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Sample records for breathing exercises

  1. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  2. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  3. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  4. Influence of Very High Breathing Resistance on Exercise Tolerance, Part 1 - Dry Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    endurance times. 15. SUBJECT TERMS control of breathing, ventilation, CO2, carbon dioxide, hypercapnia, CO2 retention , dyspnea, exercise, performance...to be near his exercise capacity , until the subject could no longer continue. Subjects were asked to give scores of Relative Perceived Exertion (RPE...span gas (5% CO2 and 16% O2 in nitrogen). The pressure transducer outputs were compared to a water manometer. Data analysis Breath by breath

  5. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  6. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure in patients with multiple sclerosis - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Wittrin, Anna; Kånåhols, Margareta; Gunnarsson, Martin; Nilsagård, Ylva

    2016-11-01

    Breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure are often recommended to patients with advanced neurological deficits, but the potential benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with mild and moderate symptoms has not yet been investigated in randomized controlled trials. To study the effects of 2 months of home-based breathing exercises for patients with mild to moderate MS on respiratory muscle strength, lung function, and subjective breathing and health status outcomes. Forty-eight patients with MS according to the revised McDonald criteria were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Patients performing breathing exercises (n = 23) were compared with a control group (n = 25) performing no breathing exercises. The breathing exercises were performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cmH 2 O) and consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed twice a day for 2 months. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure at the mouth), spirometry, oxygenation, thoracic excursion, subjective perceptions of breathing and self-reported health status were evaluated before and after the intervention period. Following the intervention, there was a significant difference between the breathing group and the control group regarding the relative change in lung function, favoring the breathing group (vital capacity: P < 0.043; forced vital capacity: P < 0.025). There were no other significant differences between the groups. Breathing exercises may be beneficial in patients with mild to moderate stages of MS. However, the clinical significance needs to be clarified, and it remains to be seen whether a sustainable effect in delaying the development of respiratory dysfunction in MS can be obtained. © 2015 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  8. The effect of CO2 on ventilation and breath-holding during exercise and while breathing through an added resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T J; Godfrey, S

    1969-05-01

    1. Ventilation was measured while subjects were made to rebreathe from a bag containing CO(2) and O(2) in order to expose them to a steadily rising CO(2) tension (P(CO2)). The object of the experiments was to determine the effect of a variety of stimuli upon the increase in ventilation and fall in breath-holding time which occurs in response to the rising P(CO2).2. Steady-state exercise at 200 kg.m/min resulted in a small fall in the slope of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve (S(V)) and a small, though not statistically significant, fall in the P(CO2) at which ventilation would be zero by extrapolation (B(V)). There was a marked fall in the slope of the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve (S(BH)) and an increase in the P(CO2) at which breath-holding time became zero by extrapolation (B(BH)).3. These results have been interpreted with the aid of a model of the control of breath-holding and it is suggested that there is no change in CO(2) sensitivity on exercise, either during rebreathing or breath-holding.4. An increase in the resistance to breathing caused a marked reduction in S(V) and B(V), but no change in the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve. These findings suggest that the flattening of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve is mechanical in origin and acute airway obstruction produces no change in CO(2) sensitivity.5. On the basis of these results, we suggest that more information about CO(2) sensitivity can be obtained by a combination of ventilation and breath-holding-CO(2) response curves.

  9. Modified Qigong Breathing Exercise for Reducing the Sense of Hunger on an Empty Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voroshilov, Alexander P.; Wang, Zhixin; Marchenko, Elena V.

    2017-01-01

    Background. The aims of this study were to determine whether a modified Qigong breathing exercise can reduce the sense of hunger and identify possible mechanisms. Methods. The results from the test group, which performed the exercise, are compared with the control group, which performed deep breathing. Intestinal pressure measurements, stomach pH monitoring, and participant surveys were used for assessment. Results. Stomach pH was increased by 3 (0.2) and intestinal pressure was reduced by 12 (0.5) mm Hg in the experimental group and did not change significantly in the control group. The study provides strong evidence that the exercise can significantly reduce, or even suppress the sense of hunger on an empty stomach. Conclusion. This breathing exercise provides comfort in different circumstances, such as lack of regular meals, limited volume or caloric diet, and even during temporary complete absence of food in therapeutic fasting. PMID:28497701

  10. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p < 0.001) and traditional HRV indices SDNN, RMSSD, lnLFP, and lnHFP (p < 0.01 for all). It approached significance for sample entropy (SampEn) and correlation dimension (D2) (p < 0.1 for both), while HRV detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) measures DFAα1 and DFAα2 were not affected by load condition. Breathing did not affect HR but affected all traditional HRV measures. D2 was not affected by breathing; DFAα1 was moderately affected by breathing; and DFAα2, approximate entropy (ApEn), and SampEn were strongly affected by breathing. DFAα1 was strongly increased, whereas DFAα2, ApEn, and SampEn were decreased by slow breathing. No interaction effect of load and breathing pattern was evident. Correlations to traditional HRV indices were modest (r from -0.14 to -0.67, p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise.

  11. Deep breathing exercises performed 2 months following cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Urell, Charlotte; Jonsson, Marcus; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Hedenström, Hans; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative breathing exercises are recommended to cardiac surgery patients. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue exercises after discharge vary, and the significance of treatment needs to be determined. Our aim was to assess the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises performed with a positive expiratory pressure device for 2 months following cardiac surgery. The study design was a prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized trial. Patients performing breathing exercises 2 months after cardiac surgery (n = 159) were compared with a control group (n = 154) performing no breathing exercises after discharge. The intervention consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cm H2O), 5 times a day, during the first 2 months after surgery. The outcomes were lung function measurements, oxygen saturation, thoracic excursion mobility, subjective perception of breathing and pain, patient-perceived quality of recovery (40-Item Quality of Recovery score), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), and self-reported respiratory tract infection/pneumonia and antibiotic treatment. Two months postoperatively, the patients had significantly reduced lung function, with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second to 93 ± 12% (P< .001) of preoperative values. Oxygenation had returned to preoperative values, and 5 of 8 aspects in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were improved compared with preoperative values (P< .01). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the measured outcomes. No significant differences in lung function, subjective perceptions, or quality of life were found between patients performing home-based deep breathing exercises and control patients 2 months after cardiac surgery.

  12. Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback may benefit patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelland, Ina E; Svebak, Sven; Berstad, Arnold; Flatabø, Geir; Hausken, Trygve

    2007-09-01

    Many patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) have postprandial symptoms, impaired gastric accommodation and low vagal tone. The aim of this study was to improve vagal tone, and thereby also drinking capacity, intragastric volume and quality of life, using breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback. Forty FD patients were randomized to either a biofeedback group or a control group. The patients received similar information and care. Patients in the biofeedback group were trained in breathing exercises, 6 breaths/min, 5 min each day for 4 weeks, using specially designed software for vagal biofeedback. Effect variables included maximal drinking capacity using a drink test (Toro clear meat soup 100 ml/min), intragastric volume at maximal drinking capacity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), skin conductance (SC) and dyspepsia-related quality of life scores. Drinking capacity and quality of life improved significantly more in the biofeedback group than in the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01) without any significant change in baseline autonomic activity (RSA and SC) or intragastric volume. After the treatment period, RSA during breathing exercises was significantly correlated to drinking capacity (r=0.6, p=0.008). Breathing exercises with vagal biofeedback increased drinking capacity and improved quality of life in FD patients, but did not improve baseline vagal tone.

  13. Chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for cardiac surgery patients in Sweden--a national survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E; Olsén, M Fagevik

    2011-06-01

    Various chest physiotherapy techniques are recommended after cardiac surgery around the world. There is limited published data on what breathing exercises actually are recommended to patients after surgery in Europe. The aim of this national survey was to establish the current practice of chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for adult patients following cardiac surgery in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to a total population sample of 33 Swedish physiotherapists working at the departments of cardiothoracic surgery in December 2007 and January 2008. In total, 29 replies (88%) were received. Seven male and twenty two female physiotherapists completed the questionnaire. All physiotherapists instructed, on a regular basis, the cardiac surgery patients to perform post-operative breathing exercises. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) breathing was routinely used as the first choice for treatment by 22 (83%) of the physiotherapists. Expiratory pressures used varied between 2 and 20 cm H2O. Recommended frequency and duration of the exercises varied from 4 to 30 breaths hourly during the daytime in the first post-operative days. All physiotherapists provided coughing support to the patients. Recommendations to continue breathing exercises after discharge varied from not at all up to 3 months after surgery. Breathing exercises are regularly prescribed during the initial post-operative days after cardiac surgery in Sweden. Hourly deep breathing exercises performed with or without a PEP device were reported to be first choice treatments during the hospital stay. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue the exercises after discharge varied notably.

  14. Effect of dead space on breathing stability at exercise in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, Eric; Lhuissier, François J; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that normal subjects exhibit periodic breathing when submitted to concomitant environmental (hypoxia) and physiological (exercise) stresses. A mathematical model including mass balance equations confirmed the short period of ventilatory oscillations and pointed out an important role of dead space in the genesis of these phenomena. Ten healthy subjects performed mild exercise on a cycloergometer in different conditions: rest/exercise, normoxia/hypoxia and no added dead space/added dead space (aDS). Ventilatory oscillations (V˙E peak power) were augmented by exercise, hypoxia and aDS (Pspace. This underlines opposite effects observed in heart failure patients and normal subjects, in which added dead space drastically reduced periodic breathing and sleep apneas. It also points out that alveolar ventilation remains very close to metabolic needs and is not affected by an added dead space. Clinical Trial reg. n°: NCT02201875. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Breathing exercises as adjuvant in the management of COPD : An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available COPD is the most common chronic lung disease. It is a major cause of chronic morbidity, mortality and health care used throughout the world and resulting in an economic and social burden that is both substantial and increasing also in our country. Pharmacotherapy alone does not optimize and have limited role in im-proving dyspnea, exercise limitation and quality of life which are characteristic and troublesome features of COPD. Breathing exercises are popular among patients, physician and physiotherapist and has been shown to improve efficiency of ventila-tion and exercise performance. But the efficacy of breathing exercises in relieving dyspnea varies greatly among patients. True values of these techniques have not yet been formally established, though they would seem to have intrinsic merit.

  16. Improved oxygenation during standing performance of deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Henrik; Faager, Gun; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Breathing exercises after cardiac surgery are often performed in a sitting position. It is unknown whether oxygenation would be better in the standing position. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxygenation and subjective breathing ability during sitting vs standing performance of deep breathing exercises on the second day after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 189) were randomized to sitting (controls) or standing. Both groups performed 3 × 10 deep breaths with a positive expiratory pressure device. Peripheral oxygen saturation was measured before, directly after, and 15 min after the intervention. Subjective breathing ability, blood pressure, heart rate, and pain were assessed. Oxygenation improved significantly in the standing group compared with controls directly after the breathing exercises (p < 0.001) and after 15 min rest (p = 0.027). The standing group reported better deep breathing ability compared with controls (p = 0.004). A slightly increased heart rate was found in the standing group (p = 0.047). After cardiac surgery, breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure, performed in a standing position, significantly improved oxygenation and subjective breathing ability compared with sitting performance. Performance of breathing exercises in the standing position is feasible and could be a valuable treatment for patients with postoperative hypoxaemia.

  17. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

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    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  18. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P ... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  19. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P respiratory neural drive ( P respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an

  20. Improvement in pulmonary functions and clinical parameters due to addition of breathing exercises in asthma patients receiving optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Breathing exercises provided significant improvements in spirometric parameters and significant reduction in breathlessness, wheezing, and nocturnal symptoms as well as requirements of rescue medicines in asthma patients who were receiving optimal asthma treatment.

  1. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-04-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely because Pa(CO(2)) increases, but the increase in MCA V(mean) becomes larger when combined with facial immersion in cold water independent of Pa(CO(2)).

  2. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  3. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength.

  4. Exercise in cold air and hydrogen peroxide release in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Volke, J; Mückenhoff, K; Platen, P; Marek, W

    2013-01-01

    Athletes have changes in the lung epithelial cells caused by inhalation of cold and dry air. The exhaled breath condensate contains a number of mediators from the respiratory system and H(2)O(2) is described as a marker of airways inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exercise combined with cold air on the H(2)O(2) release in the exhaled breath. Twelve males (23.1 ± 1.5 years) were randomly assigned at 2 different days (1 day rest) to perform a 50 min run (75-80% of their max. heart rate) under normal (N) laboratory (18.1 ± 1.1°C) or cold (C) field condition (-15.2 ± 3.1°C). Before and immediately after each run, the EBC was collected under laboratory conditions and was analyzed amperometrically. Prior to the two runs, H(2)O(2) concentrations were 145.0 ± 31.0 (N) and 160.0 ± 49.1 nmol/L (C) and theoretical release was 70.3 ± 37.1 (N) and 82.6 ± 27.1 pmol/min (C) (p > 0.05). After each run, H(2)O(2) concentration increased significantly to 388.0 ± 22.8 nmol/L (N) and 622.1 ± 44.2 nmol/L (C) (p release: 249.2 ± 35.7 pmol/min (N) and 400.9 ± 35.7 pmol/min (C) (p release of H(2)O(2) into the EBC takes place under both resting conditions and after exercise. The concentration and release of H(2)O(2) increased after exercise in cold air compared to resting and laboratory conditions, which points to an increase in inflammatory and oxidative stress.

  5. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMorrow, R. C. N.; Windsor, J. S.; Hart, N. D.; Richards, P.; Rodway, G. W.; Ahuja, V. Y.; O'Dwyer, M. J.; Mythen, M. G.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen

  6. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  7. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  8. Exercise training improves breathing strategy and performance during the six-minute walk test in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Perrin, Claudine; Levy, Patrick; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2014-08-15

    We aimed to examine ventilatory responses during the six-minute walk test in healthy-weight and obese adolescents before and after exercise training. Twenty obese adolescents (OB) (age: 14.5±1.7 years; BMI: 34.0±4.7kg·m(-2)) and 20 age and gender-matched healthy-weight adolescents (HW) (age: 15.5±1.5 years; BMI: 19.9±1.4kg·m(-2)) completed six-minute walk test during which breath-by-breath gas analysis and expiratory flow limitation (expFL) were measured. OB participated in a 12-week exercise-training program. Comparison between HW and OB participants showed lower distance achieved during the 6MWT in OB (-111.0m, 95%CI: -160.1 to 62.0, p<0.05) and exertional breathlessness was greater (+0.78 a.u., 95%CI: 0.091-3.27, p=0.039) when compared with HW. Obese adolescents breathed at lower lung volumes, as evidenced by lower end expiratory and end inspiratory lung volumes during exercise (p<0.05). Prevalence of expFL (8 OB vs 2 HW, p=0.028) and mean expFL (14.9±21.9 vs 5.32±14.6% VT, p=0.043, in OB and HW) were greater in OB. After exercise training, mean increase in the distance achieved during the 6MWT was 64.5 meters (95%CI: 28.1-100.9, p=0.014) and mean decrease in exertional breathlessness was 1.62 (95%CI: 0.47-2.71, p=0.05). Obese adolescents breathed at higher lung volumes, as evidenced by the increase in end inspiratory lung volume from rest to 6-min exercise (9.9±13.4 vs 20.0±13.6%TLC, p<0.05). Improved performance was associated with improved change in end inspiratory lung volume from rest to 6-min exercise (r=0.65, p=0.025). Our results suggest that exercise training can improve breathing strategy during submaximal exercise in obese adolescents and that this increase is associated with greater exercise performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY AND BREATHING EXERCISES WERE NOT ABLE TO IMPROVE RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY WATER IMMERSION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Aline A. Vepo,; Caroline S. Martinez; Giulia A. Wiggers; Franck M. Peçanha

    2016-01-01

    pulmonary volumes and capacities which could be at least in part similar to that happen in healthy individuals during water immersion. Objectives: To investigate if respiratory effects of water immersion are partially due to enhanced return venous from legs and arms and if physiotherapeutic techniques incentive spirometry (IS) and breathing exercises (BE) are able to improve pulmonary volumes and capacities in healthy subjects during water immersion. Design: Randomised, within-partici...

  10. The effect of consistent practice of yogic breathing exercises on the human cardiorespiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Joshua A A; McCulloch, Cara L; Querido, Jordan S; Foster, Glen E; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the cardiovascular, respiratory, and cerebrovascular effects of two common yogic breathing exercises (YBE): bhastrika and chaturbhuj; and to determine the effect of their consistent practice on chemosensitivity. The first study was cross-sectional and compared experienced yogic breathers (YB) with matched controls; whereas the second was a 10-week longitudinal training study. The results support four major findings. First chaturbhuj resulted in a hypoxic stimulus in experienced YB compared to control [end-tidal oxygen tension (P ET O 2 ), YB: 77.5±5.7mmHg, Pbreath-hold: 90.8 8±12.1mmHg) compared to rest (100.1±7.4, Pbreath-hold (96.7±13.0mmHg) compared to rest (83.0±6.6mmHg, Pbreath-hold: 87.4±23.0cm/s, P<0.05; rest: 55.8±26.3cm/s). Fourth, experienced YB had lower central chemosensitivity than controls (YB: 3.4±0.4; control: 4.6±1.2L/min/mmHg; P<0.05). In conclusion, YBE significantly alter end-tidal gases, resulting in complex oscillations of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular variables, and if practiced consistently, may reduce chemosensitivity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long

  12. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work.

  13. Time course of ozone-induced changes in breathing pattern in healthy exercising humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelegle, Edward S; Walby, William F; Adams, William C

    2007-02-01

    We examined the time course of O3-induced changes in breathing pattern in 97 healthy human subjects (70 men and 27 women). One- to five-minute averages of breathing frequency (f(B)) and minute ventilation (Ve) were used to generate plots of cumulative breaths and cumulative exposure volume vs. time and cumulative exposure volume vs. cumulative breaths. Analysis revealed a three-phase response; delay, no response detected; onset, f(B) began to increase; response, f(B) stabilized. Regression analysis was used to identify four parameters: time to onset, number of breaths at onset, cumulative inhaled dose of ozone at onset of O3-induced tachypnea, and the percent change in f(B). The effect of altering O3 concentration, Ve, atropine treatment, and indomethacin treatment were examined. We found that the lower the O3 concentration, the greater the number of breaths at onset of tachypnea at a fixed ventilation, whereas number of breaths at onset of tachypnea remains unchanged when Ve is altered and O3 concentration is fixed. The cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea remained constant and showed no relationship with the magnitude of percent change in f(B). Atropine did not affect any of the derived parameters, whereas indomethacin did not affect time to onset, number of breaths at onset, or cumulative inhaled dose of O3 at onset of tachypnea but did attenuate percent change in f(B). The results are discussed in the context of dose response and intrinsic mechanisms of action.

  14. BREATHING 100% O2 HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION DURING A SHORT PASSIVE RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    . Nonetheless, past research has focussed on methods by which the clearance of LA- from the blood could be expedited. As the clearance of LA- from the blood occurs primarily due to import and oxidation by other cells (Mengual et al., 2003, methods trialled include breathing hyperoxic gas mixtures during recovery (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986. It has been argued, however, that due to the near horizontal nature of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve (i.e. 95%+ O2 saturated at normal alveolar PO2 (~95 mmHg; it appears unlikely that the large increase in alveolar PO2 caused by breathing 100% O2 (667% % increase over ambient air would be effective in raising actual oxygen delivery to the mitochondria by a useful margin. However, Haseler et al. (1999 have shown that increasing the inspired O2 percentage to 100% during a passive recovery from exercise significantly reduced the time constant for phosphocreatine (PCr repletion (20-s vs. 25-s, p < 0.05. Given that PCr repletion is dependent on ATP, these findings provide surety that O2 delivery to, and uptake by the mitochondria is indeed usefully increased during passive recovery by breathing 100% O2 as compared with ~21% O2 (Haseler et al., 1999. We therefore undertook this investigation because previous methodologies and results regarding hyperoxic breathing and blood LA- concentration (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986 are somewhat conflicting. Specifically; acute muscular exhaustion was not universally imposed, hyperoxia was often imposed during the exercise also, and subjects of differing aerobic or cardiovascular fitness showed differential responses. Given the above arguments, we intended to clarify the effect of breathing 100% O2 on blood LA- concentration during a brief period of passive recovery from incremental exercise to exhaustion under controlled conditions. We hypothesised that breathing 100% O2 during a 5-minute passive recovery from exhaustive incremental

  15. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SIFT-MS Analysis of Nose-Exhaled Breath; Mouth Contamination and the Influence of Exercise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2013 (2013), s. 565-575 ISSN 1573-4110 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * breath analysis * nose exhalation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  17. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  18. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly...

  19. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    .... Still, because the increased ventilatory demands and blood flow to the lungs during underwater exercise may cause pulmonary injury or may increase oxygen-induced injury over those ventilatory demands...

