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Sample records for breathing exercises

  1. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  2. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  3. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99Tcm-Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  4. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  5. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  6. A nomogram for assessment of breathing patterns during treadmill exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, J.; Centeno, R; Galiano, D; Beaus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the breathing patterns of trained athletes under different conditions. The hypothesis is that the breathing pattern during a progressive treadmill exercise is independent of the protocol, at least in healthy people, and can be assessed using a nomogram.

  7. Effects of Deep Breathing Exercises after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Deep breathing exercises are widely used in the postoperative care to prevent or reduce pulmonary complications, but no scientific evidence for the efficacy has been found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of the thesis was to describe postoperative pulmonary function and to evaluate the efficacy of deep breathing exercises performed with or without a blow bottle device for positive expiratory pressure (PEP) 10 cmH2O or an inspiratory resistance-positive expirator...

  8. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  9. Effect of breathing techniques on blood pressure response to resistance exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Linsenbardt, S T; Thomas, T. R.; Madsen, R W

    1992-01-01

    Twenty novice male weight lifters performed resistance exercises using three different breathing techniques to determine the effects on blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by an automated non-invasive method while subjects performed the single arm curl and double knee extension using the different breathing techniques. Performing the Valsalva manoeuvre (breath-holding) during either the single arm curl or double knee extension produced the highest blood pressu...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-01-01

    Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and l...

  11. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group. PMID:27245493

  12. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p p p p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  13. [Investigation of the structure breathing pattern in competitive exercises have athletes kettlebell Lifters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V F; Agafonkina, T V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the breathing pattern characteristics of kettlebell athletes. The main indicators were identified: breathing frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (VE). We also searched for the dependence of these parameters using the weight of kettlebells and skill of the athletes.We used the spirograph SMP-21/01-"R-D" for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the miain indicators of kettlebell athletes breathing patterns. Athletes who achieved Masters of Sports (MS) and candidate masters of sport (CMS), their changes in breathing during exercise occurs mainly on two parameters--the frequeincy of breathing and tidal yolume. We found out while the weight of the kettlebell increases the breathing frequen- cy increases and tidal volume decreases. Athletes who achieved International Masters of Sports (MSIC), they dominated the change of one parameter of breathing--on the tidalivolume, which increases from 0.7 +/- 0.11 to 1.2 +/- 0.11 (p Kettlebell sport. In our opinion high performance level of athletes is related to undergoing breathing regulation, trying constantly to keep same level of gas composition in functional residual capacity (FRC) at a time ofperforming competition exercises. This research highlights the importance of improving breathing patterns for Kettlebell athletes if they want to improve performance. PMID:25702464

  14. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasiak Maria M; Skiepko Roman; Zietkowski Ziemowit; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk Anna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study wa...

  15. Breathing exercises as adjuvant in the management of COPD : An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kant S; Singh G.

    2006-01-01

    COPD is the most common chronic lung disease. It is a major cause of chronic morbidity, mortality and health care used throughout the world and resulting in an economic and social burden that is both substantial and increasing also in our country. Pharmacotherapy alone does not optimize and have limited role in im-proving dyspnea, exercise limitation and quality of life which are characteristic and troublesome features of COPD. Breathing exercises are popular among patients, physician and p...

  16. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Martarelli; Mario Cocchioni; Stefania Scuri; Pierluigi Pompei

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxid...

  17. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P ... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P 100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  18. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...... perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P

  19. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasiak Maria M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

  20. Oxygenation and Exercise Performance-Enhancing Effects Attributed to the Breathe-Right Nasal Dilator

    OpenAIRE

    Trocchio, Marc; Fisher, Jean; Wimer, Jeffrey W.; Parkman, Anna W.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, many professional football players have elected to wear spring-loaded nasal dilators during competition. Many athletes believe that wearing the “Breathe-Right” nasal dilator will increase nasal gas conduction and oxygenation to their body, subsequently improving their performance. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the advantages of wearing a nasal dilator while performing aerobic and anaerobic exercise, as opposed to not wearing a nasal dilator. It was hypothesized t...

  1. Nasal reflexes: implications for exercise, breathing, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2008-04-01

    Nasal patency, with both congestion and decongestion, is affected in a wide variety of reflexes. Stimuli leading to nasal reflexes include exercise; alterations of body position, pressure, and temperature; neurologic syndromes; and dentistry. As anticipated, the vagal and trigeminal systems are closely integrated through nasobronchial and bronchonasal reflexes. However, perhaps of greater pathophysiologic importance are the naso-hypopharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes that become aggravated during sinusitis. None other than Sigmund Freud saw deeply beyond the facial adornment and recognized the deeper sexual tensions that can regulate nasal functions and psychoanalytical status. Wine, women, and song are linked with airflow through the nose-the nose, which by any other name would still smell as sweetly. PMID:18417057

  2. Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rojo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2. The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02 and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD.

