Sample records for breathing

  1. Breathing Problems (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  2. Breath alcohol test (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  3. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  4. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  5. What Causes Bad Breath? (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  6. From breathing to respiration. (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William


    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  7. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  8. Minimizing Shortness of Breath (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, ... Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make a Donation Make an Appointment Contact ...

  9. Breathing difficulty - lying down (United States)

    ... short of breath. Considerations This is a common complaint in people with some types of heart or ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  10. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults



    Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tre...

  11. The Air We Breathe (United States)

    Davila, Dina


    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  12. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  13. Breathing Like a Fish (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.


    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  14. Breath Figures Formation


    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W


    We present experimental observations of Breath Figures (BF) which are formed by the dew of water when it condenses on a cold surface. The experiments were done in specific conditions and configurations of temperature, surfaces and mixes in controlled concentration of miscibles and immiscibles substances like the salt saturated solution, alcohol and silicon oil (C_6H_18O_2Si). The hydrophobic surfaces used on those observations are thin glasses coated with ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), 3M ECG-1700 w...

  15. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  16. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  17. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  18. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary. (United States)

    Rose, Arthur


    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses.

  19. BREATHE to Understand© (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine


    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  20. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  1. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.


    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  2. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  3. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults


    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob


    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function...

  4. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias


    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  5. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  6. Breath-holding and its breakpoint. (United States)

    Parkes, M J


    This article reviews the basic properties of breath-holding in humans and the possible causes of the breath at breakpoint. The simplest objective measure of breath-holding is its duration, but even this is highly variable. Breath-holding is a voluntary act, but normal subjects appear unable to breath-hold to unconsciousness. A powerful involuntary mechanism normally overrides voluntary breath-holding and causes the breath that defines the breakpoint. The occurrence of the breakpoint breath does not appear to be caused solely by a mechanism involving lung or chest shrinkage, partial pressures of blood gases or the carotid arterial chemoreceptors. This is despite the well-known properties of breath-hold duration being prolonged by large lung inflations, hyperoxia and hypocapnia and being shortened by the converse manoeuvres and by increased metabolic rate. Breath-holding has, however, two much less well-known but important properties. First, the central respiratory rhythm appears to continue throughout breath-holding. Humans cannot therefore stop their central respiratory rhythm voluntarily. Instead, they merely suppress expression of their central respiratory rhythm and voluntarily 'hold' the chest at a chosen volume, possibly assisted by some tonic diaphragm activity. Second, breath-hold duration is prolonged by bilateral paralysis of the phrenic or vagus nerves. Possibly the contribution to the breakpoint from stimulation of diaphragm muscle chemoreceptors is greater than has previously been considered. At present there is no simple explanation for the breakpoint that encompasses all these properties.

  7. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  8. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing]. (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah


    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  9. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults. (United States)

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob


    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function.

  10. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰


    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  11. Running and Breathing in Mammals (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.


    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  12. [Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis]. (United States)

    Caspary, W F


    The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak


    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  14. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  17. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011. (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio


    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  18. Protective supplied breathing air garment (United States)

    Childers, Edward L.; von Hortenau, Erik F.


    A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  19. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  20. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... Respirators § 84.141 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply supplied-air respirators shall be respirable breathing air and contain no less than 19.5 volume-percent of oxygen....

  1. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe? (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.


    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  2. Controlled Frequency Breathing Reduces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue. (United States)

    Burtch, Alex R; Ogle, Ben T; Sims, Patrick A; Harms, Craig A; Symons, Thorburn B; Folz, Rodney J; Zavorsky, Gerald S


    Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for about 7 to 10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7 to 10 strokes, or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes. Twenty swimmers completed the study. The training intervention included 5-6 weeks (16 sessions) of 12x50-m repetitions with breathing 8-10 breaths per 50m (control group), or 2-3 breaths per 50-m (CFB group). Inspiratory muscle fatigue was defined as the decrease in maximal inspiratory mouth-pressure (MIP) between rest and 46s after a 200 yard free-style swimming race [115s (SD 7)]. Aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy were also measured pre and post-training. Pooled results demonstrated a 12% decrease in MIP at 46s post-race [-15 (SD 14) cm H2O, Effect size = -0.48, p training, only the CFB group prevented a decline in MIP values pre to 46 s post-race [-2 (13) cm H2O, p > 0.05]. However, swimming performance, aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy did not improve (p > 0.05) post-training in either group. In conclusion, CFB training appears to prevent inspiratory muscle fatigue yet no difference was found in performance outcomes.

  3. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M;


    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  4. Pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients: tidal vs. forced inspiratory breathing. (United States)

    Hong, D M; Lee, J M; Seo, J H; Min, J J; Jeon, Y; Bahk, J H


    We evaluated whether pulse pressure variation can predict fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing patients. Fifty-nine elective thoracic surgical patients were studied before induction of general anaesthesia. After volume expansion with hydroxyethyl starch 6 , patients were defined as responders by a ≥ 15% increase in the cardiac index. Haemodynamic variables were measured before and after volume expansion and pulse pressure variations were calculated during tidal breathing and during forced inspiratory breathing. Median (IQR [range]) pulse pressure variation during forced inspiratory breathing was significantly higher in responders (n = 29) than in non-responders (n = 30) before volume expansion (18.2 (IQR 14.7-18.2 [9.3-31.3])% vs. 10.1 (IQR 8.3-12.6 [4.8-21.1])%, respectively, p breathing could predict fluid responsiveness (area under the curve 0.910, p breathing can be used to guide fluid management in spontaneously breathing patients.

  5. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian


    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  6. Abortion--the breath of life. (United States)

    Joling, R J


    A scholarly review of medical-legal and biblical authority on the su bject of abortion supports abortion as a woman's right when it is performed before the fetus has had its "breath of life." Based on biblical evidence, a person becomes a living being when the soul, the "breath of life" is breathed into it. Without the "breath of life" no person exists. A fetus less than 28 weeks old is incapable of breathing alone; thus an aborted fetus that age is not truly a living human being capable of surviving independently of its mother's womb. Legal aspects include supreme, local and state court decisions defining abortion. It is ultimately expected that each person will determine what approach to take towards the abortion question. Abortion is still a personal problem regardless of supreme court decisions or ecclesiastical determinants. Religion and moral concepts should be the guiding conscience involved in the question of abortion.

  7. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders. (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y


    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  8. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan


    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  9. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji


    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  10. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto


    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  11. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing. (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K


    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  12. An ultrasonic contactless sensor for breathing monitoring. (United States)

    Arlotto, Philippe; Grimaldi, Michel; Naeck, Roomila; Ginoux, Jean-Marc


    The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569).

  13. Breathing and sleep at high altitude. (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Lucas, Samuel J E; Burgess, Keith R


    We provide an updated review on the current understanding of breathing and sleep at high altitude in humans. We conclude that: (1) progressive changes in pH initiated by the respiratory alkalosis do not underlie early (48 h), complex cellular and neurochemical re-organization occurs both in the peripheral chemoreceptors as well as within the central nervous system. The latter is likely influenced by central acid-base changes secondary to the extent of the initial respiratory responses to initial exposure to high altitude; (3) sleep at high altitude is disturbed by various factors, but principally by periodic breathing; (4) the extent of periodic breathing during sleep at altitude intensifies with duration and severity of exposure; (5) complex interactions between hypoxic-induced enhancement in peripheral and central chemoreflexes and cerebral blood flow--leading to higher loop gain and breathing instability--underpin this development of periodic breathing during sleep; (6) because periodic breathing may elevate rather than reduce mean SaO2 during sleep, this may represent an adaptive rather than maladaptive response; (7) although oral acetazolamide is an effective means to reduce periodic breathing by 50-80%, recent studies using positive airway pressure devices to increase dead space, hyponotics and theophylline are emerging but appear less practical and effective compared to acetazolamide. Finally, we suggest avenues for future research, and discuss implications for understanding sleep pathology.

  14. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system is a device intended to measure fractional nitric oxide in human breath. Measurement of changes...

  16. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  17. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  18. An introduction to the psychophysiology of breathing. (United States)

    Ley, R


    Breathing can be viewed as an independent variable which affects emotion, cognition, and behavior as well as a dependent variable which reflects changes in emotion, cognition, and behavior. This bidirectional interaction is basic to an appreciation of the significance of breathing in terms of its relevance in research and application. The underlying premise of the present article is that since breathing is a behavior that is under voluntary as well as reflexive control, it can be modified according to the principles of both instrumental training (operant conditioning) and Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. The implications of this premise are relevant to theory, diagnosis, and treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders (e.g., panic disorder, phobias, test anxiety, occupational strain, and related psychosomatic disorders), and to basic and applied research in the psychophysiology of breathing.

  19. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  20. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma. (United States)


    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness.

  1. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement


    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.


    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Toge...

  2. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus


    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  3. Swimming in air-breathing fishes. (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J


    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.

  4. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test


    ZHAO Si-qian; Chen, Bao-Jun; LUO Zhi-fu


    Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further res...

  5. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South......, with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...

  6. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds. (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano


    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  7. Lung cancer biomarkers in exhaled breath. (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Corradi, Massimo; Mazzone, Peter; Mutti, Antonio


    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Methods for early detection of lung cancer, such as computerized tomography scanning technology, often discover a large number of small lung nodules, posing a new problem to radiologists and chest physicians. The vast majority of these nodules will be benign, but there is currently no easy way to determine which nodules represent very early lung cancer. Adjuvant testing with PET imaging and nonsurgical biopsies has a low yield for these small indeterminate nodules, carries potential morbidity and is costly. Indeed, purely morphological criteria seem to be insufficient for distinguishing lung cancer from benign nodules at early stages with sufficient confidence, therefore false positives undergoing surgical resection frequently occur. A molecular approach to the diagnosis of lung cancer through the analysis of exhaled breath could greatly improve the specificity of imaging procedures. A biomarker-driven approach to signs or symptoms possibly due to lung cancer would represent a complementary tool aimed at ruling out (with known error probability) rather than diagnosing lung cancer. Volatile and nonvolatile components of the breath are being studied as biomarkers of lung cancer. Breath testing is noninvasive and potentially inexpensive. There is promise that an accurate lung cancer breath biomarker, capable of being applied clinically, will be developed in the near future. In this article, we summarize some of the rationale for breath biomarker development, review the published literature in this field and provide thoughts regarding future directions.

  8. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope


    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  9. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing (United States)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  10. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew


    Full Text Available This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques

  11. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving. (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver


    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  12. Electrospray ionization of volatiles in breath (United States)

    Martínez-Lozano, P.; de La Mora, J. Fernández


    Recent work by Zenobi and colleagues [H. Chen, A. Wortmann, W. Zhang, R. Zenobi, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 46 (2007) 580] reports that human breath charged by contact with an electrospray (ES) cloud yields many mass peaks of species such as urea, glucose, and other ions, some with molecular weights above 1000 Da. All these species are presumed to be involatile, and to originate from breath aerosols by so-called extractive electrospray ionization EESI [H. Chen, A. Venter, R.G. Cooks, Chem. Commun. (2006) 2042]. However, prior work by Fenn and colleagues [C.M. Whitehouse, F. Levin, C.K. Meng, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 34th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, Denver, 1986 p. 507; S. Fuerstenau, P. Kiselev, J.B. Fenn, Proceedings of the 47th ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry, 1999, Dallas, TX, 1999] and by Hill and colleagues [C. Wu, W.F. Siems, H.H. Hill Jr., Anal. Chem. 72 (2000) 396] have reported the ability of electrospray drops to ionize a variety of low vapor pressure substances directly from the gas phase, without an apparent need for the vapor to be brought into the charging ES in aerosol form. The Ph.D. Thesis of Martínez-Lozano [P. Martínez-Lozano Sinués, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Thermal and Fluid Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid; April 5, 2006 (in Spanish);] had also previously argued that the numerous human breath species observed via a similar ES ionization approach were in fact ionized directly from the vapor. Here, we observe that passage of the breath stream through a submicron filter does not eliminate the majority of the breath vapors seen in the absence of the filter. We conclude that direct vapor charging is the leading mechanism in breath ionization by electrospray drops, though aerosol ionization may also play a role.

  13. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring. (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael


    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  14. Medication effects on sleep and breathing. (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo


    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  15. Comparison of two devices and two breathing patterns for exhaled breath condensate sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-Maria Hüttmann

    Full Text Available Analysis of exhaled breath condensate (EBC is a noninvasive method to access the epithelial lining fluid of the lungs. Due to standardization problems the method has not entered clinical practice. The aim of the study was to assess the comparability for two commercially available devices in healthy controls. In addition, we assessed different breathing patterns in healthy controls with protein markers to analyze the source of the EBC.EBC was collected from ten subjects using the RTube and ECoScreen Turbo in a randomized crossover design, twice with every device--once in tidal breathing and once in hyperventilation. EBC conductivity, pH, surfactant protein A, Clara cell secretory protein and total protein were assessed. Bland-Altman plots were constructed to display the influence of different devices or breathing patterns and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated. The volatile organic compound profile was measured using the electronic nose Cyranose 320. For the analysis of these data, the linear discriminant analysis, the Mahalanobis distances and the cross-validation values (CVV were calculated.Neither the device nor the breathing pattern significantly altered EBC pH or conductivity. ICCs ranged from 0.61 to 0.92 demonstrating moderate to very good agreement. Protein measurements were greatly influenced by breathing pattern, the device used, and the way in which the results were reported. The electronic nose could distinguish between different breathing patterns and devices, resulting in Mahalanobis distances greater than 2 and CVVs ranging from 64% to 87%.EBC pH and (to a lesser extent EBC conductivity are stable parameters that are not influenced by either the device or the breathing patterns. Protein measurements remain uncertain due to problems of standardization. We conclude that the influence of the breathing maneuver translates into the necessity to keep the volume of ventilated air constant in further studies.

  16. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;


    -hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  17. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)


    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  18. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction of free...

  19. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with supplied-air respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a) Restriction of free...

  20. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of ... skating. What does the future hold for Apolo Ohno? Even though I'm no longer skating competitively, ...

  1. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review


    Anderson, Joseph C.


    Objective Endogenous acetone production is a by‐product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in...

  2. Breathing Better with a COPD Diagnosis (United States)

    Now that you kNow it’s CoPD, here’s how to breathe better. You have taken the important step of being aware of your symptoms, and seeing your doctor ... care provider for testing and a diagnosis. While COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung ...

  3. Ineffective breathing pattern related to malnutrition. (United States)

    Openbrier, D R; Covey, M


    This article has highlighted the problem of malnutrition in the stable COPD patient and the critically ill, hypercatabolic patient, and has reviewed resultant mechanisms which influence the alteration of breathing pattern. These complex patients present a challenge for the nurse. Table 1 briefly summarizes the manifestations of malnutrition, goals, interventions and expected outcomes of the nursing diagnosis, ineffective breathing pattern related to malnutrition. The goal of the interventions is to modify the cause (malnutrition) of the nursing diagnosis (altered breathing pattern). The success of the interventions will lead to the achievement of expected outcome As expected outcomes are achieved, relief of signs and symptoms related to the nursing diagnosis will occur. The nurse caring for the patient with actual or potential malnutrition must be knowledgeable about the physiology of malnutrition and effect on breathing pattern. It is essential that the nurse assess and provide appropriate nutritional support and evaluate progress toward expected outcomes. In the event that expected outcomes are not achieved, reassessment with modification of interventions is necessary. Nurses play a key role in the total health care delivery to these complex patients. Further study will strengthen the research base of nursing interventions.

  4. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  5. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement. (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H


    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  6. Sleep-disordered breathing in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Dzeranova


    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is higly prevalent in acromegaly, disturbing patients quality of life and increasing the risk of acute cardiovascular compications. Presented clinical case discusses key considerations for timely diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and treatment planning. The case of 41 y.o. woman with newly diagnosed acromegaly and concomitant sleep apnea is typical for this disease.

  7. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities. (United States)

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C


    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  8. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.


    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  9. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  10. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for...

  11. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  13. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  14. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  15. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  16. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  18. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent:...

  19. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers


    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy


    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  20. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming. (United States)

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of pswim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale.

  1. First Breath prenatal smoking cessation pilot study: preliminary findings. (United States)

    Jehn, Lisette; Lokker, Nicole; Matitz, Debra; Christiansen, Bruce


    Despite the many dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy, it remains a salient public health problem for Wisconsin women. The First Breath pilot program was developed in an attempt to reduce rates of smoking during pregnancy among low-income women. Preliminary results suggest that the First Breath counseling-based approach is effective, with a quit rate of 43.8% among First Breath enrollees at 1 month postpartum. Women receiving First Breath cessation counseling also had higher quit rates at every measurement period versus women in a comparison group who were receiving whatever cessation care was available in their county in the absence of First Breath. The First Breath pilot study has demonstrated success in helping pregnant women quit smoking and in creating a model for integration of cessation services into prenatal health care service provision. It is through this success that First Breath is expanding beyond the pilot study stage to a statewide program in 2003.

  2. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing. (United States)

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine


    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  3. Breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tomich


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate breathing pattern, thoracoabdominal motion and muscular activity during three breathing exercises: diaphragmatic breathing (DB, flow-oriented (Triflo II incentive spirometry and volume-oriented (Voldyne incentive spirometry. Seventeen healthy subjects (12 females, 5 males aged 23 ± 5 years (mean ± SD were studied. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to measure the following variables during rest (baseline and breathing exercises: tidal volume (Vt, respiratory frequency (f, rib cage contribution to Vt (RC/Vt, inspiratory duty cycle (Ti/Ttot, and phase angle (PhAng. Sternocleidomastoid muscle activity was assessed by surface electromyography. Statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey or Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. Comparisons between baseline and breathing exercise periods showed a significant increase of Vt and PhAng during all exercises, a significant decrease of f during DB and Voldyne, a significant increase of Ti/Ttot during Voldyne, and no significant difference in RC/Vt. Comparisons among exercises revealed higher f and sternocleidomastoid activity during Triflo II (P < 0.05 with respect to DB and Voldyne, without a significant difference in Vt, Ti/Ttot, PhAng, or RC/Vt. Exercises changed the breathing pattern and increased PhAng, a variable of thoracoabdominal asynchrony, compared to baseline. The only difference between DB and Voldyne was a significant increase of Ti/Ttot compared to baseline. Triflo II was associated with higher f values and electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid. In conclusion, DB and Voldyne showed similar results while Triflo II showed disadvantages compared to the other breathing exercises.

  4. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay


    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  5. Breathing dissipative solitons in optical microresonators

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Erwan; Guo, Hairun; Gorodetsky, Michael; Kippenberg, Tobias


    Dissipative solitons are self-localized structures resulting from a double balance between dispersion and nonlinearity as well as dissipation and a driving force. They occur in a wide variety of fields ranging from optics, hydrodynamics to chemistry and biology. Recently, significant interest has focused on their temporal realization in driven optical microresonators, known as dissipative Kerr solitons. They provide access to coherent, chip-scale optical frequency combs, which have already been employed in optical metrology, data communication and spectroscopy. Such Kerr resonator systems can exhibit numerous localized intracavity patterns and provide rich insights into nonlinear dynamics. A particular class of solutions consists of breathing dissipative solitons, representing pulses with oscillating amplitude and duration, for which no comprehensive understanding has been presented to date. Here, we observe and study single and multiple breathing dissipative solitons in two different microresonator platforms...

  6. Protective supplied-breathing-air garment (United States)

    Childers, E.L.; von Hortenau, E.F.


    A breathing-air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants is disclosed. The garment includes a suit and a separate head-protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air-delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air-delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

  7. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study (United States)


    flows used in the study . The simulated workloads were: 1) 60 ALPM: Rest; 2) 90 ALPM: Light Work ; 3) 125 ALPM: Moderate Work ; and 4) 150 ALPM...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0040 C-130J BREATHING RESISTANCE STUDY George W. Miller Air Force Research Laboratory Wright-Patterson Air...ASSIGNED DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT. //signed// //signed// GEORGE W. MILLER SCOTT M. GALSTER Work Unit Manager Chief, Applied

  8. Breath alcohol, multisensor arrays, and electronic noses (United States)

    Paulsson, Nils; Winquist, Fredrik


    The concept behind a volatile compound mapper, or electronic nose, is to use the combination of multiple gas sensors and pattern recognition techniques to detect and quantify substances in gas mixtures. There are several different kinds of sensors which have been developed during recent years of which the base techniques are conducting polymers, piezo electrical crystals and solid state devices. In this work we have used a combination of gas sensitive field effect devices and semiconducting metal oxides. The most useful pattern recognition routine was found to be ANNs, which is a mathematical approximation of the human neural network. The aim of this work is to evaluate the possibility of using electronic noses in field instruments to detect drugs, arson residues, explosives etc. As a test application we have chosen breath alcohol measurements. There are several reasons for this. Breath samples are a quite complex mixture contains between 200 and 300 substances at trace levels. The alcohol level is low but still possible to handle. There are needs for replacing large and heavy mobile instruments with smaller devices. Current instrumentation is rather sensitive to interfering substances. The work so far has dealt with sampling, how to introduce ethanol and other substances in the breath, correlation measurements between the electronic nose and headspace GC, and how to evaluate the sensor signals.

  9. Determination of breath isoprene allows the identification of the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal during real-time propofol breath monitoring. (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Souza, Kimberly; Praun, Siegfried; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav


    Real-time measurement of propofol in the breath may be used for routine clinical monitoring. However, this requires unequivocal identification of the expiratory phase of the respiratory propofol signal as only expiratory propofol reflects propofol blood concentrations. Determination of CO2 breath concentrations is the current gold standard for the identification of expiratory gas but usually requires additional equipment. Human breath also contains isoprene, a volatile organic compound with low inspiratory breath concentration and an expiratory concentration plateau. We investigated whether breath isoprene could be used similarly to CO2 to identify the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal. We investigated real-time breath data obtained from 40 study subjects during routine anesthesia. Propofol, isoprene, and CO2 breath concentrations were determined by a combined ion molecule reaction/electron impact mass spectrometry system. The expiratory propofol signal was identified according to breath CO2 and isoprene concentrations and presented as median of intervals of 30 s duration. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to detect differences (bias) in the expiratory propofol signal extracted by the two identification methods. We investigated propofol signals in a total of 3,590 observation intervals of 30 s duration in the 40 study subjects. In 51.4 % of the intervals (1,844/3,590) both methods extracted the same results for expiratory propofol signal. Overall bias between the two data extraction methods was -0.12 ppb. The lower and the upper limits of the 95 % CI were -0.69 and 0.45 ppb. Determination of isoprene breath concentrations allows the identification of the expiratory propofol signal during real-time breath monitoring.

  10. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng


    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... of Denmark, Denmark), John F. Steffensen (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Morten Svendsen (Technical University of Denmark, Denmark) and Augusto Abe (Unlversidade Estadual Paulista, Brazil) Fast starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator-prey interactions...

  11. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Cao, Wenqing


    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  12. Development of Techniques for Trace Gas Detection in Breath



    This thesis aims to investigate the possibility of developing spectroscopic techniques for trace gas detection, with particular emphasis on their applicability to breath analysis and medical diagnostics. Whilst key breath molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide will feature throughout this work, the focus of the research is on the detection of breath acetone, a molecule strongly linked with the diabetic condition. Preliminary studies into the suitability of cavity enhanced absorption...

  13. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds (United States)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  14. General Anesthesia with Preserved Spontaneous Breathing through an Intubation Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz


    Full Text Available Objective: to study whether spontaneous patient breathing may be preserved during elective operations under general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. Subjects and methods. One hundred and twelve patients undergoing elective surgeries under general endotracheal anesthesia were randomized into 2 groups: 1 patients who had forced mechanical ventilation in the volume-controlled mode and 2 those who received assisted ventilation as spontaneous breathing with mechanical support. Conclusion. The study shows that spontaneous breathing with mechanical support may be safely used during some surgical interventions in patients with baseline healthy lungs. Key words: Pressure Support, assisted ventilation, spontaneous breathing, general anesthesia, lung function.

  15. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing. (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian


    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  16. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing. (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Obeid, Andy; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D


    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min(-1). A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min(-1), and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn.

  17. A simple optical fiber interferometer based breathing sensor (United States)

    Li, Xixi; Liu, Dejun; Kumar, Rahul; Ng, Wai Pang; Fu, Yong-qing; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Wu, Yufeng; Zhou, Guorui; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang


    A breathing sensor has been experimentally demonstrated based on a singlemode–multimode–singlemode (SMS) fiber structure which is attached to a thin plastic film in an oxygen mask. By detecting power variations due to the macro bending applied to the SMS section by each inhalation and exhalation process, the breath state can be monitored. The proposed sensor is capable of distinguishing different types of breathing conditions including regular and irregular breath state. The sensor can be used in a strong electric/magnetic field and radioactive testing systems such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and computed tomography (CT) examinations where electrical sensors are restricted.

  18. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T


    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  19. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika


    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  20. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving. (United States)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Dujic, Zeljko


    The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition.According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  1. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery. (United States)

    Westerdahl, E


    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  2. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)


    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  3. Exhaled breath condensate pH assays. (United States)

    Davis, Michael D; Hunt, John


    Airway pH is central to the physiologic function and cellular biology of the airway. The causes of airway acidification include (1) hypopharyngeal gastric acid reflux with or without aspiration through the vocal cords, (2) inhalation of acid fog or gas (such as chlorine), and (3) intrinsic airway acidification caused by altered airway pH homeostasis in infectious and inflammatory disease processes. The recognition that relevant airway pH deviations occur in lung diseases is opening doors to new simple and inexpensive therapies. This recognition has resulted partly from the ability to use exhaled breath condensate as a window on airway acid-base balance.

  4. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman


    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  5. System of Optoelectronic Sensors for Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołajczyk Janusz


    Full Text Available The paper describes an integrated laser absorption system as a potential tool for breath analysis for clinical diagnostics, online therapy monitoring and metabolic disorder control. The sensors operate basing on cavity enhanced spectroscopy and multi-pass spectroscopy supported by wavelength modulation spectroscopy. The aspects concerning selection of operational spectral range and minimization of interference are also discussed. Tests results of the constructed devices collected with reference samples of biomarkers are also presented. The obtained data provide an opportunity to analyse applicability of optoelectronic sensors in medical screening.

  6. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares


    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  7. A young male with shortness of breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Fahmi


    Full Text Available We report a case of primary mediastinal seminoma, which presented initially with shortness of breath and a swelling in upper part of anterior chest wall. The diagnosis of primary mediastinal seminoma was established on the basis of histologic findings and was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Abdominal, pelvis and cerebral CT scan, testicular ultrasound and TC-99 MDP bone scintigraphy were negative. Chemotherapy was initiated with B.E.P. protocol (Bleomycin, Etoposide, Cisplatinum; the patient received four cycles of chemotherapy. After 8 months, the patient was seen in the clinic; he was well.

  8. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty (United States)

    Soares, Ciro Dantas; Gurgel, Alberto Costa; de Souza Júnior, Francisco de Assis; de Oliveira, Samila Neres; de Carvalho, Maria Goretti Freire; Oliveira, Hanieri Gustavo


    Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning. PMID:26180645

  9. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.


    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour where

  10. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji


    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  11. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.


    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  12. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  13. Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Väyrynen


    Full Text Available In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging in sleep disordered breathing (SDB diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%. Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8% and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%. Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry.

  14. Epiglottic movements during breathing in humans (United States)

    Amis, T C; O'Neill, N; Di Somma, E; Wheatley, J R


    Using X-ray fluoroscopy we measured antero-posterior (A–P) and cranio-caudal (C–C) displacements of the epiglottic tip (ET), corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone in seven seated, normal human subjects (age 34 ± 3 years; mean ±s.e.m.; 4 males, 3 females) breathing via a nasal mask or mouthpiece with (RL) and without (UB) a fixed resistive load.During UB, via either mouth or nose, there were no significant A-P ET movements. During RL via the nose the ET at peak expiratory flow was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm cranial to its position at peak inspiratory flow (P <0.05, ANOVA). C–C movements of the ET correlated strongly with C-C movements of the corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone.The ET, corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone (at zero airflow) were situated more caudally during oral UB than for any other condition.When present, epiglottic movements during breathing do not appear to be independent of those of the larynx and hyoid. Furthermore, epiglottic position may be related to the level of upper airway resistance. PMID:9729637

  15. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan; Arzt, Michael; Bloch, Konrad E; Brack, Thomas; Buyse, Bertien; De Backer, Wilfried; Eckert, Danny Joel; Grote, Ludger; Hagmeyer, Lars; Hedner, Jan; Jennum, Poul; La Rovere, Maria Teresa; Miltz, Carla; McNicholas, Walter T; Montserrat, Josep; Naughton, Matthew; Pepin, Jean-Louis; Pevernagie, Dirk; Sanner, Bernd; Testelmans, Dries; Tonia, Thomy; Vrijsen, Bart; Wijkstra, Peter; Levy, Patrick


    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can emerg

  16. Definition, discrimination, diagnosis and treatment of central breathing disturbances during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randerath, Winfried; Verbraecken, Johan; Andreas, Stefan;


    The complexity of central breathing disturbances during sleep has become increasingly obvious. They present as central sleep apnoeas (CSAs) and hypopnoeas, periodic breathing with apnoeas, or irregular breathing in patients with cardiovascular, other internal or neurological disorders, and can em...

  17. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school]. (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa


    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  18. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob


    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  19. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula;


    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  20. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from the... employed on Type C supplied-air respirators of the continuous flow class shall meet the...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  2. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  3. Breathing simulator of workers for respirator performance test. (United States)

    Yuasa, Hisashi; Kumita, Mikio; Honda, Takeshi; Kimura, Kazushi; Nozaki, Kosuke; Emi, Hitoshi; Otani, Yoshio


    Breathing machines are widely used to evaluate respirator performance but they are capable of generating only limited air flow patterns, such as, sine, triangular and square waves. In order to evaluate the respirator performance in practical use, it is desirable to test the respirator using the actual breathing patterns of wearers. However, it has been a difficult task for a breathing machine to generate such complicated flow patterns, since the human respiratory volume changes depending on the human activities and workload. In this study, we have developed an electromechanical breathing simulator and a respiration sampling device to record and reproduce worker's respiration. It is capable of generating various flow patterns by inputting breathing pattern signals recorded by a computer, as well as the fixed air flow patterns. The device is equipped with a self-control program to compensate the difference in inhalation and exhalation volume and the measurement errors on the breathing flow rate. The system was successfully applied to record the breathing patterns of workers engaging in welding and reproduced the breathing patterns.

  4. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  5. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J;


    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to part...

  6. Influence of condensation temperature on selected exhaled breath parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manini Paola


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of changes in cooling temperature on biomarker levels in exhaled breath condensate have been little investigated. The aim of the study was to test the effect of condensation temperature on the parameters of exhaled breath condensate and the levels of selected biomarkers. Methods Exhaled breath condensate was collected from 24 healthy subjects at temperatures of -10, -5, 0 and +5 C degrees. Selected parameters (condensed volume and conductivity and biomarkers (hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde were measured. Results There was a progressive increase in hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde concentrations, and condensate conductivity as the cooling temperature increased; total condensate volume increased as the cooling temperature decreased. Conclusion The cooling temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection influenced selected biomarkers and potential normalizing factors (particularly conductivity in different ways ex vivo. The temperature of exhaled breath condensate collection should be controlled and reported.

  7. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.


    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  8. The Influence of Age on Interaction between Breath-Holding Test and Single-Breath Carbon Dioxide Test. (United States)

    Trembach, Nikita; Zabolotskikh, Igor


    Introduction. The aim of the study was to compare the breath-holding test and single-breath carbon dioxide test in evaluation of the peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects of different age. Methods. The study involved 47 healthy volunteers between ages of 25 and 85 years. All participants were divided into 4 groups according to age: 25 to 44 years (n = 14), 45 to 60 years (n = 13), 60 to 75 years (n = 12), and older than 75 years (n = 8). Breath-holding test was performed in the morning before breakfast. The single-breath carbon dioxide (SB-CO2) test was performed the following day. Results. No correlation was found between age and duration of breath-holding (r = 0.13) and between age and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity to CO2 (r = 0.07). In all age groups there were no significant differences in the mean values from the breath-holding test and peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity tests. In all groups there was a strong significant inverse correlation between breath-holding test and SB-CO2 test. Conclusion. A breath-holding test reflects the sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex to carbon dioxide in healthy elderly humans. Increasing age alone does not alter the peripheral ventilatory response to hypercapnia.