  20. A novel ambulatory closed circuit breathing system for use during exercise.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    We describe a unique ambulatory closed circuit for delivering high fractions of inspired oxygen to an exercising user who does not require isolation from their environment. We describe the major components and their function and suggest potential applications for such a circuit. This circuit may benefit patients who are chronically dependant on oxygen, are unable to exercise due to hypoxia, or require oxygen supplementation at high altitude.

  1. A novel ambulatory closed circuit breathing system for use during exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McMorrow, R. C. N.; Windsor, J. S.; Mythen, M. G.; Grocott, M. P. W.; Ahuja, V.; Aref-Adib, G.; Burnham, R.; Chisholm, A.; Clarke, K.; Coates, D.; Coates, M.; Cook, D.; Cox, M.; Dhillon, S.; Dougall, C.; Doyle, P.; Duncan, P.; Edsell, M.; Edwards, L.; Evans, L.; Gardiner, P.; Grocott, M.; Gunning, P.; Hart, N.; Harrington, J.; Harvey, J.; Holloway, C.; Howard, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Imray, C.; Ince, C.; Jonas, M.; van der Kaaij, J.; Khosravi, M.; Kolfschoten, N.; Levett, D.; Luery, H.; Luks, A.; Martin, D.; McMorrow, R.; Meale, P.; Mitchell, K.; Montgomery, H.; Morgan, G.; Morgan, J.; Murray, A.; Mythen, M.; Newman, S.; O'Dwyer, M.; Pate, J.

    2011-01-01

    P>We describe a unique ambulatory closed circuit for delivering high fractions of inspired oxygen to an exercising user who does not require isolation from their environment. We describe the major components and their function and suggest potential applications for such a circuit. This circuit may

  2. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  3. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Depiazzi

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for accurate assessment of an individual’s symptoms. We will highlight the high incidence of nonasthmatic causes, which simply require reassurance or simple interventions from respiratory physiotherapists or speech pathologists.

  4. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral...... immersion further increased MCA V(mean) to 122 cm/s ( approximately 88%; both P ... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P 100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  5. Equine Welfare during Exercise: An Evaluation of Breathing, Breathlessness and Bridles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, David J; Beausoleil, Ngaio J

    2017-05-26

    Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses. In addition, we investigate the influence of management factors such as rein and bit use and of respiratory pathology on the likelihood and intensity of equine breathlessness occurring during exercise. In ridden horses, rein use that reduces the jowl angle, sometimes markedly, and conditions that partially obstruct the nasopharynx and/or larynx, impair airflow in the upper respiratory tract and lead to increased flow resistance. The associated upper airway pressure changes, transmitted to the lower airways, may have pathophysiological sequelae in the alveolae, which, in their turn, may increase airflow resistance in the lower airways and impede respiratory gas exchange. Other sequelae include decreases in respiratory minute volume and worsening of the hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidaemia commonly observed in healthy horses during strenuous exercise. These and other factors are implicated in the potential for ridden horses to experience three forms of breathlessness-"unpleasant respiratory effort", "air hunger" and "chest tightness"-which arise when there is a mismatch between a heightened ventilatory drive and the adequacy of the respiratory response. It is not known to what extent, if at all, such mismatches would occur in strenuously exercising horses unhampered by low jowl angles or by pathophysiological changes at any level of the respiratory tract. However

  6. The Effects of Game-Based Breathing Exercise on Pulmonary Function in Stroke Patients: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sunghee; Shin, Doochul; Song, Changho

    2015-06-22

    Reduction of respiratory function along with hemiparesis leads to decreased endurance, dyspnea, and increased sedentary behavior, as well as to an increased risk of stroke. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary effects of game-based breathing exercise (GBE) on pulmonary function in stroke patients. Thirty-eight in-patients with stroke (22 men, 16 women) were recruited for the study. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups: patients assigned to the GBE group (n=19), and the control group (n=19). The GBE group participated in a GBE program for 25 minutes a day, 3 days a week, during a 5 week period. For the same period, both groups participated in a conventional stroke rehabilitation program. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured by a spirometer in pre- and post-testing. The GBE group had significantly improved FVC, FEV1, and MVV values compared with the control group (p<0.05), although there was no significant difference in FEV1/FVC value between groups. Significant short-term effects of the GBE program on pulmonary function in stroke patients were recorded in this study. These findings gave some indications that it may be feasible to include GBE in rehabilitation interventions with this population.

  7. The contribution of air breathing to aerobic scope and exercise performance in the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Steffensen, John Fleng; Taylor, Edwin W.

    2012-01-01

    , these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved...... a U(crit) of 2.0±0.1 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 338±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1), similar to aquatic normoxia, but with 55±5% of AMR derived from air breathing. Indeed, f(AB) was higher than in normoxia at all swimming speeds, with a profound exponential increase during exercise. If the knifefish were denied access...... to air in hypoxia, U(crit) declined to 1.2±0.1 BL s(-1) and AMR declined to 199±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1). Therefore, air breathing allowed the knifefish to avoid limitations to aerobic scope and exercise performance in aquatic hypoxia....

  8. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Does the addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation alter patient outcomes following high-risk open upper abdominal surgery? Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Y R; Li, S K; Rickard, M J F X

    2013-09-01

    To investigate whether the inclusion of deep breathing exercises in physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation confers any additional benefit in reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) when patients are treated once daily after elective open upper abdominal surgery. This study also compared postoperative outcomes following early and delayed mobilisation. Cluster randomised controlled trial. Single-centre study in a teaching hospital. Eighty-six high-risk patients undergoing elective open upper abdominal surgery. Three groups: early mobilisation (Group A), early mobilisation plus breathing exercises (Group B), and delayed mobilisation (mobilised from third postoperative day) plus breathing exercises (Group C). PPCs and postoperative outcomes [number of days until discharge from physiotherapy, physiotherapy input and length of stay (LOS)]. There was no significant difference in PPCs between Groups A and B. The LOS for Group A {mean 10.7 [standard deviation (SD) 5.0] days} was significantly shorter than the LOS for Groups B [mean 16.7 (SD 9.7) days] and C [mean 15.2 (SD 9.8) days; P=0.036]. The greatest difference was between Groups A and B (mean difference -5.93, 95% confidence interval -10.22 to -1.65; P=0.008). Group C had fewer smokers (26%) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0%) compared with Group B (53% and 14%, respectively). This may have led to fewer PPCs in Group C, but the difference was not significant. Despite Group C having fewer PPCs and less physiotherapy input, the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy and LOS were similar to Group B. The addition of deep breathing exercises to physiotherapy-directed early mobilisation did not further reduce PPCs compared with mobility alone. PPCs can be reduced with once-daily physiotherapy if the patients are mobilised to a moderate level of exertion. Delayed mobilisation tended to increase physiotherapy input and the number of days until discharge from physiotherapy

  10. Effect of breathing oxygen-enriched air on exercise performance in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension: randomized, sham-controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Silvia; Hasler, Elisabeth D; Saxer, Stéphanie; Furian, Michael; Müller-Mottet, Séverine; Keusch, Stephan; Bloch, Konrad E

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of the current trial was to test the hypothesis that breathing oxygen-enriched air increases exercise performance of patients with pulmonary arterial or chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (PAH/CTEPH) and to investigate involved mechanisms. Twenty-two patients with PAH/CTEPH, eight women, means ± SD 61 ± 14 years, resting mPAP 35 ± 9mmHg, PaO2 ambient air >7.3 kPa, underwent four bicycle ergospirometries to exhaustion on different days, while breathing oxygen-enriched (FiO2 0.50, hyperoxia) or ambient air (FiO2 0.21, normoxia) using progressively increased or constant load protocols (with 75% maximal work rate under FiO2 0.21), according to a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, cross-over design. ECG, pulmonary gas-exchange, arterial blood gases, cerebral and quadriceps muscle tissue oxygenation (CTO and QMTO) by near-infrared spectroscopy were measured. In ramp exercise, maximal work rate increased from 113 ± 38 W with normoxia to 132 ± 48 W with hyperoxia, mean difference 19.7 (95% CI 10.5-28.9) W, P endurance increased from 571 ± 443 to 1242 ± 514 s, mean difference 671 (95% CI 392-951) s, P < 0.001. At end-exercise with hyperoxia PaO2, CTO, QMTO, and PaCO2 were increased, and ventilatory equivalents for CO2 were reduced while the physiological dead space/tidal volume ratio remained unchanged. In patients with PAH/CTEPH, breathing oxygen-enriched air provides major increases in exercise performance. This is related to an improved arterial oxygenation that promotes oxygen availability in muscles and brain and to a reduction of the excessive ventilatory response to exercise thereby enhancing ventilatory efficiency. Patients with PAH/CTEPH may therefore benefit from oxygen therapy during daily physical activities and training. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01748474. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions

  11. Effect of Alternate Nostril Breathing Exercise on Experimentally Induced Anxiety in Healthy Volunteers Using the Simulated Public Speaking Model: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Ashwin; Urval, Rathnakar P; Shenoy, Ashok K

    2017-01-01

    A randomized controlled pilot study was carried out to determine the effect of a 15-minute practice of ANB exercise on experimentally induced anxiety using the simulated public speaking model in yoga-naïve healthy young adults. Thirty consenting medical students were equally divided into test and control groups. The test group performed alternate nostril breathing exercise for 15 minutes, while the control group sat in a quiet room before participating in the simulated public speaking test (SPST). Visual Analog Mood Scale and Self-Statements during Public Speaking scale were used to measure the mood state at different phases of the SPST. The psychometric scores of both groups were comparable at baseline. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant effect of phase ( p < 0.05), but group and gender did not have statistically significant influence on the mean anxiety scores. However, the test group showed a trend towards lower mean scores for the anxiety factor when compared with the control group. Considering the limitations of this pilot study and the trend seen towards lower anxiety in the test group, alternate nostril breathing may have potential anxiolytic effect in acute stressful situations. A study with larger sample size is therefore warranted. This trial is registered with CTRI/2014/03/004460.

  12. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  13. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  14. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Insights Exercise & Weight Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Make an Appointment Ask a Question ... with the movement and contact your provider. Posture Exercises Better posture means better breathing and movement. Axial ...

  15. Breathing pattern and chest wall volumes during exercise in patients with cystic fibrosis, pulmonary fibrosis and COPD before and after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, H; Weingard, B; Lo Mauro, A; Schena, E; Pedotti, A; Sybrecht, G W; Aliverti, A

    2010-09-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), cystic fibrosis (CF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often cause chronic respiratory failure (CRF). In order to investigate if there are different patterns of adaptation of the ventilatory pump in CRF, in three groups of lung transplant candidates with PF (n=9, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1))=37+/-3% predicted, forced vital capacity (FVC)=32+/-2% predicted), CF (n=9, FEV(1)=22+/-3% predicted, FVC=30+/-3% predicted) and COPD (n=21, FEV(1)=21+/-1% predicted, FVC=46+/-2% predicted), 10 healthy controls and 16 transplanted patients, total and compartmental chest wall volumes were measured by opto-electronic plethysmography during rest and exercise. Three different breathing patterns were found during CRF in PF, CF and COPD. Patients with COPD were characterised by a reduced duty cycle at rest and maximal exercise (34+/-1%, pvolume (0.75+/-0.10 and 0.79+/-0.07 litres) (pvolumes increased significantly in patients with COPD and CF but not in those with PF. End-inspiratory volumes did not increase in CF and PF. The breathing pattern of transplanted patients was similar to that of healthy controls. There are three distinct patterns of CRF in patients with PF, CF and COPD adopted by the ventilatory pump to cope with the underlying lung disease that may explain why patients with PF and CF are prone to respiratory failure earlier than patients with COPD. After lung transplantation the chronic adaptations of the ventilatory pattern to advanced lung diseases are reversible and indicate that the main contributing factor is the lung itself rather than systemic effects of the disease.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  17. More Relaxation by Deep Breath on Methacholine- Than on Exercise-Induced bronchoconstriction during the Routine Testing of Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Ioan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep inspiration (DI dilates normal airway precontracted with methacholine. The fact that this effect is diminished or absent in asthma could be explained by the presence of bronchial inflammation. The hypothesis was tested that DI induces more relaxation in methacholine induced bronchoconstriction—solely determined by the smooth muscle contraction—than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction, which is contributed to by both smooth muscle contraction and airway wall inflammation. The respiratory conductance (Grs response to DI was monitored in asthmatic children presenting a moderately positive airway response to challenge by methacholine (n = 36 or exercise (n = 37, and expressed as the post- to pre-DI Grs ratio (GrsDI. Both groups showed similar change in FEV1 after challenge and performed a DI of similar amplitude. GrsDI however was significantly larger in methacholine than in exercise induced bronchoconstriction (p < 0.02. The bronchodilatory effect of DI is thus less during exercise- than methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The observation is consistent with airway wall inflammation—that characterizes exercise induced bronchoconstriction—rendering the airways less responsive to DI. More generally, it is surmised that less relief of bronchoconstriction by DI is to be expected during indirect than direct airway challenge. The current suggestion that airway smooth muscle constriction and airway wall inflammation may result in opposing effects on the bronchomotor action of DI opens important perspective to the routine testing of asthmatic children. New crossover research protocols comparing the mechanical consequences of the DI maneuver are warranted during direct and indirect bronchial challenges.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, E; Platen, P; Volke, J; Mückenhoff, K; Marek, W

    2009-12-07

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 +/- 1 years). EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin). The rate of H(2)O(2) release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO(2) in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO(2) in O(2)). The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) (pK = 6.1). H(2)O(2) concentration in EBC was 190 +/- 109 nmol/l, and H (2)O(2) release at rest was 31.0 +/- 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H(2)O(2) concentration in EBC increased to 250 +/- 120 nmol/l, and H(2)O(2) release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 +/- 39.9 pmol/min (Pexercise, pH 6.18 +/- 0.17 and [HCO(3)(-)] 1.23 +/- 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. The rate of H(2)O(2) release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt) by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO(2) at 37 degrees C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H(2)O(2) release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  19. Breathing, eathing, aerobic and muscular relajation exercises to improve the physical conditions for the eldest persons to fase excepcional situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Oberto-Dinza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigative reflection consists of the professors’ work that develop the Physical Culture Program at Vista Hermosa Popular Conceits with integral – physical exercises to be used in the physical activities to do with elderly persons manifesting the insufficiencies in the professor’s theoretical and methodological elements knowledge They impart the Physical Culture Program so as to link the physical culture subject contents for the elderly persons and the National Security in the beneficiary’s preparation process in order to improve their physical conditions to face exceptional situations. The investigation objective is to elaborate a teaching material with integral–exercise to potentiate the knowledge of professor’s theoretical and methodological elements which impart the Physical Culture Program. The methods used are the following theoretical methods and empirical ones that based on the proposal.

  20. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  1. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  2. Postoperative inspiratory muscle training in addition to breathing exercises and early mobilization improves oxygenation in high-risk patients after lung cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos Savio R; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    The aim was to investigate whether 2 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) could preserve respiratory muscle strength in high-risk patients referred for pulmonary resection on the suspicion of or confirmed lung cancer. Secondarily, we investigated the effect of the intervention on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. The study was a single-centre, parallel-group, randomized trial with assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. The intervention group (IG, n = 34) underwent 2 weeks of postoperative IMT twice daily with 2 × 30 breaths on a target intensity of 30% of maximal inspiratory pressure, in addition to standard postoperative physiotherapy. Standard physiotherapy in the control group (CG, n = 34) consisted of breathing exercises, coughing techniques and early mobilization. We measured respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure, MIP/MEP), functional performance (6-min walk test), spirometry and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), assessed the day before surgery and again 3-5 days and 2 weeks postoperatively. Postoperative pulmonary complications were evaluated 2 weeks after surgery. The mean age was 70 ± 8 years and 57.5% were males. Thoracotomy was performed in 48.5% (n = 33) of cases. No effect of the intervention was found regarding MIP, MEP, lung volumes or functional performance at any time point. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 13% (n = 9), with no significant difference between groups [IG 6% (n = 2), CG 21% (n = 7), P = 0.14]. An improved SpO2 was found in the IG on the third and fourth postoperative days (Day 3: IG 93.8 ± 3.4 vs CG 91.9 ± 4.1%, P = 0.058; Day 4: IG 93.5 ± 3.5 vs CG 91 ± 3.9%, P = 0.02). We found no association between surgical procedure (thoracotomy versus thoracoscopy) and respiratory muscle strength, which was recovered in both groups 2 weeks after surgery. Two weeks of additional postoperative IMT, compared with standard physiotherapy alone, did not preserve

  3. Implementing the awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle into everyday care: opportunities, challenges, and lessons learned for implementing the ICU Pain, Agitation, and Delirium Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Michele C; Burke, William J; Gannon, David; Cohen, Marlene Z; Colburn, Lois; Bevil, Catherine; Franz, Doug; Olsen, Keith M; Ely, E Wesley; Vasilevskis, Eduard E

    2013-09-01

    The awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle is an evidence-based interprofessional multicomponent strategy for minimizing sedative exposure, reducing duration of mechanical ventilation, and managing ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. The purpose of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers to awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle adoption and to evaluate the extent to which bundle implementation was effective, sustainable, and conducive to dissemination. Prospective, before-after, mixed-methods study. Five adult ICUs, one step-down unit, and a special care unit located in a 624-bed academic medical center : Interprofessional ICU team members at participating institution. In collaboration with the participating institution, we developed, implemented, and refined an awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring/management, and early exercise/mobility bundle policy. Over the course of an 18-month period, all ICU team members were offered the opportunity to participate in numerous multimodal educational efforts. Three focus group sessions, three online surveys, and one educational evaluation were administered in an attempt to identify facilitators and barriers to bundle adoption. Factors believed to facilitate bundle implementation included: 1) the performance of daily, interdisciplinary, rounds; 2) engagement of key implementation leaders; 3) sustained and diverse educational efforts; and 4) the bundle's quality and strength. Barriers identified included: 1) intervention-related issues (e.g., timing of trials, fear of adverse events), 2) communication and care coordination challenges, 3) knowledge deficits, 4) workload concerns, and 5) documentation burden. Despite these challenges, participants believed implementation ultimately benefited patients, improved interdisciplinary communication, and empowered nurses and

  4. Identifying Barriers to Delivering the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early Exercise/Mobility Bundle to Minimize Adverse Outcomes for Mechanically Ventilated Patients: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Deena Kelly; White, Matthew R; Ginier, Emily; Manojlovich, Milisa; Govindan, Sushant; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Sales, Anne E

    2017-08-01

    Improved outcomes are associated with the Awakening and Breathing Coordination, Delirium, and Early exercise/mobility bundle (ABCDE); however, implementation issues are common. As yet, no study has integrated the barriers to ABCDE to provide an overview of reasons for less successful efforts. The purpose of this review was to identify and catalog the barriers to ABCDE delivery based on a widely used implementation framework, and to provide a resource to guide clinicians in overcoming barriers to implementation. We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus for original research articles from January 1, 2007, to August 31, 2016, that identified barriers to ABCDE implementation for adult patients in the ICU. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies, extracted barriers, and conducted thematic content analysis of the barriers, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Discrepancies were discussed, and consensus was achieved. Our electronic search yielded 1,908 articles. After applying our inclusion/exclusion criteria, we included 49 studies. We conducted thematic content analysis of the 107 barriers and identified four classes of ABCDE barriers: (1) patient-related (ie, patient instability and safety concerns); (2) clinician-related (ie, lack of knowledge, staff safety concerns); (3) protocol-related (ie, unclear protocol criteria, cumbersome protocols to use); and, not previously identified in past reviews, (4) ICU contextual barriers (ie, interprofessional team care coordination). We provide the first, to our knowledge, systematic differential diagnosis of barriers to ABCDE delivery, moving beyond the conventional focus on patient-level factors. Our analysis offers a differential diagnosis checklist for clinicians planning ABCDE implementation to improve patient care and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. All rights reserved.

  5. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  6. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  7. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  8. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear loose-fitting clothing, and exercise in a temperature-controlled room. Do not exercise outside when it ... breathing. There are even prenatal yoga and Pilates classes designed for pregnant women. These classes often teach ...

  9. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  10. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  11. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastlaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J.

    Objective In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), it is hard to reach treatment objectives for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Recently, reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. We examined if an electronic device such as Resperate, by

  12. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  13. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, E; Yardley, L; Kirby, S; Thomas, M; Bruton, A

    2017-01-01

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retr...