  3. Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Alves

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD present breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion abnormalities that may contribute to exercise limitation. Twenty-two men with stable COPD (FEV1 = 42.6 ± 13.5% predicted; age 68 ± 8 years; mean ± SD on usual medication and with at least 5 years of diagnosis were evaluated at rest and during an incremental cycle exercise test (10 watts/2 min. Changes in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, rib cage and abdominal motion contribution to tidal volume and the phase angle that measures the asynchrony were analyzed by inductive respiratory plethysmography at rest and during three levels of exercise (30-50, 70-80, and 100% maximal work load. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by pre-planned contrasts and Bonferroni corrections were used for analyses. As expected, the greater the exercise intensity the higher the tidal volume and respiratory frequency. Abdominal motion contributed to the tidal volume increase (rest: 49.82 ± 11.19% vs exercise: 64.15 ± 9.7%, 63.41 ± 10%, and 65.56 ± 10.2%, respectively, P < 0.001 as well as the asynchrony [phase angle: 11.95 ± 7.24° at rest vs 22.2 ± 15° (P = 0.002, 22.6 ± 9° (P < 0.001, and 22.7 ± 8° (P < 0.001, respectively, at the three levels of exercise]. In conclusion, the increase in ventilation during exercise in COPD patients was associated with the major motion of the abdominal compartment and with an increase in the asynchrony independent of exercise intensity. It suggests that cycling exercise is an effective way of enhancing ventilation in COPD patients.

  4. Exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia and the mechanics of breathing in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Foster, Glen E; Dominelli, Giulio S; Henderson, William R; Koehle, Michael S; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2013-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH), pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics during exercise, in young healthy women. We defined EIAH as a >10 mmHg decrease in arterial oxygen tension ( ) during exercise compared to rest. We used a heliox inspirate to test the hypothesis that mechanical constraints contribute to EIAH. Subjects with a spectrum of aerobic capacities (n = 30; maximal oxygen consumption ( ) = 49 ± 1, range 28-62 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) completed a stepwise treadmill test and a subset (n = 18 with EIAH) completed a constant load test (~85% ) with heliox gas. Throughout exercise arterial blood gases, oxyhaemoglobin saturation ( ), the work of breathing (WOB) and expiratory flow limitation (EFL) were assessed. Twenty of the 30 women developed EIAH with a nadir and ranging from 58 to 88 mmHg and 87 to 96%, respectively. At maximal exercise, was inversely related to (r = -0.57, P EFL) were the primary mechanism associated with the hypoxaemia during the maximal test. Mechanical ventilatory constraints also prevented adequate compensatory alveolar hyperventilation in most EIAH subjects. Minimizing mechanical ventilatory constraints with heliox inspiration partially reversed EIAH in subjects who developed EFL. In conclusion, healthy women of all aerobic fitness levels can develop EIAH and begin to do so at submaximal intensities. Mechanical ventilatory constraints are a primary mechanism for EIAH in some healthy women and prevent reversal of hypoxaemia in women for whom it is not the primary mechanism. PMID:23587886

  5. Effects of breathing exercises on lung capacity and muscle activities of elderly smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ki-Jong; Nam, Ki-Won; Kim, Chang-Heon

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Elderly smokers have a reduced chest diameter due to weakening of the respiratory muscles, and this results in decreased ventilation, leading to a vicious circle. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of an intervention program to enhance the pulmonary function and muscle activity of elderly smokers. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups or a control (CG) group. The experimental groups performed exercises three times per week for six weeks, whereas the CG performed no exercises. One of the experimental groups performed a Feedback Breathing Exercise (FBE) for 15 minutes, and the other repeated three sets of Balloon-Blowing Exercises (BBE) with sufficient rest of more than one minute between sets. [Results] In the experimental groups, FVC, FEV1/FVC, PEF and muscle activity of the rectus abdominis significantly improved after four weeks, but no significant differences were observed in FEV1 or VC after six weeks. [Conclusion] The results show that FBE and BBE improved the pulmonary functions of elderly smokers, demonstrating the potential benefits of the development of various training methods using balloons, and group programs, including recreational factors, for increasing respiratory muscles strength. PMID:27390394