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke. (United States)

    Ali, Latisha K; Avidan, Alon Y


    Sleep and stroke have an important and fascinating interaction. Patients with sleep-disordered breathing present with cardiovascular heart disease, cognitive decline, and increased risk of stroke. Stroke adversely affects sleep and factors such as prolonged immobilization, chronic pain, nocturnal hypoxia, and depression, which can also adversely impact sleep quality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the most common and serious sleep disturbances, manifests itself in almost 50% of all stroke patients. Sleep apnea patients who experience a stroke may be at a greater impairment in their rehabilitation potential and have increased risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Given these factors, the practicing neurologist should possess the skills to appropriately recognize, rapidly diagnose, and properly manage stroke patients with OSA.

  10. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  11. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti


    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  12. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome. (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun


    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  13. Voluntary control of breathing does not alter vagal modulation of heart rate (United States)

    Patwardhan, A. R.; Evans, J. M.; Bruce, E. N.; Eckberg, D. L.; Knapp, C. F.


    Variations in respiratory pattern influence the heart rate spectrum. It has been suggested, hence, that metronomic respiration should be used to correctly assess vagal modulation of heart rate by using spectral analysis. On the other hand, breathing to a metronome has been reported to increase heart rate spectral power in the high- or respiratory frequency region; this finding has led to the suggestion that metronomic respiration enhances vagal tone or alters vagal modulation of heart rate. To investigate whether metronomic breathing complicates the interpretation of heart rate spectra by altering vagal modulation, we recorded the electrocardiogram and respiration from eight volunteers during three breathing trials of 10 min each: 1) spontaneous breathing (mean rate of 14.4 breaths/min); 2) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 15, 18, and 21 breaths/min for 2, 6, and 2 min, respectively; and 3) breathing to a metronome at the rate of 18 breaths/min for 10 min. Data were also collected from eight volunteers who breathed spontaneously for 20 min and breathed metronomically at each subject's mean spontaneous breathing frequency for 20 min. Results from the three 10-min breathing trials showed that heart rate power in the respiratory frequency region was smaller during metronomic breathing than during spontaneous breathing. This decrease could be explained fully by the higher breathing frequencies used during trials 2 and 3 of metronomic breathing. When the subjects breathed metronomically at each subject's mean breathing frequency, the heart rate powers during metronomic breathing were similar to those during spontaneous breathing. Our results suggest that vagal modulation of heart rate is not altered and vagal tone is not enhanced during metronomic breathing.

  14. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J


    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon...... carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under physiological...

  15. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.


    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H G


    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  16. Whole-heart magnetic resonance coronary angiography with multiple breath-holds and automatic breathing-level tracking (United States)

    Kuhara, Shigehide; Ninomiya, Ayako; Okada, Tomohisa; Kanao, Shotaro; Kamae, Toshikazu; Togashi, Kaori


    Whole-heart (WH) magnetic resonance coronary angiography (MRCA) studies are usually performed during free breathing while monitoring the position of the diaphragm with real-time motion correction. However, this results in a long scan time and the patient's breathing pattern may change, causing the study to be aborted. Alternatively, WH MRCA can be performed with multiple breath-holds (mBH). However, one problem in the mBH method is that patients cannot hold their breath at the same position every time, leading to image degradation. We have developed a new WH MRCA imaging method that employs both the mBH method and automatic breathing-level tracking to permit automatic tracking of the changes in breathing or breath-hold levels. Evaluation of its effects on WH MRCA image quality showed that this method can provide high-quality images within a shorter scan time. This proposed method is expected to be very useful in clinical WH MRCA studies.

  17. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.


    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  18. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  19. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  20. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  1. Bounded Gain of Energy on the Breathing Circle Billiard

    CERN Document Server

    Oliffson-Kamphorst, S; Kamphorst, Sylvie Oliffson; Carvalho, Sonia Pinto de


    The Breathing Circle is a 2-dimensional generalization of the Fermi Accelerator. It is shown that the billiard map associated to this model has invariant curves in phase space, implying that any particle will have bounded gain of energy.

  2. Exhaled breath condensate: methodological recommendations and unresolved questions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, I.; Hunt, J.; Barnes, P.J.; Alving, K.; Antczak, A.; Baraldi, E.; Becher, G.; Beurden, W.J.C van; Corradi, M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Dweik, R.A.; Dwyer, T.; Effros, R.; Erzurum, S.; Gaston, B.; Gessner, C.; Greening, A.; Ho, L.P.; Hohlfeld, J.; Jobsis, Q.; Laskowski, D.; Loukides, S.; Marlin, D.; Montuschi, P.; Olin, A.C.; Redington, A.E.; Reinhold, P.; Rensen, E.L. van; Rubinstein, I.; Silkoff, P.; Toren, K.; Vass, G.; Vogelberg, C.; Wirtz, H.


    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a noninvasive method for obtaining samples from the lungs. EBC contains large number of mediators including adenosine, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, isoprostanes, leukotrienes, nitrogen oxides, peptides and cytokines. Concentrations of these mediators a

  3. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts


    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  4. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  5. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  6. Fear of suffocation alters respiration during obstructed breathing. (United States)

    Pappens, Meike; Smets, Elyn; Van Den Bergh, Omer; Van Diest, Ilse


    We aimed to investigate whether fear of suffocation predicts healthy persons' respiratory and affective responses to obstructed breathing as evoked by inspiratory resistive loads. Participants (N = 27 women, ages between 18 and 21 years) completed the Fear of Suffocation scale and underwent 16 trials in which an inspiratory resistive load of 15 cmH(2)O/l/s (small) or 40 cmH(2)O/l/s (large) was added to the breathing circuit for 40 s. Fear of suffocation was associated with higher arousal ratings for both loads. Loaded breathing was associated with a decrease in minute ventilation, but progressively less so for participants scoring higher on fear of suffocation when breathing against the large load. The present findings document a potentially panicogenic mechanism that may maintain and worsen respiratory discomfort in persons with fear of suffocation.

  7. Cardiac output in exercise by impedance cardiography during breath holding and normal breathing. (United States)

    Du Quesnay, M C; Stoute, G J; Hughson, R L


    Estimation of cardiac output by impedance cardiography (QZ) in exercise during normal breathing (NB) has been limited by motion artifact. Our objective was to obtain readable impedance cardiograms on five subjects during upright cycle exercise at 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 W to permit comparisons of QZ during NB, expiratory breath hold (EXP) and inspiratory breath hold (INSP). Q was also determined using an equilibration CO2 rebreathing method [Q(RB)]. QZ during NB exceeded EXP QZ at 100, 150, and 200 W, and exceeded INSP QZ at 100 W (P less than 0.05). The low EXP QZ values were due to a significantly lower stroke volume at 100, 150, and 200 W (P less than 0.05). For the INSP QZ at 100 W, heart rate was lower than during EXP (P less than 0.05). Regression of QZ (NB) against Q(RB) resulted in a linear relationship (r = 0.93) over the range of Q = 7-26 1/min. The slope of the regression differed significantly from 1.0 (P less than 0.05). We conclude that QZ values obtained during EXP or INSP should not be assumed to represent QZ during NB, at least at work rates greater than 50 W. A consequence of the linear relationship between QZ(NB) and Q(RB) over the range of 0-200 W is that estimates of CO2 rebreathing cardiac output can be obtained by impedance cardiography if QZ is adjusted using an appropriate empirical factor.

  8. Insomnia and sleep-related breathing disorders. (United States)

    Wickwire, Emerson M; Collop, Nancy A


    Insomnia disorder and obstructive sleep apnea are the two most common sleep disorders among adults. Historically, these conditions have been conceptualized as orthogonal, or insomnia has been considered a symptom of sleep apnea. Insomnia researchers have sought to exclude participants at risk for sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD), and vice versa. In recent years, however, there has been a growing recognition of co-occurring insomnia disorder and SRBD and interest in the prevalence, consequences, and treatment of the two conditions when they co-occur. Although plagued by inconsistent diagnostic criteria and operational definitions, evidence from clinical and research samples consistently suggests high rates of comorbidity between the two disorders. More important, insomnia disorder and SRBD have additive negative effects. To date, only a few studies have explored the combined or sequential treatment of the conditions. Results support the importance of an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to sleep medicine. This article reviews the empirical literature to date and provides clinical recommendations as well as suggestions for future research.

  9. Sleep disordered breathing in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Frusciante, Roberto; Dittoni, Serena; Vollono, Catello; Buccarella, Cristina; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Rossi, Monica; Scarano, Emanuele; Pirronti, Tommaso; Cianfoni, Alessandro; Mazza, Salvatore; Tonali, Pietro A; Ricci, Enzo


    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most frequent forms of muscular dystrophy. The aims of this study were: 1) to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with FSHD; 2) to define the sleep-related respiratory patterns in FSHD patients with SDB; and 3) to find the clinical predictors of SDB. Fifty-one consecutive FSHD patients were enrolled, 23 women, mean age 45.7+/-12.3 years (range: 26-72). The diagnosis of FSHD was confirmed by genetic tests. All patients underwent medical and neurological evaluations, subjective evaluation of sleep and full-night laboratory-based polysomnography. Twenty patients presented SDB: 13 presented obstructive apneas, four presented REM related oxygen desaturations and three showed a mixed pattern. Three patients needed positive airways pressure. SDB was not related to the severity of the disease. Body mass index, neck circumference and daytime sleepiness did not allow prediction of SDB. In conclusion, the results suggest a high prevalence of SDB in patients with FSHD. The presence of SDB does not depend on the clinical severity of the disease. SDB is often asymptomatic, and no clinical or physical measure can reliably predict its occurrence. A screening of SDB should be included in the clinical assessment of FSHD.

  10. FBG sensor of breathing encapsulated into polydimethylsiloxane (United States)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir


    The technology of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) belongs to the most widespread fiber-optic sensors. They are used for measuring a large number of physical and chemical quantities. Small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and a principle of information encoding about the measurement value into spectral characteristics causes usability of FBG sensors in medicine for monitoring vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. An important factor is the use of an inert material for the encapsulation of Bragg gratings in this area. A suitable choice is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer having excellent thermal and elastic properties. Experimental results describe the creation of FBG sensory prototype for monitoring breathing in this paper. The sensor is realized by encapsulation of Bragg grating into PDMS. The FBG sensor is mounted on the elastic contact strap which encircles the chest of the patient. This tension leads to a spectral shift of the reflected light from the FBG. For measurement, we used a broadband light source Light-Emitting Diode (LED) with central wavelength 1550 nm and optical spectrum analyzer.

  11. Underwater breathing: the mechanics of plastron respiration (United States)

    Flynn, M. R.; Bush, John W. M.

    The rough, hairy surfaces of many insects and spiders serve to render them water-repellent; consequently, when submerged, many are able to survive by virtue of a thin air layer trapped along their exteriors. The diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the ambient water may allow this layer to function as a respiratory bubble or , and so enable certain species to remain underwater indefinitely. Maintenance of the plastron requires that the curvature pressure balance the pressure difference between the plastron and ambient. Moreover, viable plastrons must be of sufficient area to accommodate the interfacial exchange of O2 and CO2 necessary to meet metabolic demands. By coupling the bubble mechanics, surface and gas-phase chemistry, we enumerate criteria for plastron viability and thereby deduce the range of environmental conditions and dive depths over which plastron breathers can survive. The influence of an external flow on plastron breathing is also examined. Dynamic pressure may become significant for respiration in fast-flowing, shallow and well-aerated streams. Moreover, flow effects are generally significant because they sharpen chemical gradients and so enhance mass transfer across the plastron interface. Modelling this process provides a rationale for the ventilation movements documented in the biology literature, whereby arthropods enhance plastron respiration by flapping their limbs or antennae. Biomimetic implications of our results are discussed.

  12. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael;


    breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. RESULTS: For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes...

  13. Electronic Nose Functionality for Breath Gas Analysis during Parabolic Flight (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E.; Hummel, Thomas; Fetter, Viktor; Helwig, Andreas; Lenic, Joachim; Moukhamedieva, Lana; Tsarkow, Dimitrij; Chouker, Alexander; Schelling, Gustav


    The presence of humans in space represents a constant threat for their health and safety. Environmental factors such as living in a closed confinement, as well as exposure to microgravity and radiation, are associated with significant changes in bone metabolism, muscular atrophy, and altered immune response, which has impacts on human performance and possibly results in severe illness. Thus, maintaining and monitoring of crew health status has the highest priority to ensure whole mission success. With manned deep space missions to moon or mars appearing at the horizon where short-term repatriation back to earth is impossible the availability of appropriate diagnostic platforms for crew health status is urgently needed. In response to this need, the present experiment evaluated the functionality and practicability of a metal oxide based sensor system (eNose) together with a newly developed breath gas collecting device under the condition of altering acceleration. Parabolic flights were performed with an Airbus A300 ZeroG at Bordeaux, France. Ambient air and exhaled breath of five healthy volunteers was analyzed during steady state flight and parabolic flight maneuvres. All volunteers completed the study, the breath gas collecting device valves worked appropriately, and breathing through the collecting device was easy and did not induce discomfort. During breath gas measurements, significant changes in metal oxide sensors, mainly sensitive to aromatic and sulphur containing compounds, were observed with alternating conditions of acceleration. Similarly, metal oxide sensors showed significant changes in all sensors during ambient air measurements. The eNose as well as the newly developed breath gas collecting device, showed appropriate functionality and practicability during alternating conditions of acceleration which is a prerequisite for the intended use of the eNose aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for breath gas analysis and crew health status

  14. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen


    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient’s body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as “gold standard” for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1–3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages. PMID:26601003

  15. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality (United States)

    Klingel, Michelle; Pizarro, Maria Ester; Hall, Graham L.; Ramsey, Kathryn; Foong, Rachel; Saunders, Clare; Robinson, Paul D.; Webster, Hailey; Hardaker, Kate; Kane, Mica; Ratjen, Felix


    Background Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW) outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria. Methods 50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic). Results Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53–0.83%) to (κ 0.73–0.97%), but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis. Conclusions The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes. PMID:27304432

  16. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli


    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  17. A Systematic Approach to Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout Test Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Jensen

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of multiple breath washout (MBW outcomes require correct operation of the device, appropriate distraction of the subject to ensure they breathe in a manner representative of their relaxed tidal breathing pattern, and appropriate interpretation of the acquired data. Based on available recommendations for an acceptable MBW test, we aimed to develop a protocol to systematically evaluate MBW measurements based on these criteria.50 MBW test occasions were systematically reviewed for technical elements and whether the breathing pattern was representative of relaxed tidal breathing by an experienced MBW operator. The impact of qualitative and quantitative criteria on inter-observer agreement was assessed across eight MBW operators (n = 20 test occasions, compared using a Kappa statistic.Using qualitative criteria, 46/168 trials were rejected: 16.6% were technically unacceptable and 10.7% were excluded due to inappropriate breathing pattern. Reviewer agreement was good using qualitative criteria and further improved with quantitative criteria from (κ = 0.53-0.83% to (κ 0.73-0.97%, but at the cost of exclusion of further test occasions in this retrospective data analysis.The application of the systematic review improved inter-observer agreement but did not affect reported MBW outcomes.

  18. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  19. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  20. Radial Breathing Modes in Cosmochemistry and Meteoritics (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wilson, K.B.


    One area of continuing interest in cosmochemistry and meteoritics (C&M) is the identification of the nature of Q-phase, although some researchers in C&M are not reporting relevant portions of Raman spectral data. Q is the unidentified carrier of noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Being carbonaceous, the focus has been on any number of Q-candidates arising from the sp2 hybridization of carbon (C). These all derive from various forms of graphene, a monolayer of C atoms packed into a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal honeycomb lattice that is the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensions for sp2 allotropes of C. As a basic lattice, 2D graphene can be curled into fullerenes (0D), wrapped into carbon nanotubes or CNTs (1D), and stacked into graphite (3D). These take such additional forms as scroll-like carbon whiskers, carbon fibers, carbon onions, GPCs (graphite polyhedral crystals) [6], and GICs (graphite intercalation compounds). Although all of these have been observed in meteoritics, the issue is which can explain the Q-abundances. In brief, one or more of the 0D-3D sp2 hybridization forms of C is Q. For some Q-candidates, the radial breathing modes (RBMs) are the most important Raman active vibrational modes that exist, and bear a direct relevance to solving this puzzle. Typically in C&M they are ignored when present. Their importance is addressed here as smoking-gun signatures for certain Q-candidates and are very relevant to the ultimate identification of Q.

  1. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;


    that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn...

  2. Bacterial contamination of anesthesia machines’ internal breathing-circuit-systems (United States)

    Spertini, Verena; Borsoi, Livia; Berger, Jutta; Blacky, Alexander; Dieb-Elschahawi, Magda; Assadian, Ojan


    Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines’ internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines’ breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined. Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines’ breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted. Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded. Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturer’s recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized. PMID:22242095

  3. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults (United States)

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae


    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  4. [Periodic breathing with periodic oxygen variation in infancy]. (United States)

    von Czettritz, G; Bax, R T; Eckardt, T; Springer, S; Emmrich, P


    Oxycardiorespirographies, recording arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), breathing movements, heart rate and ECG with a mean recording time of 22.3 hours, were performed on 85 preterm (mean postconceptional age: 38 weeks) and 81 term infants (mean postconceptional age 42.4 weeks). 83% of the preterm infants showed periodic breathing (PB), in 97% of them this was accompanied by periodic variations of arterial oxygen saturation (PVO). Periodic breathing occurred in 61% of the term infants, 84% of them showed PVO during periodic breathing. The mean variation of oxygen saturation was between 92.8 and 96.8% (+/- 1.7) for preterm and between 92.9 and 96.0% (+/- 2.2) for term infants. In some infants the peak to peak amplitude of the SaO2 cycles was up to 22%, sometimes a further fall of SaO2 occurred. There was a strong correlation of the PVO both at the beginning and end of the episode as well as with the PB-cycle periodicity itself. The fall of the oxygen saturation occurred 3.1 to 7.8 s after the beginning of the first apnea of an episode of periodic breathing, the minimum SaO2 was reached approximately 4.2 to 8.6 s later. This periodic rapid fall of SaO2 from a high oxygenation level cannot be explained by the apneas of a rather short duration during periodic breathing. It is discussed that PVO during periodic breathing may be caused by an ideopathic right to left shunting across fetal circulation pathways which occurs intermittently and periodically. This mechanism could-via patterns of reaction exhibited during the fetal and neonatal time period-lead to acute hypoxemia, as found in apparently life threatening events (ALTE) and as postulated in sudden infant death (SID).

  5. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denz Hubert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS. For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS. Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p Conclusion GCMS-SPME is a relatively

  6. Breath analysis: clinical research to the end-user market. (United States)

    Smith, T


    Breath research is now well established and is solving some of the applications in the area of identifying volatiles for medical diagnosis. This paper looks at how this research has been taken to an end-user market. It is not intended to be an indepth study of the science but simply to draw attention to the role of the commercial link between the researcher and end-user. This market is not only in research but exists in hospitals, clinics, sports medicine and even homecare. The link between research and the end-user market is a vital one to avoid breath analysis being the tool of researchers only. The ubiquitous use of breath analysis depends upon it. This is a review of some of the success stories in commercializing the important breath analysis research that has been conducted over the last few decades. In order to make breath analysis the new blood test, products that have end-user appeal need to be developed and routes to market established.

  7. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion. (United States)

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R


    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth.

  8. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test (United States)

    Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso


    In this work, we present the results of applying data mining techniques to hydrogen breath test data. Disposal of H2 gas is of utmost relevance to maintain efficient microbial fermentation processes. Objectives Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Methods Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Results Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Conclusions Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms. PMID:28125620

  9. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  10. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity]. (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna


    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  11. Effect of etiology of mouth breathing on craniofacial morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Majidi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal septal deviation and hypertrophy of the adenoids and palatine tonsils are two common causes of nasopharyngeal obstruction and consequently mouth breathing in children. It is accepted that chronic mouth breathing influences craniofacial growth and development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences of craniofacial morphology in children with two different etiological factors of mouth breathing. Materials and Methods: Study design: cross sectional. The research was conducted between 2005-2007 on 47 predominantly mouth breathing patients aged 6-10 years. After otorhinolaryngologic examination, patients were divided into two groups based on the etiology of nasopharyngeal obstruction: group 1, with Adenoid hypertrophy and group 2 with nasal septal deviation. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained to assess craniofacial development. Data gained were statistically evaluated by Mann-Whitney and T-student tests. Results: With respect to the inclination of the mandibular and palatal planes, anteroposterior relationship of maxilla and mandible to the cranial base, and indexes of facial height proportions, no significant differences were observed between two groups of children with mouth breathing. Only the gonial and craniocervical angle measurements were significantly larger in children with adenoid hypertrophy (P

  12. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: hypoxia plus a deep breath that interrupts hypoxic drive, initiating cyclic breathing. (United States)

    Guntheroth, Warren G


    In the 19th Century, Cheyne and Stokes independently reported cycles of respiration in patients with heart failure, beginning with apnea, followed by a few breaths. However Cheyne-Stokes respiration (C-SR) can also occur in healthy individuals with sleep, and was demonstrated in 1908 with voluntary hyperventilation, followed by apnea that Haldane blamed on hypoxia, subsequently called post-hyperventilation apnea. Additional theories explaining C-SR did not appear until 1954, based on control theory, specifically a feed-back regulator controlling CO(2). This certainly describes control of normal respiration, but to produce an unstable state such as C-SR requires either a very long transit time (3½ min) or an increase of the controller gain (13 times), physiologically improbable. There is general agreement that apnea initiates C-SR but that has not been well explained except for post-hyperventilation apnea, and that explanation is not compatible with a study by Nielsen and Smith in 1951. They plotted the effects of diminished oxygen on ventilation (V) in relation to CO(2) (Fig. 1). They found that the slope of V/CO(2) (gain) increased with hypoxia, but it flattened at a moderate CO(2) level and had nointercept with zero (apnea). It is also incompatible with our published findings in 1975 that showed that apnea did not occur until an extreme level of hypoxia occurred (the PO(2) fell below 10 mmHg), followed shortly by gasping. Much milder hypoxia underlies most cases of C-SR, when hypoxic drive replaces the normal CO(2)-based respiratory drive, in a failsafe role. I hypothesize that the cause of apnea is a brief interruption of hypoxic drive caused by a pulse of oxygen from a stronger than average breath, such as a sigh. The rapidity of onset of apnea in response to a pulse of oxygen, reflects the large pressure gradient for oxygen from air to lung with each breath, in contrast to CO(2). With apnea, there is a gradual fall in oxygen, resulting in a resumption of

  13. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S


    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  14. Quantum spin liquid in a breathing kagome lattice (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert; Huh, Yejin; Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek


    Motivated by recent experiments on the vanadium oxyfluoride material DQVOF, we examine possible spin liquid phases on a breathing kagome lattice of S =1 /2 spins. By performing a projective symmetry group analysis, we determine the possible phases for both fermionic and bosonic Z2 spin liquids on this lattice, and establish the correspondence between the two. The nature of the ground state of the Heisenberg model on the isotropic kagome lattice is a hotly debated topic, with both Z2 and U(1) spin liquids argued to be plausible ground states. Using variational Monte Carlo techniques, we show that a gapped Z2 spin liquid emerges as the clear ground state in the presence of this breathing anisotropy. Our results suggest that the breathing anisotropy helps to stabilize this spin liquid ground state, which may aid us in understanding the results of experiments and help to direct future numerical studies on these systems.

  15. Liquid intake monitoring through breathing signal using machine learning (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir


    This paper presents the design, system structure and performance for a wireless and wearable diet monitoring system. Food and drink intake can be detected by the way of detecting a person's swallow events. The system works based on the key observation that a person's otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted by a short apnea when she or he swallows as a part of solid or liquid intake process. We detect the swallows through the difference between normal breathing cycle and breathing cycle with swallows using a wearable chest-belt. Three popular machine learning algorithms have been applied on both time and frequency domain features. Discrimination power of features is then analyzed for applications where only small number of features is allowed. It is shown that high detection performance can be achieved with only few features.

  16. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements. (United States)

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S


    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  17. Breathing detection with a portable impedance measurement system: first measurements. (United States)

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jerome; Leonhardt, Steffen


    For monitoring the health status of individuals, detection of breathing and heart activity is important. From an electrical point of view, it is known that breathing and heart activity change the electrical impedance distribution in the human body over the time due to ventilation (high impedance) and blood shifts (low impedance). Thus, it is possible to detect both important vital parameters by measuring the impedance of the thorax or the region around lung and heart. For some measurement scenarios it is also essential to detect these parameters contactless. For instance, monitoring bus drivers health could help to limit accidents, but directly connected systems limit the drivers free moving space. One measurement technology for measuring the impedance changes in the chest without cables is the magnetic impedance tomography (MIT). This article describes a portable measurement system we developed for this scenario that allows to measure breathing contactless. Furthermore, first measurements with five volunteers were performed and analyzed.

  18. Effects of high-frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati compared with breath awareness on the degree of optical illusion perceived. (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Maharana, Kanchan; Balrana, Budhi; Balkrishna, Acharya


    Prior research has shown that methods of meditation, breath control, and different kinds of yoga breathing affect attention and visual perception, including decreasing the size of certain optical illusions. Evaluating relationships sheds light on the perceptual and cognitive changes induced by yoga and related methods, and the locus of the effects. In the present study, the degree of optical illusion was assessed using Müller-Lyer stimuli before and immediately after two different kinds of practice, a high frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati, and breath awareness. A nonyoga, control session tested for practice effects. Thirty participants (with group M age = 26.9 yr., SD = 5.7) practiced the two techniques for 18 min. on two separate days. The control group had 15 nonyoga practitioners assessed before and after 18 min. in which they did not perform any specific activity but were seated and relaxed. After both kapalabhati and breath awareness there was a significant decrease in the degree of optical illusion. The possibility that this was due to a practice or repetition effect was ruled out when 15 nonyoga practitioners showed no change in the degree of illusion when retested after 18 min. The changes were interpreted as due to changes in perception related to the way the stimuli were judged.

  19. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes. (United States)

    Martin, K L


    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  20. Detecting indoor CO exposure by measuring CO in exhaled breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeff, A.P.; van der Velde, H.C.; Boleij, J.S.; Lebret, E.; Brunekreef, B.


    CO levels in exhaled breath were measured in 29 residents of flats, equipped with a flueless geiser (an instantaneous gas-fired water heater). The flats were selected because they had a geiser with a CO concentration of more than 250 parts per million in its flue gases. Small, but in some cases statistically significant increases in CO levels in exhaled breath were found in both smokers and non smokers, and after periods of cooking and dishwashing when the geisers had been used. Calculated COHb levels remained well below 2.5% for non smokers, but were generally higher for smokers.

  1. Breathing zone concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer during joint replacement operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Jørgensen, L G; Vedel, P;


    By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during cementat......By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during...

  2. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;


    . Passive method for control over the airflow characteristics at the breathing zone to increase the amount of clean air in inhalation consisted of a rectangular board (0.63 m x 0.36 m) placed below the table and pressed against the abdominal. It acted as a barrier reducing the convection flow upcoming from...... the lower body. The resultant velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry: a dual cavity laser (λ = 532 nm) and two CCD cameras with 35 and 60 mm lenses. Seeding consisting of glycerol droplets (d = 2-3 μm) was added to the total volume supply. The blocking...

  3. Does breathing type influence electromyographic activity of obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles? (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M F; Valenzuela, S; Miralles, R; Portus, C; Santander, H; Fuentes, A D; Celhay, I


    Craniomandibular electromyographic (EMG) studies frequently include several parameters, e.g. resting, chewing and tooth-clenching. EMG activity during these parameters has been recorded in the elevator muscles, but little is known about the respiratory muscles. The aim of this study was to compare EMG activity in obligatory and accessory respiratory muscles between subjects with different breathing types. Forty male subjects were classified according to their breathing type into two groups of 20 each: costo-diaphragmatic breathing type and upper costal breathing type. Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles. EMG activity was recorded during the following tasks: (i) normal quiet breathing, (ii) maximal voluntary clenching in intercuspal position, (iii) natural rate chewing until swallowing threshold, (iv) short-time chewing. Diaphragm EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P breathing type than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in tasks 3 and 4 (P breathing types in the tasks studied (P > 0·05). The significantly higher EMG activity observed in subjects with upper costal breathing than in the costo-diaphragmatic breathing type suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type. This may be an expression of the adaptive capability of muscle chains in subjects who clinically have a different thoraco-abdominal expansion during inspiration at rest.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The purpose of this study was to register breathing patterns, in healthy subjects, during breathing with a positive expiratory pressure. Integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of the following muscles was assessed: scalene muscle, parasternal muscle and abdominal muscles, using surface electro

  5. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. (United States)

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  6. Breath biomarkers and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: preliminary observations. (United States)

    Solga, S F; Alkhuraishe, A; Cope, K; Tabesh, A; Clark, J M; Torbenson, M; Schwartz, P; Magnuson, T; Diehl, A M; Risby, T H


    Breath biomarkers have the potential to offer information that is similar to conventional clinical tests or they are entirely unique. Preliminary data support the use of breath biomarkers in the study of liver disease, in particular non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It was evaluated whether breath ethanol, ethane, sulfur compounds and acetone would be associated with hepatic histopathology amongst morbidly obese patients presenting for bariatric surgery. Breath samples were collected during a preoperative visit and compared with liver biopsies obtained during the surgery. A Student's two-tailed t-test was used to compare differences between the two groups. Linear regression was used to analyse associations between the concentrations of breath molecules and independent predictor variables. It was found that breath ethanol, ethane and acetone can be useful biomarkers in patients with NAFLD. In particular, breath ethanol can be associated with hepatic steatosis, and breath acetone can be associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  7. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds as a screening tool for detection of Tuberculosis in cattle (United States)

    • Keywords: bovine tuberculosis; Mycobacterium bovis; breath analysis; volatile organic compound; gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; NaNose • Introduction: This presentation describes two studies exploring the use of breath VOCs to identify Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle. • Methods: ...

  8. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk


    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo


    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  9. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance


    Yutaka Sakaguchi; Eriko Aiba


    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale,...

  10. Breath markers of oxidative stress in patients with unstable angina. (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Cataneo, Renee N; Greenberg, Joel; Grodman, Richard; Salazar, Manuel


    Cardiac chest pain is accompanied by oxidative stress, which generates alkanes and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These VOCs are excreted in the breath and could potentially provide a rational diagnostic marker of disease. The breath methylated alkane contour (BMAC), a 3-dimensional surface plot of C4-C20 alkanes and monomethylated alkanes, provides a comprehensive set of markers of oxidative stress. In this pilot study, we compared BMACs in patients with unstable angina pectoris and in healthy volunteers. Breath VOCs were analyzed in 30 patients with unstable angina confirmed by coronary angiography and in 38 age-matched healthy volunteers with no known history of heart disease (mean age +/- SD, 62.7 +/- 12.3 years and 62.5 +/- 10.0, not significant). BMACs in both groups were compared to identify the combination of VOCs that provided the best discrimination between the 2 groups. Forward stepwise entry discriminant analysis selected 8 VOCs to construct a predictive model that correctly classified unstable angina patients with sensitivity of 90% (27 of 30) and specificity of 73.7% (28 of 38). On cross-validation, sensitivity was 83.3% (25 of 30) and specificity was 71.1% (27 of 38). We conclude that the breath test distinguished between patients with unstable angina and healthy control subjects.

  11. Vertebro-basilar Ischemia and Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Guoxiong; Yang Hongjun; Zhu Shixiu; Zhang Kejing


    @@Introduction The relationship between cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) has attracted people's attention more and more in the past years. However,the subtentorial ischemic attacks - vertibrobasilar ischemia (VBI) has not been reported yet. This study is to show the interaction between VBI and SRBD.