  14. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  15. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  17. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  18. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  19. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  20. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  1. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden-Close, Emily; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne

    2017-10-05

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retraining delivered by digital versatile disc (DVD) or face-to-face sessions with a respiratory physiotherapist) took part in semi-structured telephone interviews about their experiences. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Breathing retraining was perceived positively as a method of asthma management. Motivations for taking part included being asked, to enhance progress in research, to feel better/reduce symptoms, and to reduce medication. Participants were positive about the physiotherapist, liked having the materials tailored, found meetings motivational, and liked the DVD and booklet. The impact of breathing retraining following regular practice included increased awareness of breathing and development of new habits. Benefits of breathing retraining included increased control over breathing, reduced need for medication, feeling more relaxed, and improved health and quality of life. Problems included finding time to practice the exercises, and difficulty mastering techniques. Breathing retraining was acceptable and valued by almost all participants, and many reported improved wellbeing. Face to face physiotherapy was well received. However, some participants in the DVD group mentioned being unable to master techniques. PATIENTS RECEPTIVE TO BREATHING RETRAINING: Patients with asthma taught how to change their unconscious breathing patterns generally like non-pharmacological interventions. Researchers in the UK, led by Mike Thomas from the University of Southampton

  2. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  3. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  4. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  5. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  6. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  7. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Bey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  8. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  9. A wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy. The system consists of an optical sensor, an accelerometer, a microcontroller, a Bluetooth module and a laptop computer. The optical sensor, which is attached to the patient's chest, measures chest circumference. The low frequency components of circumference are mainly generated by breathing. The optical sensor outputs the circumference as serial digital data. The accelerometer measures the dynamic acceleration force produced by exercise, such as walking. The microcontroller sequentially samples this force. The acceleration force and chest circumference are sent sequentially via Bluetooth to a physical therapist's laptop computer, which receives and stores the data. The computer simultaneously displays these data so that the physical therapist can monitor the patient's breathing and acceleration waveforms and give instructions to the patient in real time during exercise. Moreover, the system enables a quantitative training evaluation and calculation the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

  10. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  11. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  12. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  13. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  14. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  16. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  17. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  18. Relationship between musical characteristics and temporal breathing pattern in piano performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Sakaguchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon’s exercise, J. S. Bach’s Invention, Mozart’s Sonatas, and Debussy’s Clair de lune, was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. 1 Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. 2 Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. 3 Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise, but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. 4 Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. 5 Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  19. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  20. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. I: New insight of mechanism of control and regulation of breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    The modern systemic physiology, based on limit-understand functional classification, has significant limitation and one-sidedness. Human being is organic; we should approach the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing integrating all the systems. We use new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to explain the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing. Except the mean level information, the up-down "W" waveform information of arterial blood gas (ABG) is core signal to control and regulate breathing. In order to do so, we must integrate all systems together. New theory will help to explain some unanswered questions in physiology and medicine, for example: fetal does not breathing; how first breath generate; how respiratory rhythm and frequency generate, etc. Breathing is the sign of life. Mechanism of control and regulation of breathing has to integrate respiration, circulation, nerves, metabolism, exercise, sleep and digestion, absorption and elimination and etc altogether.

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  2. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeller, P.

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  3. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  4. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  6. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  7. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  8. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  9. Does air-breathing meet metabolic demands of the juvenile snakehead, Channa argus, in multiple conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine how the respiratory metabolism of the snakehead Channa argus changed when it shifted from breathing water to breathing air, and how increased metabolic demands caused by temperature, feeding, and exhaustive exercise affect its survival in air. The results demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate (MO2 of the snakehead was lower for aerial respiration than aquatic respiration by 12.1, 24.5 and 20.4% at 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. Survival time was significantly shortened with increasing temperature and was negatively correlated with the resting MO2 in air (MO2Air. No obvious feeding metabolic response was observed in the snakeheads fed at 1% and 3% body mass levels while breathing air. The maximum MO2Air of the snakehead after exhaustive exercise was significantly higher than the resting MO2Air of the control group. The results suggest that the snakehead could survive out of water by breathing air for varying lengths of time, depending on ambient temperature and metabolic demand. Additionally, some degree of metabolic depression occurs in the snakehead when breathing air. The metabolic demand associated with exercise in the snakehead, but not that associated with feeding, can be supported by its capacity for breathing air to some extent.

  10. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  11. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  12. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  13. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic-Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting beta(2) agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non-specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non-specific upper body exercises.

  15. Double blind randomised controlled trial of two different breathing techniques in the management of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slader, C A; Reddel, H K; Spencer, L M; Belousova, E G; Armour, C L; Bosnic‐Anticevich, S Z; Thien, F C K; Jenkins, C R

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that breathing techniques reduce short acting β2 agonist use and improve quality of life (QoL) in asthma. The primary aim of this double blind study was to compare the effects of breathing exercises focusing on shallow nasal breathing with those of non‐specific upper body exercises on asthma symptoms, QoL, other measures of disease control, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. This study also assessed the effect of peak flow monitoring on outcomes in patients using breathing techniques. Methods After a 2 week run in period, 57 subjects were randomised to one of two breathing techniques learned from instructional videos. During the following 30 weeks subjects practised their exercises twice daily and as needed for relief of symptoms. After week 16, two successive ICS downtitration steps were attempted. The primary outcome variables were QoL score and daily symptom score at week 12. Results Overall there were no clinically important differences between the groups in primary or secondary outcomes at weeks 12 or 28. The QoL score remained unchanged (0.7 at baseline v 0.5 at week 28, p = 0.11 both groups combined), as did lung function and airway responsiveness. However, across both groups, reliever use decreased by 86% (p0.10 between groups). Peak flow monitoring did not have a detrimental effect on asthma outcomes. Conclusion Breathing techniques may be useful in the management of patients with mild asthma symptoms who use a reliever frequently, but there is no evidence to favour shallow nasal breathing over non‐specific upper body exercises. PMID:16517572

  16. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  17. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  19. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  20. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  1. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  2. Heredity of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Eiberg, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms on exertion, such as shortness of breath and wheezing, are commonly associated with asthma, but might also arise from the larynx [1–3]. In recent years, the emergence of exercise laryngoscopy [4] has led to a better understanding of laryngeal movement during exercise, and ins...

  3. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  4. Benefits of supplemental oxygen in exercise training in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Porszasz, Janos; Burns, Mary; Somfay, Attila; Casaburi, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined whether nonhypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air. A double-blinded trial was performed involving 29 nonhypoxemic patients (67 years, exercise SaO2 > 88%) with COPD (FEV1 = 36% predicted). All exercised on cycle ergometers for 45 minutes, 3 times per week for 7 weeks at high-intensity targets. During exercise, they received oxygen (3 L/minute) (n = 14) or compressed air (3 L/minute) (n = 15). Both groups had a higher exercise tolerance after training and when breathing oxygen. However, the oxygen-trained group increased the training work rate more rapidly than the air-trained group. The mean +/- SD work rate during the last week was 62 +/- 19 W (oxygen-trained group) and 52 +/- 22 W (air-trained group) (p work rate tests increased more in the oxygen-trained group (14.5 minutes) than in the air-trained group (10.5 minutes) (p < 0.05). At isotime, the breathing rate decreased four breaths per minute in the oxygen-trained group and one breath per minute in the air-trained group (p = 0.001). We conclude that supplemental oxygen provided during high-intensity training yields higher training intensity and evidence of gains in exercise tolerance in laboratory testing.

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  7. Breath-hold duration in man and the diving response induced by face immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, J A; Lundgren, C E

    1988-09-01

    The objective of this study in 5 selected volunteer subjects was to see whether the circulatory diving response which is elicited by breath holding and by cold water on the face would affect the duration of maximal-effort breath holds. Compared to control measurements (breath holding during resting, breathing with 35 degrees C water on the face) breath holding with the face cooled by 20 degrees C water caused a 12% reduction of heart rate, 6% reduction of cardiac output, 33% reduction in [corrected] forearm blood flow, and 9% rise in mean arterial blood pressure, but there was no difference in breath-hold duration (control and experimental both 94 s). There were also no differences in time of appearance of the first involuntary respiratory efforts during breath holding, in alveolar gas exchange, or in breaking-point alveolar O2 and CO2 tensions. When the diving response was magnified by a brief bout of exercise so that there was a 19% [corrected] reduction in heart rate, 23% reduction in cardiac output, and 48% reduction in forearm blood flow, breath-hold duration was still unaffected by face cooling. Compared to intermittent immersions, continuous exposure of the face to cold water abolished the diving response, probably by a cold adaptation of facial thermal receptors. These results with cooling of the face only are consistent with our earlier finding that there was a negative correlation between the duration of a maximal-effort breath hold and the diving response during whole-body submersion in cold water.

  8. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  9. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  10. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  11. Exercise-induced quadriceps muscle fatigue in men and women: effects of arterial oxygen content and respiratory muscle work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Griesdale, Donald E G; Peters, Carli M; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Sekhon, Mypinder; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Foster, Glen E; Romer, Lee M; Koehle, Michael S; Sheel, A William

    2017-08-01

    High work of breathing and exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) can decrease O 2 delivery and exacerbate exercise-induced quadriceps fatigue in healthy men. Women have a higher work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles and develop EIAH. Despite a greater reduction in men's work of breathing, the attenuation of quadriceps fatigue was similar between the sexes. The degree of EIAH was similar between sexes, and regardless of sex, those who developed the greatest hypoxaemia during exercise demonstrated the most attenuation of quadriceps fatigue. Based on our previous finding that women have a greater relative oxygen cost of breathing, women appear to be especially susceptible to work of breathing-related changes in quadriceps muscle fatigue. Reducing the work of breathing or eliminating exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH) during exercise decreases the severity of quadriceps fatigue in men. Women have a greater work of breathing during exercise, dedicate a greater fraction of whole-body V̇O2 towards their respiratory muscles, and demonstrate EIAH, suggesting women may be especially susceptible to quadriceps fatigue. Healthy subjects (8 male, 8 female) completed three constant load exercise tests over 4 days. During the first (control) test, subjects exercised at ∼85% of maximum while arterial blood gases and work of breathing were assessed. Subsequent constant load exercise tests were iso-time and iso-work rate, but with EIAH prevented by inspiring hyperoxic gas or work of breathing reduced via a proportional assist ventilator (PAV). Quadriceps fatigue was assessed by measuring force in response to femoral nerve stimulation. For both sexes, quadriceps force was equally reduced after the control trial (-27 ± 2% baseline) and was attenuated with hyperoxia and PAV (-18 ± 1 and -17 ± 2% baseline, P Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Comparação entre exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Comparison between deep breathing exercises and incentive spirometry after CABG surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alencar Renault

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos dos exercícios de respiração profunda (ERP e espirômetro de incentivo a fluxo (EI em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRVM por meio das seguintes variáveis: capacidade vital forçada - CVF, volume expiratório forçado de primeiro segundo - VEF1, pressões respiratórias máximas e saturação de oxigênio. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos a aplicação de ventilação não-invasiva por dois períodos de 30 minutos durante as primeiras 24 horas pós-extubação e distribuídos randomicamente em dois grupos, a saber: ERP (n=18 e EI (n=18, sendo as variáveis espirométricas avaliadas no pré-operatório e sétimo dia pós-operatório (DPO e a força da musculatura respiratória e saturação de oxigênio no pré-operatório, primeiro, segundo e sétimo DPO. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram considerados homogêneos em relação às variáveis demográficas e cirúrgicas. Observouse queda dos valores referentes à CVF e VEF1 entre o préoperatório e o sétimo DPO, porém sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. Houve queda das pressões respiratórias máximas no primeiro DPO, mas com restabelecimento gradual e parcial até o sétimo DPO, também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. A saturação de oxigênio foi a única variável restabelecida no sétimo DPO, mas também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas pressões respiratórias máximas, variáveis espirométricas e saturação de oxigênio entre pacientes submetidos a exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of deep breathing exercises (DBE and the flow-oriented incentive spirometry (IS in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG through the following variables: forced vital capacity

  13. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... degrees, prop up on your elbow, elongate neck away from shoulder, and draw your abdominal wall in. Continue to breathe. Lift hips away from table keeping your head, shoulders and hips ...

  15. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  16. The Impact of Resonance Frequency Breathing on Measures of Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R. Steffen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRVB significantly improves heart rate variability (HRV. Breathing at resonance frequency (RF, approximately 6 breaths/min constitutes a key part of HRVB training and is hypothesized to be a pathway through which biofeedback improves HRV. No studies to date, however, have experimentally examined whether RF breathing impacts measures of HRV. The present study addressed this question by comparing three groups: the RF group breathed at their determined RF for 15 min; the RF + 1 group breathed at 1 breath/min higher than their determined RF for 15 min; and the third group sat quietly for 15 min. After this 15-min period, all groups participated in the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT for 8 min, and then sat quietly during a 10-min recovery period. HRV, blood pressure, and mood were measured throughout the experiment. Groups were not significantly different on any of the measures at baseline. After the breathing exercise, the RF group reported higher positive mood than the other two groups and a significantly higher LF/HF HRV ratio relative to the control group, a key goal in HRVB training (p < 0.05. Additionally, the RF group showed lower systolic blood pressure during the PASAT and during the recovery period relative to the control group, with the RF + 1 group not being significantly different from either group (p < 0.05. Overall, RF breathing appears to play an important role in the positive effect HRVB has on measures of HRV.

  17. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  18. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  19. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  20. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  1. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  3. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  5. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  9. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  10. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  11. Physiological coherence in healthy volunteers during laboratory-induced stress and controlled breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Mejía, Elisa; Torres, Robinson; Restrepo, Diana

    2018-06-01

    Physiological coherence has been related with a general sense of well-being and improvements in health and physical, social, and cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between acute stress, controlled breathing, and physiological coherence, and the degree of body systems synchronization during a coherence-generation exercise. Thirty-four university employees were evaluated during a 20-min test consisting of four stages of 5-min duration each, during which basal measurements were obtained (Stage 1), acute stress was induced using validated mental stressors (Stroop test and mental arithmetic task, during Stage 2 and 3, respectively), and coherence states were generated using a controlled breathing technique (Stage 4). Physiological coherence and cardiorespiratory synchronization were assessed during each stage from heart rate variability, pulse transit time, and respiration. Coherence measurements derived from the three analyzed variables increased during controlled respiration. Moreover, signals synchronized during the controlled breathing stage, implying a cardiorespiratory synchronization was achieved by most participants. Hence, physiological coherence and cardiopulmonary synchronization, which could lead to improvements in health and better life quality, can be achieved using slow, controlled breathing exercises. Meanwhile, coherence measured during basal state and stressful situations did not show relevant differences using heart rate variability and pulse transit time. More studies are needed to evaluate the ability of coherence ratio to reflect acute stress. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  13. Influence of the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system on the energetically optimum breathing frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J H; Milic-Emili, J

    1993-01-01

    We hypothesized that the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system should have significant implications for the energetically optimal frequency of breathing, in view of the fact that these properties cause marked dependencies of overall system resistance and elastance on frequency. To test our hypothesis we simulated two models of canine and human respiratory system mechanics during sinusoidal breathing and calculated the inspiratory work (WI) and pressure-time integral (PTI) per minute under both resting and exercise conditions. The two models were a two-compartment viscoelastic model and a single-compartment model. Requiring minute alveolar ventilation to be fixed, we found that both models predicted almost identical optimum breathing frequencies. The calculated PTI was very insensitive to increases in breathing frequency above the optimal frequencies, while WI was found to increase slowly with frequency above its optimum. In contrast, both WI and PTI increased sharply as frequency decreased below their respective optima. A sensitivity analysis showed that the model predictions were very insensitive to the elastance and resistance values chosen to characterize tissue viscoelasticity. We conclude that the WI criterion for choosing the frequency of breathing is compatible with observations in nature, whereas the optimal frequency predictions of the PTI are rather too high. Both criteria allow for a fairly wide margin of choice in frequency above the optimum values without incurring excessive additional energy expenditure. Furthermore, contrary to our expectations, the viscoelastic properties of the respiratory system tissues do not pose a noticeable problem to the respiratory controller in terms of energy expenditure.

  14. Completion report : Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has been shown to be benefi cial in diabetes in many studies, though randomized control trials are few. The aim of this randomized control trial was to see the effect of Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (comprehensive yogic breathing program on quality of life, glycemic control, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in the causation of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a maneuver to prevent progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy holds signifi cance. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication and diet and exercise advice were randomized into two groups: (1 Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2 Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. At 6 months, quality of life and postprandial plasma glucose signifi cantly improved in the group practicing yoga compared to baseline, but there was no significant improvement in the fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Results: On per protocol analysis, sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions signifi cantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing. Conclusion: This randomized control trial points towards the beneficial effect of yogic breathing program in preventing progression of cardiac neuropathy. This has important implications as cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been considered as one of the factors for sudden cardiac deaths.Keywords: comprehensive yogic breathing program, diabetes mellitus, cardiac autonomic function

  15. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  16. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  17. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  18. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  19. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  20. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  1. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through your legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body back to a standing ... your abdominal wall in. Continue to breathe. Lift hips away from table keeping your head, shoulders and ...

  3. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  4. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  6. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  8. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  9. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  10. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  11. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERVAL EXERCISE VERSUS CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE EXERCISE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Swathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation and a range of pathological changes in the lung. Chronic inflammation causes structural changes and narrowing of the small airways and destruction of lung parenchyma, leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil; in turn these changes diminish the expiration and the work of breathing is increased. Scarcity of evidence on continuous and interval exercises is forcing researchers conduct studies on effectiveness of interval exercise with continuous exercise on exercise tolerance in subjects with COPD. Methods: 60 subjects were selected by lottery method. All the subjects were explained about the condition and mode of assessment and written informed consent were obtained from them and divided into 2 groups interval training group and continuous exercise training group and subjects were scheduled to attend exercise session 5 days a week for 4 weeks with exercise duration 20 min’s with cycle ergometer. Outcome measure: six minute walk test and heart rate. Results: On observing the means of post test parameters of experimental group A and experimental group B Independent t-test was done and the P- value is >0.05 .It shows a no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: The results had shown that both interval exercise group and continuous exercise group who received four weeks of therapy has improved significantly on pre and post test values within the groups but when compared between these groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between interval exercise group and continuous exercise group in improving exercise tolerance among COPD subjects.

  12. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  13. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  15. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  16. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  17. Psychological predictors of the antihypertensive effects of music-guided slow breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Ferrari, Antonella; Bazzini, Cristina; Costanzo, Giusi; Simonetti, Ignazio; Taddei, Stefano; Biggeri, Annibale; Parati, Gianfranco; Gensini, Gian Franco; Sirigatti, Saulo

    2010-05-01

    The possibility that daily sessions of music-guided slow breathing may reduce 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), and predictors of efficacy were explored in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with parallel design. Age-matched and sex-matched hypertensive patients were randomized to music-guided slow breathing exercises (4-6 breaths/min; 1: 2 ratio of inspiration: expiration duration) (Intervention; n = 29) or to control groups who were thought to relax while either listening to slow music (Control-M; n = 26) or reading a book (Control-R; n = 31). At baseline and at follow-up visits (1 week and 1, 3 and 6 months), ABP monitoring was performed. At mixed model analysis, intervention was associated with a significant reduction of 24-h (P = 0.001) and night-time (0100-0600 h) (P music-guided slow breathing significantly reduce 24-h systolic ABP, and psychological predictors of efficacy can be identified.

  18. A breath of fresh air!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1 the teams in charge of the cooling and ventilation systems of the CERN accelerators will perform maintenance work on all the equipment for which they are responsible. What with replacing complete systems, making improvements or bringing equipment back up to scratch, their workload looks like being a heavy one over the coming months.   Installing a fan in a cooling tower at Point 6 of the LHC in 2009. A similar exercise will be carried out in a few weeks. CERN's Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the cooling systems, pumping stations, air-conditioning facilities and fluid distribution systems for CERN's Computer Centre, the PS, the SPS, the LHC and their respective experiment areas. All these systems are equally indispensable and their maintenance is far from being a straightforward operation. During operating periods, the technical stops are too short for any major maintenance work. Although the work take...

  19. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  20. Crew Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalik, Kerrie K.

    2017-01-01

    Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides research, engineering, development, integration, and testing of hardware and software technologies for exercise systems applications in support of human spaceflight. This includes sustaining the current suite of on-orbit exercise devices by reducing maintenance, addressing obsolescence, and increasing reliability through creative engineering solutions. Advanced exercise systems technology development efforts focus on the sustainment of crew's physical condition beyond Low Earth Orbit for extended mission durations with significantly reduced mass, volume, and power consumption when compared to the ISS.