  6. Dysanapsis and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Bingham, Derek; Swartz, Philippa M; Road, Jeremy D; Foster, Glen E; Sheel, A William

    2015-11-15

    We asked if the higher work of breathing (Wb) during exercise in women compared with men is explained by biological sex. We created a statistical model that accounts for both the viscoelastic and the resistive components of the total Wb and independently compares the effects of biological sex. We applied the model to esophageal pressure-derived Wb values obtained during an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Subjects were healthy men (n = 17) and women (n = 18) with a range of maximal aerobic capacities (V̇o2 max range: men = 40-68 and women = 39-60 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). We also calculated the dysanapsis ratio using measures of lung recoil and forced expiratory flow as index of airway caliber. By applying the model we found that the differences in the total Wb during exercise in women are due to a higher resistive Wb rather than viscoelastic Wb. We also found that the higher resistive Wb is independently explained by biological sex. To account for the known effect of lung volumes on the dysanapsis ratio we compared the sexes with an analysis of covariance procedures and found that when vital capacity was accounted for the adjusted mean dysanapsis ratio is statistically lower in women (0.17 vs. 0.25 arbitrary units; P human airways, which result in significant male-female differences in the Wb during exercise in healthy subjects. PMID:26359483

  7. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  8. Control and sensation of breathing during cycling exercise in hypoxia under naloxone: a randomised controlled crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Koglin, Laurent; Kayser, Bengt E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioid receptors are possibly involved in the perception of exertion and the ventilatory response to exercise. We compared incremental cycling exercise in conditions of normoxia and hypoxia (11% O2) after injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (30 mg i.v.) or placebo. Naloxone was expected to increase sensation of breathing and cycling and to curtail exercise performance more in hypoxia. Methods Ten healthy subjects (29 ± 2 years, 183 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 7 kg, mean ± SD) cyc...

  9. The contribution of air breathing to aerobic scope and exercise performance in the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Steffensen, John Fleng; Taylor, Edwin W.;

    2012-01-01

    ) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 body lengths (BL) s(-1) and an active metabolic rate (AMR) of 350±21 mg kg(-1) h(-1), with 38±6% derived from air breathing. All of the knifefish exhibited a significant increase in air-breathing frequency (f(AB)) with swimming speed. If denied access to air in normoxia......The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm......, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved...

  10. Role of CO2 responsiveness and breathing efficiency in determining exercise capacity of patients with chronic airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Hida, W; Kikuchi, Y; Shindoh, C; Takishima, T

    1988-12-01

    We examined the role of CO2 responsiveness and breathing efficiency in limiting exercise capacity in 15 patients with chronic airway obstruction (FEV1 = 0.88 +/- 0.25 L, mean +/- SD). Responses of minute ventilation and P0.1 (mouth pressure 0.1 s after the onset of occluded inspiration) to hypercapnia (delta VE/delta PCO2, delta P0.1/delta PCO2) were measured by rebreathing, and the ratio of the two (delta VE/delta P0.1) was defined as an index of breathing efficiency during hyperventilation. Exercise capacity was measured as symptom-limited, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/BW) in an incremental treadmill test and also as the 12-min walking distance (TMD). All patients discontinued the treadmill test because of dyspnea, and the exercise capacity correlated with the degree of airway obstruction, although there was a wide variability among patients with comparable FEV1. There were no significant correlations between the responses to CO2 and exercise capacity. However, there was a significant correlation between delta VE/delta P0.1 and VO2max/BW (r = 0.87, p less than 0.001) or TMD (r = 0.78, p less than 0.001), and these correlations remained significant even when the relational effects of FEV1 were taken out. These results support the hypothesis that airway obstruction and breathing efficiency are important, but that CO2 responsiveness is not a major factor in determining the exercise capacity of patients with chronic airway obstruction.