  12. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools.RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction.CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  13. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh, Dam T.V.; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.; Berg, van den A.


    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  14. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh, Dam Thi Van; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.


    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase toge

  15. Don't You Dare Breathe That Air! (United States)

    American Lung Association, New York, NY.

    Designed for elementary school students, the workbook focuses on the unhealthy and unpleasant effects of air pollution. Space is provided for students to draw pictures of: (1) how breathing polluted air can make people feel, (2) what polluted air can do to people's health--especially if they smoke cigarettes, (3) what air pollution can do to the…

  16. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  17. Suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanlie Degenaar


    Full Text Available Background: There appears to be a perception amongst parents and in popular literature that infantile colic is caused by feeding difficulties. Limited support for this perception is found in scientific literature. Whilst there is scientific evidence that suck, swallow and breathing are key components of successful feeding, these components and the coordination thereof in infants with colic have not been extensively researched.Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the suck, swallow and breathing coordination in infants with infantile colic and compare it with infants without the condition.Method: An assessment protocol for suck, swallow and breathing coordination was compiled from literature. This protocol was performed on a research group of 50 infants, independently diagnosed with infantile colic, and a control group of 28 infants without the condition. All participants were from two rural towns in the North–West province, South Africa, selected with a snowball selection method and strict selection criteria. The study followed a static comparison group design. Results: A significant difference in the key components of feeding and the presence of colic in participants of four age categories were found. The correlation between postural control and the presence of infantile colic were sustained in participants from 2–19 weeks old. Conclusion: Suck, swallow and breathing were found to be significantly associated with infantile colic. The findings should be investigated further. It appears that speech-language therapists may play an expanding role in infantile colic.[pdf to follow

  18. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz


    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  19. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  20. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications. (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A


    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  1. Low Back Pain? Relax, Breathe and Try Yoga (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: Low Back Pain? Relax, Breathe and Try Yoga Review of 12 studies found small improvements in ...

  2. Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods. (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz


    In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse feeding styles, but generated a mechanical conflict between costal ventilation and high-speed locomotion. Some "lizards" (non-serpentine squamates) have been shown to circumvent this speed-dependent axial constraint with accessory gular pumping during locomotion, and here we present a new survey of gular pumping behavior in the tuatara and 40 lizard species. We observed gular pumping behavior in 32 of the 40 lizards and in the tuatara, indicating that the ability to inflate the lungs by gular pumping is a shared-derived character for Lepidosauria. Gular pump breathing in lepidosaurs may be homologous with buccal pumping in amphibians, but non-ventilatory buccal oscillation and gular flutter have persisted throughout amniote evolution and gular pumping may have evolved independently by modification of buccal oscillation. In addition to gular pumping in some lizards, three other innovations have evolved repeatedly in the major amniote clades to circumvent the speed-dependent axial constraint: accessory inspiratory muscles (mammals, crocodylians and turtles), changing locomotor posture (mammals and birds) and respiratory-locomotor phase coupling to reduce the mechanical conflict between aspiration breathing and locomotion (mammals and birds).

  3. Take a Deep Breath (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Nearly 16 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD; however, many may not be aware they have the condition. This podcast discusses the importance of seeing a health care provider if you have trouble breathing.  Created: 11/24/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/24/2016.

  4. Morbidity prior to a diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob


    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  5. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath (United States)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco


    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  6. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Hicks, James W

    that bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending...

  7. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  8. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon


    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  9. CFD Simulations of Contaminant Transport between two Breathing Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Experiments have shown that exhalation from one person is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person at a distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the dependency of the personal exposure on some physical parameters, namely: Pulmonary ventilation rate...

  10. Modeling of the expiratory flow pattern of spontaneously breathing cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, D; van der Grinten, CPM; Bogaard, JM; van der Ent, CK; Luijendijk, SCM


    A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory System (tauRS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle a

  11. Effects of Breathing Resistance on Resting Ventilatory Sensitivity to CO2 (United States)


    BREATHING RESISTANCE ON RESTING VENTILATORY SENSITIVITY TO CO2 Authors: B. Shykoff, Ph.D...June 2013 - Feb 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (U) EFFECTS OF BREATHING RESISTANCE ON RESTING VENTILATORY SENSITIVITY TO CO2 5a...the respiratory muscles by optimizing for their loading, ventilatory response to CO2 may be damped when resistance to breathing increases. This has

  12. An off-line breath sampling and analysis method suitable for large screening studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeghs, M.M.L.; Cristescu, S.M.; Munnik, P.; Zanen, P.; Harren, F.J.M.


    We present a new, off-line breath collection and analysis method, suitable for large screening studies. The breath collection system is based on the guidelines of the American Thoracic Society for the sampling of exhaled NO. Breath containing volatile gases is collected in custom-made black-layered

  13. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu


    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  14. Dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma : a rare but relevant comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.


    Hyperventilation and other clinical manifestations of dysfunctional breathing have been reported in childhood, but the prevalence is unknown. In adults, dysfunctional breathing may be a relevant comorbidity in asthma. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in children with a

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Periodic Breathing and Very Long Apnea in Preterm Infants (United States)

    Mohr, Mary A.

    Electronic signals from bedside monitors in University of Virginia's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) are routinely collected and stored. The overall goal of our research is predictive monitoring: we seek patterns in signals that give early warning of impending pathology. This work focuses on apnea (pauses in regular respiration), and on periodic breathing (regular cycles of breathing and apnea). Our examination of apnea events revealed a disturbing number of cases in which the cessation of breathing lasted at least 60 seconds. These observations were validated, clinical correlations of these events were identified, and a theory was developed that partially explains how they occur. Periodic breathing in neonates is a normal developmental phenomenon. It arises when there is instability in the respiratory control system. A mathematical model of periodic breathing was developed to analyze the stability of the control system in infants. Periodic breathing has long been thought to be benign, however, exaggerated durations of periodic breathing may be an indicator of pathology. Characterization of periodic breathing has previously been limited to short monitoring times in small numbers of infants. An automated system for measurement and characterization of periodic breathing was developed and applied to 5 years of data from the NICU. The amount of periodic breathing that infants had was found to increase with gestational age (up to 32 weeks). Also, times of excessive periodic breathing were recorded and clinical correlations were sought. A significant increase in periodic breathing in the 24 hours before diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis was found.

  16. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing... after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof...

  17. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan (United States)

    Yang, Hanchun


    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  18. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  19. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H


    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  20. Progress in SIFT-MS: breath analysis and other applications. (United States)

    Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David


    The development of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, is described from its inception as the modified very large SIFT instruments used to demonstrate the feasibility of SIFT-MS as an analytical technique, towards the smaller but bulky transportable instruments and finally to the current smallest Profile 3 instruments that have been located in various places, including hospitals and schools to obtain on-line breath analyses. The essential physics and engineering principles are discussed, which must be appreciated to design and construct a SIFT-MS instrument. The versatility and sensitivity of the Profile 3 instrument is illustrated by typical mass spectra obtained using the three precursor ions H(3)O(+), NO(+) and O(2)(+)·, and the need to account for differential ionic diffusion and mass discrimination in the analytical algorithms is emphasized to obtain accurate trace gas analyses. The performance of the Profile 3 instrument is illustrated by the results of several pilot studies, including (i) on-line real time quantification of several breath metabolites for cohorts of healthy adults and children, which have provided representative concentration/population distributions, and the comparative analyses of breath exhaled via the mouth and nose that identify systemic and orally-generated compounds, (ii) the enhancement of breath metabolites by drug ingestion, (iii) the identification of HCN as a marker of Pseudomonas colonization of the airways and (iv) emission of volatile compounds from urine, especially ketone bodies, and from skin. Some very recent developments are discussed, including the quantification of carbon dioxide in breath and the combination of SIFT-MS with GC and ATD, and their significance. Finally, prospects for future SIFT-MS developments are alluded to.

  1. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving. (United States)

    Lindholm, Peter; Lundgren, Claes E G


    This is a brief overview of physiological reactions, limitations, and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with human breath-hold diving. Breath-hold duration and ability to withstand compression at depth are the two main challenges that have been overcome to an amazing degree as evidenced by the current world records in breath-hold duration at 10:12 min and depth of 214 m. The quest for even further performance enhancements continues among competitive breath-hold divers, even if absolute physiological limits are being approached as indicated by findings of pulmonary edema and alveolar hemorrhage postdive. However, a remarkable, and so far poorly understood, variation in individual disposition for such problems exists. Mortality connected with breath-hold diving is primarily concentrated to less well-trained recreational divers and competitive spearfishermen who fall victim to hypoxia. Particularly vulnerable are probably also individuals with preexisting cardiac problems and possibly, essentially healthy divers who may have suffered severe alternobaric vertigo as a complication to inadequate pressure equilibration of the middle ears. The specific topics discussed include the diving response and its expression by the cardiovascular system, which exhibits hypertension, bradycardia, oxygen conservation, arrhythmias, and contraction of the spleen. The respiratory system is challenged by compression of the lungs with barotrauma of descent, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and the effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Various mechanisms associated with hypoxia and loss of consciousness are discussed, including hyperventilation, ascent blackout, fasting, and excessive postexercise O(2) consumption. The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated.

  2. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo


    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  3. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)


    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  4. Breathing spiral waves in the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system (United States)

    Berenstein, Igal; Muñuzuri, Alberto P.; Yang, Lingfa; Dolnik, Milos; Zhabotinsky, Anatol M.; Epstein, Irving R.


    Breathing spiral waves are observed in the oscillatory chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system. The breathing develops within established patterns of multiple spiral waves after the concentration of polyvinyl alcohol in the feeding chamber of a continuously fed, unstirred reactor is increased. The breathing period is determined by the period of bulk oscillations in the feeding chamber. Similar behavior is obtained in the Lengyel-Epstein model of this system, where small amplitude parametric forcing of spiral waves near the spiral wave frequency leads to the formation of breathing spiral waves in which the period of breathing is equal to the period of forcing.

  5. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson


    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  6. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.


    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  7. Skeletal and occlusal characteristics in mouth-breathing pre-school children. (United States)

    Mattar, Sara Elisa M; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Valera, Fabiana C P; Matsumoto, Mirian A N


    This study verified the influence of chronic mouth breathing on dentofacial growth and developmental in pre-school children. The study evaluated 73 children, both sexes, ranging from 3 to 6 years of age. After the otorhinolaryngological breathing diagnosis, 44 mouth-breathing children and 29 nasal-breathing children were compared according to facial and occlusal characteristics. The skeletal pattern measurements SN.GoGn, BaN.PtGn, PP.PM, Ar-Go, S-Go indicated a tendency to mouth-breathing children presenting a dolicofacial pattern. According to occlusal characteristics, only the intermolar distance showed a significant correlation with a narrow maxillary arch in mouth-breathing subjects. Based on the results of this study, mouth-breathing can influence craniofacial and occlusal development early in childhood.

  8. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  9. Upper airway imaging in sleep-disordered breathing. (United States)

    Poirrier, Anne-Lise; Fanielle, Julien; Bruwier, Annick; Chakar, Bassam; Poirrier, Robert


    Our understanding of sleep-disordered breathing has evolved considerably over the past three decades, and clinical techniques of evaluation have progressed tremendously. Myriad imaging techniques are now available for the physician to approach the dynamic features resulting in turbulent airflow, upper airway narrowing or collapse at different levels. Controversy exists in the choice of investigations, probably because the best evaluation should be a combination of different techniques. Physical, radiographic, endoscopic and acoustic evaluations could be integrated to understand the degree and the levels of airway reduction and/or obstruction in a given patient. This review focuses on cost-effective and easily implemented techniques in daily practice, allowing quality assessment of the dynamic anatomy of sleep-disordered breathing: cephalometry, (sleep-)endoscopy and acoustic reflectometry of the upper airway.

  10. Quantum breathing mode of interacting particles in harmonic traps (United States)

    Bauch, Sebastian; Hochstuhl, David; Balzer, Karsten; Bonitz, Michael


    The breathing mode - the uniform radial expansion and contraction of a system of interacting particles - is analyzed. Extending our previous work [Bauch et al 2009 Phys. Rev. B. 80 054515] we present a systematic analysis of the breathing mode for fermions with an inverse power law interaction potential w(r) ~ r-dwith d = 1,2,3 in the whole range of coupling parameters. The results thus cover the range from the ideal "gas" to the Wigner crystal-like state. In addition to exact results for two particles obtained from a solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation we present results for N = 4,6 from multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree-Fock simulations.

  11. Resonant breathing biofeedback training for stress reduction among manufacturing operators. (United States)

    Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini; Wahab, Muhammad Nubli Abdul; Zin, Nora Mat


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of resonant breathing biofeedback training for reducing stress among manufacturing operators. Resonant breathing biofeedback works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary heart rate variability and to control patterns of this physiological response. Thirty-six female operators from an electronic manufacturing factory were randomly assigned as the experimental group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 17). The participants of the intervention received 5 weekly sessions of biofeedback training. Physiological stress profiles and self-perceived depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that depression, anxiety, and stress significantly decreased after the training in the experimental group; they were supported by a significant increase in physiological measures. Overall, these results support the potential application of resonant biofeedback training to reduce negative emotional symptoms among industrial workers.

  12. Coherent radial-breathing-like phonons in graphene nanoribbons (United States)

    Sanders, G. D.; Nugraha, A. R. T.; Saito, R.; Stanton, C. J.


    We have developed a microscopic theory for the generation and detection of coherent phonons in armchair and zigzag graphene nanoribbons using an extended tight-binding model for the electronic states and a valence force field model for the phonons. The coherent phonon amplitudes satisfy a driven oscillator equation with the driving term depending on photoexcited carrier density. We examine the coherent phonon radial-breathing-like mode amplitudes as a function of excitation energies and nanoribbon types. For photoexcitation near the optical absorption edge the coherent phonon driving term for the radial-breathing-like mode is much larger for zigzag nanoribbons where transitions between localized edge states provide the dominant contribution to the coherent phonon driving term. Using an effective mass theory, we explain how the armchair nanoribbon width changes in response to laser excitation.

  13. Breath sound changes associated with malpositioned endotracheal tubes. (United States)

    Mansy, H A; O'Connor, C J; Balk, R A; Sandler, R H


    Endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are used to establish airway access in patients with ventilatory failure and during general anaesthesia. Tube malpositioning can compromise respiratory function and can be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Clinical assessment of ETT position normally involves chest auscultation, which is highly skill-dependent and can be misleading. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate breath sound changes associated with ETT malpositioning. Breath sounds were acquired in six human subjects over each hemithorax and over the epigastrium for tracheal, bronchial and oesophageal intubations. When the ETT was in the oesophagus, the acoustic energy ratio between epigastrium and chest surface increased in all subjects (p sounds may be useful for assessment of ETT positioning. More studies are needed to test the feasibility of this approach further.

  14. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir


    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  15. Optimization of imaging before pulmonary vein isolation by radiofrequency ablation: breath-held ungated versus ECG/breath-gated MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgayer, C.; Haller, S.; Bremerich, J. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Zellweger, M.J.; Sticherling, C.; Buser, P.T. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Cardiology, Basel (Switzerland); Weber, O. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)


    Isolation of the pulmonary veins has emerged as a new therapy for atrial fibrillation. Pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhances safety and efficacy; moreover, it reduces radiation exposure of the patients and interventional team. The purpose of this study was to optimize the MR protocol with respect to image quality and acquisition time. In 31 patients (23-73 years), the anatomy of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus was assessed on a 1.5-Tesla scanner with four different sequences: (1) ungated two-dimensional true fast imaging with steady precession (2D-TrueFISP), (2) ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP, (3) ungated breath-held contrast-enhanced three-dimensional turbo fast low-angle shot (CE-3D-tFLASH), and (4) ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP. Image quality was scored from 1 (structure not visible) to 5 (excellent visibility), and the acquisition time was monitored. The pulmonary veins and left atrium were best visualized with CE-3D-tFLASH (scores 4.50 {+-} 0.52 and 4.59 {+-} 0.43) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (4.47 {+-} 0.49 and 4.63 {+-} 0.39). Conspicuity of the oesophagus was optimal with CE-3D-TrueFISP and 2D-TrueFISP (4.59 {+-} 0.35 and 4.19 {+-} 0.46) but poor with CE-3D-tFLASH (1.03 {+-} 0.13) (p < 0.05). Acquisition times were shorter for 2D-TrueFISP (44 {+-} 1 s) and CE-3D-tFLASH (345 {+-} 113 s) compared with ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP (634 {+-} 197 s) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (636 {+-} 230 s) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an MR imaging protocol comprising CE-3D-tFLASH and 2D-TrueFISP allows assessment of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus in less than 7 min and can be recommended for pre-procedural imaging before electric isolation of pulmonary veins. (orig.)

  16. Boundary oscillations at Geotail: Windsock, breathing, and wrenching (United States)

    Shodhan, S.; Siscoe, G. L.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Paterson, W. R.


    On March 18-19, 1993, when Geotail was beyond 150 RE down the tail, for about 30 hours it frequently transited between magnetosheath-like plasma and lobe-like plasma. The transitions take the form of smooth variation by about a factor of 10 in both density and speed. Some of the transitions are distinctly asymmetric with a fast rise to sheath-like values and a slow decline to lobe-like values. We have suggested that these transitional regions are the plasma mantle, but this raises the question of why the mantle crossed Geotail many times in 30 hours. Three possible causes are flapping of the tail in response to solar wind flow changes (the windsock mechanism), intrinsic expansions and contractions of the tail boundary, perhaps in response to substorm phases (the breathing mechanism), and an IMF-squeezed elliptical tail cross section changing its orientation to follow the IMF (the wrenching mechanism). We test these possibilities here by examining simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field data from IMP 8. For the cases studied, both the windsock and the breathing mechanisms appear to contribute to the motions that cause the transitions, whereas the wrenching mechanism seems less effective. Breathing dominates on a timescale of tens of minutes, and windsock dominates on a scale of hours. Since the windsock mechanism is unavoidable, the important finding here is that the breathing mechanism appears also to operate. We use the windsock variation to estimate the thickness of the mantle at Geotail's position and find that the density drops by a factor of 10 in 9 RE. We model the mantle as a one-dimensional slow-mode expansion fan and use the model to predict the change in plasma parameters that occurs from the outer edge of the mantle to its inner edge. A comparison of the predicted profile with the observed profile shows that the model simulates the observed changes reasonably well.

  17. Evaluation of tracheal cuff pressure variation in spontaneously breathing patients


    Plotnikow, Gustavo A; Roux, Nicolas; Feld, Viviana; Gogniat, Emiliano; Villalba, Dario; Ribero, Noelia Vairo; Sartore, Marisa; Bosso, Mauro; Quiroga, Corina; Leiva, Valeria; Scrigna, Mariana; Puchulu, Facundo; Distéfano, Eduardo; Scapellato, Jose Luis; Intile, Dante


    Background: Most of the studies referring cuff tubes’ issues were conducted on intubated patients. Not much is known about the cuff pressure performance in chronically tracheostomized patients disconnected from mechanical ventilation. Objective: To evaluate cuff pressure (CP) variation in tracheostomized, spontaneously breathing patients in a weaning rehabilitation center. Materials and Methods: Experimental setup to test instruments in vitro, in which the gauge (TRACOE) performance at differ...

  18. Laryngeal two-phase flow in realistic breathing conditions


    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Legou, Thierry; Lagier, Aude; Caillibotte, Georges; Pichelin, Marine


    International audience; Liquid aerosols are efficient vectors for drug delivery in upper and lower respiratory tract. Characteristics of inhaled particles, flow properties, and airway morphology represent the main influential factors of the transport mechanisms. Numerous works have been carried out to characterize the airflow behaviour during human breathing [Baier, 1977; Brancatisano, 1983], and to determine the trajectories of inhaled particles through the extrathoracic region. Recent studi...

  19. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özdemir


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electrocardiography, if necessary echocardiography and event recorder and neurological investigations (electroencephalography were done during the admission. Patients with iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency were treated with ferrous sulphate orally. In patients with normal hematological values, no medication was used. After a two-month treatment period patients underwent control hematological evaluation. Frequency of the spells, age of disappearance of spells (defined as 6 months without spells, disappearance ratios between the three groups were compared. Results: The percentage of cyanotic, palloric and mixt type of breath holding spells of 70 patients included in the study were 67.1, 14.3 and 18.6, respectively. It was determined that psychogenic factors played a role in 77.1% of our patients. There were iron deficiency anemia in 39 (55.7%, iron deficiency in 12 (17.2% and normal hematological parameters in 19 (27.1% of 70 patients. The QTc values were normal in all of them. EEG’s were normal in 56 (80%, dysrhythmic in 11 (15.7% and pathologic in (4.3%. There was a positive family history of breath holding spells in 44.3% of those with breath holding spells. Conclusion: We determined that there was a correlation between the iron levels and the frequency of spells. The lower the iron levels the higher the frequency of spells. There was a dramatic decrease of 92% in spells with low doses of iron supplementation especially in the anemic group. (Journal of

  20. [Socioeconomic aspects of sleep-related breathing disorders]. (United States)

    Sonka, K; Vyskocilová, J


    Sleep related breathing disorders (especially sleep apnea syndrome--SAS) limit the patient through deteriorated nocturnal sleep, insufficient wakefulness, daytime inefficiency and tiredness including a cognitive impairment, through higher rate of road accidents, higher co morbidity, through impaired quality of life and higher mortality. The society pays for the SAS patient higher medical costs and other expenses related to the accidents, co morbidity and lower professional productivity.

  1. Breathing Charge Density Waves in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions


    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Abdelhafiz, H.


    We demonstrate the creation of a charge density wave (CDW) along a stack of coupled Josephson junctions in layered superconductors. Electric charge in each superconducting layer oscillates around some average value, forming a breathing CDW. We show the transformation of a longitudinal plasma wave to CDW in the state corresponding to the outermost branch. Transitions between different types of CDW's related to the inner branches of current voltage characteristics are demonstrated. The effect o...

  2. Oximetry in obese children with sleep-disordered breathing


    Evangelisti, Melania; Shafiek, Hanaa; Rabasco, Jole; Forlani, Martina; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario; Verhulst, Stijn; Villa, Maria Pia


    Abstract: Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and obese children with OSAS have frequently shown oxygen desaturations when compared with normal-weight children. The aim of our study was to investigate the oximetry characteristics in children with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods: Children referred for suspected OSAS were enrolled in the study. All children underwent sleep clinical record (SCR), pulse oximetry, and p...

  3. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress


    Daniele Martarelli; Mario Cocchioni; Stefania Scuri; Pierluigi Pompei


    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxid...

  4. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris


    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonance frequency of 32768 Hz has been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 12 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 2 smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting o...

  5. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini


    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  6. Nonlinear breathing modes at a defect site in DNA. (United States)

    Duduială, Ciprian-Ionuţ; Wattis, Jonathan A D; Dryden, Ian L; Laughton, Charles A


    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a normal DNA duplex show that breathing events typically occur on the microsecond time scale. This paper analyzes a 12 base pairs DNA duplex containing the "rogue" base difluorotoluene (F) in place of a thymine base (T), for which the breathing events occur on the nanosecond time scale. Starting from a nonlinear Klein-Gordon lattice model and adding noise and damping, we obtain a mesoscopic model of the DNA duplex close to that observed in experiments and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. The mesoscopic model is calibrated to data from the all-atom molecular dynamics package AMBER for a variety of twist angles of the DNA duplex. Defects are considered in the interchain interactions as well as in the along-chain interactions. This paper also discusses the role of the fluctuation-dissipation relations in the derivation of reduced (mesoscopic) models, the differences between the potential of mean force and the potential energies used in Klein-Gordon lattices, and how breathing can be viewed as competition between the along-chain elastic energy and the interchain binding energy.

  7. Language and thinking: analysis of breathing-related phraseology. (United States)

    Niebrój, L T


    In the contemporary bioethics, patient's autonomy is often recognized as the most important issue. This autonomy is interpreted as the right to self-determination regarding all medical-related decisions. An essential condition of autonomous decisions is the adequate knowledge of the issues involved. The "informed consent" has become a gold standard of bioethics. All this leads to focusing on the problems related to communication, and, in consequence, on the language as a fundamental tool of communication. The aim of the article was to reveal the meaning of "breath(e)/breathing" and in that way to contribute to a better communication between doctors and patients. An analysis was performed using a method of non-analytical philosophy of language. English, Italian, and Polish were chosen as subjects of this study. The results clearly show the multiplicity and variety of meanings that assume breathing-related linguistic expressions. All of them are classified in four main groups. In conclusion, the author submits that an improvement in the understanding of different meanings of words used in the doctor-patient relationship can contribute to maintaining ethical standards in medical practice.

  8. Analysis of coordination between breathing and walking rhythms in humans. (United States)

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J


    We investigated the coordination between breathing and walking in humans to elucidate whether the coordination degree depends more on metabolic load or on breathing or stride frequencies and whether coordination causes energetic economization expressed by reduction of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eighteen healthy volunteers walked on a treadmill at three load levels realized by different velocities and slopes. We analyzed the time intervals between step onset and the onset of inspiration or expiration related to stride duration (relative phase, phi) and computed the relative-phase histogram to assess the degree of coordination. The degree of coordination between breathing and stepping enhanced with increasing walking speed. Increased work load achieved by slope at constant walking speed improved coordination only slightly. No significant VO2 reduction due to coordination was found. VO2 was more strongly related to ventilation variations occurring during coordination. Also the sympathetic tone reflected by the spectral power of heart rate variability was not reduced during coordination. We conclude that during walking the coordination degree increases with increasing stride frequency and that coordination does not necessarily cause energetic economization.

  9. Device-Guided Breathing for Hypertension: a Summary Evidence Review. (United States)

    Mahtani, Kamal R; Beinortas, Tumas; Bauza, Karolis; Nunan, David


    Persistently raised blood pressure is one of the major risk factors for diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Uncontrolled hypertension is also associated with high rates of mortality, particularly in middle and high-income countries. Lifestyle factors such as poor diet, obesity, physical inactivity and smoking are all thought to contribute to the development of hypertension. As a result, the management of hypertension should begin with modifying these lifestyle factors. Beyond this, drug interventions are used as the predominant form of management. However, adherence to medications can be highly variable, medication side effects are common, and may require regular monitoring or, in some individuals may be ineffective. Therefore, additional non-pharmacologic interventions that lower blood pressure may be advantageous when combined with lifestyle modifications. Such interventions may include relaxation therapies such as slow breathing exercises, which can be initiated by means of specific devices. The technique of device-guided breathing (DGB) has been considered by guideline developers in the management of hypertension. One specific device, the Resperate, has received US FDA and UK NHS approval over the last few years. In this review, we summarise the evidence base on efficacy and find that although some clinical trials exist that demonstrate a BP-lowering effect, others do not. There is currently insufficient evidence from pooled data to recommend the routine use of device-guided breathing in hypertensive patients.

  10. Analysis of Breath Specimens for Biomarkers of Plasmodium falciparum Infection. (United States)

    Berna, Amalia Z; McCarthy, James S; Wang, Rosalind X; Saliba, Kevin J; Bravo, Florence G; Cassells, Julie; Padovan, Benjamin; Trowell, Stephen C


    Currently, the majority of diagnoses of malaria rely on a combination of the patient's clinical presentation and the visualization of parasites on a stained blood film. Breath offers an attractive alternative to blood as the basis for simple, noninvasive diagnosis of infectious diseases. In this study, breath samples were collected from individuals during controlled malaria to determine whether specific malaria-associated volatiles could be detected in breath. We identified 9 compounds whose concentrations varied significantly over the course of malaria: carbon dioxide, isoprene, acetone, benzene, cyclohexanone, and 4 thioethers. The latter group, consisting of allyl methyl sulfide, 1-methylthio-propane, (Z)-1-methylthio-1-propene, and (E)-1-methylthio-1-propene, had not previously been associated with any disease or condition. Before the availability of antimalarial drug treatment, there was evidence of concurrent 48-hour cyclical changes in the levels of both thioethers and parasitemia. When thioether concentrations were subjected to a phase shift of 24 hours, a direct correlation between the parasitemia and volatile levels was revealed. Volatile levels declined monotonically approximately 6.5 hours after initial drug treatment, correlating with clearance of parasitemia. No thioethers were detected in in vitro cultures of Plasmodium falciparum. The metabolic origin of the thioethers is not known, but results suggest that interplay between host and parasite metabolic pathways is involved in the production of these thioethers.

  11. Set-up verification and 2-dimensional electronic portal imaging device dosimetry during breath hold compared with free breathing in breast cancer radiation therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Patricia J A M; Lustberg, Tim; Borger, Jacques H.; van Baardwijk, Angela A W; Jager, Jos J.; Murrer, Lars H P; Nijsten, Sebastian M J J G; Reymen, Bart H.; van Loon, Judith G M; Boersma, Liesbeth J.


    Purpose: To compare set-up and 2-dimensional (2D) electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry data of breast cancer patients treated during voluntary moderately deep inspiration breath hold (vmDIBH) and free breathing (FB). Methods and materials: Set-up data were analyzed for 29 and 51 consecu

  12. Adaptation requirements due to anatomical changes in free-breathing and deep-inspiration breath-hold for standard and dose-escalated radiotherapy of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibolt, Patrik; Ottosson, Wiviann; Sjöström, David;


    Background. Radiotherapy of lung cancer patients is subject to uncertainties related to heterogeneities, anatomical changes and breathing motion. Use of deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) can reduce the treated volume, potentially enabling dose-escalated (DE) treatments. This study was designed...

  13. Breathing patterns of awake rats exposed to acrolein and perfluorisobutylene determined with an integrated system of nose-only exposure and online analyzed multiple monitoring of breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergers, W.W.A.; Beyersbergen Van Henegouwen, A.G.; Hammer, A.H.; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.


    Studies on changes in breathing patterns of rats due to exposure to acrolein and the Leflon pyrolysis product perfluorisobutylene (PFIB) were performed to evaluate a new developed integrated system of nose- only exposure and multiple monitoring of breathing of up to eight rats. Measurements of breat

  14. The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study. (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J; Fasman, Robert; Davis, Mary C; Craig, Arthur D Bud


    This study examined whether breathing rate affected self-reported pain and emotion following thermal pain stimuli in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM: n=27) or age-matched healthy control women (HC: n=25). FM and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. Thermal pain pulses were presented in four blocks of four trials. Each block included exposure to both mild and moderate pain trials, and periods of both normal and slow paced breathing. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were recorded immediately following each pain trial, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of each block of trials. Compared to normal breathing, slow breathing reduced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, particularly for moderately versus mildly painful thermal stimuli. The effects of slow breathing on pain ratings were less reliable for FM patients than for HCs. Slow versus normal breathing decreased negative affect ratings following thermal pain pulses for both groups, and increased positive affect reports, but only for healthy controls with high trait negative affect. Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing. These experimental findings provide support for prior reports on the benefits of yogic breathing and mindful Zen meditation for pain and depressed affect. However, chronic pain patients may require more guidance to obtain therapeutic benefit from reduced breathing rates.

  15. Oxygen and carbon dioxide sensitivity of ventilation in amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, breathing air and water. (United States)

    Gannon, Andrew T; Henry, Raymond P


    Amphibious crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi, were acclimated to breathing either air or water and exposed to altered levels of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide in the medium. Hypercapnia (22, 36 and 73 torr CO(2)) stimulated a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) in both groups of crabs, with a much greater effect on scaphognathite frequency (Deltaf(SC)=+700%) in air-breathing crabs than water-breathing crabs (Deltaf(SC)=+100%). In contrast, hyperoxia induced significant hypoventilation in both sets of crabs. However, simultaneous hyperoxia and hypercapnia triggered a greater than 10-fold increase in f(SC) in air-breathing crabs but no change in water-breathing crabs. For water-breathing crabs hypoxia simultaneous with hypercapnia triggered the same response as hypoxia alone-bradycardia (-50%), and a significant increase in f(SC) at moderate exposures but not at the more extreme levels. The response of air-breathing crabs to hypoxia concurrent with hypercapnia was proportionally closer to the response to hypercapnia alone than to hypoxia. Thus, C. guanhumi were more sensitive to ambient CO(2) than O(2) when breathing air, characteristic of fully terrestrial species, and more sensitive to ambient O(2) when breathing water, characteristic of fully aquatic species. C. guanhumi possesses both an O(2)- and a CO(2)-based ventilatory drive whether breathing air or water, but the relative importance switches when the respiratory medium is altered.