  1. Exercise KATRINE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clahane, Darren; Burgoyne, William

    1995-01-01

    Based on a hypothetical incident at the Scottish Nuclear Ltd Torness AGR nuclear power station, Exercise KATRINE was the 1994 national civil nuclear exercise and the biggest simulation of a nuclear accident to take place in Britain last year. The exercise, held on 17 and 18 November, was based on a series of postulated faults which resulted in an uncontrolled release of radioactivity. It commenced at 07.00 on Thursday and continued for about 33 hours, until around 15.30 on Friday. Activity focused on the Torness Off-site Centre (TOSC), in Cockenzie near Edinburgh, and the brand new Torness Media Briefing Centre (TMBC) located nearby. (author)

  2. Studies on the Pulse Rate, Pedometer Count and Satisfactoin Degree at Various Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    小原, 史朗

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined whether free exercise of students became good stimulation of breathing circulation function from relation of pulse rate and pedometer count. And, I examined it on satisfaction degree after exercise. Object person was 432 man students (total of 1391) and 94 woman students (total of 472). As for relation of pulse rate and pedometer count, statistical meaning was recognized by man and women. The exercise that a pulse rate and pedometer count were high together seemed ...

  3. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath; Quantifizierung organischer Spurenkomponenten in der menschlichen Atemluft. Acetonitril als Biomarker fuer Passivrauchen. Modell fuer Isopren im Atem, Zusammenhang Isoprenkonzentration, Cholesterinsynthese, lebensmittelchemische Untersuchungen an Knoblauch und Zwiebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prazeller, P

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  4. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  7. Intercomparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intercomparison exercises are vital to many a national programmes. These are only tools available with the laboratories to prove their competence to an international audience and also for the accrediting agencies to assess a laboratory

  8. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  18. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  19. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  20. OBESITY: CHALLENGES TO VENTILATORY CONTROL DURING EXERCISE A BRIEF REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tony G.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a national health issue in the US. Among the many physiological changes induced by obesity, it also presents a unique challenge to ventilatory control during exercise due to increased metabolic demand of moving larger limbs, increased work of breathing due to extra weight on the chest wall, and changes in breathing mechanics. These challenges to ventilatory control in obesity can be inconspicuous or overt among obese adults but for the most part adaptation of ventilatory control during exercise in obesity appears remarkably unnoticed in the majority of obese people. In this brief review, the changes to ventilatory control required for maintaining normal ventilation during exercise will be examined, especially the interaction between respiratory neural drive and ventilation. Also, gaps in our current knowledge will be discussed. PMID:23707540

  1. Activity of Lower Limb Muscles During Squat With and Without Abdominal Drawing-in and Pilates Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre C; Martins, Fábio M; Silva, Angélica F; Coelho, Ana C; Intelangelo, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-11-01

    Barbosa, AC, Martins, FM, Silva, AF, Coelho, AC, Intelangelo, L, and Vieira, ER. Activity of lower limb muscles during squat with and without abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3018-3023, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing on the activity of lower limb muscles during squats. Adults (n = 13, 22 ± 3 years old) with some Pilates experience performed three 60° squats under each of the following conditions in a random order: (I) normal breathing, (II) drawing-in maneuver with normal breathing, and (III) drawing-in maneuver with Pilates breathing. Peak-normalized surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the knee flexion and extension phases of squat exercises was analyzed. There were significant differences among the conditions during the knee flexion phase for the rectus femoris (p = 0.001), biceps femoris (p = 0.038), and tibialis anterior (p = 0.001), with increasing activation from conditions I to III. For the gastrocnemius medialis, there were significant differences among the conditions during the knee extension phase (p = 0.023), with increased activity under condition I. The rectus and biceps femoris activity was higher during the extension vs. flexion phase under conditions I and II. The tibialis anterior activity was higher during the flexion compared with the extension phase under all conditions, and the medial gastrocnemius activity was higher during the extension phase under condition I. Doing squats with abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing resulted in increased rectus, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior activity during the flexion phase, increasing movement stability during squat exercises.

  2. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  3. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma - incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agache Ioana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of life. In a cross-sectional survey 29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing (DB, more likely to be female and younger, with no differences for severity of asthma. No clear risk factors were demonstrated for DB in asthma, nor the impact of asthma medication was evaluated. The objective of this study was to describe the DB phenotype in adults with asthma treated in a specialised asthma centre. Methods Adult patients aged 17–65 with diagnosed asthma were screened for DB using the Nijmegen questionnaire (positive predictive score >23 and confirmed by progressive exercise testing. The following were evaluated as independent risk factors for DB in the multiple regression analysis: female sex; atopy, obesity, active smoker, moderate/severe rhinitis, psychopathology, GERD, arterial hypertension; severe asthma, asthma duration > 5 years, lack of asthma control, fixed airway obstruction, fast lung function decline, frequent exacerbator and brittle asthma phenotypes; lack of ICS, use of LABA or LTRA. Results 91 adults with asthma, mean age 35.04 ±1.19 years, 47(51.65% females were evaluated. 27 (29.67% subjects had a positive screening score on Nijmegen questionnaire and 16(17.58% were confirmed by progressive exercise testing as having DB. Independent risk factors for DB were psychopathology (p = 0.000002, frequent exacerbator asthma phenotype (p = 0.01 and uncontrolled asthma (p Conclusion Dysfunctional breathing is not infrequent in asthma patients and should be evaluated in asthma patients presenting with psychopathology, frequent severe asthma exacerbations or uncontrolled asthma. Asthma medication (ICS, LABA or LTRA had no significant relation with dysfunctional breathing.

  5. ECG authentication in post-exercise situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongsuk Sung; Jeehoon Kim; Myungjun Koh; Kwangsuk Park

    2017-07-01

    Human authentication based on electrocardiogram (ECG) has been a remarkable issue for recent ten years. This paper proposed an authentication technology with the ECG data recorded after the harsh exercise. 55 subjects voluntarily attended to this experiment. A stepper was used as an exercise equipment. The subjects are asked to do stepper for 5 minutes and their ECG signals are acquired before and after the exercise in rest, sitting posture. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used for both feature extraction and classification. Even though, within the first 1 minute recording, the subject recognition accuracy was 59.64%, which is too low to utilize, after one minute the accuracy was higher than 90% and it increased up to 96.22% within 5 minutes, which is plausible to use in authentication circumstances. Therefore, we have concluded that ECG authentication techniques will be able to be used after 1 minute of catching breath.

  6. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  7. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises.

  8. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  9. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  10. Variability of breath condensate pH may contribute to the better understanding of non-allergic seasonal respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Tamás; Szipőcs, Annamária

    2017-09-01

    The seasonal variability of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases is not clearly understood. Analysis of the breath condensate, the liquid that can be collected by breathing into a cold tube, has been proposed to bring closer to the understanding of airway pathologies. It has been assumed, that (1) airway lining fluid was a stable body liquid and (2) the breath condensate samples were representative of the airway lining fluid. Research was focussed on the identification of biomarkers indicative of respiratory pathologies. Despite 30 years of extended investigations breath condensate analysis has not gained any clinical implementation so far. The pH of the condensate is the characteristic that can be determined with the highest reproducibility. The present paper shows, that contrary to the initial assumptions, breath condensate is not a representative of the airway lining fluid, and the airway lining fluid is not a stable body liquid. Condensate pH shows baseline variability and it is influenced by drinking and by the ambient temperature. The changes in condensate pH are linked to changes in airway lining fluid pH. The variability of airway lining fluid pH may explain seasonal incidence of certain non-allergic respiratory diseases such as the catching of a common cold and the increased incidence of COPD exacerbations and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in cold periods.

  11. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  12. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  13. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  14. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  15. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  16. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  17. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  18. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  19. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  20. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  1. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  2. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  3. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  4. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  7. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  10. Evacuation exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094367

    2017-01-01

    In the event of an emergency, it is important that staff and visitors are evacuated safely and efficiently. Hence CERN organises regularly emergency response and evacuation exercise (also known as an ‘evacuation drill’) in different buildings across the sites.

  11. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... compulsive habit when it is done for the wrong reasons. Some people start exercising with weight loss as their main ... developing normally. This is especially true if the person also has an eating disorder. Girls who overexercise and restrict their eating ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  13. Why Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... strength, boosts energy, and can help you reduce stress. It can also help you maintain a healthy body weight and curb ... well-being and help treat depression. Help relieve stress and anxiety. Increase ... Can anyone exercise? Everyone can benefit from physical activity. ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  15. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  16. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  17. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  18. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  19. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  20. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  1. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  2. Controlled-frequency breath swimming improves swimming performance and running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, K M; Guenette, J A; Smoliga, J M; Zavorsky, G S

    2015-02-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue can negatively impact athletic performance, but swimming has beneficial effects on the respiratory system and may reduce susceptibility to fatigue. Limiting breath frequency during swimming further stresses the respiratory system through hypercapnia and mechanical loading and may lead to appreciable improvements in respiratory muscle strength. This study assessed the effects of controlled-frequency breath (CFB) swimming on pulmonary function. Eighteen subjects (10 men), average (standard deviation) age 25 (6) years, body mass index 24.4 (3.7) kg/m(2), underwent baseline testing to assess pulmonary function, running economy, aerobic capacity, and swimming performance. Subjects were then randomized to either CFB or stroke-matched (SM) condition. Subjects completed 12 training sessions, in which CFB subjects took two breaths per length and SM subjects took seven. Post-training, maximum expiratory pressure improved by 11% (15) for all 18 subjects (P swimming may improve muscular oxygen utilization during terrestrial exercise in novice swimmers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Anoxia and Acidosis Tolerance of the Heart in an Air-Breathing Fish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, William; Gesser, Hans; Bayley, Mark; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Air breathing has evolved repeatedly in fishes and may protect the heart during stress. We investigated myocardial performance in the air-breathing catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, a species that can withstand prolonged exposure to severe hypoxia and acidosis. Isometric ventricular preparations were exposed to anoxia, lactic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis, and combinations of these treatments. Ventricular preparations were remarkably tolerant to anoxia, exhibiting an inotropic reduction of only 40%, which fully recovered during reoxygenation. Myocardial anoxia tolerance was unaffected by physiologically relevant elevations of bicarbonate concentration, in contrast to previous results in other fishes. Both lactic acidosis (5 mM; pH 7.10) and hypercapnic acidosis (10% CO2; pH 6.70) elicited a biphasic response, with an initial and transient decrease in force followed by overcompensation above control values. Spongy myocardial preparations were significantly more tolerant to hypercapnic acidosis than compact myocardial preparations. While ventricular preparations were tolerant to the isolated effects of anoxia and acidosis, their combination severely impaired myocardial performance and contraction kinetics. This suggests that air breathing may be a particularly important myocardial oxygen source during combined anoxia and acidosis, which may occur during exercise or environmental stress.

  4. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  5. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  6. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  7. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  8. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  9. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  10. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  11. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  12. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  14. Effects of regular exercise on asthma control in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2017-08-28

    According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.

  15. Breath condensate levels of 8-isoprostane and leukotriene B4 after ozone inhalation are greater in sensitive versus nonsensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mario F; Walby, William F; Adams, William C; Schelegle, Edward S

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (O3) inhalation induces pulmonary function decrements and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between O3 induced pulmonary function changes and the presence of inflammatory markers as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) obtained from O3-sensitive and nonsensitive human subjects. Eight healthy adult volunteers (4 males/4 females, age 18 to 30 years) were studied, characterized as to their ozone sensitivity and placed into 2 groups (sensitive and nonsensitive) with each group having 2 males and 2 females. Subjects completed a 20-minute EBC collection and pulmonary function test (PFT) prior to a single 60-minute bout of cycle ergometer exercise (V(E) = 50-55 L/min) while breathing filtered air (FA) or 0.35 ppm O3. Subjective symptom scores (SSSs) were collected at 6, 20, 40, and 60 minutes during exposure. An immediate postexposure PFT was performed followed by an EBC collection. Subjective symptom scores, EBCs, and PFTs were collected at 1, 4 and 8 hours post exposure. EBCs were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 8-isoprostane, and total nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrate + nitrite content). Sensitive subjects, breathing O3, had significantly greater functional decrements in PFTs, increased SSSs, and increased rapid shallow breathing as well as elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and LTB4 in EBCs compared to those breathing FA. In addition, there were significant increases in nitrate + nitrite content in both sensitive and nonsensitive subjects breathing O3 compared to FA. These results indicate that sensitive subjects have elevated arachidonic acid metabolites in EBCs compared to nonsensitive subjects after O3 inhalation.

  16. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  17. sLORETA intracortical lagged coherence during breath counting in meditation-naïve participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eMilz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated brain functional connectivity comparing no-task resting to breath counting (a meditation exercise but given as task without referring to meditation. Functional connectivity computed as EEG coherence between head-surface data suffers from localization ambiguity, reference dependence, and overestimation due to volume conduction. Lagged coherence between intracortical model sources addresses these criticisms. With this analysis approach, experienced meditators reportedly showed reduced coherence during meditation, meditation-naïve participants have not yet been investigated. 58-channel EEG from 23 healthy, right-handed, meditation-naïve males during resting [3 runs] and breath counting [2 runs] was computed into sLORETA time series of intracortical electrical activity in 19 regions of interest corresponding to the cortex underlying 19 scalp electrode sites, for each of the 8 independent EEG frequency bands covering 1.5-44 Hz. Intracortical lagged coherences and head-surface conventional coherences were computed between the 19 regions/sites. During breath counting compared to resting, paired t-tests corrected for multiple testing revealed 4 significantly lower intracortical lagged coherences, but 4 significantly higher head-surface conventional coherences. Lowered intracortical lagged coherences involved left BA 10 and right BAs 3, 10, 17, 40. In conclusion, intracortical lagged coherence can yield results that are inverted to those of head-surface conventional coherence. The lowered functional connectivity between cognitive control areas and sensory perception areas during meditation-type breath counting compared to resting conceivably reflects the attention to a bodily percept without cognitive reasoning. The reductions in functional connectivity were similar but not as widespread as the reductions reported during meditation in experienced meditators.

  18. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  19. Do interindividual differences in cardiac output during submaximal exercise explain differences in exercising muscle oxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; Zelt, Joel T; Giles, Matthew D; Raleigh, James P; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J; Neder, J Alberto; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy. Cardiac output (Q˙ L/min; inert gas rebreathe), oxygen uptake (V˙O2 L/min; breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange), quadriceps saturation (near infrared spectroscopy) and exercise tolerance (6-20; Borg Scale RPE) were measured. The Q˙-V˙O2 relationship from 40 to 160 W was used to partition individuals post hoc into higher (n = 10; 6.3 ± 0.4) versus lower (n = 10; 3.7 ± 0.4, P exercise (all P > 0.4). Lower cardiac responders had greater leg (P = 0.027) and whole body (P = 0.03) RPE only at 185 W, but this represented a higher %peak V˙O2 in lower cardiac responders (87 ± 15% vs. 66 ± 12%, P = 0.005). Substantially lower Q˙-V˙O2 in the lower responder group did not result in altered RPE or exercising muscle deoxygenation. This suggests substantial recruitment of blood flow redistribution in the lower responder group as part of protecting matching of exercising muscle oxygen delivery to demand. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe; Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen; Salthammer, Tunga

    2010-01-01

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO x , total volatile organic compounds (TVOC PAS ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO x signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC PAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  1. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NO{sub x} in exhaled human breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe [Hannover Medical School, Sports Physiology and Sports Medicine, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga, E-mail: tunga.salthammer@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO{sub x}, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC{sub PAS}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO{sub x} signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC{sub PAS} are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  2. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  4. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  5. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  6. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  7. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  8. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  9. Improvement of myocardial perfusion status in response to indian vedic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Y.N.I.; Muthu, G.S.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Yoga is the buzz word all over the world today. Amidst their busy schedule, people tend to ignore their personal health. Management of various disorders, especially those involving interventions, surgical or radiological, is very expensive. The Indian Vedic Exercises, of which Pranaayaama is one, emphasize on prevention of the diseases in order to keep the individual in good health. It is equally applicable to those who have already suffered from various disorders and in whom both improvement and/or avoidance of further deterioration are required. However, no Objective assessment of the disease status in response to these exercises has been reported so far. Objectives: This pilot study has been undertaken on patients with reversible myocardial perfusion defects to Objectively monitor the improvements in the myocardial perfusion in response to a breathing exercise, Pranayama, a breathing technique prescribed in the Indian Vedic Sciences. Methods: Two patients who were found to have reversible myocardial perfusion defects were taken up in this study. These defects were diagnosed from the myocardial perfusion SPECT done in stressed (on Tread Mill) and resting states with 99m Technetium labeled MIBI.These patients were taught the pranayama technique which is done for about 30 minutes every day. At the end of four months from the commencement of this technique, the myocardial perfusion SPECT studies were repeated. Details of the exercise in the form of a CD are available on request. Results: Overall good improvements were observed in all the quantitative parameters in the TMT and SPECT studies in the studies done after the pranayama procedures in both the patients. Perfusion defects seen in the stress images of the initial studies have almost completely reversed in the stress images of the later study. Patients are asymptomatic and are leading a comfortable life. Conclusion: This is only a study of two cases to Objectively evaluate the effects of pranayama

  10. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  11. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  12. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  13. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007165.htm Exercise and immunity To use the sharing features on ... take a daily walk or follow a simple exercise routine a few times a week. Exercise helps ...

  14. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  15. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  17. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  18. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  19. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  20. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  1. Effects of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet and vital capacity breathing in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jeniffer L; Vancini, Rodrigo L; Zanoni, Graziely R; Barbosa DE Lira, Claudio A; Santos Andrade, Marilia; Sarro, Karine J

    2017-10-27

    Pilates is a body/mind method that requires different types of exercise (balance, endurance, strength, and flexibility) and attention to muscle control, posture, and breathing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal motion of healthy and physically active women. Thirty-five women without experience in Pilates exercise, aged between 18 and 35 years, participated in the study (habitual physical activity group, n=14; and Mat Pilates group, n=21). Three- dimensional kinematic analysis was used to evaluate total and separate thoracoabdominal compartments' expansion (superior and inferior thorax and abdomen), contribution of each compartment to total thoracoabdominal expansion, and coordination between thoracoabdominal compartments. After 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training, thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet breathing was improved by increasing the expansion of abdomen by about 33% (P=0.01). Moreover, expansion of superior (P=0.04) and inferior thorax (P=0.02) and abdomen (P=0.01) was also improved in Pilates (35%, 33% and 37%, respectively) compared to the habitual physical activity group, after the experimental protocol. Finally, the habitual physical activity group presented a decrease of 13% in the expansion of abdomen (P = 0.002). The results suggest the capability of Mat Pilates in improving the action of respiratory and abdominal muscles during breathing and, thus, its benefits to breathing mechanics.

  2. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  3. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  4. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  5. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  6. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  7. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  8. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  9. Exercise program design considerations for head and neck cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, Adrian W; Lowe, Derek; Levy, Andrew R; Mepani, Vishal; Rogers, Simon N

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish exercise preferences, barriers, and perceived benefits among head and neck cancer survivors, as well as their level of interest in participating in an exercise program. Patients treated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck between 2010 and 2014 were identified from the hospital database and sent a postal questionnaire pack to establish exercise preferences, barriers, perceived benefits, current physical activity levels, and quality of life. A postal reminder was sent to non-responders 4 weeks later. The survey comprised 1021 eligible patients of which 437 (43%) responded [74% male, median (interquartile range) age, 66 (60-73) years]. Of the respondents, 30% said 'Yes' they would be interested in participating in an exercise program and 34% said 'Maybe'. The most common exercise preferences were a frequency of three times per week, moderate-intensity, and 15-29 min per bout. The most popular exercise types were walking (68%), flexibility exercises (35%), water activites/swimming (33%), cycling (31%), and weight machines (19%). Home (55%), outdoors (46%) and health club/gym (33%) were the most common preferred choices for where to regularly exercise. Percieved exercise benefits relating to improved physical attributes were commonly cited, whereas potential social and work-related benefits were less well-acknowledged. The most commonly cited exercise barriers were dry mouth or throat (40%), fatigue (37%), shortness of breath (30%), muscle weakness (28%) difficulty swallowing (25%), and shoulder weakness and pain (24%). The present findings inform the design of exercise programs for head and neck cancer survivors.

  10. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  11. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  12. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  13. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  14. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ? 1.7?years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  15. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  16. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  17. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise,

  18. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  19. Surgical treatment is effective in severe cases of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Katarina; Johansson, Henrik; Jansson, Christer; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment in severe cases of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (E-ILO). Conservatively treated subjects and subjects tested negative for E-ILO, who still experience breathing problems 1-3 years after diagnosis, tend to adjust their physical activity to a greater extent than surgically treated subjects. To investigate how symptoms and level of physical activity change over time in patients with E-ILO who have undergone surgery, patients with E-ILO treated conservatively and patients who tested negative for laryngeal obstruction at continuous laryngoscopy exercise-test (CLE-test). Patients referred for exercise-induced breathing difficulties answered questionnaires at diagnostic CLE-test and at follow-up. Questions regarded exercise-induced breathing problems, current physical activity level, and medical history of asthma and perennial allergy. Out of 84 invited subjects, 59 (70%) answered both questionnaires. Surgically treated subjects had less breathing problems at follow-up compared with conservatively treated subjects and subjects who tested negative (p < 0.001). None of the surgically treated subjects were less physically active or had changed sport due to exercise-induced dyspnoea, whereas 41.7% of the conservatively treated subjects had made such adjustments (p < 0.001).

