Effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to determine the effect of breed and non-genetic factors on percentage milk composition of smallholders' dual-purpose cattle on-farm in the Ashanti Region. Fresh milk samples from various breeds of cows were assessed for percentage components of protein, fat, lactose, cholesterol, solidnon- fat and ...

  11. The effect of breed on fatty acid composition of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... incorporated into all lipid membrane tissues, that is, all the immune system tissues and cells, through the consumption of ..... (2007), who reported tissue and breed-specific responses in terms of TVA and CLA in cattle fed either a pasture or a ... Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Volume 2: Lipids. Springer, New ...

  12. Quantitative aspects of semen imports for South African dairy breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative aspects of semen imports for South African dairy breeds. Helena E. Theron* and J.H. Hofmeyr. Irene Animal Production Institute, Private Bag )(2, Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. S.J. Schoe man. Department of Livestock Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 Republic of South Africa. Dairy cattle ...

  13. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract

  14. Genomic selection & association mapping in rice: effect of trait genetic architecture, training population composition, marker number & statistical model on accuracy of rice genomic selection in elite, tropical rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic Selection (GS) is a new breeding method in which genome-wide markers are used to predict the breeding value of individuals in a breeding population. GS has been shown to improve breeding efficiency in dairy cattle and several crop plant species, and here we evaluate for the first time its ef...

  15. Evolution, plant breeding and biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with changes in biodiversity during the course of evolution, plant domestication and plant breeding. It shows than man has had a strong influence on the progressive decrease of biodiversity, unconscious at first and deliberate in modern times. The decrease in biodiversity in the agricultures of the North causes a severe threat to food security and is in contrasts with the conservation of biodiversity which is part of the culture of several populations in the South. The concluding section of the paper shows that man could have guided evolution in a different way and shows an example of participatory plant breeding, a type of breeding which is done in collaboration with farmers and is based on selection for specific adaptation. Even though participatory plant breeding has been practiced for only about 20 years and by relatively few groups, the effects on both biodiversity and crop production are impressive. Eventually the paper shows how participatory plant breeding can be developed into ‘evolutionary plant breeding’ to cope in a dynamic way with climate changes.

  16. Evaluation of wolf impacts on cattle productivity and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have initiated and employed an Adaptive Management System (AMS) to document the effects of gray wolves on cattle production systems in Oregon and Idaho. The project has collected information on cattle movement on land in both wolf common and wolf rare areas with GPS collars that record positions ...

  17. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  18. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Heaton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene (EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S. The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses.

  19. Breeding poplars with durable resistance to Melampsora larici-populina leaf rust: a multidisciplinary approach to understand and delay pathogen adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Jorge Dowkiw; M. Villar; E. Voisin; V. Guérin; P. Faivre-Rampant; A. Bresson; F. Bitton; S. Duplessis; P. Frey; B. Petre; C. Guinet; C. Xhaard; B. Fabre; F. Halkett; C. Plomion; C. Lalanne; C. Bastien

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, European poplar breeders learned the hard way that Melampsora larici-populina (commonly abbreviated as Mlp…) has an impressive adaptive potential (McDonald and Linde 2002). This fungal pathogen defeated all the deployed cultivars carrying qualitative (i.e., complete) resistances inherited from the...

  20. Genetic Variability of Guzerat and Senepol Bovine Breeds by Microsatellite Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Filho, Ednaldo; dos Santos, Yasmin Martins; Margarido, Yvana Melyssa Mandú; Mendes, Telmo José; Pinheiro, Luiz Marcelo de Lima; de Souza, Paulo Henrique; Campelo, José Elivalto Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Bovine production plays economic importance in Brazil and Guzerat and Senepol breeds are producer of meat. Itwas aimed to analyze the genetic variability of Guzerat and Senepol breeds by microsatellite markers. The breedswere collected and genotyped for ten microsatellite loci by automatic sequencer and statistically analysed. A total of53 alleles were observed being the average number was 5.3 in both breeds. The effective numbers of alleles were3.36 for Guzerat and 3.11 for Senepol cattle. T...

  1. Herdabilidade da habilidade de permanência no rebanho em fêmeas de bovinos da raça Canchim Heritability for stayability in Canchim beef cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Martin Nieto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de a característica habilidade de permanência no rebanho de matrizes ser utilizada como critério de seleção na raça Canchim. A habilidade de permanência no rebanho foi definida como a probabilidade de uma matriz ter três partos ou mais até os 76 meses de idade, desde que ela tenha tido a oportunidade de se reproduzir pelo menos uma vez. Codificações binárias, com 0 para indicar fracasso e 1 para indicar sucesso, foram feitas para cada fêmea. Uma codificação alternativa, com quatro categorias, considerou os valores 0, 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente, para vacas com menos de três, com três, quatro ou cinco partos até os 76 meses de idade. As análises foram processadas pela aplicação de um modelo unicaracterístico de touro avô-materno. Utilizou-se a amostragem de Gibbs para estimar os componentes de variância e herdabilidades. As estimativas de herdabilidade foram de 0,07, para a característica definida pelo modelo binário, e de 0,08, para a característica definida pelo modelo com quatro categorias. Os resultados indicam pequenas diferenças na estimativa de herdabilidade, pelos modelos binário e com quatro categorias. Sugerem também que as estimativas de herdabilidade, para a característica habilidade de permanência, na raça Canchim, apresenta baixo potencial de resposta à seleção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of using the stayability of beef cows as selection criterion for the Canchim breed. Stayability was defined as the probability of a beef cow having three or more parities up to 76 months of age, given that she have calved at least once and was older than 76 months. Binary coding, with 0 indicating failure and 1 indicating success, was defined for each cow. An alternative coding, with four categories, used the values 0, 1, 2 and 3, respectively, for cows with less than three, three, four or five parities up to 76 months of age

  2. The reproductive performance of Bali cattle and it’s genetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle ( Bos sondaicus is one of the Indonesia native cattle which is the result of wild banteng domestication. The advantages of Bali cattle, among others, are having a high fertility rate (80-82% and good adaptability to the new environment. It was found that there are genetic variation in several genes associated with reproductive function in Bali cattle. Some studies have reported an association between genetic variation in reproductive function of cattle. However, studies on the correlation between genetic variation reproductive genes with reproductive performance of Bali cattle are still low. This article aims to provide an overview of Bali cattle genetic variation reproductive genes and making it possible as candidate marker for selection and improving reproductive performance of Bali cattle. Key words: Bali cattle, reproductive performance, genetic variation

  3. Carbon footprint from dairy farming system: comparison between Holstein and Jersey cattle in Italian circumstances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Riva, A.; Kristensen, Troels; De Marchi1, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to estimate the carbon footprint (CF) of milk production at farm gate considering two dairy cattle breeds, Holstein Friesian (HF) and Jersey (JE). Using Italian inventory data the emissions of CO2eq per kg ECM for dairy herds of HF and JE breed were estimated...