  16. Breathing adapted radiotherapy of breast cancer: reduction of cardiac and pulmonary doses using voluntary inspiration breath-hold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders N; Korreman, Stine; Nyström, Håkan


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy of breast cancer using wide tangential photon fields implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This CT-study evaluates the detailed potential dosimetric consequences of applying breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART), and the feasibility......%. CONCLUSIONS: Irradiated cardiac volumes can consistently be reduced for left-sided breast cancers using DIBH for wide tangential treatment fields. Additionally, substantial dose reductions in the lung are observed for both right- and left-sided tumours....

  17. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.


    that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn....... Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing......Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1) which provides a sudden...

  18. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects; Radiotherapie thoracique et controle de la respiration: perspectives actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)


    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  19. Optimising diffusion-weighted MR imaging for demonstrating pancreatic cancer: a comparison of respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartalis, Nikolaos; Loizou, Louiza; Edsborg, Nick; Albiin, Nils [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Segersvaerd, Ralf [Karolinska University Hospital, Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)


    To compare respiratory-triggered, free-breathing, and breath-hold DWI techniques regarding (1) image quality, and (2) signal intensity (SI) and ADC measurements in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Fifteen patients with histopathologically proven PDAC underwent DWI prospectively at 1.5 T (b = 0, 50, 300, 600 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) with the three techniques. Two radiologists, independently and blindly, assigned total image quality scores [sum of rating diffusion images (lesion detection, anatomy, presence of artefacts) and ADC maps (lesion characterisation, overall image quality)] per technique and ranked them. The lesion SI, signal-to-noise ratio, mean ADC and coefficient of variation (CV) were compared. Total image quality scores for respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques were 17.9, 16.5 and 17.1 respectively (respiratory-triggered was significantly higher than free-breathing but not breath-hold). The respiratory-triggered technique had a significantly higher ranking. Lesion SI on all b-values and signal-to-noise ratio on b300 and b600 were significantly higher for the respiratory-triggered technique. For respiratory-triggered, free-breathing and breath-hold techniques the mean ADCs were 1.201, 1.132 and 1.253 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s, and mean CVs were 8.9, 10.8 and 14.1 % respectively (respiratory-triggered and free-breathing techniques had a significantly lower mean CV than the breath-hold technique). In both analyses, respiratory-triggered DWI showed superiority and seems the optimal DWI technique for demonstrating PDAC. (orig.)

  20. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  1. Ventilatory and Cardiovascular Regulation in the Air-Breathing Fish Pangasianodon Hypophthalmus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    The air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus is abundant in the Mekong river system where it is also intensively cultured. In contrast to most other air-breathing fishes it has well developed gills as well as a highly traberculated swim bladder with a large surface area used for air......-breathing. Its native waters have been shown to be periodically strongly hypoxic and hypercarbic, forcing P. hypophthalmus to switch from exclusively branchial ventilation to air-breathing to maintain its aerobic metabolism. This ability to switch respiratory media demands that the oxygen- and CO¬2 sensory....... hypophthalmus to be unaffected by aquatic CO2 from 0 to 5%, whereas moderate hypoxia stimulated branchial ventilation while initiating air-breathing at low frequencies. P. hypophthalmus switched to almost exclusive air-breathing with minimal branchial ventilation in severe hypoxia. We observed a hypoxic...

  2. Intra- and interfraction breathing variations during curative radiotherapy for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhler Nøttrup, Trine; Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders Navrsted;


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aimed at quantifying the breathing variations among lung cancer patients over full courses of fractionated radiotherapy. The intention was to relate these variations to the margins assigned to lung tumours, to account for respiratory motion, in fractionated...... radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven lung cancer patients were included in the study. The patients' chest wall motions were monitored as a surrogate measure for breathing motion during each fraction of radiotherapy by use of an external optical marker. The exhale level variations were evaluated...... with respect to exhale points and fraction-baseline, defined for intra- and interfraction variations respectively. The breathing amplitude was evaluated as breathing cycle amplitudes and fraction-max-amplitudes defined for intra- and interfraction breathing, respectively. RESULTS: The breathing variations over...

  3. Breathing during REM and non-REM sleep: correlated versus uncorrelated behaviour (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Penzel, Thomas; Rostig, Sven; Becker, Heinrich F.; Havlin, Shlomo; Bunde, Armin


    Healthy sleep can be characterized by several stages: deep sleep, light sleep, and REM sleep. Here we show that these sleep stages lead to different autonomic regulation of breathing. Using the detrended fluctuation analysis up to the fourth order we find that breath-to-breath intervals and breath volumes separated by several breaths are long-range correlated during the REM stages and during wake states. In contrast, in the non-REM stages (deep sleep and light sleep), long-range correlations are absent. This behaviour is very similar to the correlation behaviour of the heart rate during the night and may be related to the phase synchronization between heartbeat and breathing found recently. We speculate that the differences are caused by different cortically influenced control of the autonomic nervous system.

  4. Analysis of human breath with micro extraction techniques and continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration. (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Pawliszyn, Janusz


    The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath can be useful for the clinical routine diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some major technical problems and limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis. The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. Internal standard calibration methods were used for the quantitative analysis of various breath samples. Calibration curves for some main components (target analytes such as acetone and pentane) were determined in the research. The optimized stripping-side and feeding-side gas velocities were determined. The use of breath CO2 as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO2 as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results were consistent with the literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring.

  5. 13C-methacetin breath test parameter S for liver diseases diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文炳; 张维成; 许士元; 杨志忠; 刘纯; 朱德平; 文启彬; 申岐祥; 王先彬


    The mechanism of 13C-methacetin breath test is set forth clearly with the analysis of pharmacokinetics mode, and the measuring method of 13C-methacetin breath test and its clinical applications in the diagnosis of liver diseases are reported in detail. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the clinical test data, the advanced diagnostic parameter S is of important significance for the application and development of breath test.

  6. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode. (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne


    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  7. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;


    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  8. [Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath]. (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato


    Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath.

  9. Carotta: Revealing Hidden Confounder Markers in Metabolic Breath Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Hauschild


    Full Text Available Computational breath analysis is a growing research area aiming at identifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath to assist medical diagnostics of the next generation. While inexpensive and non-invasive bioanalytical technologies for metabolite detection in exhaled air and bacterial/fungal vapor exist and the first studies on the power of supervised machine learning methods for profiling of the resulting data were conducted, we lack methods to extract hidden data features emerging from confounding factors. Here, we present Carotta, a new cluster analysis framework dedicated to uncovering such hidden substructures by sophisticated unsupervised statistical learning methods. We study the power of transitivity clustering and hierarchical clustering to identify groups of VOCs with similar expression behavior over most patient breath samples and/or groups of patients with a similar VOC intensity pattern. This enables the discovery of dependencies between metabolites. On the one hand, this allows us to eliminate the effect of potential confounding factors hindering disease classification, such as smoking. On the other hand, we may also identify VOCs associated with disease subtypes or concomitant diseases. Carotta is an open source software with an intuitive graphical user interface promoting data handling, analysis and visualization. The back-end is designed to be modular, allowing for easy extensions with plugins in the future, such as new clustering methods and statistics. It does not require much prior knowledge or technical skills to operate. We demonstrate its power and applicability by means of one artificial dataset. We also apply Carotta exemplarily to a real-world example dataset on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. While the artificial data are utilized as a proof of concept, we will demonstrate how Carotta finds candidate markers in our real dataset associated with confounders rather than the primary disease (COPD

  10. Sustained periodic terrestrial locomotion in air-breathing fishes. (United States)

    Pace, C M; Gibb, A C


    While emergent behaviours have long been reported for air-breathing osteichthyians, only recently have researchers undertaken quantitative analyses of terrestrial locomotion. This review summarizes studies of sustained periodic terrestrial movements by air-breathing fishes and quantifies the contributions of the paired appendages and the axial body to forward propulsion. Elongate fishes with axial-based locomotion, e.g. the ropefish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, generate an anterior-to-posterior wave of undulation that travels down the axial musculoskeletal system and pushes the body against the substratum at multiple points. In contrast, appendage-based locomotors, e.g. the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, produce no axial bending during sustained locomotion, but instead use repeated protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins to elevate the centre of mass and propel the entire body anteriorly. Fishes that use an axial-appendage-based mechanism, e.g. walking catfishes Clarias spp., produce side-to-side, whole-body bending in co-ordination with protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins. Once the body is maximally bent to one side, the tail is pressed against the substratum and drawn back through the mid-sagittal plane, which elevates the centre of mass and rotates it about a fulcrum formed by the pectoral fin and the ground. Although appendage-based terrestrial locomotion appears to be rare in osteichthyians, many different species appear to have converged upon functionally similar axial-based and axial-appendage-based movements. Based on common forms observed across divergent taxa, it appears that dorsoventral compression of the body, elongation of the axial skeleton or the presence of robust pectoral fins can facilitate effective terrestrial movement by air-breathing fishes.

  11. Towards the Development of a Mobile Phonopneumogram: Automatic Breath-Phase Classification Using Smartphones. (United States)

    Reyes, Bersain A; Reljin, Natasa; Kong, Youngsun; Nam, Yunyoung; Ha, Sangho; Chon, Ki H


    Correct labeling of breath phases is useful in the automatic analysis of respiratory sounds, where airflow or volume signals are commonly used as temporal reference. However, such signals are not always available. The development of a smartphone-based respiratory sound analysis system has received increased attention. In this study, we propose an optical approach that takes advantage of a smartphone's camera and provides a chest movement signal useful for classification of the breath phases when simultaneously recording tracheal sounds. Spirometer and smartphone-based signals were acquired from N = 13 healthy volunteers breathing at different frequencies, airflow and volume levels. We found that the smartphone-acquired chest movement signal was highly correlated with reference volume (ρ = 0.960 ± 0.025, mean ± SD). A simple linear regression on the chest signal was used to label the breath phases according to the slope between consecutive onsets. 100% accuracy was found for the classification of the analyzed breath phases. We found that the proposed classification scheme can be used to correctly classify breath phases in more challenging breathing patterns, such as those that include non-breath events like swallowing, talking, and coughing, and alternating or irregular breathing. These results show the feasibility of developing a portable and inexpensive phonopneumogram for the analysis of respiratory sounds based on smartphones.

  12. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;


    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  13. Effectiveness evaluation of sources of supply and systems filter in production process of breathing air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz


    Full Text Available The determination of how efficiently filtration systems used for the production of breathing air used in hyperbaric environments are operating is significant both from theoretical and practical points of view. The quality of breathing air and the breathing mixes based on air is crucial with regard to divers' safety. Paradoxically, a change in regulations regarding quality requirements for breathing mixes has imposed the necessity to verify both the technical equipment and laboratory procedures used in their production and verification. The following material, which is a continuation of previous publications, presents results of the conducted research along with the evaluation of effectiveness of the filtration systems used by the Polish Navy.

  14. Cell Size Breathing and Possibilities to Introduce Cell Sleep Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben; Scheck, Hans-Otto


    regular upgrades in the infrastructure. While network equipment is in itself becoming more efficient, these upgrades still increase the overall energy consumption of the networks. This paper investigates the energy saving potential of exploiting cell size breathing by putting low loaded cells into sleep...... mode. The energy consumption and network performance of the resulting network are used to quantify the potential of this feature. The investigation is carried out on a tilt optimized network. Since putting cells into sleep mode results in a non-optimum antenna tilt configuration, this paper also...

  15. Deep inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte F; Bangsgaard, Jens P


    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and tumour baseline shifts on image quality and registration uncertainty in image-guided DIBH radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced lung cancer. METHODS: Patients treated with daily cone beam CT (CBCT)-guided free...... ≤2 mm did not affect the CBCT image quality considerably. CONCLUSION: DIBH CBCT improved image quality and reduced registration uncertainty in the craniocaudal direction in image-guided RT of locally advanced lung cancer. Baseline shifts ≤2 mm in DIBH during CBCT acquisition did not affect image...

  16. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.


    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each specie as a function of time. Also, we pay attention to the evolution of the corresponding morphologies and the appearance of hybrid clusters.

  17. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving. (United States)

    Trassinelli, M


    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  18. DNA Breathing Dynamics in the Presence of a Terahertz Field

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, B S; Bishop, A R; Usheva, A; Rasmussen, K O


    We consider the influence of a terahertz field on the breathing dynamics of double-stranded DNA. We model the spontaneous formation of spatially localized openings of a damped and driven DNA chain, and find that linear instabilities lead to dynamic dimerization, while true local strand separations require a threshold amplitude mechanism. Based on our results we argue that a specific terahertz radiation exposure may significantly affect the natural dynamics of DNA, and thereby influence intricate molecular processes involved in gene expression and DNA replication.

  19. Looking into DNA breathing dynamics via quantum physics. (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Wu, Stephen S; Segal, Dvira


    We study generic aspects of bubble dynamics in DNA under time-dependent perturbations, for example, temperature change, by mapping the associated Fokker-Planck equation to a quantum time-dependent Schrödinger equation with imaginary time. In the static case we show that the eigenequation is exactly the same as that of the beta-deformed nuclear liquid drop model, without the issue of noninteger angular momentum. A universal breathing dynamics is demonstrated by using an approximate method in quantum mechanics. The calculated bubble autocorrelation function qualitatively agrees with experimental data. Under time-dependent modulations, utilizing the adiabatic approximation, bubble properties reveal memory effects.

  20. Giant osteoma of the mandible causing breathing problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    The review of the literature determines that large ostemas of the mandible are relatively rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with painless swelling of the left submandibular area and mild difficulty in breathing. The patient complained that the mass have been progressing slowly for at least 20 years. Radiographic studies showed a giant osteoma that attached to the lingual surface of the left mandibular angle and extended from submandibular space to infra temporal space. After the excision of the tumor the patient made a full recovery.

  1. Breathing solitary-pulse pairs in a linearly coupled system

    CERN Document Server

    Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon


    It is shown that pairs of solitary pulses (SPs) in a linearly-coupled system with opposite group-velocity dispersions form robust breathing bound states. The system can be realized by temporal-modulation coupling of SPs with different carrier frequencies propagating in the same medium, or by coupling of SPs in a dual-core waveguide. Broad SP pairs are produced in a virtually exact form by means of the variational approximation. Strong nonlinearity tends to destroy the periodic evolution of the SP pairs.

  2. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;


    acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis...... that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn...

  3. Autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia in Clarias gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae). (United States)

    Teixeira, Mariana Teodoro; Armelin, Vinicius Araújo; Abe, Augusto Shinya; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Florindo, Luiz Henrique


    The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is a teleost with bimodal respiration that utilizes a paired suprabranchial chamber located in the gill cavity as an air-breathing organ. Like all air-breathing fishes studied to date, the African catfish exhibits pronounced changes in heart rate (f H) that are associated with air-breathing events. We acquired f H, gill-breathing frequency (f G) and air-breathing frequency (f AB) in situations that require or do not require air breathing (during normoxia and hypoxia), and we assessed the autonomic control of post-air-breathing tachycardia using an infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the muscarinic cholinergic antagonist atropine. During normoxia, C. gariepinus presented low f AB (1.85 ± 0.73 AB h(-1)) and a constant f G (43.16 ± 1.74 breaths min(-1)). During non-critical hypoxia (PO2 = 60 mmHg), f AB in the African catfish increased to 5.42 ± 1.19 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 39.12 ± 1.58 breaths min(-1). During critical hypoxia (PO2 = 20 mmHg), f AB increased to 7.4 ± 1.39 AB h(-1) and f G decreased to 34.97 ± 1.78 breaths min(-1). These results were expected for a facultative air breather. Each air breath (AB) was followed by a brief but significant tachycardia, which in the critical hypoxia trials, reached a maximum of 143 % of the pre-AB f H values of untreated animals. Pharmacological blockade allowed the calculation of cardiac autonomic tones, which showed that post-AB tachycardia is predominantly regulated by the parasympathetic subdivision of the autonomic nervous system.

  4. Flute ``breath support'' perception and its acoustical correlates (United States)

    Cossette, Isabelle A.; Sabourin, Patrick


    Music educators and performers commonly refer to ``breath support'' in flute playing, yet the term ``support'' is neither well-defined nor consistently used. Different breathing strategies used by professional flautists who were instructed to play with and without support were previously identified by the authors. In the current study, 14 musical excerpts with and without support were recorded by five professional flautists. Eleven professional flautists listened to the recordings in a random order and ranked (1 to 6) how much of the following sound qualities they judged to be in each example: support, intonation, control and musical expressiveness. Answers to the test showed that musical expressiveness was associated more closely with the supported excerpts than the answers about support itself. The ratings for each sound quality were highly intercorrelated. Acoustical parameters were analyzed (frequency and centroid variation within each note) and compared with the results of the perception test in order to better understand how the acoustical and psychological variables were related. The acoustical analysis of the central part of the notes did not show evident correlation with the answers of the perception test. [Work funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

  5. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.


    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  6. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing. (United States)

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila


    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  7. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))


    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  8. Halitosis: could it be more than mere bad breath? (United States)

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Musciotto, Anna; Di Fede, Olga; Di Marco, Vito; Craxì, Antonio


    Halitosis is a generic term used to describe unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth air and breath, independent of the source where the odor substances originate. It affects between 50 and 65% of the population, but despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared as taboo. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes: a small, but important percentage, of oral malodor cases have an extra-oral etiology, very often falling into the category of "blood-borne halitosis". Several systemic diseases have been found to provoke malodor or to be a cofactor; bad breath may be an early sign of a serious local or systemic condition. A psychogenic halitosis also exists including the variant "pseudo-halitosis", when the oral malodor does not exist, but the patient believes he or she is suffering severely from it, and the halitophobia, when, instead, there is an exaggerated fear of having halitosis. The aims of this paper are to review both oral and extra-oral causes of halitosis, especially those related to underlying systemic diseases, and to provide the primary care clinician a helpful means for its diagnosis and management. In fact, it is important to determine quickly whether the odor comes from an oral cause or not: if so, it requires referral to a dentist; if not (extra-oral origin alone or combined), its management requires the treatment of the underlying causes. Extra-oral disorders can be the cause in up to 15% of cases.

  9. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh


    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  10. O2 cost of breathing: ventilatory vs. pressure loads. (United States)

    Cala, S J; Edyvean, J; Rynn, M; Engel, L A


    We compared the O2 cost of breathing (VO2resp) at high levels of ventilation (HV) with that against high inspiratory pressure loads (HP) using an external elastance when end-expiratory volume, work rate (W), and pressure-time product (P) were matched at two levels of ventilation and elastic loading. Each of five normal subjects performed three pairs of loaded runs (one HV and one HP) bracketed by two resting runs. Mean O2 consumption from the pairs of resting runs was subtracted from that of each of the loaded runs to give VO2resp during loaded breathing. Matching for W and P was within 15% in all 15 pairs of runs. During HV runs, ventilation was 398 +/- 24% of corresponding values during HP runs (P 0.05), the VO2resp during HV runs was 237 +/- 33% of that during HP (P 0.05). In the second series of experiments, when both HV and HP runs were matched for W but P was allowed to vary, efficiency increased by 1.42 +/- 0.42% (P 0.05) during HP runs despite a 193 +/- 10% increase in P.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Medical image of the week: Cheyne Stokes breathing on polysomnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le T


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 79-year-old man presented to the sleep lab for a split-night polysomnography (PSG after a positive Berlin Questionnaire. He was screened and directly referred to our sleep lab through his PCP. Patient has a chart documented medical history of atrial fibrillation, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, obesity, and CHF. He did not have an echocardiogram available therefore the etiology of his CHF was unclear. He was found to have severe obstructive sleep apnea and was split early in the night. Prior to positive airway pressure, his apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was 77 and were predominantly obstructive hypopneas. Soon after initiation of positive airway pressure, his PSG revealed the breathing pattern seen in Figure 1. His respirations exhibited a crescendo-decrescendo pattern (arrow followed by a period of central apnea consistent with Cheyne Stokes breathing (CSB. In this patient, CSB was likely due to heart failure, although systolic or diastolic remained unclear. Of note, he ...

  12. The assessment of the breath hold and the free breath methods about the blood flow evaluation by using phase contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk Medical center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Measurement of cardiac blood flow using the magnetic resonance imaging has been limited due to breathing and involuntary movements of the heart. The present study attempted to improve the accuracy of cardiac blood flow testing through phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging by presenting the adequate breathing method and imaging variables by comparing the measurement values of cardiac blood flow. Each was evaluated by comparing the breath hold retrospective 1NEX and non breath hold retrospective 1-3NEX in the ascending aorta and descending aorta. As a result, the average blood flow amount/ velocity of the breath hold retrosepctive 1NEX method in the ascending aorta were 96.17±19.12 ml/sec, 17.04±4.12 cm/sec respectively, which demonstrates a statistically significant difference(p<0.05) with the non-breath hold retrospective method 1NEX of 72.31±13.27 ml and 12.32±3.85. On the other hand, the average 2NEX blood flow and mean flow velocity is 101.90±24.09, 16.84±4.32, 3NEX 103.06±25.49, 16.88±4.19 did not show statistically significant differences(p>0.05).The average blood flow amount/ velocity of the breath hold retrospective 1NEX method in the descending aorta were 76.68±19.72 ml/s, and 22.23±4.8, which did not demonstrate a significant difference in comparison to non-breath hold retrospective method 1-3 NEX. Therefore, the non breath hold retrospective method does not significantly differ in terms of cardiac blood flow in comparison with the breath hold retrospective method in accordance with the increase of NEX, so pediatric patients or patients who are not able to breathe well must have the diagnostic value of their cardiac blood flow tests improved.

  13. Spontaneous breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation improves regional lung characteristics in experimental lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, M.; Roubik, K.; Kopelent, V.; Kneyber, M. C. J.; Markhorst, D. G.


    Background Maintenance of spontaneous breathing is advocated in mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates the effect of spontaneous breathing on regional lung characteristics during high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilation in an animal model of mild lung injury. Methods Lung injury was induce

  14. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris Frederick; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil;


    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced card...

  15. Propofol Breath Monitoring as a Potential Tool to Improve the Prediction of Intraoperative Plasma Concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colin, Pieter; Eleveld, Douglas J; van den Berg, Johannes P; Vereecke, Hugo E M; Struys, Michel M R F; Schelling, Gustav; Apfel, Christian C; Hornuss, Cyrill


    INTRODUCTION: Monitoring of drug concentrations in breathing gas is routinely being used to individualize drug dosing for the inhalation anesthetics. For intravenous anesthetics however, no decisive evidence in favor of breath concentration monitoring has been presented up until now. At the same tim

  16. Design of a breath analysis system for diabetes screening and blood glucose level prediction. (United States)

    Yan, Ke; Zhang, David; Wu, Darong; Wei, Hua; Lu, Guangming


    It has been reported that concentrations of several biomarkers in diabetics' breath show significant difference from those in healthy people's breath. Concentrations of some biomarkers are also correlated with the blood glucose levels (BGLs) of diabetics. Therefore, it is possible to screen for diabetes and predict BGLs by analyzing one's breath. In this paper, we describe the design of a novel breath analysis system for this purpose. The system uses carefully selected chemical sensors to detect biomarkers in breath. Common interferential factors, including humidity and the ratio of alveolar air in breath, are compensated or handled in the algorithm. Considering the intersubject variance of the components in breath, we build subject-specific prediction models to improve the accuracy of BGL prediction. A total of 295 breath samples from healthy subjects and 279 samples from diabetic subjects were collected to evaluate the performance of the system. The sensitivity and specificity of diabetes screening are 91.51% and 90.77%, respectively. The mean relative absolute error for BGL prediction is 21.7%. Experiments show that the system is effective and that the strategies adopted in the system can improve its accuracy. The system potentially provides a noninvasive and convenient method for diabetes screening and BGL monitoring as an adjunct to the standard criteria.

  17. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.


    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into ou

  18. Nonlinear Dynamic Behaviors of Rotated Blades with Small Breathing Cracks Based on Vibration Power Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Xu


    Full Text Available Rotated blades are key mechanical components in turbomachinery and high cycle fatigues often induce blade cracks. Accurate detection of small cracks in rotated blades is very significant for safety, reliability, and availability. In nature, a breathing crack model is fit for a small crack in a rotated blade rather than other models. However, traditional vibration displacements-based methods are less sensitive to nonlinear characteristics due to small breathing cracks. In order to solve this problem, vibration power flow analysis (VPFA is proposed to analyze nonlinear dynamic behaviors of rotated blades with small breathing cracks in this paper. Firstly, local flexibility due to a crack is derived and then time-varying dynamic model of the rotated blade with a small breathing crack is built. Based on it, the corresponding vibration power flow model is presented. Finally, VPFA-based numerical simulations are done to validate nonlinear behaviors of the cracked blade. The results demonstrate that nonlinear behaviors of a crack can be enhanced by power flow analysis and VPFA is more sensitive to a small breathing crack than displacements-based vibration analysis. Bifurcations will occur due to breathing cracks and subharmonic resonance factors can be defined to identify breathing cracks. Thus the proposed method can provide a promising way for detecting and predicting small breathing cracks in rotated blades.

  19. Breathe with the Ocean: a System for Relaxation using Audio, Haptic and Visual Stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E.O.; Weffers, A.


    In this paper we present the “Breathe with the Ocean” system concept, which is a breathing guidance system that aims to help a user relax. It provides an immersive experience where the user is virtually present at an ocean shore. We describe the design and implementation of three embodiments of this

  20. 21 CFR 868.5965 - Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment. (United States)


    ... attachment. 868.5965 Section 868.5965 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment. (a) Identification. A positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) breathing attachment is a device attached to a ventilator that is used to elevate...

  1. Analyses of mouse breath with ion mobility spectrometry: a feasibility study. (United States)

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Nolte, Jürgen; Bufe, Albrecht; Baumbach, Jörg I; Peters, Marcus


    Exhaled breath can provide comprehensive information about the metabolic state of the subject. Breath analysis carried out during animal experiments promises to increase the information obtained from a particular experiment significantly. This feasibility study should demonstrate the potential of ion mobility spectrometry for animal breath analysis, even for mice. In the framework of the feasibility study, an ion mobility spectrometer coupled with a multicapillary column for rapid preseparation was used to analyze the breath of orotracheally intubated spontaneously breathing mice during anesthesia for the very first time. The sampling procedure was validated successfully. Furthermore, the breath of four mice (2 healthy control mice, 2 with allergic airway inflammation) was analyzed. Twelve peaks were identified directly by comparison with a database. Additional mass spectrometric analyses were carried out for validation and for identification of unknown signals. Significantly different patterns of metabolites were detected in healthy mice compared with asthmatic mice, thus demonstrating the feasibility of analyzing mouse breath with ion mobility spectrometry. However, further investigations including a higher animal number for validation and identification of unknown signals are needed. Nevertheless, the results of the study demonstrate that the method is capable of rapid analyses of the breath of mice, thus significantly increasing the information obtained from each particular animal experiment.

  2. Nasal Contribution to Breathing and Fine Particle Deposition in Children Versus Adults (United States)

    Both the route of breathing, nasal versus oral, and the effectiveness of the nose to filter inhaled, fine particles may differ between children and adults. This study compared (1) the nasal contribution to breathing at rest and during mild to moderate exercise in children (age 6–...

  3. Reprint of "Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness". (United States)

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf


    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange.

  4. Breathing and sense of self: visuo-respiratory conflicts alter body self-consciousness. (United States)

    Adler, Dan; Herbelin, Bruno; Similowski, Thomas; Blanke, Olaf


    Bodily self-consciousness depends on the processing of interoceptive and exteroceptive signals. It can be disrupted by inducing signal conflicts. Breathing, at the crossroad between interoception and exteroception, should contribute to bodily self-consciousness. We induced visuo-respiratory conflicts in 17 subjects presented with a virtual body or a parallelepidedal object flashing synchronously or asynchronously with their breathing. A questionnaire detected illusory changes in bodily self-consciousness and breathing agency (the feeling of sensing one's breathing command). Changes in self-location were tested by measuring reaction time during mental ball drop (MBD). Synchronous illumination changed the perceived location of breathing (body: p=0.008 vs. asynchronous; object: p=0.013). It resulted in a significant change in breathing agency, but no changes in self-identification. This was corroborated by prolonged MBD reaction time (body: +0.045s, 95%CI [0.013; 0.08], p=0.007). We conclude that breathing modulates bodily self-consciousness. We also conclude that one can induce the irruption of unattended breathing into consciousness without modifying respiratory mechanics or gas exchange.

  5. 78 FR 52563 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution... within the United States after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and... States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  6. 78 FR 76858 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission... (United States)


    ..., ``Complainants''). 78 FR 52563 (August 23, 2013). The complaint alleged violations of Section 337 of the Tariff... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission... United States after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and...


    Exhaled alveolar breath can provide a great deal of information about an individual?s health and previous exposure to potentially harmful xenobiotic materials. Because breath can be obtained noninvasively and its constituents directly reflect concentrations in the blood, its us...

  8. Breath acetone to monitor life style interventions in field conditions: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samudrala, D.; Lammers, G.; Mandon, J.B.; Blanchet, Lionel; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Harren, F.J.M.; Tappy, L.; Cristescu, S.M.


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether breath acetone concentration can be used to monitor the effects of a prolonged physical activity on whole body lipolysis and hepatic ketogenesis in field conditions. METHODS: Twenty-three non-diabetic, 11 type 1 diabetic, and 17 type 2 diabetic subjects provided breath a

  9. Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games? (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L.; Campbell, Andrew


    This study investigated "The Journey to Wild Divine" as a biofeedback management tool teaching breathing and relaxation skills to children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The children played the game by manipulating their heart rate using breathing techniques taught in the game, measured through three finger sensors. Parents…

  10. The psychobiology of strained breathing and its cardiovascular implications : A functional system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, DS


    Strained breathing is a natural respiratory pattern, with cardiovascular implications. It is associated with social factors, attention, expectation, and anxiety and with defense behavior in animals. An inhibition of active behavior is characteristic. Strained breathing is based on the functional het

  11. Imposed work of breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation : a bench study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, Marc; van Genderingen, Huib R.; Leenhoven, Tom; Roubik, Karel; Ploetz, Frans B.; Markhorst, Dick G.


    Introduction The ventilator and the endotracheal tube impose additional workload in mechanically ventilated patients breathing spontaneously. The total work of breathing (WOB) includes elastic and resistive work. In a bench test we assessed the imposed WOB using 3100 A/3100 B SensorMedics high-frequ

  12. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.


    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  13. Ultra-Wideband Radar for Breath Tracking with Optical Fiber for Remote Reach Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José


    We report on the experimental demonstration of an UWB radar with fiber extension for remote breath tracking through 10 cm of concrete. The radar is based on telecom class equipment.......We report on the experimental demonstration of an UWB radar with fiber extension for remote breath tracking through 10 cm of concrete. The radar is based on telecom class equipment....