  20. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  2. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Moderate altitude but not additional endurance training increases markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Ilmar; Boehler, Annette; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Bogdanova, Anna; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Hofer, Markus; Rawlings, Pablo; Araneda, Oscar F; Behn, Claus; Gassmann, Max; Heinicke, Katja

    2009-07-01

    Oxidative stress occurs at altitude, and physical exertion might enhance this stress. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of exercise and moderate altitude on redox balance in ten endurance exercising biathletes, and five sedentary volunteers during a 6-week-stay at 2,800 m. As a marker for oxidative stress, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was analyzed by the biosensor measuring system Ecocheck, and 8-iso prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso PGF2alpha) was determined by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). To determine the whole blood antioxidative capacity, we measured reduced glutathione (GSH) enzymatically using Ellman's reagent. Exercising athletes and sedentary volunteers showed increased levels of oxidative markers at moderate altitude, contrary to our expectations; there was no difference between both groups. Therefore, all subjects' data were pooled to examine the oxidative stress response exclusively due to altitude exposure. H(2)O(2) levels increased at altitude and remained elevated for 3 days after returning to sea level (p altitude, but declined immediately after returning to sea level (p altitude resulted in elevated GSH levels (p altitude (p altitude for up to 6 weeks increases markers of oxidative stress in EBC independent of additional endurance training. Notably, this oxidative stress is still detectable 3 days upon return to sea level.

  4. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  5. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  6. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  7. Axial Extension (Posture Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... changes our patterns of movement and our breathing efficiency. How to do it: Look straight forward. Tuck ... a Donation Make an Appointment Patient Portal Careers Locations Partnerships Newsroom Calendar Español Follow Us Sign up ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as triggers include: Cold air Dry air Air pollution High pollen counts Chlorine in swimming pools Chemicals used with ice rink resurfacing equipment Respiratory infections or other lung disease Activities with extended periods of deep breathing, such ...

  9. Obesity: challenges to ventilatory control during exercise--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tony G

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a national health issue in the US. Among the many physiological changes induced by obesity, it also presents a unique challenge to ventilatory control during exercise due to increased metabolic demand of moving larger limbs, increased work of breathing due to extra weight on the chest wall, and changes in breathing mechanics. These challenges to ventilatory control in obesity can be inconspicuous or overt among obese adults but for the most part adaptation of ventilatory control during exercise in obesity appears remarkably unnoticed in the majority of obese people. In this brief review, the changes to ventilatory control required for maintaining normal ventilation during exercise will be examined, especially the interaction between respiratory neural drive and ventilation. Also, gaps in our current knowledge will be discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  11. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Aalami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This three-group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects' waiting without any especial intervention in the control group. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group. Conclusions: The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  14. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  15. Hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure: less room to breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Bruce P

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, the symptoms and limited exercise capabilities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlate better with changes in lung volumes than with airflow measurements. The realization of the clinical importance of hyperinflation has been overshadowed for decades by the use of forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of the FEV(1) to the forced expiratory vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) to categorize the severity and progression of COPD. Hyperinflation is defined as an elevation in the end-expiratory lung volume or functional residual capacity. When severe hyperinflation encroaches upon inspiratory capacity and limits vital capacity, it results in elevated intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) that places the diaphragm at a mechanical disadvantage and increases the work of breathing. Severe hyperinflation is the major physiologic cause of the resulting hypercarbic respiratory failure and patients' inability to transition (i.e. wean) from mechanical ventilatory support to spontaneous breathing. This paper reviews the basic physiologic principles of hyperinflation and its clinical manifestations as demonstrated by PEEPi. Also reviewed are the adverse effects of hyperinflation and PEEPi in critically ill patients with COPD, and methods for minimizing or counterbalancing these effects. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  17. Recognition and Management of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Chronic Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikta, Donald; Khayat, Rami

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease with significant impact on morbidity and potentially mortality. SDB is highly prevalent in patients with systolic or diastolic heart failure. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose SDB in patients with heart failure because the vast majority of affected patients do not report daytime symptoms. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated improvement in heart function, exercise tolerance, and quality of life after treatment of SDB in patients with heart failure. Accumulating evidence suggests that treatment of SDB should complement the established pharmacologic therapy for chronic heart failure. However, mortality benefit has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:21086079

  18. Ventilatory oscillations at exercise: effects of hyperoxia, hypercapnia, and acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, Eric; Lhuissier, François J; Larribaut, Julie; Pichon, Aurélien; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2015-06-01

    Periodic breathing has been found in patients with heart failure and sleep apneas, and in healthy subjects in hypoxia, during sleep and wakefulness, at rest and, recently, at exercise. To unravel the cardiorespiratory parameters liable to modulate the amplitude and period of ventilatory oscillations, 26 healthy subjects were tested under physiological (exercise) and environmental (hypoxia, hyperoxia, hyperoxic hypercapnia) stresses, and under acetazolamide (ACZ) treatment. A fast Fourier transform spectral analysis of breath-by-breath ventilation (V˙E) evidenced an increase in V˙E peak power under hypercapnia (vs. normoxia and hyperoxia, P power was positively related to cardiac output (Q˙c) and V˙E in hyperoxia (P oscillations by increasing Q˙c and V˙E, whereas ACZ decreases ventilatory instability in part by a contrasting action on O2 and CO2 sensing. An intrinsic oscillator might modulate ventilation through a complex system where peripheral chemoreflex would play a key role. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  19. Breathing multichimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states for the one-dimensional array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators in the continuum limit are assumed to be stationary states in most studies, but a few studies report the existence of breathing chimera states. We focus on multichimera states with two coherent and incoherent regions and numerically demonstrate that breathing multichimera states, whose global order parameter oscillates temporally, can appear. Moreover, we show that the system exhibits a Hopf bifurcation from a stationary multichimera to a breathing one by the linear stability analysis for the stationary multichimera.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

  1. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  2. Wellness through a comprehensive Yogic breathing program – A controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlander Torsten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of psychosocial disturbances give rise to increased risks and vulnerability for a wide variety of stress-related chronic pain and other illnesses. Relaxation exercises aim at reducing stress and thereby help prevent these unwanted outcomes. One of the widely used relaxation practices is yoga and yogic breathing exercises. One specific form of these exercises is Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (SK&P which are understood to have favourable effects on the mind-body system. The goal of this pilot study was to design a protocol that can investigate whether SK&P can lead to increased feeling of wellness in healthy volunteers. Methods Participants were recruited in a small university city in Sweden and were instructed in a 6-day intensive program of SK&P which they practiced daily for six weeks. The control group was instructed to relax in an armchair each day during the same period. Subjects included a total of 103 adults, 55 in the intervention (SK&P group and 48 in the control group. Various instruments were administered before and after the intervention. Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale measured the degree of anxiety and depression, Life Orientation Test measured dispositional optimism, Stress and Energy Test measured individual's energy and stress experiences. Experienced Deviation from Normal State measured the experience of altered state of consciousness. Results There were no safety issues. Compliance was high (only 1 dropout in the SK&P group, and 5 in the control group. Outcome measures appeared to be appropriate for assessing the differences between the groups. Subjective reports generally correlated with the findings from the instruments. The data suggest that participants in the SK&P group, but not the control group, lowered their degree of anxiety, depression and stress, and also increased their degree of optimism (ANOVA; p Conclusion These data indicate that the experimental protocol that is

  3. Exercise in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Vanessa H; Ferguson, James E

    2017-10-01

    Routine exercise should be recommended to healthy pregnant women after consultation with an obstetric provider. Even pregnant women who have not been exercising regularly can gradually increase their exercise during pregnancy. Regular exercise during pregnancy promotes overall wellness and helps maintain appropriate gestational weight gain and appropriate fetal weight gain. Exercise in pregnancy may also reduce hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes, and may be associated with shorter first stage of labor and decreased risk for cesarean section. Exercise in pregnancy is safe for pregnant women and their fetuses and can have multiple health benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects.

  5. Air breathing in the Arctic: influence of temperature, hypoxia, activity and restricted air access on respiratory physiology of the Alaska blackfish Dallia pectoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Damsgaard, Christian; Pascale, Desirae R; Nilsson, Göran E; Stecyk, Jonathan A W

    2014-12-15

    The Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) is an air-breathing fish native to Alaska and the Bering Sea islands, where it inhabits lakes that are ice-covered in the winter, but enters warm and hypoxic waters in the summer to forage and reproduce. To understand the respiratory physiology of this species under these conditions and the selective pressures that maintain the ability to breathe air, we acclimated fish to 5°C and 15°C and used respirometry to measure: standard oxygen uptake (Ṁ(O₂)) in normoxia (19.8 kPa P(O₂)) and hypoxia (2.5 kPa), with and without access to air; partitioning of standard Ṁ(O₂) in normoxia and hypoxia; maximum Ṁ(O₂) and partitioning after exercise; and critical oxygen tension (P(crit)). Additionally, the effects of temperature acclimation on haematocrit, haemoglobin oxygen affinity and gill morphology were assessed. Standard Ṁ(O₂) was higher, but air breathing was not increased, at 15°C or after exercise at both temperatures. Fish acclimated to 5°C or 15°C increased air breathing to compensate and fully maintain standard Ṁ(O₂) in hypoxia. Fish were able to maintain Ṁ(O₂) through aquatic respiration when air was denied in normoxia, but when air was denied in hypoxia, standard Ṁ(O₂) was reduced by ∼30-50%. P(crit) was relatively high (5 kPa) and there were no differences in P(crit), gill morphology, haematocrit or haemoglobin oxygen affinity at the two temperatures. Therefore, Alaska blackfish depends on air breathing in hypoxia and additional mechanisms must thus be utilised to survive hypoxic submergence during the winter, such as hypoxia-induced enhancement in the capacities for carrying and binding blood oxygen, behavioural avoidance of hypoxia and suppression of metabolic rate. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Effects of a Period of Selected Activity on Lung Capacities in Children 5-10 Years with Asthma Caused by Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aasthma due to causing disruption in the work of breathing and obstruction of the pulmonary tract creates the physical restrictions in the social, emotional and psychological, aspects and performing daily life activities, hence the present study is conducted to determine the impact of a period of selected activity on some spirometry parameters of children from 5 to 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise.Materials and Methods: In this half experimental respiratory research, respiratory indexes of 11 children including 5 boys under the age of 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise were measured before and after eight weeks of selected exercises and pranayama by spirometry were measured.Results: The results showed that the selected exercise routine improves on the status of activities and being short of breath (Z=0/003. Also the average of spirometry indexes prior to a ten minutes exercise, before and after the intervention, compared with the average of spirometry indexes after a ten minute exercise, before and after intervention in the parameters: (fev1 the volume of the expiratory force in the first second, and (PEF the maximum expiratory flow, the results are statistically significant (p 0.05.Conclusions: The present study shows the impact of the selected exercises in improving mobility status and being short of breath and reducing asthma symptoms caused by exercise (EIA as well as strengthening the respiratory muscles significantly.

  7. Exhaled breath condensate metabolome clusters for endotype discovery in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Anirban; Desiraju, Koundinya; Aggarwal, Kunal; Kutum, Rintu; Roy, Siddhartha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S. K.; Ghosh, Balaram; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Agrawal, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with similar presenting symptoms but with varying underlying pathologies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively unexplored matrix which reflects the signatures of respiratory epithelium, but is difficult to normalize for dilution. Here we

  8. Pulmonary Effects of Submerged Breathing of Air or Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2002-01-01

    ...). The risks of developing PO2T are poorly characterized. The current shallow-water exposure limit, four hours breathing oxygen at 25 fsw or less in any 24-hour period, was established somewhat arbitrarily as a known "safe" exposure...

  9. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient volume to prevent gas waste during exhalation and to provide an adequate reserve for inhalation. (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  11. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.

  12. Biomarker Analysis of Human Breath for Early Prediction of Hepatotoxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risby, Terence

    1998-01-01

    This past three years of research conducted with support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research has been directed towards evaluating the use of exhaled breath to estimate the actual-exposure...

  13. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  14. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  15. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  16. Take a Deep Breath (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly 16 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD; however, many may not be aware they have the condition. This podcast discusses the importance of seeing a health care provider if you have trouble breathing.

  17. Breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction for quantifying developmental maturity in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Craig G.; Hudson, John L.; Lee, Hoshik; Delos, John B.; Guin, Lauren E.; Vergales, Brooke D.; Paget-Brown, Alix; Kattwinkel, John; Lake, Douglas E.; Moorman, J. Randall

    2012-01-01

    In healthy neonates, connections between the heart and lungs through brain stem chemosensory pathways and the autonomic nervous system result in cardiorespiratory synchronization. This interdependence between cardiac and respiratory dynamics can be difficult to measure because of intermittent signal quality in intensive care settings and variability of heart and breathing rates. We employed a phase-based measure suggested by Schäfer and coworkers (Schäfer C, Rosenblum MG, Kurths J, Abel HH. Nature 392: 239–240, 1998) to obtain a breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction. This measure of cardiorespiratory interaction does not distinguish between cardiac control of respiration associated with cardioventilatory coupling and respiratory influences on the heart rate associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We calculated, in sliding 4-min windows, the probability density of heartbeats as a function of the concurrent phase of the respiratory cycle. Probability density functions whose Shannon entropy had a interaction. In this way, we analyzed 18 infant-years of data from 1,202 patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at University of Virginia. We found evidence of interaction in 3.3 patient-years of data (18%). Cardiorespiratory interaction increased several-fold with postnatal development, but, surprisingly, the rate of increase was not affected by gestational age at birth. We find evidence for moderate correspondence between this measure of cardiorespiratory interaction and cardioventilatory coupling and no evidence for respiratory sinus arrhythmia, leading to the need for further investigation of the underlying mechanism. Such continuous measures of physiological interaction may serve to gauge developmental maturity in neonatal intensive care patients and prove useful in decisions about incipient illness and about hospital discharge. PMID:22174403

  18. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise on-transition uncoupling of ventilatory, gas exchange and cardiac hemodynamic kinetics accompany pulmonary oxygen stores depletion to impact exercise intolerance in human heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, E H; Smith, J R; Olson, T P

    2018-03-25

    In contrast to knowledge that heart failure (HF) patients demonstrate peak exercise uncoupling across ventilation, gas exchange and cardiac haemodynamics, whether this dyssynchrony follows that at the exercise on-transition is unclear. This study tested whether exercise on-transition temporal lag for ventilation relative to gas exchange and oxygen pulse (O 2 pulse) couples with effects from abnormal pulmonary gaseous oxygen store (O 2store ) contributions to V˙O 2 to interdependently precipitate persistently elevated ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF. Beat-to-beat HR and breath-to-breath ventilation and gas exchange were continuously acquired in HF (N = 9, ejection fraction = 30 ± 9%) and matched controls (N = 10) during square-wave ergometry at 60% V˙O 2peak (46 ± 14 vs 125 ± 54-W, P < .001). Temporal responses across V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse were assessed for the exercise on-transition using single exponential model Phase II on-kinetic time constants (τ = time to reach 63% steady-state rise). Breath-to-breath gas fractions and respiratory flows were used to determine O 2stores . HF vs controls: τ for V˙ E (137 ± 93 vs 74 ± 40-seconds, P = .03), V˙O 2 (60 ± 40 vs 23 ± 5-seconds, P = .03) and O 2 pulse (28 ± 18 vs 23 ± 15-seconds, P = .59). Within HF, τ for V˙ E differed from O 2 pulse (P < .02), but not V˙O 2 . Exercise V˙ E rise (workload indexed) differed in HF vs controls (545 ± 139 vs 309 ± 88-mL min -1 W -1 , P < .001). Exercise on-transition O 2store depletion in HF exceeded controls, generally persisting to end-exercise. These data suggest HF demonstrated exercise on-transition O 2store depletion (high O 2store contribution to V˙O 2 ) coupled with dyssynchronous V˙ E , V˙O 2 and O 2 pulse kinetics-not attributable to prolonged cardiac haemodynamics. Persistent high ventilatory demand and low oxidative metabolic capacity in HF may be precipitated by physiological uncoupling occurring within the exercise

  20. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  1. Usefulness of Guided Breathing for Dose Rate-Regulated Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-Oh, Sarah; Yi, Byong Yong; Berman, Barry L.; Lerma, Fritz; Yu, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of guided breathing for dose rate-regulated tracking (DRRT), a new technique to compensate for intrafraction tumor motion. Methods and Materials: DRRT uses a preprogrammed multileaf collimator sequence that tracks the tumor motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography and the corresponding breathing signals measured before treatment. Because the multileaf collimator speed can be controlled by adjusting the dose rate, the multileaf collimator positions are adjusted in real time during treatment by dose rate regulation, thereby maintaining synchrony with the tumor motion. DRRT treatment was simulated with free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing signals acquired from 23 lung cancer patients. The tracking error and duty cycle for each patient were determined as a function of the system time delay (range, 0-1.0 s). Results: The tracking error and duty cycle averaged for all 23 patients was 1.9 ± 0.8 mm and 92% ± 5%, 1.9 ± 1.0 mm and 93% ± 6%, and 1.8 ± 0.7 mm and 92% ± 6% for the free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing, respectively, for a time delay of 0.35 s. The small differences in both the tracking error and the duty cycle with guided breathing were not statistically significant. Conclusion: DRRT by its nature adapts well to variations in breathing frequency, which is also the motivation for guided-breathing techniques. Because of this redundancy, guided breathing does not result in significant improvements for either the tracking error or the duty cycle when DRRT is used for real-time tumor tracking

  2. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  3. The role of arterial chemoreceptors in the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in rabbits during airway occlusion or elastic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, D; Read, D J

    1974-08-01

    1. The breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in the five breaths following airway occlusion or elastic loading was assessed in anaesthetized rabbits from changes of airway pressure, diaphragm e.m.g. and lung volume.2. When the airway was occluded in animals breathing air, arterial O(2) tension fell by 20 mmHg and CO(2) tension rose by 7 mmHg within the time of the first five loaded breaths.3. Inhalation of 100% O(2) or carotid denervation markedly reduced the breath-by-breath progression but had little or no effect on the responses at the first loaded breath.4. These results indicate that the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort following addition of a load is mainly due to asphyxial stimulation of the carotid bodies, rather than to the gradual emergence of a powerful load-compensating reflex originating in the chest-wall, as postulated by some workers.5. The small residual progression seen in animals breathing 100% O(2) or following carotid denervation was not eliminated (a) by combining these procedures or (b) by addition of gas to the lungs to prevent the progressive lung deflation which occurred during airway occlusion.6. Bilateral vagotomy, when combined with carotid denervation, abolished the residual breath-by-breath progression of inspiratory effort.

  4. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  5. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 days a week. When can I start exercising after pregnancy? If you had a healthy pregnancy ... some guidelines I can follow when I begin exercising after pregnancy? Aim to stay active for 20– ...

  6. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  7. Experience in exercise evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickerton, George E [Office of Emergency Planning, Food Safety and Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC (United States)

    1989-09-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises.

  8. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

    1982-01-01

    glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

  9. Fight Cravings with Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... run up and down the stairs. Fact: Exercise boosts your endorphins, gives you time to clear your ... I find gardening really helps me keep my mind off smoking. It’s relaxing and good exercise, too!" - ...

  10. Experience in exercise evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1989-01-01

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises

  11. Eating and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... recovery smoothie Turkey on whole-grain bread with vegetables Don't forget to drink fluids. You need adequate fluids before, during and after exercise to help prevent dehydration. To stay well-hydrated for exercise, the American ...

  12. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  13. Isometric exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  14. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every child (and ... of Pediatrics about asthma and exercise. What is asthma Asthma is the most common chronic medical problem ...

  15. Clinical Applications for Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1989-01-01

    Patients with chronic conditions such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity might benefit from prescribed exercise. Although exercise does not reverse pathologic changes, it may play a role in disease management. (JD)

  16. Inefficient skeletal muscle oxidative function flanks impaired motor neuron recruitment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, F; Ferri, A; Corna, G; Bonazzi, R; Lunetta, C; Silani, V; Riva, N; Rigamonti, A; Maggiani, A; Ferrarese, C; Tremolizzo, L

    2017-06-07

    This study aimed to evaluate muscle oxidative function during exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (pALS) with non-invasive methods in order to assess if determinants of reduced exercise tolerance might match ALS clinical heterogeneity. 17 pALS, who were followed for 4 months, were compared with 13 healthy controls (CTRL). Exercise tolerance was assessed by an incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer measuring peak O 2 uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), vastus lateralis oxidative function by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and breathing pattern ([Formula: see text]E peak ). pALS displayed: (1) 44% lower [Formula: see text]O 2peak vs. CTRL (p motor units recruitment, is a major determinant of pALS clinical heterogeneity and working capacity exercise tolerance. CPET and NIRS are useful tools for detecting early stages of oxidative deficiency in skeletal muscles, disclosing individual impairments in the O 2 transport and utilization chain.