  4. Estimation of genotype × environment interaction for yield, health and fertility in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.

    2006-01-01

    In dairy cattle breeding,health and fertility traits have recently been included in a large number of national breeding goals.

  5. MtDNA diversity among four Portuguese autochthonous dog breeds: a fine-scale characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa-Rita Pedro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The picture of dog mtDNA diversity, as obtained from geographically wide samplings but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, has revealed weak geographic correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. We aimed at a more detailed picture through extensive sampling (n = 143 of four Portuguese autochthonous breeds – Castro Laboreiro Dog, Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, Portuguese Sheepdog and Azores Cattle Dog-and comparatively reanalysing published worldwide data. Results Fifteen haplotypes belonging to four major haplogroups were found in these breeds, of which five are newly reported. The Castro Laboreiro Dog presented a 95% frequency of a new A haplotype, while all other breeds contained a diverse pool of existing lineages. The Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog, the most heterogeneous of the four Portuguese breeds, shared haplotypes with the other mainland breeds, while Azores Cattle Dog shared no haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds. A review of mtDNA haplotypes in dogs across the world revealed that: (a breeds tend to display haplotypes belonging to different haplogroups; (b haplogroup A is present in all breeds, and even uncommon haplogroups are highly dispersed among breeds and continental areas; (c haplotype sharing between breeds of the same region is lower than between breeds of different regions and (d genetic distances between breeds do not correlate with geography. Conclusion MtDNA haplotype sharing occurred between Serra da Estrela Mountain dogs (with putative origin in the centre of Portugal and two breeds in the north and south of the country-with the Castro Laboreiro Dog (which behaves, at the mtDNA level, as a sub-sample of the Serra da Estrela Mountain Dog and the southern Portuguese Sheepdog. In contrast, the Azores Cattle Dog did not share any haplotypes with the other Portuguese breeds, but with dogs sampled in Northern Europe. This suggested that the

  6. Effect of sex on meat quality characteristics of Qinchuan cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of sex on meat quality characteristics of. Qinchuan cattle. Ying-Ying Zhang1, Lin-Sen Zan1,2*, Hong-Bao Wang1,2, ... Key words: Qinchuan breed, sex, physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition. ... high nutritional value, high protein content, high ratio of meat ...

  7. Genetic diversity studies of Kherigarh cattle based on microsatellite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We report a genetic diversity study of Kherigarh cattle, a utility draught-purpose breed of India, currently declining at a startling rate, by use of microsatellite markers recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization. Microsatellite genotypes were derived, and allelic and genotypic frequencies, heterozygosities and ...

  8. Performance of Boran and Crossbred Cattle for Beef Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steers reared in a beef cattle crossbreeding experiment carried out in two ranches in central Tanzania were slaughtered at an average age slightly above four years. The genetic groups represented were purebred Boran and crosses out of Boran cows mated to bulls of 12 exotic breeds.· The steers were weighed prior to ...

  9. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following synchronization in the Central Bushveld bioregion of South Africa. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next breeding season and are generally seen as the more fertile animals.

  10. Performance of Improved Dairy Cattle Technologies Among Farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    countries, such as Nigeria are improved dairy cattle. Similar finding has been reported by Heinrichs et al. (2009) who stated that one of the excellent ways to improve herd productivity is to cross local cows to the exotic bulls and/or the introduction of semen from exotic breed into the female organ of local cow through artificial ...

  11. Fatty acid profile of humpback muscle (Rhomboideus m. from zebu breed (Nellore cattle=Perfil lipídico de “cupim” (músculo Rhomboideus de gado Nelore (linhagem zebuína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Kato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to characterize the lipidic profile of the Rhomboideus muscle (humpback present in the Nelore breed, and compare it to the Longissimis dorsi muscle (tenderloin. Male animals with 24 months of age, raised in pasture were slaughtered in a regional slaughterhouse and the Longissimus dorsi (LD and Rhomboideus (RH muscles were excised from the remaining of the carcass and analyzed after 24 hours refrigeration. Moisture, protein and total lipids were quantified and the fatty acid profile was analyzed. The results obtained show significant differences (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o perfil lipídico do músculo Rhomboideus (cupim presente na raça Nelore e compara-lo com o músculo Longissimis dorsi (contra filé. Animais machos com 24 meses de idade, criados em pasto foram abatidos em frigorífico regional e os músculos Longissimus dorsi (LD e Rhomboideus (RH retirados do restante da carcaça e analisados após 24 horas de refrigeração. Foram quantificados umidade, proteína, lipídios totais e analisado o perfil de ácidos graxos. Os resultados obtidos mostraram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05 na caracterização entre os músculos analisados em relação a sua composição. A maioria dos ácidos graxos detectados foram monoinsaturados (MUFA, sendo o ácido graxo presente em maior quantidade o ácido oleico (C18:1n-9 com valor de 48,11% para o músculo RH e 45,58% para o LD. Os ácidos graxos saturados (SFA com o ácido palmítico (C16:0 em maior quantidade com teores de 25,67 e 25,19%, para os músculos RH e LD, respectivamente. Em relação à saturação, o músculo RH tem maior quantidade de MUFA, 56,46%, mas menor razão PUFA/SFA com 0,081.

  12. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    , but they also contribute to climate change through the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). Mitigation and adaptation strategies are therefore needed. An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would ...

  13. Adoção da tecnologia da informação em organizações rurais: o caso da pecuária de corte Adoption of information technology in rural organization: the case of beef cattle breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme de Camargo Ferraz Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar o uso e a difusão da TI na pecuária de corte, a partir de fatores que influenciaram a adoção; e descrever recursos, procedimentos e ações necessárias para seu funcionamento. A pesquisa foi realizada em duas fases: uma quantitativa e outra qualitativa. Na primeira, foi realizado um levantamento do tipo survey com produtores, buscando informações acerca das diferentes tecnologias adotadas e das atitudes em relação a elas, possibilitando identificar o grau de inovatividade dos produtores e agrupá-los pela semelhança da postura tecnológica. A segunda analisou experiências, opiniões e perspectivas a respeito da tecnologia integrada ao sistema produtivo de duas propriedades em cada categoria, totalizando dez estudos de caso, a partir de entrevistas pessoais. Os resultados proporcionaram entendimento sobre os motivos da adoção ou rejeição de uma determinada TI, permitindo identificar as razões para alguns produtores adotarem mais rapidamente que outros. Foi possível entender as alterações ocorridas na organização rural por ocasião da implantação dessas tecnologias, observando-se um avanço nas práticas gerenciais a partir da adoção e uso da TI. De um modo geral, os processos foram aprimorados e facilitados, com reflexos positivos em várias áreas da propriedade, incluindo recursos humanos e a imagem do empreendimento no mercado.This research is aimed to study the use and the diffusion of IT in the beef cattle breeding from the analysis of the factors that have influenced its adoption as well as to describe resources, procedures, and necessary actions for IT operation using case studies in rural properties classified by the innovativeness degree. This study was carried out in two stages, quantitative and qualitative. In the first stage, a survey with producers was conducted. Information concerning the different technologies adopted enabled to identify the level of innovativeness of