  14. Sleep board review questions: sleep disordered breathing that improves in REM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja R


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at end of question. Which of the following breathing disorders is usually less severe in rapid eye movement (REM sleep compared to non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep?1.Sleep-related hypoxemia in COPD2.Obstructive Sleep Apnea3.Cheyne Stokes Breathing4.Hypoxemia in Pulmonary Hypertension

  15. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical management for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Hearne, Benjamin J; Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Blackshaw, Helen; Lim, Jerome; Schilder, Anne G M


    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) is a condition that encompasses breathing problems when asleep, due to an obstruction of the upper airways, ranging in severity from simple snoring to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). It affects both children and adults. In children,

  16. Measurement of oxygen consumption in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: comparison between mass spectrometry and the breath-by-breath method. (United States)

    Guo, Long; Cui, Yong; Pharis, Scott; Walsh, Mark; Atallah, Joseph; Tan, Meng-Wei; Rutledge, Jennifer; Coe, J Y; Adatia, Ian


    Accurate measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) is important to precise calculation of blood flow using the Fick equation. This study aimed to validate the breath-by-breath method (BBBM) of measuring oxygen consumption VO2 compared with respiratory mass spectroscopy (MS) for intubated children during cardiac catheterization. The study used MS and BBBM to measure VO2 continuously and simultaneously for 10 min in consecutive anesthetized children undergoing cardiac catheterization who were intubated with a cuffed endotracheal tube, ventilated mechanically, and hemodynamically stable, with normal body temperature. From 26 patients, 520 data points were obtained. The mean VO2 was 94.5 ml/min (95 % confidence interval [CI] 65.7-123.3 ml/min) as measured by MS and 91.4 ml/min (95 % CI 64.9-117.9 ml/min) as measured by BBBM. The mean difference in VO2 measurements between MS and BBBM (3.1 ml/min; 95 % CI -1.7 to +7.9 ml/min) was not significant (p = 0.19). The MS and BBBM VO2 measurements were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.98; P measure VO2 in anesthetized intubated children undergoing cardiac catheterization. The two methods demonstrated excellent agreement. However, BBBM may be more suited to clinical use with children.

  17. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  18. Employing components-of-variance to evaluate forensic breath test instruments. (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G


    The evaluation of breath alcohol instruments for forensic suitability generally includes the assessment of accuracy, precision, linearity, blood/breath comparisons, etc. Although relevant and important, these methods fail to evaluate other important analytical and biological components related to measurement variability. An experimental design comparing different instruments measuring replicate breath samples from several subjects is presented here. Three volunteers provided n = 10 breath samples into each of six different instruments within an 18 minute time period. Two-way analysis of variance was employed which quantified the between-instrument effect and the subject/instrument interaction. Variance contributions were also determined for the analytical and biological components. Significant between-instrument and subject/instrument interaction were observed. The biological component of total variance ranged from 56% to 98% among all subject instrument combinations. Such a design can help quantify the influence of and optimize breath sampling parameters that will reduce total measurement variability and enhance overall forensic confidence.

  19. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing. (United States)

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn


    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  20. A polynomial model of patient-specific breathing effort during controlled mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Redmond, Daniel P; Docherty, Paul D; Yeong Shiong Chiew; Chase, J Geoffrey


    Patient breathing efforts occurring during controlled ventilation causes perturbations in pressure data, which cause erroneous parameter estimation in conventional models of respiratory mechanics. A polynomial model of patient effort can be used to capture breath-specific effort and underlying lung condition. An iterative multiple linear regression is used to identify the model in clinical volume controlled data. The polynomial model has lower fitting error and more stable estimates of respiratory elastance and resistance in the presence of patient effort than the conventional single compartment model. However, the polynomial model can converge to poor parameter estimation when patient efforts occur very early in the breath, or for long duration. The model of patient effort can provide clinical benefits by providing accurate respiratory mechanics estimation and monitoring of breath-to-breath patient effort, which can be used by clinicians to guide treatment.

  1. Breath hydrogen test in infants and children with blind loop syndrome. (United States)

    Nose, O; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Maki, I; Tajiri, H; Kanaya, S; Kimura, S; Shimizu, K; Yabuuchi, H


    Breath hydrogen production after oral lactose loading was examined in infants and children with stagnant loop syndrome, blind loop syndrome, or both. All six infants under 3 years of age had bacteriological evidence of small intestinal colonization. The characteristics of the breath hydrogen test in this syndrome are: (a) extremely high basal excretion of breath hydrogen (after overnight fasting); (b) an earlier and greater breath hydrogen value (0.293 +/- 0.201 ml/min/m2: mean +/- SD) after oral lactose administration than formed in lactose malabsorption alone (0.050 +/- 0.041 ml/min/m2); and (c) the observation of a sustained hydrogen rise over several hours. This investigation demonstrated that the breath hydrogen test is a promising and noninvasive tool for diagnosing blind (or stagnant) loop syndrome.

  2. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori


    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (PMouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nagaraja


    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  4. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults. (United States)

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F


    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 3-18) versus 46 μmol L(-1) (IQR, 23-66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 265-765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 180-1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17  ±  6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia.

  5. Breath isoprene concentrations in persons undergoing general anesthesia and in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Zagler, Armin; Dolch, Michael E; Wiepcke, Dirk; Praun, Siegfried; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Weis, Florian; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav


    Human breath contains an abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analysis of breath VOC may be used for diagnosis of various diseases or for on-line monitoring in anesthesia and intensive care. However, VOC concentrations largely depend on the breath sampling method and have a large inter-individual variability. For the development of breath tests, the influence of breath sampling methods and study subject characteristics on VOC concentrations has to be known. Therefore, we investigated the VOC isoprene in 62 study subjects during anesthesia and 16 spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers to determine (a) the influence of artificial and spontaneous ventilation and (b) the influence of study subject characteristics on breath isoprene concentrations. We used ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry for high-resolution breath-by-breath analysis of isoprene. We found that persons during anesthesia had significantly increased inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene breath concentrations. Measured isoprene concentrations (median [first quartile-third quartile]) were in the anesthesia group: 54 [40-79] ppb (inspiratory) and 224 [171-309] ppb (end-expiratory), volunteer group: 14 [11-17] ppb (inspiratory) and 174 [124-202] ppb (end-expiratory). Higher end-tidal CO(2) concentrations in ventilated subjects were associated with higher expiratory isoprene levels. Furthermore, inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene concentrations were correlated during anesthesia (r = 0.603, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that men had significantly higher end-expiratory isoprene concentrations than women. Rebreathing of isoprene from the anesthesia machine possibly accounts for the observed increase in isoprene in the anesthesia group.

  6. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  7. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko


    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  8. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko


    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  9. SU-E-J-185: A Systematic Review of Breathing Guidance in Radiation Oncology and Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, S; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Keall, R [Hammond Care Palliative and Supportive Care Service, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. A review of such research had not yet been performed, it was therefore our aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: Results of online database searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with the PRISMAStatement reporting standard (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) utilizing the PICOS approach (Participants, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Study design). Participants: Cancer patients, healthy volunteers. Intervention: Biofeedback breathing guidance systems. Comparison: No breathing guidance of the same breathing type. Outcome: Regularity of breathing signal and anatomic/tumor motion, medical image quality, radiation treatment margins and coverage, medical imaging and radiation treatment times. Study design: Quantitative and controlled prospective or retrospective trials. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 479 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. The vast majority of investigated outcomes were significantly positively impacted by the use of breathing guidance; however, this was dependent upon the nature of the breathing guidance system and study design. In 25/27 studies significant improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusion: The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted which quantify more comprehensively the

  10. Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure. (United States)

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki


    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. The validity of these theoretical results is confirmed through the comparison of the experiment, calculation and simulation. Our results show that the RBM frequency is linearly dependent on the axial pressure and is affected by the wave numbers. We concluded that RBM frequency can be used to characterize the axial pressure acting on both ends of a CNT.

  11. Master equation approach to DNA breathing in heteropolymer DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Banik, Suman K; Lomholt, Michael A


    After crossing an initial barrier to break the first base-pair (bp) in double-stranded DNA, the disruption of further bps is characterized by free energies up to a few k(B)T. Thermal motion within the DNA double strand therefore causes the opening of intermittent single-stranded denaturation zones......, the DNA bubbles. The unzipping and zipping dynamics of bps at the two zipper forks of a bubble, where the single strand of the denatured zone joins the still intact double strand, can be monitored by single molecule fluorescence or NMR methods. We here establish a dynamic description of this DNA breathing...... in a heteropolymer DNA with given sequence in terms of a master equation that governs the time evolution of the joint probability distribution for the bubble size and position along the sequence. The transfer coefficients are based on the Poland-Scheraga free energy model. We derive the autocorrelation function...

  12. Breathing Bright Solitons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崇桂书; 海文华; 谢琼涛


    A Bose-Einstein condensate with time varying scattering length in time-dependent harmonic trap is analytically investigated and soliton-like solutions of the Gross-Pitaeviskii equation are obtained to describe single soliton,bisoliton and N-soliton properties of the matter wave. The influences of the geometrical property and modulate frequency of trapping potential on soliton behaviour are discussed. When the trap potential has a very small trap aspect ratio or oscillates with a high frequency, the matter wave preserves its shape nearly like a soliton train in propagation, while the breathing behaviour, which displays the periodic collapse and revival of the matter wave,is found for a relatively large aspect ratio or slow varying potential. Meanwhile mass centre of the matter wave translates and/or oscillates for different trap aspect ratio and trap frequencies.

  13. Electronic Nose To Detect Patients with COPD From Exhaled Breath (United States)

    Velásquez, Adriana; Durán, Cristhian M.; Gualdron, Oscar; Rodríguez, Juan C.; Manjarres, Leonardo


    To date, there is no effective tool analysis and detection of COPD syndrome, (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) which is linked to smoking and, less frequently to toxic substances such as, the wood smoke or other particles produced by noxious gases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of this disease show it affects more than 52 million people and kills more than 2.7 million human beings each year. In order to solve the problem, a low-cost Electronic Nose (EN) was developed at the University of Pamplona (N. S) Colombia, for this specific purpose and was applied to a sample group of patients with COPD as well as to others who were healthy. From the exhalation breath samples of these patients, the results were as expected; an appropriate classification of the patients with the disease, as well as from the healthy group was obtained.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Nicoleta ZETU


    Full Text Available Maxillofacial structures and mouth breathing patients constitute an especially interesting topic in orthodontic literature. The present study aims at determining the possible correlations between the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions of the pharynx and the craniofacial morphology in these patients. Materials and method. Prior to the orthodontic treatment, measurements were performed on 90 teleradiographies of some children aged between 8 and 13, with Class I, II and III anomalies, after which the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions of the pharynx and the skeletal craniofacial morphology were statistically compared. Results and discussion. Correlations have been established between the nasopharyngeal and craniofacial variables. Nasopharyngeal depth increases in skeletal Class II- and decreases in skeletal Class III-cases, while the discrepancy is represented by either the ANB angle or AOBO value. No significant differences between ages were recorded. Conclusions. Obstruction of the nasopharynx can be – in some specific cases – statistically significant, being related to a specific craniofacial morphology.

  15. Breathing and locomotion: comparative anatomy, morphology and function. (United States)

    Klein, Wilfried; Codd, Jonathan R


    Using specialized respiratory structures such as gills, lungs and or a tracheal system, animals take up oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The efficiency of gas exchange, however, may be constrained by the morphology of the respiratory organ itself as well as by other aspects of an animal's physiology such as feeding, circulation or locomotion. Herein we discuss some aspects of the functional link between the respiratory and locomotor systems, such as gill morphology of sharks as a factor limiting maximum aerobic scope, respiratory constraints among legless lizards, lung morphology of testudines, trade-offs between locomotion and respiration among birds, reconstruction of the respiratory system of sauropods, respiration of mice during locomotion as well as some aspects of gas exchange among insects. Data covering such a broad spectrum of interactions between the locomotor and respiratory systems shall allow us to place breathing and locomotion into a wider context of evolution of oxygen.

  16. Breathing and affective picture processing across the adult lifespan. (United States)

    Gomez, Patrick; Filippou, Dimitra; Pais, Bruno; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta


    The present study investigated differences between healthy younger, middle-aged, and older adults in their respiratory responses to pictures of different valence and arousal. Expiratory time shortened and end-tidal PCO2 decreased with increasing arousal in all age groups; yet, compared to younger adults, older adults' overall change from baseline was smaller for expiratory time and larger for end-tidal PCO2. Contrary to their younger counterparts, older adults' inspiratory time did not shorten with increasing arousal. Inspiratory duty cycle did not covary with affective ratings for younger adults, increased with unpleasantness for middle-aged adults, and increased with arousal for older adults. Thoracic breathing increased with increasing unpleasantness only among older adults. Age had no effects on mean inspiratory flow and minute ventilation, which both augmented as arousal increased. We discuss how age effects on respiratory response magnitude and pattern may depend on age-associated biological changes or reflect age-related differences in emotional processing.

  17. Vortical Structures in CT-based Breathing Lung Models (United States)

    Choi, Jiwoong; Lee, Changhyun; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long


    The 1D-3D coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model is applied to study vortical structures in the human airways during normal breathing cycles. During inhalation, small vortical structures form around the turbulent laryngeal jet and Taylor-Gőrtler-like vortices form near the curved walls in the supraglottal region and at airway bifurcations. On exhalation elongated vortical tubes are formed in the left main bronchus, whereas a relatively slower stream is observed in the right main bronchus. These structures result in helical motions in the trachea, producing long lasting high wall shear stress on the wall. The current study elucidates that the correct employment of image-based airway deformation and lung deflation information is crucial for capturing the physiologically consistent regional airflow structures. The pathophysiological implications of these structures in destruction of tracheal wall will be discussed.

  18. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function. (United States)

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo


    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo.

  19. Breathe easy in Seattle : addressing asthma disparities through healthier housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieger, J.W.; Rabkin, J.C. [Seattle and King County, Seattle Public Health, Seattle, WA (United States); Takaro, T.K. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Faculty of Health Sciences


    The prevalence of mortality associated with asthma in children in the United States has significantly increased over the past two decades and remains high. This paper described three home intervention projects that spanned the spectrum from individual behaviour change to improving housing quality. It described 2 healthy homes projects and 1 project known as Breathe Easy Homes. The first healthy home project involved randomly assigning 274 low-income asthmatic children to a high or low intensity group. Community health workers (CHWs) visited all homes to assess exposures, develop an action plan, and provide bedding encasements. The high intensity group received cleaning equipment and an average of 7 additional visits over a year while the low group received only the initial visit. In the second healthy home project, 309 low-income asthmatic children were randomly assigned to a CHW intervention group or usual care group. All participants received clinic based asthma education from a nurse. The breathe easy homes project involved using a pre-post design to examine the benefits of a new home designed to reduce asthma trigger on outcomes among 35 low-income children with asthma. All homes received a detailed inspection by a remediation coordinator who identified conditions associated with exposure to asthma triggers, such as moisture and mould, dust, pets, tobacco smoke and wood smoke. Mitigative actions included the use of proper ventilation, vacuuming with a high efficiency particulate filter and avoiding the use of fireplaces and wood stoves. It was concluded that home visits increased asthma control behaviours, reduced urgent health services, improved caregiver quality-of-life and decreased asthma symptoms. 93 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook


    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  1. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist. (United States)

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I


    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  2. Effect of oxygen breathing and perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment on air bubbles in adipose tissue during decompression sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T; Hyldegaard, O


    for nitrogen causing faster nitrogen tissue desaturation. In anesthetized rats decompressed from a 60-min hyperbaric exposure breathing air at 385 kPa, we visually followed the resolution of micro-air bubbles injected into abdominal adipose tissue while the rats breathed either air, oxygen, or oxygen breathing...

  3. Analysis of human exhaled breath in a population of young volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Božidarka


    Full Text Available Analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in human breath can provide information about the current physiological state of an individual, such as clinical conditions and exposure to exogenous pollutants. The blood-borne VOCs present in exhaled breath offer the possibility of exploring physiological and pathological processes in a noninvasive way. However, the field of exhaled breath analysis is still in its infancy. We undertook this study in order to define interindividual variation and common compounds in breath VOCs of 48 young human volunteers. Alveolar breath samples were analyzed by automated thermal desorption, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (FID and electron capture detector (ECD using SUPELCO standards with 66 compounds. Predominant compounds in the alveolar breath of analyzed subjects are ethylbenzene, 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (over 50% of the subjects. Isopropyl alcohol, propylene, acetone, ethanol were found as well. We detected substituted compounds in exhaled breath. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172001

  4. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  5. Monitoring of Heart and Breathing Rates Using Dual Cameras on a Smartphone. (United States)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Kong, Youngsun; Reyes, Bersain; Reljin, Natasa; Chon, Ki H


    Some smartphones have the capability to process video streams from both the front- and rear-facing cameras simultaneously. This paper proposes a new monitoring method for simultaneous estimation of heart and breathing rates using dual cameras of a smartphone. The proposed approach estimates heart rates using a rear-facing camera, while at the same time breathing rates are estimated using a non-contact front-facing camera. For heart rate estimation, a simple application protocol is used to analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with the rear camera. The breathing rate is estimated from non-contact video recordings from both chest and abdominal motions. Reference breathing rates were measured by a respiration belt placed around the chest and abdomen of a subject; reference heart rates (HR) were determined using the standard electrocardiogram. An automated selection of either the chest or abdominal video signal was determined by choosing the signal with a greater autocorrelation value. The breathing rate was then determined by selecting the dominant peak in the power spectrum. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, data were collected from 11 healthy subjects. The breathing ranges spanned both low and high frequencies (6-60 breaths/min), and the results show that the average median errors from the reflectance imaging on the chest and the abdominal walls based on choosing the maximum spectral peak were 1.43% and 1.62%, respectively. Similarly, HR estimates were also found to be accurate.

  6. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes. (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi


    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  7. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients. (United States)

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe


    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  8. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki


    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  9. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection (United States)

    Li, Shih-Hong; Lin, Bor-Shing; Tsai, Chen-Han; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Bor-Shyh


    In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI) was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis. PMID:28106747

  10. Comparison of impedance and inductance ventilation sensors on adults during breathing, motion, and simulated airway obstruction. (United States)

    Cohen, K P; Ladd, W M; Beams, D M; Sheers, W S; Radwin, R G; Tompkins, W J; Webster, J G


    The goal of this study was to compare the relative performance of two noninvasive ventilation sensing technologies on adults during artifacts. We recorded changes in transthoracic impedance and cross-sectional area of the abdomen (abd) and rib cage (rc) using impedance pneumography (IP) and respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) on ten adult subjects during natural breathing, motion artifact, simulated airway obstruction, yawning, snoring, apnea, and coughing. We used a pneumotachometer to measure air flow and tidal volume as the standard. We calibrated all sensors during natural breathing, and performed measurements during all maneuvers without changing the calibration parameters. No sensor provided the most-accurate measure of tidal volume for all maneuvers. Overall, the combination of inductance sensors [RIP(sum)] calibrated during an isovolume maneuver had a bias (weighted mean difference) as low or lower than all individual sensors and all combinations of sensors. The IP(rc) sensor had a bias as low or lower than any individual sensor. The cross-correlation coefficient between sensors was high during natural breathing, but decreased during artifacts. The cross correlation between sensor pairs was lower during artifacts without breathing than it was during maneuvers with breathing for four different sensor combinations. We tested a simple breath-detection algorithm on all sensors and found that RIP(sum) resulted in the fewest number of false breath detections, with sensitivity of 90.8% and positive predictivity of 93.6%.

  11. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Lang


    Full Text Available For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful.

  12. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst


    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient's exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients' exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients' breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful.

  13. Heart rate variability changes during high frequency yoga breathingand breath awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nilkamal


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre and post comparison after one minute of high frequency yoga breathing (HFYB suggested that the HFYB modifies the autonomic status by increasing sympathetic modulation, but its effect during the practice was not assessed. Methods Thirty-eight male volunteers with group average age ± S.D., 23.3 ± 4.4 years were each assessed on two separate days in two sessions, (i HFYB and (ii breath awareness. Each session was for 35 minutes, with 3 periods, i.e., pre (5 minutes, during HFYB or breath awareness (15 minutes and post (5 minutes. Results There was a significant decrease in NN50, pNN50 and the mean RR interval during and after HFYB and after breath awareness, compared to the respective 'pre' values (p post-hoc analysis. The LF power increased and HF power decreased during and after breath awareness and LF/HF ratio increased after breath awareness (p Conclusion The results suggest that there was reduced parasympathetic modulation during and after HFYB and increased sympathetic modulation with reduced parasympathetic modulation during and after breath awareness.

  14. Fine-scale analysis of synchronous breathing in wild Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). (United States)

    Sakai, Mai; Morisaka, Tadamichi; Kogi, Kazunobu; Hishii, Toru; Kohshima, Shiro


    We quantitatively analysed synchronous breathing for dyads in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins at Mikura Island, Tokyo, Japan. For most cases, we observed dyads swimming in the same direction (97%), in close proximity (i.e., less than 1.5m) and with their body axes parallel as they breathed synchronously. Moreover, the pairs engaged in identical behaviour before and after the synchronous breathing episodes. These results suggest that the dolphins synchronize their movements, and that synchronous breathing is a component of "pair-swimming", an affiliative social behaviour. Same sex pairs of the same age class frequently engaged in synchronous breathing for adults and subadults, as well as mother-calf and escort-calf pairs. The distance between individuals during synchronous breathing for mother-calf pairs was less than for other pairs. The distance observed between individuals for female pairs was less than for male pairs. The time differences between each exhale for each of the two dolphins involved in synchronous breathing episodes for female pairs were smaller than for male pairs, and time differences for adult pairs were smaller than subadult pairs. These results suggest that age and sex class influenced the characteristics of this behaviour.

  15. Speech-language pathology findings in patients with mouth breathing: multidisciplinary diagnosis according to etiology. (United States)

    Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida


    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior.

  16. Air-breathing fishes in aquaculture. What can we learn from physiology? (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Wang, T; Jensen, A; Cong, N V; Huong, D T T; Phuong, N T; Bayley, M


    During the past decade, the culture of air-breathing fish species has increased dramatically and is now a significant global source of protein for human consumption. This development has generated a need for specific information on how to maximize growth and minimize the environmental effect of culture systems. Here, the existing data on metabolism in air-breathing fishes are reviewed, with the aim of shedding new light on the oxygen requirements of air-breathing fishes in aquaculture, reaching the conclusion that aquatic oxygenation is much more important than previously assumed. In addition, the possible effects on growth of the recurrent exposure to deep hypoxia and associated elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrite, that occurs in the culture ponds used for air-breathing fishes, are discussed. Where data on air-breathing fishes are simply lacking, data for a few water-breathing species will be reviewed, to put the physiological effects into a growth perspective. It is argued that an understanding of air-breathing fishes' respiratory physiology, including metabolic rate, partitioning of oxygen uptake from air and water in facultative air breathers, the critical oxygen tension, can provide important input for the optimization of culture practices. Given the growing importance of air breathers in aquaculture production, there is an urgent need for further data on these issues.

  17. Dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma: a rare but relevant comorbidity. (United States)

    de Groot, Eric P; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L P


    Hyperventilation and other clinical manifestations of dysfunctional breathing have been reported in childhood, but the prevalence is unknown. In adults, dysfunctional breathing may be a relevant comorbidity in asthma. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma and its impact on asthma control. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 203 asthmatic children (aged 5-18 years), using the Nijmegen Questionnaire and the paediatric Asthma Control Questionnaire. Dysfunctional breathing was found in 11 (5.3%) children; more females (eight (12.9%) out of 62) than males (three (2.1%) out 144, p=0.002). There was a dose-dependent relationship between increasing Nijmegen Questionnaire scores (increased risk of dysfunctional breathing) and poorer asthma control. Poor asthma control was more common in patients with dysfunctional breathing (10 (90.9%) out of 11 children) than in children without (65 (32.3%) out of 192 children; OR 19.3, 95% CI 3.14-430.70; pbreathing was higher (median (range) 2.00 (1.50-3.17)) than in children without (0.50 (0.17-1.17); pbreathing in children and adolescents referred to a hospital-based paediatric asthma clinic for severe or difficult-to-control asthma is 5%. The association between dysfunctional breathing and asthma control suggests that this may be a clinically relevant comorbidity in paediatric asthma.

  18. Real time transit dosimetry for the breath-hold radiotherapy technique: An initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piermattei, Angelo; Cilla, Savino; Grimaldi, Luca (Istituto di Fisica, Universitagrave Cattolica S. Cuore, Roma (Italy)) (and others)


    Introduction. The breath-hold is one of the techniques to obtain the dose escalation for lung tumors. However, the change of the patient's breath pattern can influence the stability of the inhaled air volume, IAV, used in this work as a surrogate parameter to assure the tumor position reproducibility during dose delivery. Materials. and method. In this paper, an Elekta active breathing coordinator has been used for lung tumor irradiation. This device is not an absolute spirometer and the feasibility study here presented developed (i) the possibility to select a specific range epsilon of IAV values comfortable for the patient and (ii) the ability of a transit signal rate, obtained by a small ion-chamber positioned on the portal image device, to supply in real time the in vivo isocenter dose reproducibility. Indeed, while the selection of the IAV range depends on the patient's ability to follow instructions for breath-hold, the monitoring can supply to the radiation therapist a surrogate of the tumor irradiation reproducibility. Results. The detection of the (image) in real time during breath-hold was used to determine the interfraction isocenter dose variations due to the reproducibility of the patient's breathing pattern. The agreement between the reconstructed and planned isocenter dose in breath-hold at the interfraction level was well within 1.5%, while in free breathing a disagreement up to 8% was observed. The standard deviation of the [image omitted] in breath-hold observed at the intrafraction level is a bit higher than the one obtained without the patient and this can be justified by the presence of a small residual tumor motion as heartbeat. Conclusion. The technique is simple and can be implemented for routine use in a busy clinic

  19. Glass bottle sampling solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry for breath analysis of drug metabolites. (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Niu, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Shen, Chengyin; Xia, Lei; Huang, Chaoqun; Wang, Hongzhi; Jiang, Haihe; Chu, Yannan


    Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach which may be applied to disease diagnosis and pharmacokinetic study. In the case of offline analysis, the exhaled gas needs to be collected and the sampling bag is often used as the storage vessel. However, the sampling bag usually releases some extra compounds, which may interfere with the result of the breath test. In this study, a novel breath sampling glass bottle was developed with a syringe needle sampling port for solid phase microextraction (SPME). Such a glass bottle scarcely liberates compounds and can be used to collect exhaled gas for ensuing analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS analysis was carried out to investigate the breath metabolites of myrtol, a multicompound drug normally used in the treatment of bronchitis and sinusitis. Four compounds, α-pinene, 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole were found in the exhaled breath of all eight volunteers who had taken the myrtol. While for other ten subjects who had not used the myrtol, these compounds were undetectable. In the SPME-GC-MS analysis of the headspace of myrtol, three compounds were detected including α-pinene, d-limonene and 1,8-cineole. Comparing the results of breath and headspace analysis, it indicates that 2,3-dehydro-1,8-cineole in the breath is the metabolite of 1,8-cineole. It is the first time that this metabolite was identified in human breath. The study demonstrates that the glass bottle sampling SPME-GC-MS method is applicable to exhaled gas analysis including breath metabolites investigation of drugs like myrtol.

  20. Medically unexplained dyspnea:psychophysiological characteristics and role of breathing therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jiang-na 韩江娜; ZHU Yuan-jue 朱元珏; LI Shun-wei 李舜伟; LUO Dong-mei 雒冬梅; HU Zheng 胡征; Van Diest I; De Peuter S; Van de Woestijne KP; Van den Bergh O


    Background Medically unexplained dyspnea occurs commonly in medical settings and remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to investigate the psychophysiological characteristics of medically unexplained dyspnea and the efficacy of breathing retraining for these patients.Methods A group of patients with medically unexplained dyspnea were compared to patients with a variety of organic lung diseases and healthy subjects. In another group of patients, the influence of breathing therapy on complaints, anxiety, and breath-holding was evaluated for an average of 1.5 years. Results Patients with medically unexplained dyspnea reported more intense dyspnea than patients with a variety of organic lung diseases. Additionally, they were anxious and presented a broad range of symptoms in daily life and under challenge, for instance voluntary hyperventilation. More than one third of them qualified for panic disorder. They had shorter breath-holding time at rest, less increase in breath-holding time and higher chances of showing a "paradoxical" decrease of breath-holding time after hyperventilation. A combination of PaO2, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and anxiety measures distinguished them from organic dyspnea. Breathing retraining profoundly improved their symptoms and decreased the level of state and trait anxiety. Moreover, they better tolerated the voluntary hyperventilation and the symptoms induced were also markedly decreased after therapy. Breath-holding time was prolonged and PetCO2 in a representative group of patients increased. Conclusions Patients with medically unexplained dyspnea appear to have the feature of a "psychosomatic" patient: an anxious patient with a wide variety of symptoms of different organ systems that do not have an organic basis. They can be distinguished from organic dyspnea using a small set of physiological and psychological measures. Breathing retraining turns out to be an effective therapy for those "difficult to

  1. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrity, T.R.; Weaver, R.A.; Berntsen, J.; House, D.E.; O' Neil, J.J.


    We measured the efficiency of O3 removal from inspired air by the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, young male volunteers. Removal efficiencies were measured as a function of O3 concentration (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ppm), mode of breathing (nose only, mouth only, and oronasal), and respiration frequency (12 and 24 breaths/min). Subjects were placed in a controlled environmental chamber into which O3 was introduced. A small polyethylene tube was then inserted into the nose of each subject, with the tip positioned in the posterior pharynx. Samples of air were collected from the posterior pharynx through the tube and into a rapidly responding O3 analyzer yielding inspiratory and expiratory O3 concentrations in the posterior pharynx. The O3 removal efficiency of the extrathoracic airways was computed with the use of the inspiratory concentration and the chamber concentration, and intrathoracic removal efficiency was computed with the use of the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations. The mean extrathoracic removal efficiency for all measurements was 39.6 +/- 0.7% (SE), and the mean intrathoracic removal efficiency was 91.0 +/- 0.5%. Significantly less O3 was removed both extrathoracically and intrathoracically when subjects breathed at 24 breaths/min compared with 12 breaths/min (P less than 0.001). O3 concentration had no effect on extrathoracic removal efficiency, but there was a significantly greater intrathoracic removal efficiency at 0.4 ppm than at 0.1 ppm (P less than 0.05). Mode of breathing significantly affected extrathoracic removal efficiency, with less O3 removed during nasal breathing than during either mouth breathing or oronasal breathing (P less than 0.01).

  2. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO{sub 3} gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton [Univ.-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Breath Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail: [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (<30 s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present sensors were highly selective to acetone over ethanol and water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensors were applied to human breath: good agreement with highly sensitive PTR-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests with people at rest and during physical activity showed the sensor robustness. - Abstract: Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO{sub 3} nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone ({approx}20 ppb) with short response (10-15 s) and recovery times (35-70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  3. Slow breathing and hypoxic challenge: cardiorespiratory consequences and their central neural substrates. (United States)

    Critchley, Hugo D; Nicotra, Alessia; Chiesa, Patrizia A; Nagai, Yoko; Gray, Marcus A; Minati, Ludovico; Bernardi, Luciano


    Controlled slow breathing (at 6/min, a rate frequently adopted during yoga practice) can benefit cardiovascular function, including responses to hypoxia. We tested the neural substrates of cardiorespiratory control in humans during volitional controlled breathing and hypoxic challenge using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty healthy volunteers were scanned during paced (slow and normal rate) breathing and during spontaneous breathing of normoxic and hypoxic (13% inspired O2) air. Cardiovascular and respiratory measures were acquired concurrently, including beat-to-beat blood pressure from a subset of participants (N = 7). Slow breathing was associated with increased tidal ventilatory volume. Induced hypoxia raised heart rate and suppressed heart rate variability. Within the brain, slow breathing activated dorsal pons, periaqueductal grey matter, cerebellum, hypothalamus, thalamus and lateral and anterior insular cortices. Blocks of hypoxia activated mid pons, bilateral amygdalae, anterior insular and occipitotemporal cortices. Interaction between slow breathing and hypoxia was expressed in ventral striatal and frontal polar activity. Across conditions, within brainstem, dorsal medullary and pontine activity correlated with tidal volume and inversely with heart rate. Activity in rostroventral medulla correlated with beat-to-beat blood pressure and heart rate variability. Widespread insula and striatal activity tracked decreases in heart rate, while subregions of insular cortex correlated with momentary increases in tidal volume. Our findings define slow breathing effects on central and cardiovascular responses to hypoxic challenge. They highlight the recruitment of discrete brainstem nuclei to cardiorespiratory control, and the engagement of corticostriatal circuitry in support of physiological responses that accompany breathing regulation during hypoxic challenge.