  17. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  18. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  19. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  20. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  1. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient's body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as "gold standard" for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1-3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages.

  2. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  3. Molecular Signals and Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic plasticity of skeletal muscle affords a considerable degree of adaptability not seen in other bodily tissues. The mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are highly dependent on loading conditions. The extent of skeletal muscle plasticity is distinctly highlighted by a loss of muscle mass, or atrophy, after a period of reduced weight-bearing activity, for example during periods of extended bed rest, space flight and in spinal cord injury. On the other hand, increased mechanical loading, or resistance training, induces muscle growth, or hypertrophy. Endurance exercise performance is also dependent on the adaptability of skeletal muscle, especially muscles that contribute to posture, locomotion and the mechanics of breathing.  However, the molecular pathways governing skeletal muscle adaptations are yet to be satisfactorily delineated and require further investigation. Researchers in the areas of exercise physiology, physiotherapy and sports medicine are endeavoring to translate experimental knowledge into effective, innovative treatments and regimens in order to improve physical performance and health in both elite athletes and the general community. The efficacy of the translation of molecular biological paradigms in experimental exercise physiology has long been underappreciated. Indeed, molecular biology tools can now be used to answer questions regarding skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise and provide new frameworks to improve physical performance. Furthermore, transgenic animal models, knockout animal models and in vivo studies provide tools to test questions concerned with how exercise initiates adaptive changes in gene expression. In light of these perceived deficiencies, an attempt is made here to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. An examination will be made of the functional capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a variety of exercise conditions, namely

  4. Molecular Signals and Skeletal Muscle Adaptation to Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Wilson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotypic plasticity of skeletal muscle affords a considerable degree of adaptability not seen in other bodily tissues. The mechanical properties of skeletal muscle are highly dependent on loading conditions. The extent of skeletal muscle plasticity is distinctly highlighted by a loss of muscle mass, or atrophy, after a period of reduced weight-bearing activity, for example during periods of extended bed rest, space flight and in spinal cord injury. On the other hand, increased mechanical loading, or resistance training, induces muscle growth, or hypertrophy. Endurance exercise performance is also dependent on the adaptability of skeletal muscle, especially muscles that contribute to posture, locomotion and the mechanics of breathing. However, the molecular pathways governing skeletal muscle adaptations are yet to be satisfactorily delineated and require further investigation. Researchers in the areas of exercise physiology, physiotherapy and sports medicine are endeavoring to translate experimental knowledge into effective, innovative treatments and regimens in order to improve physical performance and health in both elite athletes and the general community. The efficacy of the translation of molecular biological paradigms in experimental exercise physiology has long been underappreciated. Indeed, molecular biology tools can now be used to answer questions regarding skeletal muscle adaptation in response to exercise and provide new frameworks to improve physical performance. Furthermore, transgenic animal models, knockout animal models and in vivo studies provide tools to test questions concerned with how exercise initiates adaptive changes in gene expression. In light of these perceived deficiencies, an attempt is made here to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. An examination will be made of the functional capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a variety of exercise conditions, namely

  5. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  6. Exercise and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Per

    2017-01-01

    Exercise improves functional capacity and patient-reported outcomes across a range of cancer diagnoses. The mechanisms behind this protection have been largely unknown, but exercise-mediated changes in body composition, sex hormone levels, systemic inflammation, and immune cell function have been...... hypothesize that this link between exercise and the immune system can be exploited in cancer therapy in particular in combination with immunotherapy. Thus, we believe that exercise may not just be “healthy” but may in fact be therapeutic....

  7. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Gitte F.; Nygaard, Ditte E.; Olsen, Mikael; Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Pedersen, Anders N.; Specht, Lena; Korreman, Stine S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  8. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gitte F.; Nygaard, Ditte E.; Olsen, Mikael; Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Pedersen, Anders N.; Specht, Lena; Korreman, Stine S. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  9. Exercise and Your Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet presents information on the effects of physical activity on the heart and practical guidelines for starting and staying on an exercise program. The following topics are discussed: (1) the benefits of getting sufficient exercise; (2) possible risks in exercising compared to benefits; (3) when to seek doctor's advice and prevention of…

  10. WOMEN AND EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.

  11. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  12. [How much water is lost during breathing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Jakub; Przybylski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Arising from the Antoine equation and the ideal gas law, the volume of exhaled water has been calculated. Air temperature, humidity and minute ventilation has been taken into account. During physical exercise amount of exhaled H(2)O is linear, but not proportional to heart rate. And so at the heart rate of 140 bpm amount of exhaled water is approximately four times higher than during the rest and equals about 60-70 ml/h. The effect of external temperature and humidity on water lost via lungs was assessed as well. When temperature of inspired air and its humidity is 35°C an 75% respectively loss of water is 7 ml/h. Whereas when above parameters are changed to minus 10°C and 25% lung excretion of H(2)O increases up to 20 ml/h. The obtained results may become the basis for the assessment of osmolarity changes on the surface of the lower airways. The increase of which is recently considered as one of the factors responsible for exercise induced bronchospasm.

  13. The effects of exercise on dose and dose distribution of inhaled automotive pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, M T; Mautz, W J

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how changes in ventilation rate and in the entry route of air pollutants into the respiratory tract (nose versus mouth breathing) affected the respiratory tract uptake and penetration of inhaled gaseous and particulate pollutants associated with automobile emissions. Experiments were performed with female beagle dogs exposed while standing at rest or while exercising on a treadmill at 5 km/hour and a 7.5 percent grade. Dogs were exposed to nitrogen dioxide at concentrations of 1 and 5 parts per million (ppm), to formaldehyde at 2 and 10 ppm, and to an aerosol of ammonium nitrate particles (0.3 micron mass median aerodynamic diameter) at 1 mg/m3. Total respiratory system uptake and effects on breath time, expired tidal volume, fractional expiration time, minute ventilation, respiratory gas exchange, ventilation equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and dynamic pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured in exercising and resting dogs exposed for two hours to 5 ppm nitrogen dioxide and 10 ppm formaldehyde in combination with 1 mg/m3 of ammonium nitrate particles. Regional penetration of pollutants through oral and nasal airways and pollutant uptake in the lung were measured in a separate group of six tracheostomized dogs standing at rest while being exposed to nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, and ammonium nitrate particles. Hypercapnic stimulation was used to modify ventilation rates in the tracheostomized dogs while pollutant penetration and uptake were measured. Dogs exposed to 5 ppm of nitrogen dioxide at rest tended to breathe more rapidly (p less than 0.05) and more shallowly (a nonsignificant trend) than dogs exposed to purified air. The changes observed were similar in direction, but of smaller magnitude, to changes observed when the same dogs were exposed during exercise to ozone at 0.6 ppm in a separate study. Rapid-shallow breathing was not observed when the dogs were exposed during exercise to 5 ppm

  14. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  15. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (We, metabolic heat production (Hprod, and temperature increment load (Tinc across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20–49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest and back (LSRback were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg−1·min−1 than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for We, Hprod, Tinc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  16. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Eun Seok; Baek, Hyun Sung; Kim, Ga Yul; Lee, Young Boum; Ku, BonCho; Kim, Jong Yeol; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (W e ), metabolic heat production (H prod), and temperature increment load (T inc) across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20-49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest) and back (LSRback) were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE) type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA) to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE) type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY) types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for W e , H prod, T inc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  17. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  18. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. To Breathe-Zone of Zero. Kimsooja.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Gutiérrez Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC Málaga. Del 7 de octubre de 2016 al 8 de enero de 2017. Desde el 7 de octubre y hasta el 8 de enero la artista coreana Kimsooja ocupa el espacio central del Centro de Arte Contemporáneo de Málaga con una instalación Lotus: Zone Cero, que insta a yacer horizontalmente para contemplar un universo de farolillos. La artista conceptual transforma la sala de una forma sutil, casi imperceptible, dando al espectador la posibilidad de transitar un suelo vacío, en silencio, que invita al recogimiento, al aislamiento y a la utilización del espacio expositivo como santuario. Para entender este proceso de conversión, resulta fundamental el sonido de cantos gregorianos, tibetanos o de llamadas a la oración de la pieza To Breathe, que resuena en ese «Espacio Cero». La artista activista Kimsooja (Daegu, Corea del Sur, 1957, nos tiene acostumbrados a este tipo de intervenciones donde imperceptiblemente el espacio se transforma mediante pequeños actos. Un lugar reconocido que vuelve a presentársenos lleno de una carga poética, conceptual y social que nos activa las percepciones sensoriales o la imaginación. Quizá porque basa su obra en esa dialéctica que parte de lo propio, sus raíces tradicionales de la cultura coreana, para dialogar con lo universal, la preocupación por el papel de la mujer, la religión, la identidad o el nomadismo.

  20. Towards The Design of a Smartphone-Based Biofeedback Breathing Training: Identifying Diaphragmatic Breathing Patterns from a Smartphone’s Microphone

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Chen-Hsuan Iris; Kowatsch, Tobias; Tinschert, Peter; Barata, Filipe; Nißen, Marcia Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Asthma, diabetes, hypertension, or major depression are non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and impose a major burden on global health. Stress is linked to both the causes and consequences of NCDs and it has been shown that biofeedback-based breathing trainings (BBTs) are effective in coping with stress. Here, diaphragmatic breathing, i.e. deep abdominal breathing, belongs to the most distinguished breathing techniques. However, high costs and low scalability of state-of-the-art BBTs that requir...

  1. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  2. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  3. SATRIA NUSANTARA BREATHING EXERCISE IMPROVES THE SENIOR CITIZENS’ LEVEL OF FITNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a slowly losing process of the ability of tissues to regenerate and keep their normal structure and function in order to stand on from any disturbance, including infection. In older people degeneration of organs like muscles, bones, heart, blood vessels and nerve systems cause decrease in hearty. Satria nusantara gym are an alternative solution to increase hearty. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of satria nusantara gym  on fitness level to old people. Method: The research use the pre eksperimental design by using approach of one group pre test post test design. Sampling technique in this research is non probability sampling by using saturated sampling. Samples taken as much 20 old people which is following satria nusantara gym. Data were analyzed  using paired t- test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that satria nusantara gym  give positive effect to old people. Analysis: It can be cocluded that satria nusantara gym cause increase fitness level to old people. Discussion: It’s recommended further research need more variable  for representative result.

  4. The usage of Strelnikova's breathing exercises a chronic disease of the sinus paranasalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikiy B.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed that using in treatment of the chronic diseases sinus paranasalis of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity on system Yoga brings about defogging from viscous, thick, rack slime, liquidations of the stagnant phenomena's in nose cavity. Using the respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy does simple not traumatic drainage of the sinus paranasalis that brings about natural defogging nose cavity to account of the evacuations secret of the sinus paranasalis. Thereby, using in physical rehabilitation and recovery of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity for system Yoga with respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy enables significantly improves the condition of children in a dispensary condition.

  5. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. We have conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  6. Three-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2007-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. When we conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  7. Advantage of using deep inspiration breath hold with active breathing control and image-guided radiation therapy for patients treated with lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, K.R.; Madhusudhansresty; Sha, Rajib Lochan; Raut, Birendra Kumar; Poornima; Subash; Mallikarjun; Anil; Krishnam Raju, A.; Vidya; Sudarshan, G.; Mahadev, Shankar; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of moderate deep inspiration breath hold (mDIBH) using an active breathing control (ABC) apparatus on heart, spinal cord, liver and contra lateral lung doses and its volumes compared with free breathing (FB) with lung cancer irradiation

  8. Every exercise bout matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  9. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  10. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  11. Afternoon serum-melatonin in sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfberg, J; Micic, S; Strøm, J

    1998-08-01

    To study afternoon serum-melatonin values in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Melatonin has a strong circadian rhythm with high values during the night-time and low values in the afternoon. Sleep disordered breathing may change the circadian rhythm of melatonin which may have diagnostic implications. The Sleep Laboratory, The Department of Internal Medicine, Avesta Hospital, Sweden, and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. We examined 60 consecutive patients admitted for sleep disordered breathing and 10 healthy non snoring controls. The patients underwent a sleep apnoea screening test having a specificity of 100% for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) using a combination of static charge sensitive bed and oximetry. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was found in 49 patients, eight patients had borderline sleep disordered breathing (BSDB) and three patients were excluded due to interfering disease. Patients and controls had an afternoon determination of serum-melatonin. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to score day-time sleepiness. In comparison with normal controls patients suffering from OSAS had significantly higher serum-melatonin levels in the afternoon. However, as a diagnostic test for OSAS in patients with sleep disordered breathing serum-melatonin showed a low sensitivity but a high specificity. The results indicate that breathing disorders during sleep in general affect pineal function. Sleep disordered breathing seems to disturb pineal function. Determination of afternoon serum-melatonin alone or together with a scoring of daytime sleepiness does not identify OSAS-patients in a heterogeneous population of patients complaining of heavy snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

  12. Effect of influenza vaccination on oxidative stress products in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Cataneo, Renee N; Chaturvedi, Anirudh; Danaher, Patrick J; Devadiga, Anantrai; Legendre, David A; Nail, Kim L; Schmitt, Peter; Wai, James

    2010-06-01

    Viral infections cause increased oxidative stress, so a breath test for oxidative stress biomarkers (alkanes and alkane derivatives) might provide a new tool for early diagnosis. We studied 33 normal healthy human subjects receiving scheduled treatment with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Each subject was his or her own control, since they were studied on day 0 prior to vaccination, and then on days 2, 7 and 14 following vaccination. Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected with a breath collection apparatus, then analyzed by automated thermal desorption with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. A Monte Carlo simulation technique identified non-random VOC biomarkers of infection based on their C-statistic values (area under curve of receiver operating characteristic). Treatment with LAIV was followed by non-random changes in the abundance of breath VOCs. 2, 8-Dimethyl-undecane and other alkane derivatives were observed on all days. Conservative multivariate models identified vaccinated subjects on day 2 (C-statistic = 0.82, sensitivity = 63.6% and specificity = 88.5%); day 7 (C-statistic = 0.94, sensitivity = 88.5% and specificity = 92.3%); and day 14 (C-statistic = 0.95, sensitivity = 92.3% and specificity = 92.3%). The altered breath VOCs were not detected in live attenuated influenza vaccine, excluding artifactual contamination. LAIV vaccination in healthy humans elicited a prompt and sustained increase in breath biomarkers of oxidative stress. A breath test for these VOCs could potentially identify humans who are acutely infected with influenza, but who have not yet developed clinical symptoms or signs of disease.

  13. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  14. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable...... breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing...

  15. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorri Donaldsson

    Full Text Available The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing.Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically.The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance.The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  16. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldsson, Snorri; Falk, Markus; Jonsson, Baldvin; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  17. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Forro, Thomas; Klausberger, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  18. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áron Kőszeghy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  19. Cardiorespiratory and autonomic interactions during snoring related resistive breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, J H; Mitru, G

    2001-03-15

    We hypothesized that blood pressure (BP) is less during snoring as compared to periods of non-snoring in non-apneic individuals. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this reduction may be accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in sympathetic (SNSA) and parasympathetic (PNSA) nervous system activity and an increase in heart rate (HR). N/A. N/A. N/A. The variables mentioned above in addition to breathing frequency were measured in 9 subjects during NREM sleep. In addition, the lowest systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during inspiration and the highest SBP and DBP during expiration was determined breath-by-breath from segments selected from each NREM cycle. Heart rate variability was used as a marker of autonomic nervous system activity. Our results showed that BP during snoring decreased compared to non-snoring and the breath-by-breath BP analysis suggested that this difference may have been mediated by changes in intrathoracic pressure. In conjunction with the decrease in BP, SNSA decreased and HR increased however PNSA remained constant. Thus, a decrease in PNSA was likely not the primary mechanism responsible for the HR response. We conclude that BP responses and SNSA during snoring are similar to that reported previously in non-snoring individuals. However, the causal mechanisms maybe different and manifested in other measures such as HR. Thus, nocturnal cardiovascular and autonomic function maybe uniquely different in non-apneic snoring individuals.

  20. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: hypoxia plus a deep breath that interrupts hypoxic drive, initiating cyclic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Warren G

    2011-11-01

    In the 19th Century, Cheyne and Stokes independently reported cycles of respiration in patients with heart failure, beginning with apnea, followed by a few breaths. However Cheyne-Stokes respiration (C-SR) can also occur in healthy individuals with sleep, and was demonstrated in 1908 with voluntary hyperventilation, followed by apnea that Haldane blamed on hypoxia, subsequently called post-hyperventilation apnea. Additional theories explaining C-SR did not appear until 1954, based on control theory, specifically a feed-back regulator controlling CO(2). This certainly describes control of normal respiration, but to produce an unstable state such as C-SR requires either a very long transit time (3½ min) or an increase of the controller gain (13 times), physiologically improbable. There is general agreement that apnea initiates C-SR but that has not been well explained except for post-hyperventilation apnea, and that explanation is not compatible with a study by Nielsen and Smith in 1951. They plotted the effects of diminished oxygen on ventilation (V) in relation to CO(2) (Fig. 1). They found that the slope of V/CO(2) (gain) increased with hypoxia, but it flattened at a moderate CO(2) level and had nointercept with zero (apnea). It is also incompatible with our published findings in 1975 that showed that apnea did not occur until an extreme level of hypoxia occurred (the PO(2) fell below 10 mmHg), followed shortly by gasping. Much milder hypoxia underlies most cases of C-SR, when hypoxic drive replaces the normal CO(2)-based respiratory drive, in a failsafe role. I hypothesize that the cause of apnea is a brief interruption of hypoxic drive caused by a pulse of oxygen from a stronger than average breath, such as a sigh. The rapidity of onset of apnea in response to a pulse of oxygen, reflects the large pressure gradient for oxygen from air to lung with each breath, in contrast to CO(2). With apnea, there is a gradual fall in oxygen, resulting in a resumption of

  2. Effect of exercise on deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.D.; Messina, M.S.; Smaldone, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exercise and its associated increase in ventilation on the deposition and subsequent retention of inhaled particles, we measured the fractional and regional lung deposition of a radioactively tagged (/sup 99m/Tc) monodisperse aerosol (2.6 microns mass median aerodynamic diam) in normal human subjects at rest and while exercising on a bicycle ergometer. Breath-by-breath deposition fraction (DF) was measured throughout the aerosol exposures by Tyndallometry. Following each exposure gamma camera analysis was used to 1) determine the regional distribution of deposited particles and 2) monitor lung retention for 2.5 h and again at 24 h. We found that DF was unchanged between ventilation at rest (6-10 l/min) and exercise (32-46 l/min). Even though mouth deposition was enhanced with exercise, it was not large enough to produce a significant difference in the deposition fraction of the lung (DFL) between resting and exercise exposures. The central-to-peripheral distribution of deposited aerosol was larger for the exercise vs. resting exposure, reflecting a shift of particle deposition to more central bronchial airways. Apical-to-basal distribution was not different for the two exposures. Retention at 2.5 h and 24 h (R24) was reduced following the exercise vs. the resting exposure, consistent with greater bronchial deposition during exercise. The product of DFL and R24 gave a measure of fractional burden at 24 h (B24), i.e., the fraction of inhaled aerosol residing in the lungs 24 h after exposure. B24 was not significantly different between rest and exercise exposures

  3. Asthma triggers on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota: the Breathing Relief Education and Tribal Health Empowerment (BREATHE) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Rae; Wallace, James

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to better understand asthma triggers and possible causes of exacerbations among BREATHE participants on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation in western South Dakota. To qualify for enrollment, participants had to have physician-diagnosed asthma, be uncontrolled and have persistent symptoms. Participants were asked to identify their top two asthma triggers throughout their one-year enrollment during initial visits and subsequent phone follow-ups. In addition, participant's medical records were reviewed for visits to the emergency department (ED) to demonstrate asthma exacerbations. In 2008, 127 interviews were conducted with 45 enrolled participants for a total of 254 results. Overall, the three most common self reported triggers were cold air, dust and smoke and these comprised nearly half (48.4 percent) of all reports. Dust was reported in 16.5 percent of interviews and ranked among the top four for every season. Smoke (12.6 percent) and cold air (19.3 percent) were leaders in all seasons except summer, but humid air, pollens and strong odors were unique to summer. Exercise/activity ranked high during the winter and spring, but was reported less in summer and fall. There was no identifiable trend in ER visits by season. People with asthma living on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation or other locations with similar community and geographic demographics are most likely to suffer an asthma exacerbation from exposure to cold air, dust, smoke and exercise/activity. Asthma education is necessary on all levels, but information on avoidance and control of these most common reported triggers is especially important.