  14. Brazilian Nelore cattle: a melting pot unfolded by molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, M A C; Heinneman, M B; Dani, S U

    2008-10-21

    The aim of the present article was to study the population structure and genetic diversity of Nelore cattle and genetic relationships between Nelore and different taurine and zebu breeds raised in Brazil. DNA polymorphism analysis was carried out with 1976 animals of 16 zebu, taurine and synthetic breeds raised in Brazil. A higher genetic differentiation was observed in taurine than in zebu cattle. Gene flow was intense between the different zebu populations. Genetic affinity analysis within the most conspicuous Brazilian zebu beef cattle, the Nelore, was carried out in a group of 615 animals from 15 representative herds. This analysis revealed at least two major Nelore subtypes, named after some genotype-phenotype associations such as the "thrifty type" and the "demanding type". This study provides molecular genetic evidence that, despite selection based on the phenotype, gene flow and gene segregation still play a major role in maintaining genetic variability within the Nelore and zebu population as a whole in Brazil.

  15. The Polymorphism of Pituitary Factor 1 (POU1F1 in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Crina Carsai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development and function of mammary gland is mainly controlled by growth hormone and prolactin, twoprotein hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Their synthesis is under regulatory influence of pituitaryfactor 1 (PIT1 or POU1F1, a protein factor produced in hypothalamic nuclei. In cattle, it was shown that a HinfIpolymorphism located in exon 6 of PIT1 gene may have significant influence on milk quantity. In particular A allelewas associated with a higher milk yield and could be a valuable genetic marker for improving milk quantity in cattle.In an effort to better understand the possible influence of this polymorphism on mammary gland development andfunction in cattle, we have studied the frequency this polymorphism in Romanian Black and White breed, a highmilk production cattle breed versus Romanian Grey Steppe breed, a primitive breed with very low milk production.In both breeds the frequency of B allele is much higher as compared with the frequency of A allele. The study ofPIT1 polymorphism in Romanian cattle breeds is a part of a more complex study targeting several key genesinvolved in mammary gland function.

  16. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

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    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  17. Avaliação de esquemas de seleção alternativos para bovinos Zebus de dupla aptidão Evaluation of alternative breeding programs for dual purpose Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato Braga Lôbo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando-se simulação determinística, foram avaliados seis esquemas de melhoramento, com diferentes grupos de informações: (1 somente características de crescimento, (2 somente características leiteiras, (3 características de crescimento e reprodutivas, (4 características leiteiras e reprodutivas, (5 características de crescimento e leiteiras e (6 características de crescimento, leiteiras e reprodutivas. Avaliaram-se também a resposta à variação no uso de touros provados por meio do teste de progênie, a resposta sem a realização do teste de progênie no estrato de vacas de corte da população e a resposta à variação no valor econômico do peso ao abate. Em todos os esquemas avaliados, foram verificados altos ganhos genéticos e lucros decorrentes do programa. Os esquemas que consideraram as características leiteiras foram mais eficientes pela seleção para maior produção de leite e menor peso de vaca adulta. As características de fertilidade foram mais importantes para os esquemas de corte. A resposta econômica à seleção foi maior com o aumento no uso de touros provados, embora não proporcionalmente. A contribuição das características de corte para o lucro genético somente superou a das leiteiras quando o valor econômico do peso ao abate superou em 14 vezes o da produção de leite. Foi demonstrado não haver necessidade da realização do teste de progênie com as vacas de corte para o sistema de dupla aptidão estudado.A deterministic simulation was used to compare six breeding schemes based on different levels of performance recording: (1 only body weights, (2 only dairy traits, (3 body weights and reproductive traits, (4 dairy and reproductive traits, (5 body weights and dairy traits and (6 body weights, reproductive and dairy traits. Other factors were also studied, as the level of usage of proven sires, variations in the economic value of slaughter weight and eliminating progeny testing in the beef

  18. Genetic characterization of Latin-American Creole cattle using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, J V; Martínez, A M; Acosta, A; Alvarez, L A; Armstrong, E; Camacho, E; Cañón, J; Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Landi, V; Marques, J R; Martín-Burriel, I; Martínez, O R; Martínez, R D; Melucci, L; Muñoz, J E; Penedo, M C T; Postiglioni, A; Quiróz, J; Rodellar, C; Sponenberg, P; Uffo, O; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Vega-Pla, J L; Villalobos, A; Zambrano, D; Zaragoza, P; Gama, L T; Ginja, C

    2012-02-01

    Genetic diversity in and relationships among 26 Creole cattle breeds from 10 American countries were assessed using 19 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, F-statistics estimates, genetic distances, multivariate analyses and assignment tests were performed. The levels of within-breed diversity detected in Creole cattle were considerable and higher than those previously reported for European breeds, but similar to those found in other Latin American breeds. Differences among breeds accounted for 8.4% of the total genetic variability. Most breeds clustered separately when the number of pre-defined populations was 21 (the most probable K value), with the exception of some closely related breeds that shared the same cluster and others that were admixed. Despite the high genetic diversity detected, significant inbreeding was also observed within some breeds, and heterozygote excess was detected in others. These results indicate that Creoles represent important reservoirs of cattle genetic diversity and that appropriate conservation measures should be implemented for these native breeds in order to minimize inbreeding and uncontrolled crossbreeding. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  19. Histopathology case definition of naturally acquired Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin infection in young Holstein cattle in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Heidi L; Thompson, Belinda; Duhamel, Gerald E

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin ( Salmonella Dublin) is a host-adapted bacterium that causes high morbidity and mortality in dairy cattle worldwide. A retrospective search of archives at the New York Animal Health Diagnostic Center revealed 57 culture-confirmed Salmonella Dublin cases from New York and Pennsylvania in which detailed histology of multiple tissues was available. Tissues routinely submitted by referring veterinarians for histologic evaluation included sections of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Of the 57 S almonella Dublin-positive cases, all were Holstein breed, 53 were female (93%), and 49 (86%) were 90% (45 of 49) of lungs, 90% (28 of 31) of livers, 50% (11 of 22) of spleens, and 62% (18 of 29) of lymph nodes examined had moderate-to-severe inflammation with or without necrosis. Inconstant lesions were seen in 48% (10 of 21) of hearts examined, and consisted of variable inflammatory infiltrates and rare areas of necrosis. We propose a histopathology case definition of Salmonella Dublin in <6-mo-old Holstein cattle that includes a combination of pulmonary alveolar capillary neutrophilia with or without hepatocellular necrosis and paratyphoid granulomas, splenitis, and lymphadenitis. These findings will assist in the development of improved protocols for the diagnosis of infectious diseases of dairy cattle.