  4. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study. (United States)

    Izuka, E N; Costa, J R; Pereira, S R A; Weckx, L L M; Pignatari, S N; Uema, S F H


    Mouth breathing is a condition often associated with a long face, half-open mouth and increased anterior facial height. We performed conventional lateral and frontal cephalograms of eighty-nine children with nasal and mouth breathing and independently measured Total Facial Height using the analysis technique of Ricketts, and the Morphologic Facial Index employing the technique of Avila. It was concluded that dolicofacial following mesofacial were the most frequent patterns found in mouth-breathing children and this suggests that both analyses can be used independently.

  5. Tunable fiber laser based photoacoustic spectrometer for breath ammonia analysis during hemodialysis (United States)

    Wang, J. W.; Xie, H.; Liang, L. R.; Zhang, W.; Peng, W.; Yu, Q. X.


    A photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer based on a near-IR tunable fiber laser is developed and used for breath ammonia analysis. We successfully measured the breath ammonia level variation of six patients with end-stage renal disease while they were undergoing hemodialysis in the hospital. The measurement results showed that the initial concentration level of the breath ammonia were from 1600 to 2200 ppb before dialysis treatment, the levels decreased to 200-600 ppb in the end stage of dialysis, which close to the levels of healthy persons. Further improvement and applications of this PA spectrometer are discussed.

  6. Automated logging of inspiratory and expiratory non-synchronized breathing (ALIEN) for mechanical ventilation. (United States)

    Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Pretty, Christopher G; Beatson, Alex; Glassenbury, Daniel; Major, Vincent; Corbett, Simon; Redmond, Daniel; Szlavecz, Akos; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Chase, J Geoffrey


    Asynchronous Events (AEs) during mechanical ventilation (MV) result in increased work of breathing and potential poor patient outcomes. Thus, it is important to automate AE detection. In this study, an AE detection method, Automated Logging of Inspiratory and Expiratory Non-synchronized breathing (ALIEN) was developed and compared between standard manual detection in 11 MV patients. A total of 5701 breaths were analyzed (median [IQR]: 500 [469-573] per patient). The Asynchrony Index (AI) was 51% [28-78]%. The AE detection yielded sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 88.3%. Automated AE detection methods can potentially provide clinicians with real-time information on patient-ventilator interaction.

  7. Impact of breathing on the thermal plume above a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew;


    The characteristics of the thermal plume above a human body should be well-defined in order to properly design the indoor environment and allow correct simulation of the indoor conditions by CFD or experimentally. The objective of the presented study was to investigate the influence of breathing....... A thermal manikin with female body shape equipped with an artificial lung was used to simulate the dry heat loss and breathing process of a sitting occupant. Three cases were examined: non-breathing, exhalation through nose, and exhalation through mouth. Measurements of the air temperature and speed...

  8. [Nasal breath recovery and rhinoplasty in cleft lip and palate patient with unilateral choanal atresia]. (United States)

    Chkadua, T Z; Ivanova, M D; Daminov, R O; Brusova, L A; Savvateeva, D M


    The paper presents the analysis of clinical case of endoscopic nasal breath restoration and elimination of the secondary cleft lip nasal deformity in 27 years old patient with unilateral choanal atresia and secondary nasal deformity after rhinocheiloplasty. Preoperative examination revealed the absence of nasal breathing on collateral side due to complete bone choanal atresia. Surgical treatment included endoscopic choanal repair, elimination of the secondary nasal deformity, septoplasty, conchotomy and lateroposition of the inferior conchae. The treatment resulted in nasal breath restoration and elimination of nasal deformity. Long-term follow-up at 1 and 12 months post-operatively proved stable positive aesthetic and functional results.

  9. Etiopathogenetic Mechanisms of Pulmonary Hypertension in Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Adegunsoye


    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common disorder with significant health consequences and is on the rise in consonance with the obesity pandemic. In view of the association between sleep-disordered breathing and pulmonary hypertension as depicted by multiple studies, current clinical practice guidelines categorize obstructive sleep apnea as a risk factor for pulmonary hypertension and recommend an assessment for sleep disordered breathing in evaluating patients with pulmonary hypertension. The dysregulatory mechanisms associated with hypoxemic episodes observed in sleep related breathing disorders contribute to the onset of pulmonary hypertension and identification of these potentially treatable factors might help in the reduction of overall cardiovascular mortality.

  10. Atrial distension, arterial pulsation, and vasopressin release during negative pressure breathing in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Damgaard, M; Gabrielsen, A;


    During an antiorthostatic posture change, left atrial (LA) diameter and arterial pulse pressure (PP) increase, and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) is suppressed. By comparing the effects of a 15-min posture change from seated to supine with those of 15-min seated negative pressure breathing...... in eight healthy males, we tested the hypothesis that with similar increases in LA diameter, suppression of AVP release is dependent on the degree of increase in PP. LA diameter increased similarly during the posture change and negative pressure breathing (-9 to -24 mmHg) from between 30 and 31 +/- 1 to 34...... +/- 1 mm (P breathing from 36 +/- 3 to 42 +/- 3 mmHg (P

  11. Breathing thermal manikins for indoor environment assessment: important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and perceived air quality by means of breathing thermal manikins have been made as well. In order to perform accurate measurements and realistic evaluation and assessment, the design and characteristics of a manikin must comply with certain requirements. The most important of these, such as number, size...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  12. Breathing thermal manikin for indoor environment assessment: Important characteristics and requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor


    Recently breathing thermal manikins have been developed and used for indoor environment measurement, evaluation and optimization as well as validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) predictions of airflow around a human body. Advances in the assessment of occupants¿ thermal comfort...... and perceived air quality by means of breathing thermal manikins have been made as well. In order to perform accurate measurements and realistic evaluation and assessment, the design and characteristics of a manikin must comply with certain requirements. The most important of these, such as number, size...... and shape of body segments, control mode, breathing simulation, etc. are discussed and specified in this paper....

  13. Clinical comparison of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh vs a commercially available fluoride breath-freshening toothpaste in reducing breath odor overnight: a multiple-use study. (United States)

    Niles, Hollandra P; Hunter, Catherine M; Vazquez, Joe; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane


    The objective of this randomized, crossover study was to compare the effectiveness of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice containing fluoride for its ability to reduce volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) responsible for breath odor overnight. The study followed a two-treatment, two-period crossover design. Subjects were given a test product, along with a soft-bristled toothbrush, and instructed to brush their teeth for 1 minute, twice daily (once in the morning and the evening) using the assigned dentifrice for 7 consecutive days. After their evening brushing on the seventh day, subjects reported to the testing facility without oral hygiene, eating, or drinking for the overnight evaluation. After a washout period, subjects repeated the same regimen, now using the other test product. The levels of breath VSC were evaluated instrumentally using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector.

  14. Upper airway imaging in patients with sleep-related breathing disorders. (United States)

    Coche, E


    This paper focuses primarily on upper airway anatomy and its variations during breathing and highlights the advantages/disadvantages of the different imaging techniques. The major indications of upper airway imaging are also discussed.

  15. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile in a Room with three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Ines; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz;


    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  16. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel


    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  17. Polymeric microtubules that breathe: CO2 -driven polymer controlled-self-assembly and shape transformation. (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Zhao, Yue


    Tubular breathing motion: Polymer tubules self-assembled from a gas-sensitive triblock copolymer can undergo shape evolution. A sequence from microtubes through submicroscopic vesicles to nanosized spherical micelles is modulated by CO2 stimulation levels.

  18. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior. (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh


    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  19. [Multifunctional pneumatic breathing machine in the first-aid application experience]. (United States)

    Tang, Bin


    In 2008, our center introduced the UK MicroVent emergency respiratory system (machine) for first-aid of breathing anomaly, which achieved good effects, including saving emergency treatment time, finding the cause of diseases and reducing complications.

  20. The modification of breathing behavior. Pavlovian and operant control in emotion and cognition. (United States)

    Ley, R


    The purpose of this article is to bring attention to breathing as a behavior that can be modified by means of Pavlovian and operant principles of control. With this aim in mind, this paper (a) reviews a selection of early and recent conditioning studies (Pavlovian and operant paradigms) in respiratory psychophysiology, (b) discusses the bidirectional relationship between breathing and emotion/cognition, and (c) discusses theoretical and applied implications that point to new directions for research in the laboratory and clinic. Emphasis is placed on dyspnea/suffocation fear and the acquisition of anticipatory dyspnea/suffocation fear in panic, anxiety, and stress disorders and their concomitant cognitive deficits. Discussions throughout the article focus on research relevant to theory and application, especially applications in programs of remedial breathing (breathing retraining) designed for the treatment of psychophysiological disorders (e.g., panic, anxiety, and stress) and the accompanying cognitive deficits that result from cerebral hypoxia induced by conditioned hyperventilation.

  1. Diverse Presentation of Breath Holding Spells: Two Case Reports with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore


    Full Text Available Breath holding spells are a common and dramatic form of syncope and anoxic seizure in infancy. They are usually triggered by an emotional stimuli or minor trauma. Based on the color change, they are classified into 3 types, cyanotic, pallid, and mixed. Pallid breath holding spells result from exaggerated, vagally-mediated cardiac inhibition, whereas the more common, cyanotic breathholding spells are of more complex pathogenesis which is not completely understood. A detailed and accurate history is the mainstay of diagnosis. An EKG should be strongly considered to rule out long QT syndrome. Spontaneous resolution of breath-holding spells is usually seen, without any adverse developmental and intellectual sequelae. Rare cases of status epilepticus, prolonged asystole, and sudden death have been reported. Reassurance and education is the mainstay of therapy. Occasionally, pharmacologic intervention with iron, piracetam; atropine may be of benefit. Here we present 2 cases, one of each, pallid and cyanotic breath holding spells.

  2. Excretion of low-molecular weight volatile substances in human breath: focus on endogenous ethanol. (United States)

    Jones, A W


    This paper describes a gas chromatographic method suitable for the analysis of low-molecular endogenous volatiles in human breath. The use of an on-column gas sampling device allowed serial determinations at 10-min intervals. With a flame ionization detector and Porapak Q as stationary phase, the four major endogenous breath volatiles were methanol, ethanol, acetone, and isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). These same compounds were present in the breath of healthy individuals and abstinent alcoholics. In 10 healthy men, the breath concentration of endogenous ethanol, methanol, and acetone ranged from 0.07 to 0.39 microgram/L, 0.21 to 0.07 microgram/L, and 0.57 to 4.01 micrograms/L, respectively. When a man drank 5 g of exogenous ethanol, the blood concentration increased 200 times above the endogenous level. This small dose of ethanol was eliminated with a half-life of 16 min.

  3. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance. (United States)

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J


    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group.

  4. CRITICAL APPRAISAL. Sleep Bruxism and Sleep-Disordered Breathing. (United States)

    Bender, Steven D


    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a repetitive jaw muscle activity with clenching or grinding of the teeth during sleep. SB is characterized by what is known as rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). RMMA is the laboratory polysomnographic finding that differentiates SB from other oromandibular movements seen during sleep. Most often RMMA episodes are associated with sleep arousal. Some patients will report similar complaints related to both SB and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). There are some reports that would suggest that SB is a result of SDB. It has has been postulated that SB is a compensatory mechanism to re establish muscle tone of the upper airway. While these disorders do in fact often present concomitantly, the relationship between the two is yet to be fully elucidated. This Critical Appraisal reviews 3 recent publications with the intent to better define what relationships may exists between SDB and SB. While the current evidence appears to support the notion that these are often concomitant disorders, it also makes clear that evidence to support the hypothesis that SDB is causative for SB is currently lacking.

  5. Breathing as a Fundamental Rhythm of Brain Function (United States)

    Heck, Detlef H.; McAfee, Samuel S.; Liu, Yu; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Freeman, Walter J.; Wheless, James W.; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.; Ruszinkó, Miklós; Sokolov, Yury; Kozma, Robert


    Ongoing fluctuations of neuronal activity have long been considered intrinsic noise that introduces unavoidable and unwanted variability into neuronal processing, which the brain eliminates by averaging across population activity (Georgopoulos et al., 1986; Lee et al., 1988; Shadlen and Newsome, 1994; Maynard et al., 1999). It is now understood, that the seemingly random fluctuations of cortical activity form highly structured patterns, including oscillations at various frequencies, that modulate evoked neuronal responses (Arieli et al., 1996; Poulet and Petersen, 2008; He, 2013) and affect sensory perception (Linkenkaer-Hansen et al., 2004; Boly et al., 2007; Sadaghiani et al., 2009; Vinnik et al., 2012; Palva et al., 2013). Ongoing cortical activity is driven by proprioceptive and interoceptive inputs. In addition, it is partially intrinsically generated in which case it may be related to mental processes (Fox and Raichle, 2007; Deco et al., 2011). Here we argue that respiration, via multiple sensory pathways, contributes a rhythmic component to the ongoing cortical activity. We suggest that this rhythmic activity modulates the temporal organization of cortical neurodynamics, thereby linking higher cortical functions to the process of breathing. PMID:28127277

  6. Are diabetic patients being screened for sleep related breathing disorder?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim; Surani


    Prevalence of both diabetes mellitus and obstructive sleep apnea(OSA)is high among general population.Both of these conditions are associated with significant morbidity.OSA affects approximately 25%of men and 9%of women,and its prevalence is even higher among obese,Hispanics,African American and diabetic patients.Diabetes on the other hand besides having high prevalence in general population has even higher prevalence among ethnic populations as Hispanics and African American.Despite the availability of several simple screening tools for OSA,as Berlin questionnaire,STOP-BANG questionnaire,NAMES Criteria,the utility for screening of OSA among the diabetic population remains marginal.This in turn can lead to significant morbidity and complications related to OSA as well as worsening of diabetes mellitus and increase in diabetic complications due to untreated sleep related breathing disorder.It is therefore imperative for the primary care giver to screen for OSA among the diabetic population as a part of their routine evaluation to prevent worsening of diabetes,and its cardiovascular,renal,ophthalmologic and neurological complications.

  7. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki;


    at 15 l/s. The PV air was supplied isothermally at 4, 6 or 8 L/s. The PV diffuser with diameter 0.18 m, was located at distance 0.4 m from the face of the manikin. The distance between the lower chest of the manikin and the front edge of the desk was 0.1 m. Box with 6 small computer fans (suction box......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...... cameras. The maximum absolute mean velocity measured in the convective layer at the mouth of the manikin was 0.20 m/s and was reduced to 0.09 m/s when the suction box was used. Thus the weakend boundary layer can be penetrated by the PV flow at the lowered velocity. The use of the suction box and the PV...

  8. Biogeography as critical nursing pedagogy: Breathing life into nurse education. (United States)

    Kyle, Richard G; Atherton, Iain M


    Insights from the social sciences, including geography, sociology, and anthropology, have long been incorporated into pre-registration nursing programmes. However, scholars have suggested that their inclusion has been sporadic and lacks clear theoretical rationale. In this paper we argue anew that the social sciences - and particularly, human geography - could be central to nurse education. Specifically, we recast the concept of 'biogeography' drawn from human geography that emphasises the interplay between life (bio) and place (geo) to propose pedagogy that theoretically justifies and practically enables the inclusion of the social sciences in nurse education. Biogeography can breathe new life into nursing curricula by animating our students through the cultivation of three 'spirits of nursing'. First, a 'spirit of empathy' that can shatter patient-professional dualisms by facilitating person-centred and place-sensitive care. Second, a 'spirit of engagement' that situates practice in social structures awakening a desire to effect change by fomenting an acute sense of social justice. Third, a 'spirit of enquiry' that holds in critical tension the theory-practice gap by fostering continual questioning and pursuit of evidence. In so doing, biogeographical pedagogy releases the latent potential of the social sciences to revitalise nurse education, reinvigorate our students, and renew ourselves as nurse educators.

  9. Avian-like breathing mechanics in maniraptoran dinosaurs. (United States)

    Codd, Jonathan R; Manning, Phillip L; Norell, Mark A; Perry, Steven F


    In 1868 Thomas Huxley first proposed that dinosaurs were the direct ancestors of birds and subsequent analyses have identified a suite of 'avian' characteristics in theropod dinosaurs. Ossified uncinate processes are found in most species of extant birds and also occur in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs. Their presence in these dinosaurs represents another morphological character linking them to Aves, and further supports the presence of an avian-like air-sac respiratory system in theropod dinosaurs, prior to the evolution of flight. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of the presence of uncinate processes in Aves and non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs indicating that these were homologous structures. Furthermore, recent work on Canada geese has demonstrated that uncinate processes are integral to the mechanics of avian ventilation, facilitating both inspiration and expiration. In extant birds, uncinate processes function to increase the mechanical advantage for movements of the ribs and sternum during respiration. Our study presents a mechanism whereby uncinate processes, in conjunction with lateral and ventral movements of the sternum and gastral basket, affected avian-like breathing mechanics in extinct non-avian maniraptoran dinosaurs.

  10. Practice Variation in Spontaneous Breathing Trial Performance and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Godard


    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs are standard of care in assessing extubation readiness; however, there are no universally accepted guidelines regarding their precise performance and reporting. Objective. To investigate variability in SBT practice across centres. Methods. Data from 680 patients undergoing 931 SBTs from eight North American centres from the Weaning and Variability Evaluation (WAVE observational study were examined. SBT performance was analyzed with respect to ventilatory support, oxygen requirements, and sedation level using the Richmond Agitation Scale Score (RASS. The incidence of use of clinical extubation criteria and changes in physiologic parameters during an SBT were assessed. Results. The majority (80% and 78% of SBTs used 5 cmH2O of ventilator support, although there was variability. A significant range in oxygenation was observed. RASS scores were variable, with RASS 0 ranging from 29% to 86% and 22% of SBTs performed in sedated patients (RASS < −2. Clinical extubation criteria were heterogeneous among centres. On average, there was no change in physiological variables during SBTs. Conclusion. The present study highlights variation in SBT performance and documentation across and within sites. With their impact on the accuracy of outcome prediction, these results support efforts to further clarify and standardize optimal SBT technique.

  11. Oral breathing: dentomaxillofacial irregularities associated with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez


    Full Text Available Background: Human beings are conditioned to breathe through the nose and feed through the mouth, when this physiological mechanism is interrupted facial and general growth is also affected. Objective: To characterize Angle´s Class II malocclusions in oral breathers with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions. Method: A correlational, observational and descriptive study was developed from December 2004 to November 2005 including clinical examination of 833 children out of which 60 were selected to take part in this study. Each case was analyzed in Orthodontia, Orthopedics and Otolaryngology consultations. The studied variables were: age, sex, nasorespiratory disorders, orthopedic dysfunctions, dental-maxillofacial irregularities. Results: The mot frequent dental-maxillofacial irregularities were: bilabial incompetence, transversal micrognathism, vestibular version, overjet and overbite. The most important nasorespiratory dysfunctions found in these children were adenoiditis, and tonsil hypertrophy. The most outstanding orthopedic dysfunction was ciphosis. Conclusion: It is conclusive to state that there is a high relationship between dentomaxillofacial anomalies and nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

  12. Breathing charge density waves in intrinsic Josephson junctions (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Abdelhafiz, H.


    We demonstrate the creation of a charge density wave (CDW) along a stack of coupled Josephson junctions (JJs) in layered superconductors. Electric charge in each superconducting layer oscillates around some average value, forming a breathing CDW. We show the transformation of a longitudinal plasma wave to CDW in the state corresponding to the outermost branch. Transition between different types of CDW's related to the inner branches of IV characteristic is demonstrated. The effect of the external electromagnetic radiation on the states corresponding to the inner branches differs crucially from the case of the single JJ. The Shapiro steps in the IV characteristics of the junctions in the stack do not correspond directly to the frequency of radiation ω. The system of JJs behaves like a single whole system: the Shapiro steps or their harmonics in the total IV characteristics appear at voltage , where V l is the voltage in the lth junction, N R is the number of JJs in the rotating state, and m and n are integers.

  13. Bending and Breathing Modes of the Galactic Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Widrow, Lawrence M; Chequers, Matthew H; Cheng, Edward


    We explore the hypothesis that a passing satellite or dark matter subhalo has excited coherent oscillations of the Milky Way's stellar disk in the direction perpendicular to the Galactic midplane. This work is motivated by recent observations of spatially dependent bulk vertical motions within ~ kpc of the Sun. A satellite can transfer a fraction of its orbital energy to the disk stars as it plunges through the Galactic midplane thereby heating and thickening the disk. Bulk motions arise during the early stages of such an event when the disk is still in an unrelaxed state. We present simple toy-model calculations and simulations of disk-satellite interactions, which show that the response of the disk depends on the relative velocity of the satellite. When the component of the satellite's velocity perpendicular to the disk is small compared with that of the stars, the perturbation is predominantly a bending mode. Conversely, breathing and higher order modes are excited when the vertical velocity of the satelli...

  14. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: take a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling D


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 40 year old man with a past medical history of intravenous drug abuse presented to the emergency department with difficulty walking and lower extremity weakness. He did admit to recent heroin use. He became somnolent in the ED and was given naloxone. However, he did not improve his level of consciousness sufficiently and was intubated for hypercarbia. The patient was transferred to the MICU and was evaluated for respiratory failure. He later that day passed a spontaneous breathing trial after he awoke and was extubated. However, he was soon thereafter was re-intubated for poor respiratory efforts and a weak cough. With an unexplained etiology for the respiratory failure, CT of the head, MRI of the brain and lab evaluation were pursued but were negative. At that point, a bedside ultrasound of the right hemi-diaphragm in the zone of apposition was obtained and is shown below: Figure 1. Ultrasound of ...

  15. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris


    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  16. Stack air-breathing membraneless glucose microfluidic biofuel cell (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Moreno-Zuria, A.; Vallejo-Becerra, V.; Arjona, N.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.; Ledesma-García, J.; Arriaga, L. G.


    A novel stacked microfluidic fuel cell design comprising re-utilization of the anodic and cathodic solutions on the secondary cell is presented. This membraneless microfluidic fuel cell employs porous flow-through electrodes in a “V”-shape cell architecture. Enzymatic bioanodic arrays based on glucose oxidase were prepared by immobilizing the enzyme onto Toray carbon paper electrodes using tetrabutylammonium bromide, Nafion and glutaraldehyde. These electrodes were characterized through the scanning electrochemical microscope technique, evidencing a good electrochemical response due to the electronic transference observed with the presence of glucose over the entire of the electrode. Moreover, the evaluation of this microfluidic fuel cell with an air-breathing system in a double-cell mode showed a performance of 0.8951 mWcm-2 in a series connection (2.2822mAcm-2, 1.3607V), and 0.8427 mWcm-2 in a parallel connection (3.5786mAcm-2, 0.8164V).

  17. Where is the rhythm generator for emotional breathing? (United States)

    Masaoka, Yuri; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Homma, Ikuo


    As a result of recent progress in brain imaging techniques, a number of studies have been able to identify anatomical correlates of various emotions (Pujol et al., 2013; Tettamanti et al., 2012; van der Zwaag et al., 2012). However, emotions are not solely a phenomenon within the brain-they are also composed of body responses. These include autonomic and behavioral responses, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance, and respiration. Among these physiological responses, respiration has a unique relationship to emotion. While the primary role of respiration concerns metabolism and homeostasis, emotions such as disgust, anger, and happiness also influence respiratory activities (Boiten et al., 1994). While respiratory change that accompanies emotions can occur unconsciously, respiration can also be voluntarily altered associating with an activation of the motor cortex. There may be no physiological expression for the association between the three areas of the brain that regulate respiration: the brainstem, the limbic system, and the cerebral cortex. The brainstem works to maintain homeostasis, the limbic system is responsible for emotional processing, and the cerebral cortex controls intention. Investigating the interaction between these brain regions may lead to an explanation about why they are so widely dispersed in the brain, despite their common role in the regulation of respiration. In this chapter, we review our findings on breathing behavior and discuss the mechanisms underlying the relationship between emotion and respiration.

  18. Educational outcomes of Helping Babies Breathe training at a community hospital in Honduras


    Seto, Teresa L.; Tabangin, Meredith E.; Josyula, Srirama; Taylor, Kathryn K.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D.


    Objectives: Helping Babies Breathe is an evidence-based curriculum designed to teach basic neonatal resuscitation in low-resource countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acquisition of knowledge and skills following this training and correlation of learner characteristics to performance in a Spanish-speaking setting. Methods: Thirty-one physicians and 39 nurses completed Helping Babies Breathe training at a Honduran community hospital. Trainee knowledge and skills were evalua...

  19. Educational outcomes of Helping Babies Breathe training at a community hospital in Honduras


    Seto, Teresa L.; Tabangin, Meredith E.; Josyula, Srirama; Taylor, Kathryn K.; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Kamath-Rayne, Beena D.


    Objectives Helping Babies Breathe is an evidence-based curriculum designed to teach basic neonatal resuscitation in low-resource countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acquisition of knowledge and skills following this training and correlation of learner characteristics to performance in a Spanish-speaking setting. Methods Thirty-one physicians and 39 nurses completed Helping Babies Breathe training at a Honduran community hospital. Trainee knowledge and skills were evaluate...

  20. An adaptive breath sampler for use with human subjects with an impaired respiratory function. (United States)

    Basanta, M; Koimtzis, T; Singh, D; Wilson, I; Thomas, C L P


    An adaptive sampler for collecting 2.5 dm(3) samples of exhaled air from human subjects with an impaired respiratory function is described. Pressure in the upper respiratory tract is continuously monitored and the data used to control an automated system to collect select portions of the expired breathing cycle onto a mixed bed Tenax(trade mark) and Carbotrap(trade mark) adsorbent trap for analysis by GC-MS. The sampling approach is intended for use in metabolomic profiling of volatiles in human breath at concentrations greater than microg m(-3). The importance of experimental reproducibility in metabolomic data is emphasised and consequently a high purity air supply is used to maintain a stable exogenous volatile organic compound profile at concentrations in the range 5 to 30 microg m(-3). The results of a 90 day stability study showed that exogenous VOCs were maintained at significantly lower levels (40 times lower for isopropyl alcohol) and with significantly higher reproducibility (80 times lower standard deviation for isopropyl alcohol) than would have been be the case if ambient air had been used. The sampling system was evaluated with healthy controls alongside subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Subjects were able to breathe normally with control subjects observed to breathe at a rate of 9 to 17 breaths per minute, compared to 16 to 30 breaths per minute for subjects with COPD. This study presents, for the first time, observations and estimates of intra-subject breath sample reproducibility from human subjects. These reproducibility studies indicated that VOCs in exhaled breath exhibit a variety of dynamic behaviours, with some species recovered with a RSD <30%, while other species were observed to have significantly more variable concentrations, 30 to 130% RSD. The approach was also demonstrated to reliably differentiate the differences in the VOC profiles between alveolar and dead space air.

  1. Effect of physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises using breathing pattern on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis



    [Purpose] This study was performed to confirm physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. [Subject and Methods] A 15-year-old male middle school student with scoliosis. Cobb’s angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were measured before and after 8 weeks training. [Results] After 8 weeks training, Cobb’s angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were improved better. [Conclusion] These results indicate that...

  2. Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training.


    Lindstrom, A B; Pleil, J D; Berkoff, D C


    Alveolar breath sampling was used to assess trihalomethane (THM) exposures encountered by collegiate swimmers during a typical 2-hr training period in an indoor natatorium. The breath samples were collected at regular intervals before, during, and for 3 hr after a moderately intense training workout. Integrated and grab whole-air samples were collected during the training period to help determine inhalation exposures, and pool water samples were collected to help assess dermal exposures. Resu...

  3. Breathing guidance in radiation oncology and radiology: A systematic review of patient and healthy volunteer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Sean, E-mail:; Keall, Paul [Radiation Physics Laboratory, University of Sydney, Sydney 2050 (Australia); Keall, Robyn [Central School of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney 2050, Australia and Hammond Care, Palliative Care and Supportive Care Service, Greenwich 2065 (Australia)


    Purpose: The advent of image-guided radiation therapy has led to dramatic improvements in the accuracy of treatment delivery in radiotherapy. Such advancements have highlighted the deleterious impact tumor motion can have on both image quality and radiation treatment delivery. One approach to reducing tumor motion irregularities is the use of breathing guidance systems during imaging and treatment. These systems aim to facilitate regular respiratory motion which in turn improves image quality and radiation treatment accuracy. A review of such research has yet to be performed; it was therefore their aim to perform a systematic review of breathing guidance interventions within the fields of radiation oncology and radiology. Methods: From August 1–14, 2014, the following online databases were searched: Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science. Results of these searches were filtered in accordance to a set of eligibility criteria. The search, filtration, and analysis of articles were conducted in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Reference lists of included articles, and repeat authors of included articles, were hand-searched. Results: The systematic search yielded a total of 480 articles, which were filtered down to 27 relevant articles in accordance to the eligibility criteria. These 27 articles detailed the intervention of breathing guidance strategies in controlled studies assessing its impact on such outcomes as breathing regularity, image quality, target coverage, and treatment margins, recruiting either healthy adult volunteers or patients with thoracic or abdominal lesions. In 21/27 studies, significant (p < 0.05) improvements from the use of breathing guidance were observed. Conclusions: There is a trend toward the number of breathing guidance studies increasing with time, indicating a growing clinical interest. The results found here indicate that further clinical studies are warranted that quantify the

  4. Fractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice


    Sun, Lin-Quan; Buchegger, Franz; Coucke, Philippe; MIRIMANOFF


    This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios...

  5. A New Method for Exposing the Animal's Heart with Maintenance of Natural Breathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毅; 潘幼香; 刘长金; 唐明; 胡云冬; 杨善松; 张亮品; 胡新武; 李爱; 罗娟


    Summary: In the experimental study on the electrophysiology and functions of heart in the animal,the thorax should be opened to expose the heart, at the same time natural breathing is maintained instead of artificial breathing. The key procedure of this new method is to avoid injuring the pleural cavity, so pneumothorax can be prevented. By means of this new method some subject studies have been finished.

  6. Association Between Breastfeeding And Breathing Pattern In Children: A Sectional Study


    Teresinha S.P. Lopes; Moura, Lúcia F A D; Lima, Maria C M P


    Objective to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. Methods this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutr...

  7. Breathe In, Breathe Out

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast promotes healthy lifestyle messages through original music.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/30/2007.

  8. Almagate interference in breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pons


    Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.

  9. Time-varying respiratory system elastance: a physiological model for patients who are spontaneously breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Shiong Chiew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory mechanics models can aid in optimising patient-specific mechanical ventilation (MV, but the applications are limited to fully sedated MV patients who have little or no spontaneously breathing efforts. This research presents a time-varying elastance (E(drs model that can be used in spontaneously breathing patients to determine their respiratory mechanics. METHODS: A time-varying respiratory elastance model is developed with a negative elastic component (E(demand, to describe the driving pressure generated during a patient initiated breathing cycle. Data from 22 patients who are partially mechanically ventilated using Pressure Support (PS and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA are used to investigate the physiology relevance of the time-varying elastance model and its clinical potential. E(drs of every breathing cycle for each patient at different ventilation modes are presented for comparison. RESULTS: At the start of every breathing cycle initiated by patient, E(drs is 25 cmH2Os/l and thus can be used as an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS severity indicator. CONCLUSION: The E(drs model captures unique dynamic respiratory mechanics for spontaneously breathing patients with respiratory failure. The model is fully general and is applicable to both fully controlled and partially assisted MV modes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Janardan


    Full Text Available Background: Asian Indians have a higher operative and overall increased mortality following coronary bypass surgery. They also have higher rates of post operative complications and repeat surgeries. Apart from physiological complications like post-operative pain, atelectasis, deep vein thrombosis, the psychological disorders are like anxiety and stress also predominantly play a major role in the morbidity of the post-surgical conditions. The aim of study is to know the influence of music therapy and breathing exercises on post-surgical cardiac diseased individuals. To evaluate the influence of music therapy and breathing exercises on physiological parameters(BP,HR,RR in post surgical cardiac diseased individuals by using electro cardio monitor and state-trait anxiety scale. Methods: Subjects were randomly divided into two groups. Experimental group, where the subjects received music therapy and breathing exercises. Control group, where the subjects received breathing exercises. All the participants were assessed with STAI scale and physiological parameters like blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate for both groups before and after the treatment. Paired sample t-test was used to compare the STAI scale and physiological parameters within the groups. Result: Results showed a significant improvement in both the groups but, more improvement was seen in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion: Results suggested that music therapy and breathing exercises influences more effective than breathing exercises alone.