  4. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Hicks, James W

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems...... that bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending...... on species. The large variation between species suggests the independent evolution of air-breathing organs and behaviors results in different blood PCO2 regulating strategies. However, all three species continued to rely on the water for CO2 excretion to some extent when submerged....

  5. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breath analysis using external cavity diode lasers: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Most techniques that are used for diagnosis and therapy of diseases are invasive. Reliable noninvasive methods are always needed for the comfort of patients. Owing to its noninvasiveness, ease of use, and easy repeatability, exhaled breath analysis is a very good candidate for this purpose. Breath analysis can be performed using different techniques, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS), proton transfer reaction-MS, and selected ion flow tube-MS. However, these devices are bulky and require complicated procedures for sample collection and preconcentration. Therefore, these are not practical for routine applications in hospitals. Laser-based techniques with small size, robustness, low cost, low response time, accuracy, precision, high sensitivity, selectivity, low detection limit, real-time, and point-of-care detection have a great potential for routine use in hospitals. In this review paper, the recent advances in the fields of external cavity lasers and breath analysis for detection of diseases are presented.

  7. Predictive value of 14CO2 breath tests for clinical use of 13CO2 breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The knowledge of the efficiency of 14 CO 2 breath tests makes possible the comparison of the efficiency of analogous tests using the stable isotope 13 C. 14 CO 2 exhalation studies render overall information. After parenteral administration of a 14 C labeled substrate, 14 CO 2 breath tests permit insight into the metabolism of the 14 C substrate and the associated intermediary metabolism. If the 14 C substrate is given orally or by intraduodenal instillation, 14 CO 2 breath tests supply information not only about gastrointenstinal absorption and digestion but also about the intermediary metabolism yielding 14 CO 2 , after the administered substrate or its degradation products have been absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of 14 CO 2 arising from absorption, digestion and intermediary metabolism can be estimated only by additional methods. 14 CO 2 breath tests are unable to delineate single metabolic reactions involved in the formation of carbon dioxide. Under these considerations the clinical application of 14 CO 2 breath tests may provide diagnostically useful results, especially in internal medicine and surgery. The tests are suitable for intraindividual assessment of the course of a disease and of therapeutic effects. They may be important in the research of the metabolism of 14 C labeled substrates

  8. Effects of high-frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati compared with breath awareness on the degree of optical illusion perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Maharana, Kanchan; Balrana, Budhi; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2011-06-01

    Prior research has shown that methods of meditation, breath control, and different kinds of yoga breathing affect attention and visual perception, including decreasing the size of certain optical illusions. Evaluating relationships sheds light on the perceptual and cognitive changes induced by yoga and related methods, and the locus of the effects. In the present study, the degree of optical illusion was assessed using Müller-Lyer stimuli before and immediately after two different kinds of practice, a high frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati, and breath awareness. A nonyoga, control session tested for practice effects. Thirty participants (with group M age = 26.9 yr., SD = 5.7) practiced the two techniques for 18 min. on two separate days. The control group had 15 nonyoga practitioners assessed before and after 18 min. in which they did not perform any specific activity but were seated and relaxed. After both kapalabhati and breath awareness there was a significant decrease in the degree of optical illusion. The possibility that this was due to a practice or repetition effect was ruled out when 15 nonyoga practitioners showed no change in the degree of illusion when retested after 18 min. The changes were interpreted as due to changes in perception related to the way the stimuli were judged.

  9. Comparative effects of acute O/sub 2/ breathing and terbutaline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A combined hemodynamic and radionuclide study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschopp, J M; Gabathuler, J; Righetti, A; Junod, A F

    1985-01-01

    The acute effects of terbutaline (T) and breathing 100% O/sub 2/(O/sub 2/) on gas exchange, pulmonary hemodynamics and radionuclide angiography were evaluated in 15 patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). O/sub 2/ breathing resulted in a decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and cardiac index (CI) without changing pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) or right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF,LVEF). On the other hand, T administration was followed by a decrease in PVRI, and increase in CI, RVEF and LVEF. These effects of T were maintained during exercise. Although RVEF was inversely correlated with basal levels of PAP or PVRI, acute changes in pulmonary hemodynamics were not correlated with significant changes on RVEF. These results suggest that T may be useful in the treatment of patients with COPD prone to develop cor pulmonale. However, the long-term benefit of this treatment remains to be established.

  10. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  11. Exercise therapy for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L

    2011-10-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training to improve physical fitness and function, reduce fibromyalgia symptoms, and improve quality of life. However, other forms of exercise (e.g., tai chi, yoga, Nordic walking, vibration techniques) and lifestyle physical activity also have been investigated to determine their effects. This paper highlights findings from recent randomized controlled trials and reviews of exercise for people with fibromyalgia, and includes information regarding factors that influence response and adherence to exercise to assist clinicians with exercise and physical activity prescription decision-making to optimize health and well-being.

  12. DIABETES AND EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın BALCI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a crucial health problem due to its incidence and serious complications. Physical inactivity is one of the risk factors associated with it. Therapeutic exercises are beneficial in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. There are several studies about the effects of exercise type and intensity on glycemic control. The exercise programs should be prepared individually after a comprehensive medical evaluation. There are some regulations to prevent acute complications before, after and during the exercises. The importance of regular exercise for public health should be pointed out and physical activity should be urged. The present review discusses issues concerning the prevention and treatment of diabetes through exercise, and the possible risks, in view of current literature.

  13. Exercise for midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangold, M M; Sherman, C

    1998-12-01

    Exercise is good for everyone, but it's more important than ever when you reach midlife. While regular exercise may not eliminate symptoms like hot flushes, it can improve your general well-being and increase your strength and stamina in daily life. If you want to lose fat or maintain a healthy weight, exercise is far more effective than diet alone. A physically active lifestyle, along with good nutrition and estrogen therapy, will also help protect you against heart disease, overweight, and osteoporosis.

  14. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of 14 C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14 CO 2 . This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14 C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14 CO 2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites [fr

  15. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  16. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  17. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  18. Effects of a prior high-intensity knee-extension exercise on muscle recruitment and energy cost: a combined local and global investigation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Bringard, Aurélien; Le Fur, Yann; Vilmen, Christophe; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Bendahan, David

    2009-06-01

    The effects of a priming exercise bout on both muscle energy production and the pattern of muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent exercise bout are poorly understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a prior exercise bout which is known to increase O(2) supply and to induce a residual acidosis could alter energy cost and muscle fibre recruitment during a subsequent heavy-intensity knee-extension exercise. Fifteen healthy subjects performed two 6 min bouts of heavy exercise separated by a 6 min resting period. Rates of oxidative and anaerobic ATP production, determined with (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and breath-by-breath measurements of pulmonary oxygen uptake were obtained simultaneously. Changes in muscle oxygenation and muscle fibre recruitment occurring within the quadriceps were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy and surface electromyography. The priming heavy-intensity exercise increased motor unit recruitment (P exercise bout but did not alter muscle energy cost. We also observed a reduced deoxygenation time delay, whereas the deoxygenation amplitude was increased (P exercise led to an increased recruitment of motor units in the early part of the second bout of heavy exercise. Considering the increased oxidative cost and the unaltered energy cost, one could suggest that our results illustrate a reduced metabolic strain per fibre.

  19. Gas exchange kinetics following concentric-eccentric isokinetic arm and leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Mookerjee, S; Steegmanns, A; Knicker, A; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240deg∙s -1 ) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO 2 ) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t 1/2 ) for oxygen uptake (V˙O 2 pulm), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO 2 pulm), and ventilation (V˙ E ). Significant differences of the t 1/2 values were identified between 60 and 150deg∙s -1 . Significant differences in the t 1/2 values were observed between V˙O 2 pulm and V˙CO 2 pulm and between V˙CO 2 pulm and V˙ E . The time to attain the first avDO 2 -peak showed significant differences between arm and leg exercise. The present study illustrates, that V˙O 2 pulm kinetics are distorted due to non-linear CO dynamics. Therefore, it has to be taken into account, that V˙O 2 pulm may not be a valuable surrogate for muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in the recovery phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Women, 'madness' and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardes, Jennifer Jane

    2018-03-21

    The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines. Indeed, 'exercise prescriptions' in the treatment of depression is not uncommon. Yet, this link between exercise as a treatment for women's mental health has not always been so pervasive. In fact, an examination of asylum reports and medical journals from the late 19th century highlights a significant shift in attitude towards the role of exercise in the treatment of women's emotional states and mental health. This paper specifically examines how this treatment of women's mental health through exercise has moved from what might be regarded as a focus on exercise as a 'cause' of women's mental ailments to exercise promoted as a 'cure'. Unpacking the changing medical attitudes towards exercise for women in line with larger sociopolitical and historic contexts reveals that while this shift towards exercise promotion might prima facie appear as a less essentialist view of women and their mental and physical states, it inevitably remains tied to larger policy and governance agendas. New modes of exercise 'treatment' for women's mental health are not politically neutral and, thus, what appear to emerge as forms of liberation are, in actuality, subtler forms of regulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  2. Impact of manakin motion on particle transport in the breathing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current experimental investigation is focused on particle measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) in the breathing zone of a seated, breathing, thermal manikin under stationary and rotational conditions. Particle size, concentration, flux, and velocity data were co...

  3. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  4. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H

    2017-05-04

    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  5. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  6. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner of how a ...

  7. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FAQs Breadcrumb Home Exercise for Your Bone Health Exercise for Your Bone Health Vital at every age ... A Complete Osteoporosis Program For Your Information Why Exercise? Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds ...

  8. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  9. EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    to a repeat bout of intense exercise within 2 hours after an initial. EIA response. In this ... advantage of athletes, if the athlete then competes following a warm-up in this .... Diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm in the work-up of the athlete with EIA. .... Avoid exercise in excessively cold Reduced responsiveness of airways.

  10. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  11. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  12. Exercise induced dyspnea in the young. Larynx as the bottleneck of the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola Drange; Maat, Robert Christiaan; Heimdal, John Helge; Olofsson, Jan; Skadberg, Britt Torunn; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Exercise induced asthma may symptomatically be difficult to differentiate from exercise related obstruction in the upper airways, sometimes leading to diagnostic confusion and inappropriate treatment. Larynx accounts for a significant fraction of total airway resistance, but its role as a limiting factor for airflow during exercise has been hampered by lack of diagnostic tools. We aimed to study laryngeal function in exercising humans by transnasal laryngoscopy. Continuous video recording of the larynx was performed in parallel with continuous film recording of the upper part of the body and recording of breath sounds in subjects running to respiratory distress or exhaustion on a treadmill. A successful examination was obtained in 20 asymptomatic volunteers and 151 (91%) of 166 young patients with a history of inspiratory distress or stridor during exercise. At rest, six patients had abnormal laryngeal findings. During exercise, a moderate or severe adduction of laryngeal structures was observed in parallel with increasing inspiratory distress in 113 (75%) patients. In 109 of these, adduction started within supraglottic structures, followed by adduction of the vocal cords in 88. In four patients, laryngeal adduction started in the vocal cords, involving supraglottic structures secondarily in three. Larynx can safely be studied throughout a maximum intensity exercise treadmill test. A characteristic laryngeal response pattern to exercise was visualised in a large proportion of patients with suspected upper airway obstruction. Laryngoscopy during ongoing symptoms is recommended for proper assessment of these patients.

  13. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  14. Purification yields of forced air filters for radioactive breath protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Air filters for breath protection were tested as to purification yield using the in-situ DOP testing method. Only some of them satisfied the requirements made by the authors. Requirements, testing methods, experimental set-up and results are presented. (G.J.P.)

  15. African breathing and spiritual healing | Edwards | Indilinga: African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Discerning visitors to Africa typically have an 'ancestral-roots' experience on encountering an essential humanity and ... In its original, essential and literal meaning, psychology is concerned with the breath, energy ... some other form. Such an essential and spiritual form of psychology, still practiced internationally,

  16. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  17. WE-DE-209-02: Active Breathing Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsa, D. [Stronach Regional Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  18. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  19. Take a Deep Breath (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-24

    Nearly 16 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD; however, many may not be aware they have the condition. This podcast discusses the importance of seeing a health care provider if you have trouble breathing.  Created: 11/24/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/24/2016.

  20. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  1. Finding aroma clues in the human breath to diagnose diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    History of human odor analysis in disease diagnosis The use of the sense of smell as an indicator of human disease probably originated with Hippocrates (circa 400 BC). Early medical practitioners recognized that the presence of human diseases changed the odors released from the body and breath. Physicians once relied heavily on their sense of smell to provide useful...

  2. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes

  3. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  4. Radioprotection of normal tissues of the mouse by hypoxic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Joiner, B.; Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxic breathing during irradiation has been advocated as a therapeutic modality, to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. In this form of treatment, the total and daily X-ray dose is increased by a factor of 1.25, on the assumption that all normal tissues in the beam will be protected to a similar extent by breathing gas containing a reduced oxygen concentration (usually 10%). To test this concept, we have determined the effect of varying the inspired oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of 3 normal tissues in the mouse (kidney, jejunum and skin), and have compared these results with data from the literature for mouse lung. Reduction of the inspired oxygen tension from 21% (air) to 7-8% led to much greater radioprotection of skin (protection factor 1.37) than of lung (1.09). Protection factors for jejunum and kidney were 1.16 and 1.36 respectively. The results show that the extent of radioprotection afforded by hypoxic breathing is tissue dependent, and that great care must be taken clinically in choosing the increased radiation dose to be used in conjunction with hypoxic breathing

  5. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  6. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  7. [Characteristics of tidal breathing pulmonary function in children with tracheobronchomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Chen, Qaing; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Shuang-Gui; Hu, Ci-Lang; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of tidal breathing pulmonary function in children with tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). In this study, 30 children who were diagnosed with TBM using electronic bronchoscopy were enrolled in the observation group; 30 healthy children were recruited in the normal control group. For individuals in each group, the assessment of tidal breath pulmonary function was performed at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diagnosis. There were no significant differences in tidal volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time, and inspiratory to expiratory ratio between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had a significantly higher respiratory rate and significantly lower ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) and ratio of volume to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE). There was a time-dependent increase in TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE for TBM children from the time of initial diagnosis to 12 months after diagnosis. Tidal breathing pulmonary function has characteristic changes in children with TBM. Tidal breathing pulmonary function tends to be recovered with increased age in children with TBM.

  8. The effect of African breath psychotherapeutic workshops on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of an African breath psychotherapeutic workshop called Shiso on spirituality perceptions and experiences. In view of previous pilot study findings, it was hypothesized that further Shiso workshops with enlarged samples would improve participants' spirituality in ...

  9. Effects of integral breath consciousness workshops on spirituality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although not quite reaching quantitative significant levels, qualitatively improved health was reported. The results are discussed in relation to previous and future research with regard to the influence of breath consciousness on perceptions of spirituality, health, psychological skills, stress and related phenomena.

  10. Toward a hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a chip-integrated amperometric sensor for the detection of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is reported. The electrode chip is characterized, and detection of H2O2 in an aqueous phase is shown by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Variation of conditions

  11. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  12. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  13. The Breathing Cell: Cyclic Intermembrane Distance Variation in Reverse Electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Domingo, Jordi; Slouwerhof, E.; Vermaas, David; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2016-01-01

    The breathing cell is a new concept design that operates a reverse electrodialysis stack by varying in time the intermembrane distance. Reverse electrodialysis is used to harvest salinity gradient energy; a rather unknown renewable energy source from controlled mixing of river water and seawater.

  14. The breathing cell : cyclic intermembrane distance variation in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, J.; Slouwerhof, E.; Vermaas, D.A.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The breathing cell is a new concept design that operates a reverse electrodialysis stack by varying in time the intermembrane distance. Reverse electrodialysis is used to harvest salinity gradient energy; a rather unknown renewable energy source from controlled mixing of river water and seawater.

  15. WE-DE-209-02: Active Breathing Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, D.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  16. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bad‑breath, emerging adults, misconceptions, Nigeria, perceptions. Date of ... negligible minority being attributable to food and ill health. Many cases of ..... Intra‑ and extra‑oral halitosis: finding of a new form of ...

  17. Breathing, spiking and chaos in a laser with injected signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugiato, L A; Narducci, L M

    1983-06-01

    The behavior of a laser driven by an injected cw field detuned from the operating laser frequency is considered. The analysis covers the entire range of incident power levels from zero to the injection locking threshold. In this domain, the output intensity exhibits regular and chaotic oscillations, a period doubling cascade in reverse order, envelope breathing and spiking.

  18. The breathing of webs under repeated partial edge loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2012), s. 463-468 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Steel structures and bridges. Podbanske, 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * breathing * fatigue limit state * design * repeated partial edge loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  19. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  20. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  1. Breathing Patterns In The Newborn And Related Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transition from foetal to neonatal life is a dramatic one; it demands considerable and effective physiological alteration in the newborn to ensure survival. Simultaneously cardio-respiratory adjustments are initiated and breathing maintained on a continuous basis. The basic movements in the human foetus being about 8 ...

  2. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-26

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  3. Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

    2009-06-01

    Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ⟶ CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

  4. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

  5. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group......), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  6. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  7. Galois theory through exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Brzeziński, Juliusz

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a unique introduction to classical Galois theory through many concrete examples and exercises of varying difficulty (including computer-assisted exercises). In addition to covering standard material, the book explores topics related to classical problems such as Galois’ theorem on solvable groups of polynomial equations of prime degrees, Nagell's proof of non-solvability by radicals of quintic equations, Tschirnhausen's transformations, lunes of Hippocrates, and Galois' resolvents. Topics related to open conjectures are also discussed, including exercises related to the inverse Galois problem and cyclotomic fields. The author presents proofs of theorems, historical comments and useful references alongside the exercises, providing readers with a well-rounded introduction to the subject and a gateway to further reading. A valuable reference and a rich source of exercises with sample solutions, this book will be useful to both students and lecturers. Its original concept makes it particula...

  8. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico

    2018-01-01

    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure

  9. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  10. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  11. Scintigraphic determination of gastrointestinal transit times. A comparison with breath hydrogen and radiologic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Larsen, N E; Hilsted, J

    1991-01-01

    A scintigraphic method for determination of gastrointestinal transit times was compared with the breath hydrogen test and a multiple-bolus, single-radiograph technique. A close temporal association was found between the caecal appearance of radioactivity and the onset of breath hydrogen excretion...... the breath hydrogen concentration profiles....

  12. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  13. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J.; Tytgat, K. M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F. A.; Bowen, B. M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R. L.; Riddell, R. H.; Hunt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared

  14. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    "Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.

  15. Exhaled methane concentration profiles during exercise on an ergometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, A; Ruzsanyi, V; Unterkofler, K; Mohácsi, Á; Tuboly, E; Boros, M; Szabó, G; Hinterhuber, H; Amann, A

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled methane concentration measurements are extensively used in medical investigation of certain gastrointestinal conditions. However, the dynamics of endogenous methane release is largely unknown. Breath methane profiles during ergometer tests were measured by means of a photoacoustic spectroscopy based sensor. Five methane-producing volunteers (with exhaled methane level being at least 1 ppm higher than room air) were measured. The experimental protocol consisted of 5 min rest—15 min pedalling (at a workload of 75 W)—5 min rest. In addition, hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were determined and compared to the estimated alveolar methane concentration. The alveolar breath methane level decreased considerably, by a factor of 3–4 within 1.5 min, while the estimated ventilation-perfusion ratio increased by a factor of 2–3. Mean pre-exercise and exercise methane concentrations were 11.4 ppm (SD:7.3) and 2.8 ppm (SD:1.9), respectively. The changes can be described by the high sensitivity of exhaled methane to ventilationperfusion ratio and are in line with the Farhi equation. PMID:25749807

  16. Biomechanical interpretation of a free-breathing lung motion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianyu; White, Benjamin; Lamb, James; Low, Daniel A; Moore, Kevin L; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Lu Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a biomechanical model for free-breathing motion and compare it to a published heuristic five-dimensional (5D) free-breathing lung motion model. An ab initio biomechanical model was developed to describe the motion of lung tissue during free breathing by analyzing the stress–strain relationship inside lung tissue. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model was equivalent to a heuristic 5D free-breathing lung motion model proposed by Low et al in 2005 (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921–9), in which the motion was broken down to a linear expansion component and a hysteresis component. To test the biomechanical model, parameters that characterize expansion, hysteresis and angles between the two motion components were reported independently and compared between two models. The biomechanical model agreed well with the heuristic model within 5.5% in the left lungs and 1.5% in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. The biomechanical model predicted that a histogram of angles between the two motion components should have two peaks at 39.8° and 140.2° in the left lungs and 37.1° and 142.9° in the right lungs. The data from the 5D model verified the existence of those peaks at 41.2° and 148.2° in the left lungs and 40.1° and 140° in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. Similar results were also observed for the patients with lung cancer, but with greater discrepancies. The maximum-likelihood estimation of hysteresis magnitude was reported to be 2.6 mm for the lung cancer patients. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model fit the heuristic 5D model very well. The biomechanical model provided new insights into breathing motion with specific focus on motion trajectory hysteresis.