  20. Global Metabolic Reconstruction and Metabolic Gene Evolution in the Cattle Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woonsu; Park, Hyesun; Seo, Seongwon

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of cattle genome provided a valuable opportunity to systematically link genetic and metabolic traits of cattle. The objectives of this study were 1) to reconstruct genome-scale cattle-specific metabolic pathways based on the most recent and updated cattle genome build and 2) to identify duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome for better understanding of metabolic adaptations in cattle. A bioinformatic pipeline of an organism for amalgamating genomic annotations from multiple sources was updated. Using this, an amalgamated cattle genome database based on UMD_3.1, was created. The amalgamated cattle genome database is composed of a total of 33,292 genes: 19,123 consensus genes between NCBI and Ensembl databases, 8,410 and 5,493 genes only found in NCBI or Ensembl, respectively, and 266 genes from NCBI scaffolds. A metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome and cattle pathway genome database (PGDB) was also developed using Pathway Tools, followed by an intensive manual curation. The manual curation filled or revised 68 pathway holes, deleted 36 metabolic pathways, and added 23 metabolic pathways. Consequently, the curated cattle PGDB contains 304 metabolic pathways, 2,460 reactions including 2,371 enzymatic reactions, and 4,012 enzymes. Furthermore, this study identified eight duplicated genes in 12 metabolic pathways in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse. Some of these duplicated genes are related with specific hormone biosynthesis and detoxifications. The updated genome-scale metabolic reconstruction is a useful tool for understanding biology and metabolic characteristics in cattle. There has been significant improvements in the quality of cattle genome annotations and the MetaCyc database. The duplicated metabolic genes in the cattle genome compared to human and mouse implies evolutionary changes in the cattle genome and provides a useful information for further research on understanding metabolic adaptations of cattle.

  1. Genetic diversity in cattle of eight regions in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Cordero-Solórzano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the extent of inter-regional genetic diversity present in the cattle of Costa Rica. 1498 DNA samples were collected (year 2013 from eight different regions within the country. Allelic frequencies and major population genetic parameters were determined for eighteen microsatellite markers. An analysis of molecular variance was also carried out and genetic distances were calculated between cattle from different regions. At the national level, a high allelic diversity was found, with an average of 14.6±1.01 observed alleles and 5.6+0.37 effective alleles per marker. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosities were 0.76±0.01 and 0.81±01, respectively. Polymorphic Information Content (PIC and Coefficient of Inbreeding (FIS were 0.79±0.06 and 0.06±0.004, respectively. At the regional level, Ho ranged between 0.73±0.02 in the South Central region to 0.78±0.01 in the North Huetar region. The dendrogram showed three clearly distinct groups, Metropolitan Central and West Central regions in one group, Caribbean Huetar, South Central, Central Pacific and Chorotega regions in a second group; and North Huetar and Brunca regions in a third intermediate group. Estimates of genetic differentiation (RST were significant between regions from different groups and non-significant for regions within the same group. Genetic differences between regions are related to differential proliferation of breed groups based on their adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions and production systems prevailing in each region.

  2. The molecular phylogenetic signature of Bali cattle revealed by maternal and paternal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Shabthar, S M F; Rosli, M K A; Mohd-Zin, N A A; Romaino, S M N; Fazly-Ann, Z A; Mahani, M C; Abas-Mazni, O; Zainuddin, R; Yaakop, S; Md-Zain, B M

    2013-08-01

    Bali cattle is a domestic cattle breed that can be found in Malaysia. It is a domestic cattle that was purely derived from a domestication event in Banteng (Bos javanicus) around 3,500 BC in Indonesia. This research was conducted to portray the phylogenetic relationships of the Bali cattle with other cattle species in Malaysia based on maternal and paternal lineage. We analyzed the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene and SRY of Y chromosome obtained from five species of the Bos genus (B. javanicus, Bos gaurus, Bos indicus, Bos taurus, and Bos grunniens). The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was used as an outgroup. The phylogenetic relationships were observed by employing several algorithms: Neighbor-Joining (PAUP version 4.0), Maximum parsimony (PAUP version 4.0) and Bayesian inference (MrBayes 3.1). Results from the maternal data showed that the Bali cattle formed a monophyletic clade, and together with the B. gaurus clade formed a wild cattle clade. Results were supported by high bootstrap and posterior probability values together with genetic distance data. For the paternal lineage, the sequence variation is low (with parsimony informative characters: 2/660) resulting an unresolved Neighbor-Joining tree. However, Bali cattle and other domestic cattle appear in two monophyletic clades distinct from yak, gaur and selembu. This study expresses the potential of the COI gene in portraying the phylogenetic relationships between several Bos species which is important for conservation efforts especially in decision making since cattle is highly bred and hybrid breeds are often formed. Genetic conservation for this high quality beef cattle breed is important by maintaining its genetic characters to prevent extinction or even decreased the genetic quality.

  3. The scurs inheritance: new insights from the French Charolais breed

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    Gautier Mathieu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polled animals are valued in cattle industry because the absence of horns has a significant economic impact. However, some cattle are neither polled nor horned but have so-called scurs on their heads, which are corneous growths loosely attached to the skull. A better understanding of the genetic determinism of the scurs phenotype would help to fine map the polled locus. To date, only one study has attempted to map the scurs locus in cattle. Here, we have investigated the inheritance of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed and examined whether the previously proposed localisation of the scurs locus on bovine chromosome 19 could be confirmed or not. Results Our results indicate that the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype in the French Charolais breed is autosomal recessive with complete penetrance in both sexes, which is different from what is reported for other breeds. The frequency of the scurs allele (Sc reaches 69.9% in the French Charolais population. Eleven microsatellite markers on bovine chromosome 19 were genotyped in 267 offspring (33 half-sib and full-sib families. Both non-parametric and parametric linkage analyses suggest that in the French Charolais population the scurs locus may not map to the previously identified region. A new analysis of an Angus-Hereford and Hereford-Hereford pedigree published in 1978 enabled us to calculate the frequency of the Sc allele in the Hereford breed (89.4% and to study the penetrance of this allele in males heterozygous for both polled and scurs loci (40%. This led us to revise the inheritance pattern of the scurs phenotype proposed for the Hereford breed and to suggest that allele Sc is not fully but partially dominant in double heterozygous males while it is always recessive in females. Crossbreeding involving the Charolais breed and other breeds gave results similar to those reported in the Hereford breed. Conclusion Our results suggest the existence of

  4. Genomic divergence of indicine and taurine cattle identified through high-density SNP genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    At an arguable date of around 330,000 years ago there were already at least two different types of cattle that became ancestors of nearly all modern cattle, the Bos primigenius taurus more adapted to temperate climates and the tropically adapted Bos primigenius indicus. Human selection exponentially...