  11. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))


    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  12. Increased concentrations of breath haloamines are not detectable in airways inflammation using SIFT-MS. (United States)

    Storer, Malina K; Dummer, Jack D; Cook, Julie; McEwan, Murray; Epton, Michael J


    The haloamines, including the chloramines (H(2)NCl, HNCl(2)) and bromamine (H(2)NBr), are diffusible gases that are likely to be produced during inflammation and so may be present as markers of lung inflammation on breath. Although haloamines are quite reactive, it is possible to measure these compounds in humid samples using SIFT-MS. Until recently the quantification of haloamines in breath suffered from interference from other common breath compounds. This was overcome by heating the flow tube which removed major water cluster product ions. Despite the improvements to the method, previous attempts to measure the haloamines in breath samples from normal volunteers had found no evidence to support their presence. Since it is proposed that the haloamines may be present in higher concentrations during airways inflammation we have attempted to detect the compounds in the exhaled breath of patients with airways inflammatory conditions. On-line and off-line breath samples were analyzed; however, there was no discernable change to any of product ions when compared to ambient air or normal subjects. This suggests that despite sensitivity in the mid part per trillion range haloamines are not significantly raised in airways inflammation.

  13. Linearity of electrical impedance tomography during maximum effort breathing and forced expiration maneuvers. (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Leonhardt, Steffen; Zhang, Tony; Lüken, Markus; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Tenbrock, Klaus; Lehmann, Sylvia


    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides global and regional information about ventilation by means of relative changes in electrical impedance measured with electrodes placed around the thorax. In combination with lung function tests, e.g. spirometry and body plethysmography, regional information about lung ventilation can be achieved. Impedance changes strictly correlate with lung volume during tidal breathing and mechanical ventilation. Initial studies presumed a correlation also during forced expiration maneuvers. To quantify the validity of this correlation in extreme lung volume changes during forced breathing, a measurement system was set up and applied on seven lung-healthy volunteers. Simultaneous measurements of changes in lung volume using EIT imaging and pneumotachography were obtained with different breathing patterns. Data was divided into a synchronizing phase (spontaneous breathing) and a test phase (maximum effort breathing and forced maneuvers). The EIT impedance changes correlate strictly with spirometric data during slow breathing with increasing and maximum effort ([Formula: see text]) and during forced expiration maneuvers ([Formula: see text]). Strong correlations in spirometric volume parameters [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), [Formula: see text]/FVC ([Formula: see text]), and flow parameters PEF, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) were observed. According to the linearity during forced expiration maneuvers, EIT can be used during pulmonary function testing in combination with spirometry for visualisation of regional lung ventilation.

  14. Detection of response to command using voluntary control of breathing in disorders of consciousness (United States)

    Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Lesenfants, Damien; Sela, Lee; Noirhomme, Quentin; Ziegler, Erik; Chatelle, Camille; Plotkin, Anton; Sobel, Noam; Laureys, Steven


    Background: Detecting signs of consciousness in patients in a vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS/VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is known to be very challenging. Plotkin et al. (2010) recently showed the possibility of using a breathing-controlled communication device in patients with locked in syndrome. We here aim to test a breathing-based “sniff controller” that could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool to evaluate response to command in severely brain damaged patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC). Methods: Twenty-five DOC patients were included. Patients’ resting breathing-amplitude was measured during a 5 min resting condition. Next, they were instructed to end the presentation of a music sequence by sniffing vigorously. An automated detection of changes in breathing amplitude (i.e., >1.5 SD of resting) ended the music and hence provided positive feedback to the patient. Results: None of the 11 UWS/VS patients showed a sniff-based response to command. One out of 14 patients with MCS was able to willfully modulate his breathing pattern to answer the command on 16/19 trials (accuracy 84%). Interestingly, this patient failed to show any other motor response to command. Discussion: We here illustrate the possible interest of using breathing-dependent response to command in the detection of residual cognition in patients with DOC after severe brain injury. PMID:25566035

  15. A new strategy for respiration compensation, applied toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI. (United States)

    Madore, Bruno; Farnebäck, Gunnar; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Durán-Mendicuti, Alejandra


    In thorax and abdomen imaging, image quality may be affected by breathing motion. Cardiac MR images are typically obtained while the patient holds his or her breath, to avoid respiration-related artifacts. Although useful, breath-holding imposes constraints on scan duration, which in turn limits the achievable resolution and SNR. Longer scan times would be required to improve image quality, and effective strategies are needed to compensate for respiratory motion. A novel approach at respiratory compensation, targeted toward 3D free-breathing cardiac MRI, is presented here. The method aims at suppressing the negative effects of respiratory-induced cardiac motion while capturing the heart's beating motion. The method is designed so that the acquired data can be reconstructed in two different ways: First, a time series of images is reconstructed to quantify and correct for respiratory motion. Then, the corrected data are reconstructed a final time into a cardiac-phase series of images to capture the heart's beating motion. The method was implemented, and initial results are presented. A cardiac-phase series of 3D images, covering the entire heart, was obtained for two free-breathing volunteers. The present method may prove especially useful in situations where breath-holding is not an option, for example, for very sick, mentally impaired or infant patients.

  16. Nocturnal myocardial ischemic events and sleep-disordered breathing in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenli ZHANG; Shiwen WANG; Caiyi LU; Peng LIU; Rui CHEN; Xian JI; Yusheng ZHAO


    Objective To investigate the occurrence of nocturnal myocardial ischemia and its relationship with sleep-disordered breathing (apneas and oxygen desaturations) in patients with angina pectoris undergoing coronary angiography.Methods Eighty-two men and 14 women referred for consideration of coronary intervention were randomly selected. Observation by an overnight sleep monitor and Holter recording were performed to study sleep-disordered breathing (oxyhemoglobin desaturations≥4% and apnea-hypopneas),heart rates, and ST-segment depressions (≥ 1mm, ≥1 min).Results Nocturnal ST-segment depressions occurred in 37 % of the patients. ST-segment depression within 2 min after an apnea-hypopnea or desaturation occurred in 17% of the patients. This temporal association was seen in 21% of the patients with nocturnal ST-segment depressions, more frequently in men (P<0.05) and more frequently in those with severe disordered breathing (P<0.05).Most of these ST-segment depressions were preceded by a series of breathing events: repeated apnea-hypopneas or desaturations or both in 73% of the patients. Conclusions Episodes of nocturnal myocardial ischemia are common in patients with angina pectoris. A temporal relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and myocardial ischemia was present in some of our patients, and occurs more frequently in men and in those with severely disordered breathing. (J Geriatr Cardiol 2004;1(2):90-94.)

  17. Critical appraisal of 13C breath tests for microsomal liver function: aminopyrine revisited. (United States)

    Pijls, Kirsten E; de Vries, Hanne; Nikkessen, Suzan; Bast, Aalt; Wodzig, Will K W H; Koek, Ger H


    As liver diseases are a major health problem and especially the incidence of metabolic liver diseases like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, the demand for non-invasive tests is growing to replace liver biopsy. Non-invasive tests such as carbon-labelled breath tests can provide a valuable contribution to the evaluation of metabolic liver function. This review aims to critically appraise the value of the (13) C-labelled microsomal breath tests for the evaluation of metabolic liver function, and to discuss the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of the different probe drugs, especially of aminopyrine. Although a number of different probe drugs have been used in breath tests, the perfect drug to assess the functional metabolic capacity of the liver has not been found. Data suggest that both the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine and the (13) C-methacetin breath test can play a role in assessing the capacity of the microsomal liver function and may be useful in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, CYP2C19 seems to be an important enzyme in the N-demethylation of aminopyrine, and polymorphisms in this gene may influence breath test values, which should be kept in mind when performing the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine breath test in clinical practice.

  18. Effects of slow deep breathing at high altitude on oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bilo

    Full Text Available Slow deep breathing improves blood oxygenation (Sp(O2 and affects hemodynamics in hypoxic patients. We investigated the ventilatory and hemodynamic effects of slow deep breathing in normal subjects at high altitude. We collected data in healthy lowlanders staying either at 4559 m for 2-3 days (Study A; N = 39 or at 5400 m for 12-16 days (Study B; N = 28. Study variables, including Sp(O2 and systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure, were assessed before, during and after 15 minutes of breathing at 6 breaths/min. At the end of slow breathing, an increase in Sp(O2 (Study A: from 80.2±7.7% to 89.5±8.2%; Study B: from 81.0±4.2% to 88.6±4.5; both p<0.001 and significant reductions in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure occurred. This was associated with increased tidal volume and no changes in minute ventilation or pulmonary CO diffusion. Slow deep breathing improves ventilation efficiency for oxygen as shown by blood oxygenation increase, and it reduces systemic and pulmonary blood pressure at high altitude but does not change pulmonary gas diffusion.

  19. Breath Hydrogen as a Biomarker for Glucose Malabsorption after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Andalib


    Full Text Available Objective. Abdominal symptoms are common after bariatric surgery, and these individuals commonly have upper gut bacterial overgrowth, a known cause of malabsorption. Breath hydrogen determination after oral glucose is a safe and inexpensive test for malabsorption. This study is designed to investigate breath hydrogen levels after oral glucose in symptomatic individuals who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Methods. This is a retrospective study of individuals (n=63; 60 females; 3 males; mean age 49 years who had gastric bypass surgery and then glucose breath testing to evaluate abdominal symptoms. Results. Among 63 postoperative individuals, 51 (81% had a late rise (≥45 minutes in breath hydrogen or methane, supporting glucose malabsorption; 46 (90% of these 51 subjects also had an early rise (≤30 minutes in breath hydrogen or methane supporting upper gut bacterial overgrowth. Glucose malabsorption was more frequent in subjects with upper gut bacterial overgrowth compared to subjects with no evidence for bacterial overgrowth (P<0.001. Conclusion. These data support the presence of intestinal glucose malabsorption associated with upper gut bacterial overgrowth in individuals with abdominal symptoms after gastric bypass surgery. Breath hydrogen testing after oral glucose should be considered to evaluate potential malabsorption in symptomatic, postoperative individuals.

  20. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mason


    Full Text Available Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/unequal inspiration/expiration at 6 breath/min, with/without ujjayi, in 17 yoga-naive young healthy participants. BRS increased with slow breathing techniques with or without expiratory ujjayi ( or higher except with inspiratory + expiratory ujjayi. The maximal increase in BRS and decrease in blood pressure were found in slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration. This corresponded with a significant improvement in oxygen saturation without increase in heart rate and ventilation. Ujjayi showed similar increase in oxygen saturation but slightly lesser improvement in baroreflex sensitivity with no change in blood pressure. The slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration seems the best technique for improving baroreflex sensitivity in yoga-naive subjects. The effects of ujjayi seems dependent on increased intrathoracic pressure that requires greater effort than normal slow breathing.

  1. Consciously controlled breathing decreases the high-frequency component of heart rate variability by inhibiting cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. (United States)

    Sasaki, Konosuke; Maruyama, Ryoko


    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat alterations in heart rate, comprises sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities of the heart. HRV analysis is used to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation. Since respiration could be a confounding factor in HRV evaluation, some studies recommend consciously controlled breathing to standardize the method. However, it remains unclear whether controlled breathing affects HRV measurement. We compared the effects of controlled breathing on HRV with those of spontaneous breathing. In 20 healthy volunteers, we measured respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume, and blood pressure (BP) and recorded electrocardiograms during spontaneous breathing (14.8 ± 0.7 breaths/min) and controlled breathing at 15 (0.25 Hz) and 6 (0.10 Hz) breaths/min. Compared to spontaneous breathing, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz showed a higher heart rate and a lower high-frequency (HF) component, an index of parasympathetic nerve activity, although the f was the same. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, the ratio of the low frequency (LF) to HF components (LF/HF), an index of sympathetic nerve activity, increased greatly and HF decreased, while heart rate and BP remained almost unchanged. Thus, controlled breathing at 0.25 Hz, which requires mental concentration, might inhibit parasympathetic nerve activity. During controlled breathing at 0.10 Hz, LF/HF increases because some HF subcomponents are synchronized with f and probably move into the LF band. This increment leads to misinterpretation of the true autonomic nervous regulation. We recommend that the respiratory pattern of participants should be evaluated before spectral HRV analysis to correctly understand changes in autonomic nervous regulation.

  2. Blinded Validation of Breath Biomarkers of Lung Cancer, a Potential Ancillary to Chest CT Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been reported as biomarkers of lung cancer, but it is not known if biomarkers identified in one group can identify disease in a separate independent cohort. Also, it is not known if combining breath biomarkers with chest CT has the potential to improve the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Model-building phase (unblinded: Breath VOCs were analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in 82 asymptomatic smokers having screening chest CT, 84 symptomatic high-risk subjects with a tissue diagnosis, 100 without a tissue diagnosis, and 35 healthy subjects. Multiple Monte Carlo simulations identified breath VOC mass ions with greater than random diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer, and these were combined in a multivariate predictive algorithm. Model-testing phase (blinded validation: We analyzed breath VOCs in an independent cohort of similar subjects (n = 70, 51, 75 and 19 respectively. The algorithm predicted discriminant function (DF values in blinded replicate breath VOC samples analyzed independently at two laboratories (A and B. Outcome modeling: We modeled the expected effects of combining breath biomarkers with chest CT on the sensitivity and specificity of lung cancer screening.Unblinded model-building phase. The algorithm identified lung cancer with sensitivity 74.0%, specificity 70.7% and C-statistic 0.78. Blinded model-testing phase: The algorithm identified lung cancer at Laboratory A with sensitivity 68.0%, specificity 68.4%, C-statistic 0.71; and at Laboratory B with sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 68.0%, C-statistic 0.70, with linear correlation between replicates (r = 0.88. In a projected outcome model, breath biomarkers increased the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest CT for lung cancer when the tests were combined in series or parallel.Breath VOC mass ion biomarkers identified lung cancer in a separate independent cohort

  3. Breathing disorders in congestive heart failure: gender, etiology and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Silva


    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB and Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR while awake as well as mortality. Eighty-nine consecutive outpatients (29 females with congestive heart failure (CHF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF 5 and >15, respectively. CHF etiologies were similar according to the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern. Males and females were similar in age, body mass index, and LVEF. Males presented more SDB (P = 0.01, higher apnea-hypopnea index (P = 0.04, more light sleep (stages 1 and 2; P < 0.05, and less deep sleep (P < 0.001 than females. During follow-up (25 ± 10 months, 27% of the population died. Non-survivors had lower LVEF (P = 0.01, worse New York Heart Association (NYHA functional classification (P = 0.03, and higher CSR while awake (P < 0.001 than survivors. As determined by Cox proportional model, NYHA class IV (RR = 3.95, 95%CI = 1.37-11.38, P = 0.011 and CSR while awake with a marginal significance (RR = 2.96, 95%CI = 0.94-9.33, P = 0.064 were associated with mortality. In conclusion, the prevalence of SDB and sleep pattern of patients with Chagas' disease were similar to that of patients with CHF due to other etiologies. Males presented more frequent and more severe SDB and worse sleep quality than females. The presence of CSR while awake, but not during sleep, may be associated with a poor prognosis in patients with CHF.

  4. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)


    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  5. A review of analgesic and emotive breathing: a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bordoni B


    Full Text Available Bruno Bordoni,1–3 Fabiola Marelli,2,3 Giovannni Bordoni,2,31Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Nascente IRCCS, Milan, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Milan, Italy; 2Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO, Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Falconara Marittima, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Osteopathy, Centre de recherche d’emploi du Sud-Ouest (CRESO, Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Castellanza, Varese, Italy Abstract: The diaphragm is the primary muscle involved in breathing and other non-primarily respiratory functions such as the maintenance of correct posture and lumbar and sacroiliac movement. It intervenes to facilitate cleaning of the upper airways through coughing, facilitates the evacuation of the intestines, and promotes the redistribution of the body’s blood. The diaphragm also has the ability to affect the perception of pain and the emotional state of the patient, functions that are the subject of this article. The aim of this article is to gather for the first time, within a single text, information on the nonrespiratory functions of the diaphragm muscle and its analgesic and emotional response functions. It also aims to highlight and reflect on the fact that when the diaphragm is treated manually, a daily occurrence for manual operators, it is not just an area of musculature that is treated but the entire body, including the psyche. This reflection allows for a multidisciplinary approach to the diaphragm and the collaboration of various medical and nonmedical practitioners, with the ultimate goal of regaining or improving the patient’s physical and mental well-being. Keywords: diaphragm, fascia, osteopathic, pain, motions, manual therapy

  6. Clinical implications of sleep disordered breathing in acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Aronson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB, characterized by nightly intermittent hypoxia, is associated with multiple pathophysiologic alterations that may adversely affect patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. This prospective study investigated whether the metabolic perturbations associated with SDB are present when these patients develop AMI and if they affect clinical outcomes. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 180 AMI patients. SDB was defined as oxygen desaturation index (ODI >5 events/hour based on a Watch Pat-100 sleep study. Blood samples were obtained for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxides [PD] and serum paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] (arylesterase activity. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac dimensions and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. RESULTS: SDB was present in 116 (64% patients. Hs-CRP levels, PD and PON-1 were similar in patients with and without SDB. Echocardiography revealed higher left atrial dimension (4.1 ± 0.5 vs 3.8 ± 0.5 cm; P = 0.003 and a significant positive correlation between ODI and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (r = 0.41, P<0.0001. After a median follow up of 68 months, no significant differences were observed between the study groups with regard to clinical outcomes, including death, heart failure, myocardial infarction and unstable angina. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of previously undiagnosed SDB among patients with AMI. SDB in the setting of AMI is associated with higher pulmonary artery systolic pressure. SDB was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

  7. Multiple breath nitrogen washout: a feasible alternative to mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Jensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lung clearance index (LCI, measured by multiple breath washout (MBW, reflects global ventilation inhomogeneity and is a sensitive marker of early cystic fibrosis (CF lung disease. Current evidence is based on a customized mass spectrometry system that uses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 as a tracer gas, which is not widely available. Nitrogen (N2 washout may be better suited for clinical use and multi-center trials. OBJECTIVE: To compare the results obtained from a N2 washout system to those generated by the SF6 based system in healthy children and children with CF. METHODS: Children with CF were recruited from outpatient clinics; healthy children were recruited from the Research4Kids online portal. Participants performed MBWSF6 (Amis 2000, Innovision, Denmark and MBWN2 (ExhalyzerD, EcoMedics, Switzerland in triplicate, in random order on the same day. Agreement between systems was assessed by Bland-Altman plot. RESULTS: Sixty-two healthy and 61 children with CF completed measurements on both systems. In health there was good agreement between systems (limits of agreement -0.7 to 1.9; on average N2 produced higher values of LCI (mean difference 0.58 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.74. In CF the difference between systems was double that in health with a clear bias towards disproportionately higher LCIN2 compared to LCISF6 at higher mean values of LCI. CONCLUSION: LCIN2 and LCISF6 have similar discriminative power and intra-session repeatability but are not interchangeable. MBWN2 offers a valid new tool to investigate early obstructive lung disease in CF, but requires independent normative values.

  8. Free-breathing radial volumetric interpolated breathhold examination vs breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination magnetic resonance imaging of the liver at 1.5T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sireesha Yedururi; HyunSeon C Kang; Wei Wei; Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak; Leonardo P Marcal; R Jason Stafford; Brandy J Willis; Janio Szklaruk


    AIM: To compare breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination(cVIBE) and freebreathing radial VIBE(rVIBE) and determine whether rVIBE could replace cVIBE in routine liver magnetic resonance imaging(MRI).METHODS: In this prospective study, 15 consecutive patients scheduled for routine MRI of the abdomen underwent pre- and post-contrast breath-hold cVIBE imaging(19 s acquisition time) and free-breathing rVIBE imaging(111 s acquisition time) on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. Three radiologists with 2, 4, and 8 years post-fellowship experience in abdominal imaging evaluated all images. The radiologists were blinded to the sequence types, which were presented in a random order for each patient. For each sequence, the radiologists scored the cVIBE and rVIBE images for liver edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity, presence of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, fat saturation, and overall image quality using a five-point scale. RESULTS: Compared to rVIBE, cVIBE yielded significantly(P < 0.001) higher scores for liver edge sharpness(mean score, 3.87 vs 3.37), hepatic-vessel clarity(3.71 vs 3.18), artifacts(3.74 vs 3.06), lesion conspicuity(3.81 vs 3.2), and overall image quality(3.91 vs 3.24). cVIBE and rVIBE did not significantly differ in quality of fat saturation(4.12 vs 4.03, P = 0.17). The inter-observer variability with respect to differences between rVIBE and cVIBE scores was close to zero compared to random error and inter-patient variation. Quality of rVIBE images was rated as acceptable for all parameters. CONCLUSION: rVIBE cannot replace cVIBE in routine liver MRI. At 1.5T, free-breathing rVIBE yields acceptable, although slightly inferior image quality compared to breath-hold cVIBE.

  9. Effect of oxygen and heliox breathing on air bubbles in adipose tissue during 25-kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, T.; Kvist, T.M.; Hyldegaard, O.


    and heliox breathing. Preoxygenation enhanced bubble disappearance compared with oxygen and heliox breathing but did not prevent bubble growth. The results indicate that oxygen breathing at 25 kPa promotes air bubble growth in adipose tissue regardless of the tissue nitrogen pressure Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11......At altitude, bubbles are known to form and grow in blood and tissues causing altitude decompression sickness. Previous reports indicate that treatment of decompression sickness by means of oxygen breathing at altitude may cause unwanted bubble growth. In this report we visually followed the in vivo.......7) after which they started shrinking or remained stable throughout the observation period. Bubble growth time was significantly longer during oxygen breathing compared with heliox breathing and preoxygenated animals. Significantly more bubbles disappeared in preoxygenated animals compared with oxygen...

  10. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenici


    Full Text Available Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1 which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger.

  11. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes. (United States)

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K


    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  12. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing. (United States)

    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A


    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries.

  13. Oxygen pre-breathing decreases dysbaric diseases in UW sheep undergoing hyperbaric exposure. (United States)

    Sobakin, A S; Wilson, M A; Lehner, C E; Dueland, R T; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A P


    Prolonged exposure of humans and animals to increased pressure as in a disabled submarine (DISSUB) can saturate the body's tissues with dissolved N2 as compressed air is breathed. Decompression-induced bubble formation in the long bone marrow cavity may lead to a bone compartment syndrome resulting in bone ischemia and necrosis. We tested oxygen pre-breathing prior to decompression in sheep to assess the effect upon dysbaric osteonecrosis (DON) induction in a DISSUB simulation experiment. A total of sixteen adult female sheep were used throughout the experiment. Four sheep were used as controls without oxygen pre-breathing. All sheep (99 +/- 14 kg SD) underwent dry chamber air exposure at 60 fsw (2.79 atm abs) (.2827 MPa) for 24 h followed by oxygen (88-92%) pre-breathing (15-min, 1-h, and 2-h and air for control) before "dropout" decompression at 30 fsw/min (0.91 atm/min). 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans of the distal (radii and tibiae) long bones were used to detect "hot spots" of remodeling suggestive of DON lesions. Alizarin complexone fluorochrome was injected to visualize sites of metabolic activity indicating DON repair of both the proximal and distal long bones (radii, tibiae, femora, and humeri). Our findings showed that the amount of alizarin complexone deposition and bone scan uptake was greater in sheep with shorter oxygen pre-breathing times than those undergoing longer pre-breathing dives (p = 0.0056 and p = 0.001, for one and two hour pre-breathes respectively). Proximal limb bones (femur, humerus) displayed less alizarin complexone deposition than the distal radius and tibia (p < 0.0001).

  14. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  15. Effect of resistive load on the inspiratory work and power of breathing during exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Powell

    Full Text Available The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WR(I was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WR(I, power of breathing, PR(I and minute ventilation, [Formula: see text] were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min(-1 with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1. Resting WR(I was 0.12 JL(-1 and PR(I was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WR(I increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of [Formula: see text], while PR(I increased exponentially. With increasing resistive load the work and power at any given [Formula: see text] increased exponentially. Calculation of the power to work ratio during loaded breathing suggests that loads above 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1 make the work of resistive breathing become inhibitive at even a moderate [Formula: see text] (>30 L sec(-1. The relationship between work done and power generated while breathing against resistive loads is independent of the exercise mode (cycling or walking and that ventilation is limited by the work required to breathe, rather than an inability to maintain or generate power.

  16. The cerebral cost of breathing: an FMRI case-study in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Sharman

    Full Text Available Certain motor activities--like walking or breathing--present the interesting property of proceeding either automatically or under voluntary control. In the case of breathing, brainstem structures located in the medulla are in charge of the automatic mode, whereas cortico-subcortical brain networks--including various frontal lobe areas--subtend the voluntary mode. We speculated that the involvement of cortical activity during voluntary breathing could impact both on the "resting state" pattern of cortical-subcortical connectivity, and on the recruitment of executive functions mediated by the frontal lobe. In order to test this prediction we explored a patient suffering from central congenital hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a very rare developmental condition secondary to brainstem dysfunction. Typically, CCHS patients demonstrate efficient cortically-controlled breathing while awake, but require mechanically-assisted ventilation during sleep to overcome the inability of brainstem structures to mediate automatic breathing. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings to compare patterns of brain activity between these two types of ventilation during wakefulness. As compared with spontaneous breathing (SB, mechanical ventilation (MV restored the default mode network (DMN associated with self-consciousness, mind-wandering, creativity and introspection in healthy subjects. SB on the other hand resulted in a specific increase of functional connectivity between brainstem and frontal lobe. Behaviorally, the patient was more efficient in cognitive tasks requiring executive control during MV than during SB, in agreement with her subjective reports in everyday life. Taken together our results provide insight into the cognitive and neural costs of spontaneous breathing in one CCHS patient, and suggest that MV during waking periods may free up frontal lobe resources, and make them available for cognitive recruitment. More generally, this study reveals how the

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Breath Analysis System for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldat, Kelvin L.; Thrall, Karla D.


    Exposure assessment is an integral part of industrial hygiene and occupational health. To ensure the health and safety of workers, integrated industrial hygiene methodologies often include biological monitoring strategies. Exhaled breath is an ideal matrix for measuring volatile biomarkers, particularly since the non-invasive collection of breath may improve volunteer participation. A real-time, field-portable system was developed to analyze undiluted exhaled air from experimental animals and humans. The system combines (1) an ion-trap mass spectrometer capable of atmospheric sampling; (2) a breath interface for continual analysis of the exhaled breath stream; (3) chemical dosimeters that are analyzed in the field/workplace; and (4) physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to estimate total exposure and internal target tissue dosimetry. The intent of this development was to provide new instrumentation to evaluate volatile chemical exposures as part of a daily monitoring pro gram. For example, the system was designed to monitor a worker every time they enter and leave a work environment - a vast improvement over current 8-hr integrated monitoring strategies. To evaluate the system in actual work environments, field tests were conducted using volunteers providing exhaled breath samples before and after each specific job task. In these field studies, several volunteers had post-task breath levels higher than pre-task levels. Compared to the breath analysis findings, chemical dosimeters underpredicted exposures, particularly for longer sampling intervals where the volume of air sampled may have diluted exposures. The results of these field studies illustrate the utility of monitoring workers for exposures at numerous times throughout the day, particularly when job-specific tasks may indicate a potential for exposure.

  18. Breathing Maneuvers as a Vasoactive Stimulus for Detecting Inducible Myocardial Ischemia – An Experimental Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study (United States)

    Fischer, Kady; Guensch, Dominik P; Shie, Nancy; Lebel, Julie; Friedrich, Matthias G


    Background Breathing maneuvers can elicit a similar vascular response as vasodilatory agents like adenosine; yet, their potential diagnostic utility in the presence of coronary artery stenosis is unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate if breathing maneuvers can non-invasively detect inducible ischemia in an experimental animal model when the myocardium is imaged with oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR). Methods and Findings In 11 anesthetised swine with experimentally induced significant stenosis (fractional flow reserve coronary artery (LAD) and 9 control animals, OS-CMR at 3T was performed during two different breathing maneuvers, a long breath-hold; and a combined maneuver of 60s of hyperventilation followed by a long breath-hold. The resulting change of myocardial oxygenation was compared to the invasive measurements of coronary blood flow, blood gases, and oxygen extraction. In control animals, all breathing maneuvers could significantly alter coronary blood flow as hyperventilation decreased coronary blood flow by 34±23%. A long breath-hold alone led to an increase of 97±88%, while the increase was 346±327% (pcoronary blood flow response was attenuated after both hyperventilation and the following breath-hold. This was matched by the observed oxygenation response as breath-holds following hyperventilation consistently yielded a significant difference in the signal of the MRI images between the perfusion territory of the stenosis LAD and remote myocardium. There was no difference between the coronary territories during the other breathing maneuvers or in the control group at any point. Conclusion In an experimental animal model, the response to a combined breathing maneuver of hyperventilation with subsequent breath-holding is blunted in myocardium subject to significant coronary artery stenosis. This maneuver may allow for detecting severe coronary artery stenosis and have a significant clinical potential as a

  19. Enhanced non-eupneic breathing following hypoxic, hypercapnic or hypoxic-hypercapnic gas challenges in conscious mice. (United States)

    Getsy, Paulina M; Davis, Jesse; Coffee, Gregory A; May, Walter J; Palmer, Lisa A; Strohl, Kingman P; Lewis, Stephen J


    C57BL6 mice display non-eupneic breathing and spontaneous apneas during wakefulness and sleep as well as markedly disordered breathing following cessation of a hypoxic challenge. We examined whether (1) C57BL6 mice display marked non-eupneic breathing following hypercapnic or hypoxic-hypercapnic challenges, and (2) compared the post-hypoxia changes in non-eupneic breathing of C57BL6 mice to those of B6AF1 (57BL6 dam × A/J sire) and Swiss-Webster mice, which display different ventilatory responses than C57BL6 mice. C57BL6 mice displayed marked increases in respiratory frequency and non-eupneic breathing upon return to room-air after hypoxic (10% O2, 90% N2), hypercapnic (5% CO2, 21% O2 and 74% N2) and hypoxic-hypercapnic (10% O2, 5% CO2 and 85% N2) challenges. B6AF1 mice displayed less tachypnea and reduced non-eupneic breathing post-hypoxia, whereas Swiss-Webster mice displayed robust tachypnea with minimal increases in non-eupneic breathing post-hypoxia. These studies demonstrate that non-eupneic breathing increases after physiologically-relevant hypoxic-hypercapnic challenge in C57BL6 mice and suggest that further studies with these and B6AF1 and Swiss-Webster mice will help define the genetics of non-eupneic breathing.

  20. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Levinson


    Full Text Available Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater nonattachment (i.e. less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward. We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  1. Direct measurement of ammonia in simulated human breath using an inkjet-printed polyaniline nanoparticle sensor. (United States)

    Hibbard, Troy; Crowley, Karl; Killard, Anthony J


    A sensor fabricated from the inkjet-printed deposition of polyaniline nanoparticles onto a screen-printed silver interdigitated electrode was developed for the detection of ammonia in simulated human breath samples. Impedance analysis showed that exposure to ammonia gas could be measured at 962 Hz at which changes in resistance dominate due to the deprotonation of the polymer film. Sensors required minimal calibration and demonstrated excellent intra-electrode baseline drift (≤1.67%). Gases typically present in breath did not interfere with the sensor. Temperature and humidity were shown to have characteristic impedimetric and temporal effects on the sensor that could be distinguished from the response to ammonia. While impedance responses to ammonia could be detected from a single simulated breath, quantification was improved after the cumulative measurement of multiple breaths. The measurement of ammonia after 16 simulated breaths was linear in the range of 40-2175 ppbv (27-1514 μg m(-3)) (r(2)=0.9963) with a theoretical limit of detection of 6.2 ppbv (4.1 μg m(-3)) (SN(-1)=3).

  2. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing. (United States)

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher


    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  3. Detection of Torque Teno Virus DNA in Exhaled Breath by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20 of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20 and 35% (7/20 positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40 of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room.