  17. Adhesion of volatile propofol to breathing circuit tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dominik; Maurer, Felix; Trautner, Katharina; Fink, Tobias; Hüppe, Tobias; Sessler, Daniel I; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-08-21

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be measured and may provide a real-time estimate of plasma concentration. However, propofol is absorbed in plastic tubing, thus estimates may fail to reflect lung/blood concentration if expired gas is not extracted directly from the endotracheal tube. We evaluated exhaled propofol in five ventilated ICU patients who were sedated with propofol. Exhaled propofol was measured once per minute using ion mobility spectrometry. Exhaled air was sampled directly from the endotracheal tube and at the ventilator end of the expiratory side of the anesthetic circuit. The circuit was disconnected from the patient and propofol was washed out with a separate clean ventilator. Propofol molecules, which discharged from the expiratory portion of the breathing circuit, were measured for up to 60 h. We also determined whether propofol passes through the plastic of breathing circuits. A total of 984 data pairs (presented as median values, with 95% confidence interval), consisting of both concentrations were collected. The concentration of propofol sampled near the patient was always substantially higher, at 10.4 [10.25-10.55] versus 5.73 [5.66-5.88] ppb (p tubing was 4.58 [4.48-4.68] ppb, 3.46 [3.21-3.73] in the first hour, 4.05 [3.77-4.34] in the second hour, and 4.01 [3.36-4.40] in the third hour. Out-gassing propofol from the breathing circuit remained at 2.8 ppb after 60 h of washing out. Diffusion through the plastic was not observed. Volatile propofol binds or adsorbs to the plastic of a breathing circuit with saturation kinetics. The bond is reversible so propofol can be washed out from the plastic. Our data confirm earlier findings that accurate measurements of volatile propofol require exhaled air to be sampled as close as possible to the patient.

  18. Salivary Markers and Microbial Flora in Mouth Breathing Late Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mummolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is a 6-month observational case-control study that aims to estimate plaque index (PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and specific Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Lactobacillus rates in a mouth breathing late adolescents sample, after a professional oral hygiene procedure and home oral hygiene instructions. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 20 mouth breathing late adolescents/young adults (average: 19.2±2.5; range: 18–23 years and a matched control group of nose breathing subjects (average: 18.3±3.2; range 18–23 years were included in the study. All the participants were subjected to a professional oral hygiene procedure and appropriate home oral hygiene instructions (t0. After three months (t1 and six months (t2, the PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and S. mutans and Lactobacilli rates were recorded. Results. The mean buffering capacity of saliva and the salivary flow rate showed no significant difference between the two groups, all over the observational period. For PI, a significantly higher mode (score 1 of PI was observed in the study group at t1 (score 0 = 35% of subjects; score 1 = 60%; score 2 = 5% and t2 (score 1 = 65% of subjects, score 2 = 35%, with respect to control group. Furthermore, mouth breathing subjects show a significant 4 times higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 (CI lower limit: 0.95; CI upper limit: 9.48; chi-square: 4.28; p=0.03, with respect to the control subjects. Conclusions. Mouth breathing late adolescents show a significantly higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 and an increased level of PI. Interceptive orthodontic treatments in growing subjects, like palatal expansion, are encouraged to improve the nasal air flow. In older subjects, orthodontic treatments should be performed with removable appliances like clear aligners, in order to allow a better oral hygiene level.

  19. Habitual exercise instigation (vs. execution) predicts healthy adults' exercise frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Alison; Gardner, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Habit is thought to be conducive to health behavior maintenance, because habits prompt behavior with minimal cognitive resources. The precise role of habit in determining complex behavioral sequences, such as exercise, has been underresearched. It is possible that the habit process may initiate a behavioral sequence (instigation habit) or that, after instigation, movement through the sequence is automated (execution habit). We hypothesized that exercise instigation habit can be empirically distinguished from exercise execution habit and that instigation habit strength is most predictive of future exercise and reflective of longitudinal exercise behavior change. Further, we evaluated whether patterned exercise action-that is, engaging in the same exercise actions from session to session-can be distinct from exercise execution habit. Healthy adults (N = 123) rated their exercise instigation and execution habit strengths, patterned exercise actions, and exercise frequency in baseline and 1-month follow-up surveys. Participants reported exercise engagement via electronic daily diaries for 1 month. Hypotheses were tested with regression analyses and repeated-measures analyses of variance. Exercise instigation habit strength was the only unique predictor of exercise frequency. Frequency profiles (change from high to low or low to high, no change high, no change low) were associated with changes in instigation habit but not with execution habit or patterned exercise action. Results suggest that the separable components of exercise sessions may be more or less automatic, and they point to the importance of developing instigation habit for establishing frequent exercise. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  1. Tasks and means of therapeutic exercises in patients with breast cancer in pre- and postoperative periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Grushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of radical treatment for patients with breast cancer (BC is a surgical intervention: radical mastectomy (RME of different modifications or organ-sparing operations. In the preoperative period, the tasks of therapeutic exercises (TEs are psychological preparation of a patient for active participation in his / her treatment, as well as complete breath training. Classes are done in a group of convalescents, by applying dynamic and static breathing exercises. In the early postoperative period, the tasks of TEs are to prevent hypostatic pneumonia, surgical-site shoulder joint stiffness and to improve systemic and regional blood and lymph circulation. Analysis of 1235 patients who had undergone RME and 212 patients who had radical resection showed that restricted shoulder joint motion due to hand immobilization in an adducted position and late initiation of TEs occurred in 44.6 and 33.5 % of the patients, respectively. Individual TEs classes include breathing exercises, position treatment, and special exercises to restore shoulder joint function and to control posture. Lymphadenectomy and failure to ligate intersected lymphatic vessels lead to inevitable lymphorrhea and seroma. Analysis of 1447 patents indicated that early initiation of TEs failed to affect seroma duration and extent and wound dehiscence. In the latter (that, according to the author»s data, occurs in 3.7 % of cases after RME and in 9.2 % after preoperative radiotherapy, TEs are limited by position treatment until the wound heals or secondary sutures are applied. The tasks of the late postoperative period are recovery of the full range of shoulder joint motion, normal posture, cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to increased physical exercises, and general tonic exposure. The paper gives TEs sets developed for each period.

  2. Breath-to-breath variability of exhaled CO2 as a marker of lung dysmaturity in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzas, Sotirios; Theodorakopoulos, Ilias; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2017-12-01

    The concept of diffusional screening implies that breath-to-breath variations in CO 2 clearance, when related to the variability of breathing, may contain information on the quality and utilization of the available alveolar surface. We explored the validity of the above hypothesis in a cohort of young infants of comparable postmenstrual age but born at different stages of lung maturity, namely, in term-born infants ( n = 128), preterm-born infants without chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI; n = 53), and preterm infants with moderate/severe CLDI ( n = 87). Exhaled CO 2 volume (V E,CO2 ) and concentration (F E,CO2 ) were determined by volumetric capnography, whereas their variance was assessed by linear and nonlinear variability metrics. The relationship between relative breath-to-breath change of V E,CO2 (ΔV E,CO2 ) and the corresponding change of tidal volume (ΔV T ) was also analyzed. Nonlinear F E,CO2 variability was lower in CLDI compared with term and non-CLDI preterm group ( P variability was attributed to the variability of V T ( r 2 = 0.749), whereas in term and healthy preterm infants this relationship was weaker ( r 2 = 0.507 and 0.630, respectively). The ΔV E,CO2 - ΔV T slope was less steep in the CLDI group (1.06 ± 0.07) compared with non-CLDI preterm (1.16 ± 0.07; P variability that can be quantified by nonlinear variability metrics and may reflect the degree of lung dysmaturity. In infants with moderate/severe chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI), the variability of the exhaled CO 2 is mainly driven by the variability of breathing, whereas in term-born and healthy preterm infants this relationship is less strong. The slope of the relative CO 2 -to-volume change is less steep in CLDI infants, suggesting that dysmature lungs are less efficient in eliminating CO 2 under tidal breathing conditions.

  3. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.bischoff@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  4. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  5. Sugars, exercise and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Terruzzi, Ileana; Luzi, Livio

    2017-12-15

    There is a direct link between a variety of addictions and mood states to which exercise could be relieving. Sugar addiction has been recently counted as another binge/compulsive/addictive eating behavior, differently induced, leading to a high-significant health problem. Regularly exercising at moderate intensity has been shown to efficiently and positively impact upon physiological imbalances caused by several morbid conditions, including affective disorders. Even in a wider set of physchiatric diseases, physical exercise has been prescribed as a complementary therapeutic strategy. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases (search terms: sugar addiction, food craving, exercise therapy, training, physical fitness, physical activity, rehabilitation and aerobic). Seeking high-sugar diets, also in a reward- or craving-addiction fashion, can generate drastic metabolic derangements, often interpolated with affective disorders, for which exercise may represent a valuable, universal, non-pharmachological barrier. More research in humans is needed to confirm potential exercise-mechanisms that may break the bond between sugar over-consumption and affective disorders. The purpose of this review is to address the importance of physical exercise in reversing the gloomy scenario of unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles in our modern society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY

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    Zrna Agačević

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some precautions should be observed. The physician should screen for any contraindications to exercise and encourage patients to avoid overly vigorous activity, especially in the third trimester, when most pregnant women have a decreased tolerance for weight-bearing exercise. Adequate hydration and appropriate ventilation are important in preventing the possible teratogenic effects of overheating. Pregnant women should avoid exercise that involves the risk of abdominal trauma, falls or excessive joint stress, as in contact sports and vigorous racquet sports. In the absence of any obstetric or medical complications, most women can maintain a regular exercise regimen during pregnancy. Some studies have found a greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically wellconditioned women as compared with other women.

  7. Breathing training on lower esophageal sphincter as a complementary treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, M; Sabatino, L; Moffa, A; Capuano, F; Luccarelli, V; Vitali, M; Ribolsi, M; Cicala, M; Salvinelli, F

    2016-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) represents one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, but is still a challenge to cure. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are currently the GERD's standard treatment, although not successful in all patients; some concerns have been raised regarding their long term consumption. Recently, some studies showed the benefits of inspiratory muscle training in increasing the lower esophageal sphincter pressure in patients affected by GERD, thereby reducing their symptoms. Relevant published studies were searched in Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid or Medical Subject Headings using the following keywords: "GERD" and physiotherapy", "GERD" and "exercise", "GERD" and "breathing", "GERD and "training". At the end of our selection process, four publications have been included for systematic review. All of them were prospective controlled studies, mainly based on the training of the diaphragm muscle. GERD symptoms, pH-manometry values and PPIs usage were assessed. Among the non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment modalities, the breathing training on diaphragm could play an important role in selected patients to manage the symptoms of GERD.

  8. "It's exercise or nothing": a qualitative analysis of exercise dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To explore, using qualitative methods, the concept of exercise dependence. Semistructured interviews were undertaken with subjects screened for exercise dependence and eating disorders. Methods—Female exercisers, four in each case, were allocated a priori to four groups: primary exercise dependent; secondary exercise dependent, where there was a coincidence of exercise dependence and an eating disorder; eating disordered; control, where there was no evidence of either exercise dependence or eating disorder. They were asked about their exercise and eating attitudes and behaviour, as well as about any history of psychological distress. Their narratives were taped, transcribed, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Results—Participants classified as primary exercise dependent either showed no evidence of exercise dependent attitudes and behaviour or, if they exhibited features of exercise dependence, displayed symptoms of an eating disorder. Only the latter reported a history of psychological distress, similar to that exhibited by women classified as secondary exercise dependent or eating disordered. For secondary exercise dependent and eating disordered women, as well as for controls, the narratives largely confirmed the a priori classification. Conclusions—Where exercise dependence was manifest, it was always in the context of an eating disorder, and it was this co-morbidity, in addition to eating disorders per se, that was associated with psychological distress. As such, these qualitative data support the concept of secondary, but not primary, exercise dependence. Key Words: exercise dependence; eating disorders; psychological distress; anorexia; bulimia PMID:11131229

  9. Exercise as medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Saltin, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    disease, asthma, cystic fibrosis); musculo-skeletal disorders (osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, back pain, rheumatoid arthritis); and cancer. The effect of exercise therapy on disease pathogenesis and symptoms are given and the possible mechanisms of action are discussed. We have interpreted the scientific......This review provides the reader with the up-to-date evidence-based basis for prescribing exercise as medicine in the treatment of 26 different diseases: psychiatric diseases (depression, anxiety, stress, schizophrenia); neurological diseases (dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis...... literature and for each disease, we provide the reader with our best advice regarding the optimal type and dose for prescription of exercise....

  10. Fitness, Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Symptoms of Depression, and Cognition in Inactive Overweight Children: Mediation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika M K; Montoya, Amanda K; Drescher, Christopher F; Newberry, Andrew; Sultan, Zain; Williams, Celestine F; Pollock, Norman K; Davis, Catherine L

    We used mediation models to examine the mechanisms underlying the relationships among physical fitness, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), symptoms of depression, and cognitive functioning. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of the cohorts involved in the 2003-2006 project PLAY (a trial of the effects of aerobic exercise on health and cognition) and the 2008-2011 SMART study (a trial of the effects of exercise on cognition). A total of 397 inactive overweight children aged 7-11 received a fitness test, standardized cognitive test (Cognitive Assessment System, yielding Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, and Full Scale scores), and depression questionnaire. Parents completed a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire. We used bootstrapped mediation analyses to test whether SDB mediated the relationship between fitness and depression and whether SDB and depression mediated the relationship between fitness and cognition. Fitness was negatively associated with depression ( B = -0.041; 95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02) and SDB ( B = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.001). SDB was positively associated with depression ( B = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.32 to 1.67) after controlling for fitness. The relationship between fitness and depression was mediated by SDB (indirect effect = -0.005; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.0004). The relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition was independently mediated by SDB (indirect effect = 0.058; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.13) and depression (indirect effect = -0.071; 95% CI, -0.01 to -0.17). SDB mediates the relationship between fitness and depression, and SDB and depression separately mediate the relationship between fitness and the attention component of cognition.

  11. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

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    Ballinger Michelle R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed.

  12. THE CHANGES IN LEVEL OF 8-ENDORPHIN, INTERLEUKIN-2, INTERLEUKIN-4, INTERLEUKIN-6, IMUNOGLOBULIN AND CORTISOL HORMONE ON PRACTICES OF BRETHING EXERCISE

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    Rumpis Agus Sudarku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study was to reveal the changes of immunity at breathing exercises. This was an experimental study. With randomized pre-posttest control group design. Methods: The population were students of MA Mu'alimin, in Yogyakarta. Respondents were 15 students for each groups. The unit analysis were data analysis from blood taken from vena cubiti. The dependent variables were levels of IL 6, IL 4, IL 2, cortisol, Beta Endorphin, and lgG. The training programme was conducted in 7 weeks, 3 times per week, sub maximal intensity, and 6 sets per session. The laboratory vanable were the ELISA method. Results: Manova test were p: 0,000 Implied that there were differences (Wilk Lambda pBreathing exercises could increase physical fitness and impenetrability of proven body manifestly. Breathing exercise increased beta endorphin, immunoglobulin G and interleukin 6, while interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 did not increase Cortisol level did not decrease stgnificantly but there was an indication of level of cortisol decrease. Immunity modulator which caused breathing exercise stressor got by 3 groups with strong contribution on the basis concept of psychoneuroimmunologic. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, modulation

  13. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  14. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  15. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

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    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  16. Effects of Pressure Support Ventilation May Be Lost at High Exercise Intensities in People with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, David; de Marchie, Michel; Spahija, Jadranka

    2017-06-01

    Pressure support ventilation (PSV) may be used for exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its acute effect on maximum exercise capacity is not fully known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 10 cm H 2 O PSV and a fixed PSV level titrated to patient comfort at rest on maximum exercise workload (WLmax), breathing pattern and metabolic parameters during a symptom-limited incremental bicycle test in individuals with COPD. Eleven individuals with COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second: 49 ± 16%; age: 64 ± 7 years) performed three exercise tests: without a ventilator, with 10 cm H 2 O of PSV and with a fixed level titrated to comfort at rest, using a SERVO-i ventilator. Tests were performed in randomized order and at least 48 hours apart. The WLmax, breathing pattern, metabolic parameters, and mouth pressure (Pmo) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean PSV during titration was 8.2 ± 4.5 cm H 2 O. There was no difference in the WLmax achieved during the three tests. At rest, PSV increased the tidal volume, minute ventilation, and mean inspiratory flow with a lower end-tidal CO 2 ; this was not sustained at peak exercise. Pmo decreased progressively (decreased unloading) with PSV at workloads close to peak, suggesting the ventilator was unable to keep up with the increased ventilatory demand at high workloads. In conclusion, with a Servo-i ventilator, 10 cm H 2 O of PSV and a fixed level of PSV established by titration to comfort at rest, is ineffective for the purpose of achieving higher exercise workloads as the acute physiological effects may not be sustained at peak exercise.

  17. Therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise: A novel non-surgical therapy for refractory EILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, J Tod; Deardorff, Emily H; Fan, Elizabeth M; Johnston, Kristina L; Keever, Valerie L; Moore, Camille M; Bender, Bruce G

    2017-06-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) may affect as many as 6% of the adolescent population, with some patients experiencing symptoms refractory to conservative interventions. This report describes therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise, a novel, non-surgical intervention that harnesses real-time laryngoscopy video as biofeedback to control laryngeal aperture during high-intensity exercise. Additionally, we quantitate patient-reported perceptions of procedure safety, tolerability, learning value, and effectiveness. Clinical EILO patients with symptoms refractory to conventional respiratory retraining and other therapies were referred for the procedure which features laryngoscopy video as biofeedback during serial physician-guided 1-min exercise sprints. We quantify perceptions of procedure safety, tolerability, learning value, and effectiveness through questionnaires offered to all patients as well as observers of the procedure. Forty-one patients and 37 parent observers were approached for feedback; 88% of patients and 95% of observers consented to participation. Patients and observers reported perceptions of safety and tolerability (81% and 86%, respectively), learning value (78% and 91%, respectively), and effectiveness (58% and 80%, respectively) with patient age predicting some responses. Seventy-five percent of patients noted that "Since the procedure, my breathing during exercise has improved," and 85% of this group noted that therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise was "the most important therapy leading to my breathing improvement." The procedure also provided insight into the psychological experience of patients, a domain not clinically apparent prior to the procedure. Our data support further study of therapeutic laryngoscopy during exercise as a possible intervention for patients with refractory EILO. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:813-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of blood transfusion on exercise capacity in thalassemia major patients.

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    Daniela Benedetto

    Full Text Available Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10. Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates. After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (p<0.001, peak VO2 from 1408 to 1546mL/min (p<0.05, and VO2 at anaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (p<0.05. No major changes were observed as regards heart and respiratory rates either at peak exercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold.

  19. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  20. Comparing dynamic hyperinflation and associated dyspnea induced by metronome-paced tachypnea versus incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaro, Gregory L; Raine, Richard I; Bateman, Mary E; Bateman, Eric D; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) during exercise is associated with both dyspnea and exercise limitation in COPD. Metronome-paced tachypnoea (MPT) is a simple alternative for studying DH. We compared MPT with exercise testing (XT) as methods of provoking DH, and assessed their relationship with dyspnea. We studied 24 patients with moderate COPD (FEV1 59 ± 9% predicted) after inhalation of ipratropium/salbutamol combination or placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Inspiratory capacity (IC) was measured at baseline and after 30 seconds of MPT with breathing frequencies (fR) of 20, 30 and 40 breaths/min and metronome-defined I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:2, in random sequence, followed by incremental cycle ergometry with interval determinations of IC. DH was defined as a decline in IC from baseline (∆IC) for both methods. Dyspnea was assessed using a Borg CR-10 scale. ∆IC during MPT was greater with higher fR and I:E ratio of 1:1 versus 1:2, and less when patients were treated with bronchodilator rather than placebo (P = 0.032). DH occurred during 19 (40%) XTs, and during 35 (73%) tests using MPT. Eleven of 18 (61%) non-congruent XTs (where DH occurred on MPT but not XT) terminated before fR of 40 breaths/min was reached. Although greater during XT, the intensity of dyspnea bore no relationship to DH during either MPT and XT. MPT at 40 breaths/min and I:E of 1:1 elicits the greatest ∆IC, and is a more sensitive method for demonstrating DH. The relationship between DH and dyspnea is complex and not determined by DH alone.