  5. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  6. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Asit Kumar Maji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anestrous was higher in Non-descript cattle (53.86 % than that Crossbred Jersey cattle (46.14 % and incidence of repeat breeding was also significantly (P < 0.001 higher in non-descript cattle (68.05% than that of crossbred (31.95% animal. Irrespective of breeds the incidence of true anestrous, subestrus, anestrous due to pyometra with persistent corpus leuteum and infantile genitalia with other congenital disorders were 81.51 %, 9.34%, 1.44% and 7.71% respectively. It also revealed that incidence of repeat breeding due to anovulatory estrus, follicular cyst and uterine infection were 43.61%, 46.24%, and 10.15% respectively which were also significantly higher (P<0.001 in Non-descript cattle in comparison with Crossbred Jersey (72.4 vs. 27.0 %, 59.34 vs. 40.65% and 88.89 vs. 11.11% respectively for ND vs. CBJ.

  7. Review: Towards the agroecological management of ruminants, pigs and poultry through the development of sustainable breeding programmes. II. Breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phocas, F; Belloc, C; Bidanel, J; Delaby, L; Dourmad, J Y; Dumont, B; Ezanno, P; Fortun-Lamothe, L; Foucras, G; Frappat, B; González-García, E; Hazard, D; Larzul, C; Lubac, S; Mignon-Grasteau, S; Moreno, C R; Tixier-Boichard, M; Brochard, M

    2016-11-01

    Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry. Ruminant breeding is still an open system where farmers continue to choose their own breeds and strategies. Conversely, pig and poultry breeding is more or less the exclusive domain of international breeding companies which supply farmers with hybrid animals. Innovations in breeding strategies must therefore be adapted to the different species. In developed countries, reorienting current breeding programmes seems to be more effective than developing programmes dedicated to agroecological systems that will struggle to be really effective because of the small size of the populations currently concerned by such systems. Particular attention needs to be paid to determining the respective usefulness of cross-breeding v. straight breeding strategies of well-adapted local breeds. While cross-breeding may offer some immediate benefits in terms of improving certain traits that enable the animals to adapt well to local environmental conditions, it may be difficult to sustain these benefits in the longer term and could also induce an important loss of genetic diversity if the initial pure-bred populations are no longer produced. As well as supporting the value of within-breed diversity, we must preserve between-breed diversity in order to maintain numerous options for adaptation to a variety of production environments and contexts. This may involve specific public policies to maintain and characterize local breeds (in terms of both phenotypes and genotypes), which could

  8. Transcriptional profiling of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense highlights gene expression signatures underlying trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility

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    Naessens Jan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT caused by tsetse fly-transmitted protozoa of the genus Trypanosoma is a major constraint on livestock and agricultural production in Africa and is among the top ten global cattle diseases impacting on the poor. Here we show that a functional genomics approach can be used to identify temporal changes in host peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC gene expression due to disease progression. We also show that major gene expression differences exist between cattle from trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible breeds. Using bovine long oligonucleotide microarrays and real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR validation we analysed PBMC gene expression in naïve trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle experimentally challenged with Trypanosoma congolense across a 34-day infection time course. Results Trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle displayed a rapid and distinct transcriptional response to infection, with a ten-fold higher number of genes differentially expressed at day 14 post-infection compared to trypanosusceptible Boran cattle. These analyses identified coordinated temporal gene expression changes for both breeds in response to trypanosome infection. In addition, a panel of genes were identified that showed pronounced differences in gene expression between the two breeds, which may underlie the phenomena of trypanotolerance and trypanosusceptibility. Gene ontology (GO analysis demonstrate that the products of these genes may contribute to increased mitochondrial mRNA translational efficiency, a more pronounced B cell response, an elevated activation status and a heightened response to stress in trypanotolerant cattle. Conclusion This study has revealed an extensive and diverse range of cellular processes that are altered temporally in response to trypanosome infection in African cattle. Results indicate that the trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle respond more rapidly and with a

  9. REARING BEEF CATTLE IN SUBMOUNTAINOUS AND MOUNTAINOUS AREA OF THE ŠUMAVA REGION

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    Jarmila VOŘÍŠKOVÁ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef cattle rearing in Czech Republic started in 1990 when 12 major breeds of beef cattle were imported. Beef cattle rearing is of great importance for rural development and maintenance of permanent grasslands which covers 22.8% of agricultural land. Monitoring of selected beef cattle breeds was carried out in the Šumava region. Thirtyone farms with a total of 1 874 dams and 6 488 calves of seven beef breeds, i.e. Aberdeen Angus (G, Galloway (W, Hereford (U, Highland (E, Charolais (T, Beef Simmental ( S and Salers (Z were monitored over a period of 5 years. The main calving period in this region was from January to April when, regardless of the altitude of farms, 87.3% of calves were born on average. On the farms below 600 m.a.s.l. 89.2% and on the farms above 600 m a.s.l. 85.7% of calves were born during this period respectively. In the breeds Z, E and W 100% of calvings were without dificulties. The best results in the growth up to 210 days of age were achieved by the breeds Z (285.6 kg, S (279.4 kg and G (273.1 kg of live weight. The G and S breeds were found to favour growth in the areas up to 600 m.

  10. Methods and impact of genetic selection in dairy cattle: From daughter-dam comparisons to deep learning algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the early 1900s, breed society herdbooks had been established, and milk recording programs were in their infancy. Farmers were interested in improving the productivity of dairy cattle, but the foundations of population genetics, quantitative genetics, and animal breeding had not yet been laid. Li...