  4. Whole left ventricular functional assessment from two minutes free breathing multi-slice CINE acquisition (United States)

    Usman, M.; Atkinson, D.; Heathfield, E.; Greil, G.; Schaeffter, T.; Prieto, C.


    Two major challenges in cardiovascular MRI are long scan times due to slow MR acquisition and motion artefacts due to respiratory motion. Recently, a Motion Corrected-Compressed Sensing (MC-CS) technique has been proposed for free breathing 2D dynamic cardiac MRI that addresses these challenges by simultaneously accelerating MR acquisition and correcting for any arbitrary motion in a compressed sensing reconstruction. In this work, the MC-CS framework is combined with parallel imaging for further acceleration, and is termed Motion Corrected Sparse SENSE (MC-SS). Validation of the MC-SS framework is demonstrated in eight volunteers and three patients for left ventricular functional assessment and results are compared with the breath-hold acquisitions as reference. A non-significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed in the volumetric functional measurements (end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, ejection fraction) and myocardial border sharpness values obtained with the proposed and gold standard methods. The proposed method achieves whole heart multi-slice coverage in 2 min under free breathing acquisition eliminating the time needed between breath-holds for instructions and recovery. This results in two-fold speed up of the total acquisition time in comparison to the breath-hold acquisition.

  5. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis. (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M


    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  6. A Device for Respiratory Monitoring during Nutritive Sucking: Response to Neonatal Breathing Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rosi


    Full Text Available The quantitative monitoring of breathing, sucking, and swallowing is required to predict newborns’ neurodevelopmental outcomes. In particular, the coordination of breathing timing with respect to sucking cycle is crucial. In this work, we present the characterization of a low-cost flowmeter designed for noninvasive recording of breathing pattern during bottle feeding. The transducer is designed to be integrated on a commercial feeding bottle also instrumented with a system for sucking monitoring. The flowmeter consists of two transistors (hot bodies supplied at constant current, which are placed in a duct used to convey the inspiratory and expiratory flow coming from the newborn’s nostrils. The transducer design, its static calibration, and its response time are discussed. Moreover, a custom-made active lung simulator was used to perform a feasibility assessment of the proposed flowmeter for respiratory monitoring of neonatal respiratory patterns. The flowmeter has a discrimination threshold <0.5 L·min−1 and a response time of 347±12 ms. The breathing period estimated by the proposed transducer was compared with the one measured by a high performance flowmeter, used as reference: the mean absolute error was <11%. Results highlighted the ability of the device to track respiratory patterns at frequencies typical of neonatal breathing.

  7. Manifold learning for image-based breathing gating with application to 4D ultrasound. (United States)

    Wachinger, Christian; Yigitsoy, Mehmet; Navab, Nassir


    Breathing motion leads to a significant displacement and deformation of organs in the abdominal region. This makes the detection of the breathing phase for numerous applications necessary. We propose a new, purely image-based respiratory gating method for ultrasound. Further, we use this technique to provide a solution for breathing affected 4D ultrasound acquisitions with a wobbler probe. We achieve the gating with Laplacian eigenmaps, a manifold learning technique, to determine the low-dimensional manifold embedded in the high-dimensional image space. Since Laplacian eigenmaps assign each ultrasound frame a coordinate in low-dimensional space by respecting the neighborhood relationship, they are well suited for analyzing the breathing cycle. For the 4D application, we perform the manifold learning for each angle, and consecutively, align all the local curves and perform a curve fitting to achieve a globally consistent breathing signal. We performed the image-based gating on several 2D and 3D ultrasound datasets over time, and quantified its very good performance by comparing it to measurements from an external gating system.

  8. Control of breathing in African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi): A comparison of aquatic and cocooned (terrestrialized) animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, S.F.; Euverman, R.; Wang, Tobias


    African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi exhibited constant rates of O2 consumption before (0.95 ± 0.07 mmol kg-1 h-1), during (1.21 ± 0.32 mmol kg-1 h-1) and after (1.14 ± 0.14 mmol kg-1 h-1) extended periods (1-2 months) of terrestrialization while cocooned. Although a breathing event...... in terrestrialized fish consisted of multiple bouts of inspiration and expiration in rapid succession, the mean frequency of pulmonary breathing events was unaltered in the terrestrialized fish (16.7 ± 1.4 h-1 versus 20.1 ± 4.9 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively). Hypoxia ( 20 mmHg) increased...... the frequency of breathing events by 16 and 23 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized fish, respectively. Hyperoxia ( 550 mmHg) decreased breathing event frequency by 10 and 15 h-1 in the aquatic and terrestrialized animals. Aquatic hypercapnia ( 37.5 mmHg) increased pulmonary breathing frequency (from 15...

  9. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram


    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  10. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo


    Full Text Available Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012 defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time, with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate, would be necessary to examine such changes.

  11. Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus. (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, J F; Burggren, W W


    The effect of hypoxia on air-breathing onset and survival was determined in larvae of the air-breathing fishes, the three spot gourami Trichopodus trichopterus and the Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens. Larvae were exposed continuously or intermittently (12 h nightly) to an oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 20, 17 and 14 kPa from 1 to 40 days post-fertilization (dpf). Survival and onset of air breathing were measured daily. Continuous normoxic conditions produced a larval survival rate of 65-75% for B. splendens and 15-30% for T. trichopterus, but all larvae of both species died at 9 dpf in continuous hypoxia conditions. Larvae under intermittent (nocturnal) hypoxia showed a 15% elevated survival rate in both species. The same conditions altered the onset of air breathing, advancing onset by 4 days in B. splendens and delaying onset by 9 days in T. trichopterus. These interspecific differences were attributed to air-breathing characteristics: B. splendens was a non-obligatory air breather after 36 dpf, whereas T. trichopterus was an obligatory air breather after 32 dpf.

  12. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark


    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult.

  13. Facilitation of breathing by leptin effects in the central nervous system. (United States)

    Bassi, M; Furuya, W I; Zoccal, D B; Menani, J V; Colombari, D S A; Mulkey, D K; Colombari, E


    With the global epidemic of obesity, breathing disorders associated with excess body weight have markedly increased. Respiratory dysfunctions caused by obesity were originally attributed to mechanical factors; however, recent studies have suggested a pathophysiological component that involves the central nervous system (CNS) and hormones such as leptin produced by adipocytes as well as other cells. Leptin is suggested to stimulate breathing and leptin deficiency causes an impairment of the chemoreflex, which can be reverted by leptin therapy. This facilitation of the chemoreflex may depend on the action of leptin in the hindbrain areas involved in the respiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), a site that receives chemosensory afferents, and the ventral surface of the medulla that includes the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a central chemosensitive area, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). Although the mechanisms and pathways activated by leptin to facilitate breathing are still not completely clear, evidence suggests that the facilitatory effects of leptin on breathing require the brain melanocortin system, including the POMC-MC4R pathway, a mechanism also activated by leptin to modulate blood pressure. The results of all the studies that have investigated the effect of leptin on breathing suggest that disruption of leptin signalling as caused by obesity-induced reduction of central leptin function (leptin resistance) is a relevant mechanism that may contribute to respiratory dysfunctions associated with obesity.

  14. Systematic review of the effectiveness of breathing retraining in asthma management. (United States)

    Burgess, John; Ekanayake, Buddhini; Lowe, Adrian; Dunt, David; Thien, Francis; Dharmage, Shyamali C


    In asthma management, complementary and alternative medicine is enjoying a growing popularity worldwide. This review synthesizes the literature on complementary and alternative medicine techniques that utilize breathing retraining as their primary component and compares evidence from controlled trials with before-and-after trials. Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and the Cochrane Library electronic databases were searched. Reference lists of all publications were manually checked to identify studies not found through electronic searching. The selection criteria were met by 41 articles. Most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the Buteyko breathing technique demonstrated a significant decrease in β(2)-agonist use while several found improvement in quality of life or decrease in inhaled corticosteroid use. Although few in number, RCTs of respiratory muscle training found a significant reduction in bronchodilator medication use. Where meta-analyses could be done, they provided evidence of benefit from yoga, Buteyko breathing technique and physiotherapist-led breathing training in improving asthma-related quality of life. However, considerable heterogeneity was noted in some RCTs of yoga. It is reasonable for clinicians to offer qualified support to patients with asthma undertaking these breathing retraining techniques.

  15. Dynamic modeling and simulation of air-breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcinoz, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States); Nigde University, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nigde 51245 (Turkey); Alam, M.S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)


    Small fuel cells have shown excellent potential as alternative energy sources for portable applications. One of the most promising fuel cell technologies for portable applications is air-breathing fuel cells. In this paper, a dynamic model of an air-breathing PEM fuel cell (AB-PEMFC) system is presented. The analytical modeling and simulation of the air-breathing PEM fuel cell system are verified using Matlab, Simulink and SimPowerSystems Blockset. To show the effectiveness of the proposed AB-PEMFC model, two case studies are carried out using the Matlab software package. In the first case study, the dynamic behavior of the proposed AB-PEMFC system is compared with that of a planar air-breathing PEM fuel cell model. In the second case study, the validation of the air-breathing PEM fuel cell-based power source is carried out for the portable application. Test results show that the proposed AB-PEMFC system can be considered as a viable alternative energy sources for portable applications. (author)

  16. Modeling and simulation of vibrational breathing-like modes in individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Sbai, K.; Rahmani, A.; Fakrach, B.; Chadli, H.; Benhamou, M.


    We study the collective vibrational breathing modes in the Raman spectrum of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCNTs). First, a bond polarization theory and the spectral moment's method (SMM) are used to calculate the non-resonant Raman frequencies of the breathing-like modes (BLMs) and the tangential-like ones (TLMs). Second, the Raman active modes of MCNTs are computed for different diameters and numbers of layers. The obtained low frequency modes in MCNTs can be identified to each single-walled carbon nanotubes. These modes that originate from the radial breathing ones of the individual walls are strongly coupled through the concentric tube-tube van der Waals interaction. The calculated BLMs in the low-frequency region are compared with the experimental Raman data obtained from other studies. Finally, special attention is given to the comparison with Raman data on MCNTs composed of six layers.

  17. Human breath analysis may support the existence of individual metabolic phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martinez-Lozano Sinues

    Full Text Available The metabolic phenotype varies widely due to external factors such as diet and gut microbiome composition, among others. Despite these temporal fluctuations, urine metabolite profiling studies have suggested that there are highly individual phenotypes that persist over extended periods of time. This hypothesis was tested by analyzing the exhaled breath of a group of subjects during nine days by mass spectrometry. Consistent with previous metabolomic studies based on urine, we conclude that individual signatures of breath composition exist. The confirmation of the existence of stable and specific breathprints may contribute to strengthen the inclusion of breath as a biofluid of choice in metabolomic studies. In addition, the fact that the method is rapid and totally non-invasive, yet individualized profiles can be tracked, makes it an appealing approach.

  18. Changes in breathing and the pharynx after weight loss in obstructive sleep apnea. (United States)

    Suratt, P M; McTier, R F; Findley, L J; Pohl, S L; Wilhoit, S C


    The effect of weight loss following dietary restriction on disordered breathing on the pharyngeal airway is controversial in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We therefore prospectively studied eight patients before and after dietary-induced weight loss. Mean weight loss was 20.6 kg +/- 12.8 SD. After weight loss there were significant improvements in PO2 and PCO2 measured during wakefulness, and in the number of desaturation episodes per hour of sleep, average desaturation per episode, and number of movement arousals. The number of apneas and hypopneas significantly decreased in six of eight patients. There was a significant correlation between body mass index and number of disordered breathing events. Nasopharyngeal collapsibility and pulse flow resistance decreased in awake patients after weight loss. We conclude that moderate weight loss in obese patients with OSA improves oxygenation during both sleep and wakefulness, decreases the number of disordered breathing events in many patients, decreases the collapsibility of the nasopharyngeal airway.

  19. Pure-rotational spectrometry: a vintage analytical method applied to modern breath analysis. (United States)

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W; Droege, Michael W


    Pure-rotational spectrometry (PRS) is an established method, typically used to study structures and properties of polar gas-phase molecules, including isotopic and isomeric varieties. PRS has also been used as an analytical tool where it is particularly well suited for detecting or monitoring low-molecular-weight species that are found in exhaled breath. PRS is principally notable for its ultra-high spectral resolution which leads to exceptional specificity to identify molecular compounds in complex mixtures. Recent developments using carbon aerogel for pre-concentrating polar molecules from air samples have extended the sensitivity of PRS into the part-per-billion range. In this paper we describe the principles of PRS and show how it may be configured in several different modes for breath analysis. We discuss the pre-concentration concept and demonstrate its use with the PRS analyzer for alcohols and ammonia sampled directly from the breath.

  20. Free-breathing motion-corrected late-gadolinium-enhancement imaging improves image quality in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Laura; O' Brien, Kendall J. [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cross, Russell [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Hansen, Michael S. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    The value of late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging in the diagnosis and management of pediatric and congenital heart disease is clear; however current acquisition techniques are susceptible to error and artifacts when performed in children because of children's higher heart rates, higher prevalence of sinus arrhythmia, and inability to breath-hold. Commonly used techniques in pediatric LGE imaging include breath-held segmented FLASH (segFLASH) and steady-state free precession-based (segSSFP) imaging. More recently, single-shot SSFP techniques with respiratory motion-corrected averaging have emerged. This study tested and compared single-shot free-breathing LGE techniques with standard segmented breath-held techniques in children undergoing LGE imaging. Thirty-two consecutive children underwent clinically indicated late-enhancement imaging using intravenous gadobutrol 0.15 mmol/kg. Breath-held segSSFP, breath-held segFLASH, and free-breathing single-shot SSFP LGE sequences were performed in consecutive series in each child. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the quality of the images and rated them on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = superior) based on blood pool-myocardial definition, presence of cardiac motion, presence of respiratory motion artifacts, and image acquisition artifact. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare groups. Patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of 13.3 +/- 4.8 years. R-R interval at the time of acquisition ranged 366-1,265 milliseconds (ms) (47-164 beats per minute [bpm]), mean +/- SD of 843+/-231 ms (72+/-21 bpm). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for long-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.1+/-0.9, 3.4+/-0.9 and 4.0+/-0.9, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for short-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.4+/-1, 3.8+/-0.9 and 4.3+/-0.7, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Single-shot late

  1. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L;


    of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio......, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. METHODS: DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using...

  2. Epidemiology of sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome and sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, P; Riha, R L


    Epidemiological studies have revealed a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the community (up to 20%). A subset of these patients has concurrent symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness attributable to their nocturnal breathing disorder and is classified as having obstructive sleep...... apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (4-5% of the middle-aged population). There is strong evidence for an association of sleep apnoea with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity, as well as adverse public health consequences. Treatment and diagnosis have remained largely unchanged over the past 25 yrs....... In moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome, treatment with continuous positive airway pressure has been shown to be effective. Questions remain as to how to screen patients with sleep-disordered breathing. Should time-consuming diagnostic procedures with high sensitivity and specificity...

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breath-Hold Divers with Cerebral Decompression Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Matsuo


    Full Text Available The mechanism of cerebral decompression sickness (DCS is still unclear. We report 2 cases of breath-hold divers with cerebral DCS in whom magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated distinctive characteristics. One case presented right hemiparesthesia, diplopia, and gait disturbance after breath-hold diving into the sea at a depth of 20 m. Brain MRI with fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR sequence revealed multiple hyperintense lesions in the right frontal lobe, bilateral thalamus, pons, and right cerebellar hemisphere. The second case presented visual and gait disturbance after repetitive breath-hold diving into the sea. FLAIR imaging showed hyperintense areas in the bilateral occipito-parietal lobes. In both cases, diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping revealed hyperintense areas in the lesions identified by FLAIR. Moreover, follow-up MRI showed attenuation of the FLAIR signal abnormalities. These findings are suggestive of transient hyperpermeability in the microvasculature as a possible cause of cerebral DCS.

  4. Non-contact Breath Motion Monitor ing System in Full Automation. (United States)

    Sato, Isao; Nakajima, Masato


    It is said that sleep apnea syndrome is one of the main causes of airplane, train and car accidents. We have developed a non-contact breathing measurement system which diagnoses not only sleep apnea syndrome but also other sleep disorders. This system calculates the amount of the volume change and makes the movement of the outside of the body by the breath motion visible. If the patient is breathing abnormally, we are able to recognize the appearance of abnormality at a glance and know the amount of the volume change in that location. To verify the amount of the volume change, we compare the amount of ventilation measured with a spirometer to the amount of volume change measured with this system. As a result, there is a high correlation in the amount of the volume change and the amount of ventilation in any sleeping position.

  5. Self-organised criticality in base-pair breathing in DNA with a defect

    CERN Document Server

    Duduiala, Ciprian-Ionut; Laughton, Charles A


    We analyse base-pair breathing in a DNA sequence of 12 base-pairs with a defective base at its centre. We use both all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and a system of stochastic differential equations (SDE). In both cases, Fourier analysis of the trajectories reveals self-organised critical behaviour in the breathing of base-pairs. The Fourier Transforms (FT) of the interbase distances show power-law behaviour with gradients close to -1. The scale-invariant behaviour we have found provides evidence for the view that base-pair breathing corresponds to the nucleation stage of large-scale DNA opening (or 'melting') and that this process is a (second-order) phase transition. Although the random forces in our SDE system were introduced as white noise, FTs of the displacements exhibit pink noise, as do the displacements in the AMBER/MD simulations.

  6. Can air-breathing fish be adapted to higher than present temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark

    Air-breathing in fish is thought to have evolved in environments at lower than present oxygen levels and higher than present temperatures raising the question of whether extant species are adapted to recent temperature regimes or living at sub-optimal temperatures. The air-breathing Pangasionodon...... hypophthalmus inhabits the Mekong river system covering two climate zones during its life cycle and migrating more than 2000 km from hatching in northern Laos to its adult life in the southern delta region. It is a facultative air-breather with well-developed gills and air-breathing organ and an unusual...... circulatory bauplan. Here we examine the question of its optimal temperature through aspects of its cardio respiratory physiology including temperature effects on blood oxygen binding, ventilation and blood gasses, stereological measures of cardiorespiratory system, metabolic rate and growth. Comparing...

  7. Fructose breath hydrogen test--is it really a harmless diagnostic procedure? (United States)

    Müller, P; Meier, C; Böhme, H J; Richter, T


    Usage of hydrogen breath tests has become one of the standard procedures in diagnosing chronic unspecific abdominal pain. These tests are said to be of sufficient specificity and sensitivity, are easily done, non-invasive and are more often practiced in outpatients. A 13-year-old boy is reported with chronic unspecific abdominal pain and growth retardation and so far misdiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), who developed life-threatening adverse effects during the fructose breath hydrogen test. It is concluded that the possibility of HFI should be excluded first by a carefully explored dietary history before the fructose breath test is performed under medical supervision. If there is any suspicion of HFI, a molecular genetic analysis should be preferred.

  8. High Frequency Yoga Breathing: A Review of Nervous System Effects and Adjunctive Therapeutic and Premeditation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Andaházy


    Full Text Available High frequency yoga breathing (HFYB results in a shifting of the autonomic nervous system balance towards sympathetic nervous system dominance. In an effort to more fully understand the complex effects of this form of yogic breath-work, tests are being conducted on practitioners’ physiological and neurological response processes. Studies on heart rate variability (HRV indicating cardiac autonomic control have shown a resulting reduction of vagal activity following HFYB, leading to passive sympathetic dominance without overt excitation or exhaustion. Comparative cognitive tests taken after the practice have shown that HFYB results in reduced auditory and visual reaction times, and a decrease in optical illusion. The vigilant, wakeful, yet relaxed state induced by HFYB has been associated with improvements in attention, memory, sensorimotor performance, and mood. As breathing bridges conscious and unconscious functions, the potential role of HFYB as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention as well as its possible application in preparation for meditation is considered.

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication of iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. (United States)

    Faiz, Saadia A; Bashoura, Lara; Kodali, Lavanya; Hessel, Amy C; Evans, Scott E; Balachandran, Diwakar D


    A case of a 55-year-old woman with iatrogenic vocal cord trauma and sleep-related symptoms is reported. In particular, this case highlights sleep-disordered breathing as a delayed complication after iatrogenic vocal cord trauma. The patient developed acute stridor from a contralateral vocal cord hematoma following vocal fold injection for right vocal cord paralysis. Acute respiratory symptoms resolved with oxygen, steroids, and nebulized therapy, but nocturnal symptoms persisted and polysomnography revealed sleep-related hypoventilation and mild obstructive sleep apnea. Positive pressure therapy was successfully used to ameliorate her symptoms and treat sleep-disordered breathing until her hematoma resolved. In addition to the typically acute respiratory symptoms that may result from vocal cord dysfunction, sleep-disordered breathing may also present as a significant subacute or chronic problem. Management of the acute respiratory symptoms is relatively well established, but clinicians should be alert for more subtle nocturnal symptoms that may require further study with polysomnography.

  10. Dyspnea during panic attacks. An Internet survey of incidences of changes in breathing. (United States)

    Anderson, B; Ley, R


    This article presents the results of a survey that investigated breathing-related symptoms of panic attacks together with the frequency of other symptoms reported by active panickers. All the participants of this study experienced naturally occurring panic attacks and sought treatment guidance by visiting a Web site devoted to the treatment of panic. The results of a symptom questionnaire showed that 195 respondents (95.1%) reported breathing changes during panic attacks, and remarkable dyspnea was reported by more than two thirds (68%) of respondents. These findings are consistent with earlier studies but are contrary to conclusions that only a small number of panickers report shortness of breath as a symptom. This study concludes that outside of the laboratory, a large majority of people who suffer from panic attacks experience symptoms of dyspnea.

  11. 谈舞蹈训练中的呼吸%Discussion on Breath in Dance Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Breath plays a pivotal role in dance training and per-formance, as it endows dance with artistic vitality. In addition, the performance of dance works not only relies on merely dance movements, but also on breath to help complete body control. This paper specifically explores the importance and utilization techniques of breath in dance training.%呼吸在舞蹈训练及表演中起着非常重要的作用,呼吸给予舞蹈以艺术生命力;同时,舞蹈作品的表现不仅仅只依靠舞蹈动作来完成,其更需要呼吸来完成身体的控制。本文将主要对呼吸在舞蹈训练中的重要性及运用技巧进行具体的探讨。

  12. Spiracular air breathing in polypterid fishes and its implications for aerial respiration in stem tetrapods. (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey B; Wegner, Nicholas C; Miller, Lauren A; Jew, Corey J; Lai, N Chin; Berquist, Rachel M; Frank, Lawrence R; Long, John A


    The polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) are extant basal actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes that breathe air and share similarities with extant lobe-finned sarcopterygians (lungfishes and tetrapods) in lung structure. They are also similar to some fossil sarcopterygians, including stem tetrapods, in having large paired openings (spiracles) on top of their head. The role of spiracles in polypterid respiration has been unclear, with early reports suggesting that polypterids could inhale air through the spiracles, while later reports have largely dismissed such observations. Here we resolve the 100-year-old mystery by presenting structural, behavioural, video, kinematic and pressure data that show spiracle-mediated aspiration accounts for up to 93% of all air breaths in four species of Polypterus. Similarity in the size and position of polypterid spiracles with those of some stem tetrapods suggests that spiracular air breathing may have been an important respiratory strategy during the fish-tetrapod transition from water to land.

  13. Multifrequency high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy for exhaled breath research (United States)

    Vaks, Vladimir L.; Domracheva, Elena G.; Pripolzin, Sergey I.; Chernyaeva, Mariya B.


    Nowadays the development of analytical spectroscopy with high performance, sensitivity and spectral resolution for exhaled breath research is attended. The method of two-frequency high precise THz spectroscopy and the method of high precise subTHz-THz-IR spectroscopy are presented. Development of a subTHz-THz-IR gas analyzer increases the number of gases that can be identified and the reliability of the detection by confirming the signature in both THz and MIR ranges. The testing measurements have testified this new direction of analytical spectroscopy to open widespread trends of its using for various problems of medicine and biology. First of all, there are laboratory investigations of the processes in exhaled breath and studying of their dynamics. Besides, the methods presented can be applied for detecting intermediate and short time living products of reactions in exhaled breath. The spectrometers have been employed for investigations of acetone, methanol and ethanol in the breath samples of healthy volunteers and diabetes patients. The results have demonstrated an increased concentration of acetone in breath of diabetes patients. The dynamic of changing the acetone concentration before and after taking the medicines is discovered. The potential markers of pre-cancer states and oncological diseases of gastrointestinal tract organs have been detected. The changes in the NO concentration in exhaled breath of cancer patients during radiotherapy as well as increase of the NH3 concentration at gastrointestinal diseases have been revealed. The preliminary investigations of biomarkers in three frequency ranges have demonstrated the advantages of the multifrequency high precise spectroscopy for noninvasive medical diagnostics.

  14. Influence of neighbourhood-level crowding on sleep-disordered breathing severity: mediation by body size. (United States)

    Johnson, Dayna A; Drake, Christopher; Joseph, Christine L M; Krajenta, Richard; Hudgel, David W; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E


    Neighbourhood-level crowding, a measure of the percentage of households with more than one person per room, may impact the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. This study examined the association of neighbourhood-level crowding with apnoea-hypopnoea index in a large clinical sample of diverse adults with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep-disordered breathing severity was quantified as the apnoea-hypopnoea index calculated from overnight polysomnogram; analyses were restricted to those with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥5. Neighbourhood-level crowding was defined using 2000 US Census tract data as percentage of households in a census tract with >1 person per room. Multivariable linear mixed models were fit to examine the associations between the percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index, and a causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine if body mass index acted as a mediator between neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index. Among 1789 patients (43% African American; 68% male; 80% obese), the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index was 29.0 ± 25.3. After adjusting for race, age, marital status and gender, neighbourhood-level crowding was associated with apnoea-hypopnoea index; for every one-unit increase in percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding mean, the apnoea-hypopnoea index increased by 0.40 ± 0.20 (P = 0.04). There was a statistically significant indirect effect of neighbourhood-level crowding through body mass index on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (P crowding is associated with severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Body mass index partially mediated the association between neighbourhood-level crowding and sleep-disordered breathing. Investigating prevalent neighbourhood conditions impacting breathing in urban settings may be promising.

  15. Quantification of methane in humid air and exhaled breath using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Smith, D; Spanel, P


    In selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, analyses of humid air and breath, it is essential to consider and account for the influence of water vapour in the media, which can be profound for the analysis of some compounds, including H(2)CO, H(2)S and notably CO(2). To date, the analysis of methane has not been considered, since it is known to be unreactive with H(3)O(+) and NO(+), the most important precursor ions for SIFT-MS analyses, and it reacts only slowly with the other available precursor ion, O(2) (+). However, we have now experimentally investigated methane analysis and report that it can be quantified in both air and exhaled breath by exploiting the slow O(2) (+)/CH(4) reaction that produces CH(3)O(2) (+) ions. We show that the ion chemistry is significantly influenced by the presence of water vapour in the sample, which must be quantified if accurate analyses are to be performed. Thus, we have carried out a study of the loss rate of the CH(3)O(2) (+) analytical ion as a function of sample humidity and deduced an appropriate kinetics library entry that provides an accurate analysis of methane in air and breath by SIFT-MS. However, the associated limit of detection is rather high, at 0.2 parts-per-million, ppm. We then measured the methane levels, together with acetone levels, in the exhaled breath of 75 volunteers, all within a period of 3 h, which shows the remarkable sample throughput rate possible with SIFT-MS. The mean methane level in ambient air is seen to be 2 ppm with little spread and that in exhaled breath is 6 ppm, ranging from near-ambient levels to 30 ppm, with no significant variation with age and gender. Methane can now be included in the wide ranging analyses of exhaled breath that are currently being carried out using SIFT-MS.

  16. Effects of changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea. (United States)

    Chonan, T; Mulholland, M B; Altose, M D; Cherniack, N S


    Breathing during hypercapnia is determined by reflex mechanisms but may also be influenced by respiratory sensations. The present study examined the effects of voluntary changes in level and pattern of breathing on the sensation of dyspnea at a constant level of chemical drive. Studies were carried out in 15 normal male subjects during steady-state hypercapnia at an end-tidal PCO2 of 50 Torr. The intensity of dyspnea was rated on a Borg category scale. In one experiment (n = 8), the level of ventilation was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (Vspont). In another experiment (n = 9), the minute ventilation was maintained at the level spontaneously adopted at PCO2 of 50 Torr and breathing frequency was increased or decreased from the spontaneously adopted level (fspont) with reciprocal changes in tidal volume. The intensity of dyspnea (expressed as percentage of the spontaneous breathing level) correlated with ventilation (% Vspont) negatively at levels below Vspont (r = -0.70, P less than 0.001) and positively above Vspont (r = 0.80, P less than 0.001). At a constant level of ventilation, the intensity of dyspnea correlated with breathing frequency (% fspont) negatively at levels below fspont (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001) and positively at levels above fspont (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). These results indicate that dyspnea intensifies when the level or pattern of breathing is voluntarily changed from the spontaneously adopted level. This is consistent with the possibility that ventilatory responses to changes in chemical drive may be regulated in part to minimize the sensations of respiratory effort and discomfort.

  17. ( sup 14 C)urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormand, J.E.; Talley, N.J.; Carpenter, H.A.; Shorter, R.G.; Conley, C.R.; Wilson, W.R.; DiMagno, E.P.; Zinsmeister, A.R.; Phillips, S.F. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))


    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the (14C)- and (13C)urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted (14C)urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min (14C)urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that (14C)urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the (14C)urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model.

  18. How to deal with morning bad breath: A randomized, crossover clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo M Oliveira-Neto


    Full Text Available Context: The absence of a protocol for the treatment of halitosis has led us to compare mouthrinses with mechanical oral hygiene procedures for treating morning breath by employing a hand-held sulfide monitor. Aims: To compare the efficacy of five modalities of treatment for controlling morning halitosis in subjects with no dental or periodontal disease. Settings and Design: This is a five-period, randomized, crossover clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Twenty volunteers were randomly assigned to the trial. Testing involved the use of a conventional tongue scraper, a tongue scraper joined to the back of a toothbrush′s head, two mouthrinses (0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate and a soft-bristled toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste for practicing oral hygiene. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17 for Windows and NCSS 2007 software (P < 0.05. The products and the periods were compared with each other using the Friedman′s test. When significant differences (P < 0.05 were determined, the products and periods were compared in pairs by using the Wilcoxon′s test and by adjusting the original significance level (0.05 for multiple comparisons by using the Bonferroni′s method. Results: The toothbrush′s tongue scraper was able to significantly reduce bad breath for up to 2 h. Chlorhexidine reduced bad breath only at the end of the second hour, an effect that lasted for 3 h. Conclusions: Mechanical tongue cleaning was able to immediately reduce bad breath for a short period, whereas chlorhexidine and mechanical oral hygiene reduced bad breath for longer periods, achieving the best results against morning breath.

  19. Effect of physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises using breathing pattern on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (United States)

    Yoon, Sungyoung; Rhee, Min-Hyung


    [Purpose] This study was performed to confirm physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. [Subject and Methods] A 15-year-old male middle school student with scoliosis. Cobb’s angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were measured before and after 8 weeks training. [Results] After 8 weeks training, Cobb’s angle, angle of rotation of the spine, and breathing pattern were improved better. [Conclusion] These results indicate that physical therapy scoliosis specific exercises improves scoliosis curves and could provide an effective intervention and management of scoliosis. PMID:27942163

  20. Model of human breathing reflected signal received by PN-UWB radar. (United States)

    Mabrouk, Mohamed; Rajan, Sreeraman; Bolic, Miodrag; Batkin, Izmail; Dajani, Hilmi R; Groza, Voicu Z


    Human detection is an integral component of civilian and military rescue operations, military surveillance and combat operations. Human detection can be achieved through monitoring of vital signs. In this article, a mathematical model of human breathing reflected signal received in PN-UWB radar is proposed. Unlike earlier published works, both chest and abdomen movements are considered for modeling the radar return signal along with the contributions of fundamental breathing frequency and its harmonics. Analyses of recorded reflected signals from three subjects in different postures and at different ranges from the radar indicate that ratios of the amplitudes of the harmonics contain information about posture and posture change.