  11. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat and protein corrected milk, and live weight in first parity Holstein cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Zom, R.L.G.; Knegsel, van A.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between

  12. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Elisabeth; de Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection (GS) in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies). It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating GS into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken, and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in breeding scenarios. PMID

  13. Genomic selection needs to be carefully assessed to meet specific requirements in livestock breeding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth eJonas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection is a promising development in agriculture, aiming improved production by exploiting molecular genetic markers to design novel breeding programs and to develop new markers-based models for genetic evaluation. It opens opportunities for research, as novel algorithms and lab methodologies are developed. Genomic selection can be applied in many breeds and species. Further research on the implementation of genomic selection in breeding programs is highly desirable not only for the common good, but also the private sector (breeding companies. It has been projected that this approach will improve selection routines, especially in species with long reproduction cycles, late or sex-limited or expensive trait recording and for complex traits. The task of integrating genomic selection into existing breeding programs is, however, not straightforward. Despite successful integration into breeding programs for dairy cattle, it has yet to be shown how much emphasis can be given to the genomic information and how much additional phenotypic information is needed from new selection candidates. Genomic selection is already part of future planning in many breeding companies of pigs and beef cattle among others, but further research is needed to fully estimate how effective the use of genomic information will be for the prediction of the performance of future breeding stock. Genomic prediction of production in crossbreeding and across-breed schemes, costs and choice of individuals for genotyping are reasons for a reluctance to fully rely on genomic information for selection decisions. Breeding objectives are highly dependent on the industry and the additional gain when using genomic information has to be considered carefully. This review synthesizes some of the suggested approaches in selected livestock species including cattle, pig, chicken and fish. It outlines tasks to help understanding possible consequences when applying genomic information in

  14. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P < 0.05). The proliferation rates of myoblasts during early stages of culture in vitro were also found to be positively related to the liveweight and carcase weight of cattle (P < 0.05). Gene expression of MYF5 was also found to be significantly down-regulated in WagyuX compared with Angus cattle (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that early events during myogenesis are important for determining liveweight and caracase weights in cattle. PMID:25875203

  15. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  16. Novel Graphical Analyses of Runs of Homozygosity among Species and Livestock Breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Tokarska, Małgorzata; Nørgaard, Louise S.; Muñoz, Joaquin; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; Kamiński, Stanisław; Purfield, Deirdre C.

    2016-01-01

    Runs of homozygosity (ROH), uninterrupted stretches of homozygous genotypes resulting from parents transmitting identical haplotypes to their offspring, have emerged as informative genome-wide estimates of autozygosity (inbreeding). We used genomic profiles based on 698 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from nine breeds of domestic cattle (Bos taurus) and the European bison (Bison bonasus) to investigate how ROH distributions can be compared within and among species. We focused on two length classes: 0.5–15 Mb to investigate ancient events and >15 Mb to address recent events (approximately three generations). For each length class, we chose a few chromosomes with a high number of ROH, calculated the percentage of times a SNP appeared in a ROH, and plotted the results. We selected areas with distinct patterns including regions where (1) all groups revealed an increase or decrease of ROH, (2) bison differed from cattle, (3) one cattle breed or groups of breeds differed (e.g., dairy versus meat cattle). Examination of these regions in the cattle genome showed genes potentially important for natural and human-induced selection, concerning, for example, meat and milk quality, metabolism, growth, and immune function. The comparative methodology presented here permits visual identification of regions of interest for selection, breeding programs, and conservation. PMID:27872841

  17. Novel Graphical Analyses of Runs of Homozygosity among Species and Livestock Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Iacolina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Runs of homozygosity (ROH, uninterrupted stretches of homozygous genotypes resulting from parents transmitting identical haplotypes to their offspring, have emerged as informative genome-wide estimates of autozygosity (inbreeding. We used genomic profiles based on 698 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from nine breeds of domestic cattle (Bos taurus and the European bison (Bison bonasus to investigate how ROH distributions can be compared within and among species. We focused on two length classes: 0.5–15 Mb to investigate ancient events and >15 Mb to address recent events (approximately three generations. For each length class, we chose a few chromosomes with a high number of ROH, calculated the percentage of times a SNP appeared in a ROH, and plotted the results. We selected areas with distinct patterns including regions where (1 all groups revealed an increase or decrease of ROH, (2 bison differed from cattle, (3 one cattle breed or groups of breeds differed (e.g., dairy versus meat cattle. Examination of these regions in the cattle genome showed genes potentially important for natural and human-induced selection, concerning, for example, meat and milk quality, metabolism, growth, and immune function. The comparative methodology presented here permits visual identification of regions of interest for selection, breeding programs, and conservation.

  18. DNA fingerprinting in cattle using oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitkamp, J; Zischler, H; Epplen, J T; Geldermann, H

    1991-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes specific for simple tandem repeat sequences produce individual specific DNA fingerprints in man and all animal species tested so far. Here 11 different synthetic probes were hybridized to bovine genomic DNAs which had been digested with the restriction endonucleases HinfI, AluI and HaeIII. Two of these probes gave DNA fingerprint patterns which were analysed for three German breeds. Different parameters were calculated, such as the average number of bands per individual or the probability of finding identical fingerprints in two unrelated individuals. The number of polymorphic bands varies from 11 to 23 in the different breeds and the probability of finding the same banding pattern in two unrelated individuals ranges from 1.5 x 10(-7) to 2.4 x 10(-7). Hence this DNA fingerprinting procedure allows precise identification of individuals. It is also a useful additional method for paternity testing in cattle.

  19. Monitoring Lameness in Cattle Using the Vitalimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Poborská; Miloslav Šoch; Luboš Zábranský; Luboš Smutný; Iveta Novotná; Petr Smolík; Tomáš Frejlach; Zuzana Křížová1; Anna Šimková; Kateřina Švejdová; Šárka Smutná; Mojmír Vacek

    2016-01-01

    The most serious medical illness in breeding dairy cattle include diseases of the limbs, especially the hooves, which is a cause of premature decommissioning of the breeding. This is a crucial economic factor, because it can also significantly reduce the production of milk, and weight. It is therefore very important early detection of lameness. The aim of this study was to monitor the correct movement of dairy cows and subsequent detection of lameness through the automatic scoring system (vit...

  20. Evidence of Bos javanicus x Bos indicus hybridization and major QTLs for birth weight in Indonesian Peranakan Ongole cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Hartati; Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Sonstegard, Tad Stewart; Garcia, José Fernando; Jakaria, Jakaria; Muladno, Muladno

    2015-07-04

    Peranakan Ongole (PO) is a major Indonesian Bos indicus breed that derives from animals imported from India in the late 19(th) century. Early imports were followed by hybridization with the Bos javanicus subspecies of cattle. Here, we used genomic data to partition the ancestry components of PO cattle and map loci implicated in birth weight. We found that B. javanicus contributes about 6-7% to the average breed composition of PO cattle. Only two nearly fixed B. javanicus haplotypes were identified, suggesting that most of the B. javanicus variants are segregating under drift or by the action of balancing selection. The zebu component of the PO genome was estimated to derive from at least two distinct ancestral pools. Additionally, well-known loci underlying body size in other beef cattle breeds, such as the PLAG1 region on chromosome 14, were found to also affect birth weight in PO cattle. This study is the first attempt to characterize PO at the genome level, and contributes evidence of successful, stabilized B. indicus x B. javanicus hybridization. Additionally, previously described loci implicated in body size in worldwide beef cattle breeds also affect birth weight in PO cattle.

  1. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kovacs, G.M.; Loschenberger, F.; Miedaner, T.; Ostergard, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2008-01-01

    The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local, in

  2. Effects of feeding systems and breed of cattle on reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    as indicators of management standards. This may serve to motivate the producers to change management strategies targeting those weaker components of their management practices. Smallholder farmers in the Kenya highlands are confronted with increasing pressure on land and therefore pressure for animal feeds.

  3. Major reproductive disorders on Jersey breed dairy cattle at Adea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive efficiency of dairy cows is influenced by different factors including gene, season, age, production system, nutrition, management, environment and disease. This study was conducted with the objectives of determining the prevalence of reproductive disorders and evaluates reproductive performances of Jersey ...

  4. Heterogeneity of variance and its implications on dairy cattle breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and evaluated for within herd variation using univariate animal model procedures. Variance components were estimated by derivative free REML algorithm, and significance tests done using the Fmax procedure. Phenotypic, additive genetic and residual variances were heterogeneous across production environments.

  5. Genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. This diversity should be properly utilized, improved and conserved. Conservation and improvement strategies ought to be based on proper genetic characterization in association with phenotypic characterization.

  6. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however......, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...

  7. Sangadzhi Kononov, About Livestock Breeding and Kalmyk Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Churyumov, Anton; Kovaeva, Bair

    2016-01-01

    Sangadzhi says that the traditions, lifestyle and folklore of the Kalmyks are closely connected to their livestock breeding practices. Not only was livestock treated with respect but nothing of animal origin was supposed to go to waste. Intestines, skin, etc. were all used in the nomadic household. Traditionally, the Kalmyks had a good knowledge of the anatomy and behavior of each animal, including sheep, horses, camels and cattle. Horses were used mainly as a means of transport. In the past...

  8. BEHA VIOUR AND BREEDING IN CAPTIVITY OF THE State Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ABSTRACT. Desmodi//us ... to be typical of most desert-adapted rodents. Hoarding and sandbathing were exhibited. ... in 1965 one litter was produced and reared at the Medical Ecology Centre. Laboratory breed- ing records for the following ...

  9. Comparative Study on the Genetic Diversity of GHR Gene in Tibetan Cattle and Holstein Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Xia, Chenyang; Jia, Xianbo; Song, Tianzeng; Liu, Jianzhi; Lai, Song-Jia; Chen, Shi-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the phenotype-based artificial selection in domestic cattle, the underlying functional genes may be indirectly selected and show decreasing diversity in theory. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene has been widely proposed to significantly associate with critical economic traits in cattle. In the present study, we comparatively studied the genetic diversity of GHR in Tibetan cattle (a traditional unselected breed, n = 93) and Chinese Holstein cow (the intensively selected breed, n = 94). The Tibetan yak (n = 38) was also included as an outgroup breed. A total of 21 variants were detected by sequencing 1279 bp genomic fragments encompassing the largest exon 9. Twelve haplotypes (H1∼H12) constructed by 15 coding SNPs were presented as a star-like network profile, in which haplotype H2 was located at the central position and almost occupied by Tibetan yaks. Furthermore, H2 was also identical to the formerly reported sequence specific to African cattle. Only haplotype H5 was simultaneously shared by all three breeds. Tibetan cattle showed higher nucleotide diversity (0.00215 ± 0.00015) and haplotype diversity (0.678 ± 0.026) than Holstein cow. Conclusively, we found Tibetan cattle have retained relatively high genetic variation of GHR. The predominant presence of African cattle specific H2 in the outgroup yak breed would highlight its ancestral relationship, which may be used as one informative molecular marker in the phylogenetic studies.

  10. Viral Communities Among Sympatric Vampire Bats and Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera-Zamudio, Marina; Taboada, Blanca; Rojas-Anaya, Edith; Löber, Ulrike; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Arias, Carlos F; Greenwood, Alex D

    2017-11-21

    Vampire bats are the only mammals known to feed exclusively on blood from other animals, often from domestic cattle. We tested the hypothesis that the adaptation of vampire bats to hematophagy would have resulted in shared viral communities among vampire bats and cattle, as a direct result of historic spillover events occurring due to hematophagy. We analyzed the presence of different viruses in sample populations of sympatric bat and prey populations and searched for shared viruses between taxa. A limited number of DNA viral groups were detected within each species. However, there was no evidence for a shared viral community among the vampire bat and cattle populations tested.

  11. Gastrointestinal Strongyle Egg Output and its Relationship with Tick Burden in Gambian N'dama and Gobra Zebu Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattioli, RC.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortnightly quantitative analysis of rectal faecal samples for the presence of strongyle eggs were carried out from May 1992 to April 1993 on 11 Gambian N'dama Bos taurus and 11 Gobra zebu Bos indicus cattle. Significantly (P <0.001 lower strongyle egg outputs were found in N'dama in comparison with zebu cattle. No correlation was found between individual cumulative tick burden and strongyle egg output in either breed, although individual variations in parasite burdens were lower in N'dama than in zebu cattle. This study strenghtens the evidence for the presence of a natural resistant trait to strongyle infection in N'dama cattle.

  12. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Carolyn Gates

    Full Text Available Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  13. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Asit Kumar Maji; Arindam Samanta

    2013-01-01

    A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript) were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anest...

  14. BDNF contributes to the genetic variance of milk fat yield in German Holstein cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Zielke, Lea G.; Bortfeldt, Ralf H; Jens eTetens; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe gene encoding the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been repeatedly associated with human obesity. As such, it could also contribute to the regulation of energy partitioning and the amount of secreted milk fat during lactation, which plays an important role in milk production in dairy cattle. Therefore, we performed an association study using estimated breeding values of bulls and yield deviations of German Holstein dairy cattle to test the effect of BDNF on milk fat yi...

  15. Resistance Genes in Global Crop Breeding Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, K A; Andersen, K F; Asche, F; Bowden, R L; Forbes, G A; Kulakow, P A; Zhou, B

    2017-10-01

    Resistance genes are a major tool for managing crop diseases. The networks of crop breeders who exchange resistance genes and deploy them in varieties help to determine the global landscape of resistance and epidemics, an important system for maintaining food security. These networks function as a complex adaptive system, with associated strengths and vulnerabilities, and implications for policies to support resistance gene deployment strategies. Extensions of epidemic network analysis can be used to evaluate the multilayer agricultural networks that support and influence crop breeding networks. Here, we evaluate the general structure of crop breeding networks for cassava, potato, rice, and wheat. All four are clustered due to phytosanitary and intellectual property regulations, and linked through CGIAR hubs. Cassava networks primarily include public breeding groups, whereas others are more mixed. These systems must adapt to global change in climate and land use, the emergence of new diseases, and disruptive breeding technologies. Research priorities to support policy include how best to maintain both diversity and redundancy in the roles played by individual crop breeding groups (public versus private and global versus local), and how best to manage connectivity to optimize resistance gene deployment while avoiding risks to the useful life of resistance genes. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  16. GENOMIC VARIABILITY AMONG CATTLE POPULATIONS BASED ON RUNS OF HOMOZYGOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Šidlová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the distribution of different lengths ROH (runs of homozygosity in six cattle breeds was described. A total of 122 animals from six cattle breeds (Holstein, Simmental, Austrian Pinzgau, Ayrshire, MRI-Meuse Rhine Issel and Slovak Pinzgau were analysed. The ROH approach was used to distinguish Slovak Pinzgau population from other investigated breeds as well as to differentiate between ancient and recent inbreeding. The average number of ROH per animal ranged from 17.06 in Holstein to 159.22 in Ayrshire. The highest number of short ROH (ancient inbreeding was found in Simmental, followed by Ayrshire. The Ayrshire and MRI had a higher proportion of longer ROH distributed across the whole genome, revealing recent inbreeding. ROH were identified and used to estimate molecular inbreeding coefficients (FROH. The highest level of inbreeding from the investigated breeds was found out in Ayrshire with the same tendency for all length categories compared to Slovak Pinzgau with higher ancient inbreeding. Ancient inbreeding was only observed in Holstein population. A similar trend is becoming apparent even for Slovak Pinzgau, showing the second smallest recent inbreeding. Therefore, it is necessary to preserve the given population in the original phenotype and prevent further increase of inbreeding especially in endangered breeds.

  17. Prevalence of Antibodies Against Coxiella burnetii in Korean Native Cattle, Dairy Cattle, and Dogs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Doo; Jang, Hyung Gwan; Lee, Seung-Joon; Park, Mi Yeoun; Hahn, Tae-Wook

    2017-03-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic agent and causes coxiellosis, which is a cause of reproductive failure in a range of animal species, including abortion and stillbirth and Q fever, which is most often characterized by an acute flu-like illness, mild pneumonia, and/or hepatitis in humans. While livestock are well recognized worldwide as a source of infection, the zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in companion animals such as dogs may be overlooked. For serological diagnosis, indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are generally considered good methods for prevalence surveys of coxiellosis. In this study, we conducted a nationwide survey of the seroprevalence of previous exposure to C. burnetii in dogs, dairy cattle, and Korean native cattle (a primarily beef breed) in South Korea. Serum samples obtained from 3087 Korean native cattle, 1224 dairy cattle, and 1023 dogs were collected from eight provinces in South Korea, and IFA and ELISA were performed to test for seropositivity. The prevalence of C. burnetii was 1.7% in Korean native cattle, 10.5% in dairy cattle, and 2.9% in dogs. This is the first report identifying previous exposure to C. burnetii in South Korean dogs. Furthermore, the presence of C. burnetii antibodies in companion and feral dogs indicates that dogs can be a potential reservoir species for zoonotic risk of C. burnetii infection in South Korea. Therefore, more detailed studies aiming to clarify epidemiological factors should be performed in the future.

  18. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Relationship Between Legendary Vechur Cattle and Crossbred Cattle of Kerala State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, G; Aravindakshan, T V; Jinty, S; Ramya, K

    2017-03-30

    The legendary Vechur cattle of Kerala, described as a very short breed, and the crossbred (CB) Sunandini cattle population exhibited great phenotypic variation; hence, the present study attempted to analyze the genetic diversity existing between them. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellites were chosen from FAO-ISAG panel and amplified from genomic DNA isolated from blood samples of 30 Vechur and 64 unrelated crossbred cattle, using fluorescent labeled primers. Both populations revealed high genetic diversity as evidenced from high observed number of alleles, Polymorphic Information Content and expected heterozygosity. Observed heterozygosity was lesser (0.699) than expected (0.752) in Vechur population which was further supported by positive FIS value of 0.1149, indicating slight level of inbreeding in Vechur population. Overall, FST value was 0.065, which means genetic differentiation between crossbred and Vechur population was 6.5%, indicating that the crossbred cattle must have differentiated into a definite population that is different from the indigenous Vechur cows. Structure analysis indicated that the two populations showed distinct differences, with two underlying clusters. The present study supports the separation between Taurine and Zebu cattle and throws light onto the genetic diversity and relationship between native Vechur and crossbred cattle populations in Kerala state.

  19. PRNP promoter polymorphisms are associated with BSE susceptibility in Swiss and German cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegler Ute

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-synonymous polymorphisms within the prion protein gene (PRNP influence the susceptibility and incubation time for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE in some species such as sheep and humans. In cattle, none of the known polymorphisms within the PRNP coding region has a major influence on susceptibility to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. Recently, however, we demonstrated an association between susceptibility to BSE and a 23 bp insertion/deletion (indel polymorphism and a 12 bp indel polymorphism within the putative PRNP promoter region using 43 German BSE cases and 48 German control cattle. The objective of this study was to extend this work by including a larger number of BSE cases and control cattle of German and Swiss origin. Results Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies of the two indel polymorphisms were determined in 449 BSE cattle and 431 unaffected cattle from Switzerland and Germany including all 43 German BSE and 16 German control animals from the original study. When breeds with similar allele and genotype distributions were compared, the 23 bp indel polymorphism again showed a significant association with susceptibility to BSE. However, some additional breed-specific allele and genotype distributions were identified, mainly related to the Brown breeds. Conclusion Our study corroborated earlier findings that polymorphisms in the PRNP promoter region have an influence on susceptibility to BSE. However, breed-specific differences exist that need to be accounted for when analyzing such data.

  20. Detection of Factor XI Deficiency (FXID and Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM in Bali Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Siswanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Factor XI Deficiency (FXID is caused by imperfect insertion of poly adenine which is resulted in introduction of premature stop codon in FXI gene. Substitution of guanine into thymine in SLC35A3 gene caused Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM. The research was aimed to detect the presence or absence of a genetic defect mainly CVM using SLC35A3 gene and FXID using FXI gene in Indonesian Bali cattle. The presence of this genetic defect may have a significant economic impact on the breeding program. The research of genetic defect was done mostly in dairy cattle, but there was no report for screening of genetic defect in Bali cattle. In this study, 303 fresh blood samples and 22 semen samples which were collected from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding center (BPTU HMT Denpasar, BPT HMT Serading West Nusa Tenggara and district Barru South Sulawesi and artificial insemination centre (BBIB Singosari and BIBD Baturiti were used for screening of FXID and CVM. The amplicons of FXI gene were obtained by using PCR and that for SLC35A3 gene were obtained by using PCR-RFLP method with PstI restriction enzyme. These PCR products were analyzed by using 2% agarose gels electrophoresis. All genotypes were confirmed by DNA sequencing to determine an allele mutant. The allele mutant was not found in all of the samples. The result of this study showed that CVM and FXID were not detected in Bali cattle from Indonesian Bali cattle breeding and artificial insemination centres.