  11. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  12. BREATHING 100% O2 HAS NO EFFECT ON BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATION DURING A SHORT PASSIVE RECOVERY FROM EXHAUSTIVE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    . Nonetheless, past research has focussed on methods by which the clearance of LA- from the blood could be expedited. As the clearance of LA- from the blood occurs primarily due to import and oxidation by other cells (Mengual et al., 2003, methods trialled include breathing hyperoxic gas mixtures during recovery (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986. It has been argued, however, that due to the near horizontal nature of the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve (i.e. 95%+ O2 saturated at normal alveolar PO2 (~95 mmHg; it appears unlikely that the large increase in alveolar PO2 caused by breathing 100% O2 (667% % increase over ambient air would be effective in raising actual oxygen delivery to the mitochondria by a useful margin. However, Haseler et al. (1999 have shown that increasing the inspired O2 percentage to 100% during a passive recovery from exercise significantly reduced the time constant for phosphocreatine (PCr repletion (20-s vs. 25-s, p < 0.05. Given that PCr repletion is dependent on ATP, these findings provide surety that O2 delivery to, and uptake by the mitochondria is indeed usefully increased during passive recovery by breathing 100% O2 as compared with ~21% O2 (Haseler et al., 1999. We therefore undertook this investigation because previous methodologies and results regarding hyperoxic breathing and blood LA- concentration (Maeda and Yasukouchi, 1997; Murphy, 1986; Shell et al., 1986 are somewhat conflicting. Specifically; acute muscular exhaustion was not universally imposed, hyperoxia was often imposed during the exercise also, and subjects of differing aerobic or cardiovascular fitness showed differential responses. Given the above arguments, we intended to clarify the effect of breathing 100% O2 on blood LA- concentration during a brief period of passive recovery from incremental exercise to exhaustion under controlled conditions. We hypothesised that breathing 100% O2 during a 5-minute passive recovery from exhaustive incremental

  13. Comparison of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise, Volume and Flow Incentive Spirometry, on Diaphragm Excursion and Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaparthi, Gopala Krishna; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Anand, R; Mahale, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effects of diaphragmatic breathing exercises and flow and volume-oriented incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methodology. We selected 260 patients posted for laparoscopic abdominal surgery and they were block randomization as follows: 65 patients performed diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 65 patients performed flow incentive spirometry, 65 patients performed volume incentive spirometry, and 65 patients participated as a control group. All of them underwent evaluation of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), and diaphragm excursion measurement by ultrasonography before the operation and on the first and second postoperative days. With the level of significance set at p breathing exercise group than in the flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity) and diaphragm excursion showed statistically significant differences between volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group (p breathing exercise can be recommended as an intervention for all patients pre- and postoperatively, over flow-oriented incentive spirometry for the generation and sustenance of pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in the management of laparoscopic abdominal surgery. PMID:27525116

  14. Breathing exercises improve post-operative pulmonary function and quality of life in patients with lung cancer: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Pan, Ying-Li; Gao, Cai-Xiang; Shang, Zuo; Ning, Li-Juan; Liu, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has shown that breathing exercises may improve the prognosis and health status in patients with lung cancer by enhancing pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL). However, individually published results are inconclusive. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical value of breathing exercises on post-operative pulmonary function and QOL in patients with lung cancer. A literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Web of Science and CBM databases was conducted from their inception through to October 2012. Crude standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the effect of breathing exercises. A total of eight clinical studies were ultimately included with 398 lung cancer patients. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, there was a significant difference between the pre-intervention and post-intervention results of breathing exercises on post-operative pulmonary function; forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1): SMD, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.97-4.77; Pintervention with breathing exercises; there were significant differences between the pre-intervention and post-intervention results on the ability of self-care in daily life (SMD, -1.00; 95% CI, -1.467 to -0.52; P<0.001), social activities (SMD, -0.94; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.15; P=0.02), symptoms of depression (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.25 to -0.57; P<0.001) and symptoms of anxiety (SMD, -0.91; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.63; P<0.001). Results from the present meta-analysis suggest that breathing exercises may significantly improve post-operative pulmonary function and QOL in patients with lung cancer.

  15. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  16. A novel ambulatory closed circuit breathing system for use during exercise.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    We describe a unique ambulatory closed circuit for delivering high fractions of inspired oxygen to an exercising user who does not require isolation from their environment. We describe the major components and their function and suggest potential applications for such a circuit. This circuit may benefit patients who are chronically dependant on oxygen, are unable to exercise due to hypoxia, or require oxygen supplementation at high altitude.

  17. Comparison of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise, Volume and Flow Incentive Spirometry, on Diaphragm Excursion and Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishna Alaparthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of diaphragmatic breathing exercises and flow and volume-oriented incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methodology. We selected 260 patients posted for laparoscopic abdominal surgery and they were block randomization as follows: 65 patients performed diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 65 patients performed flow incentive spirometry, 65 patients performed volume incentive spirometry, and 65 patients participated as a control group. All of them underwent evaluation of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR, and diaphragm excursion measurement by ultrasonography before the operation and on the first and second postoperative days. With the level of significance set at p<0.05. Results. Pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion showed a significant decrease on the first postoperative day in all four groups (p<0.001 but was evident more in the control group than in the experimental groups. On the second postoperative day pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity and diaphragm excursion were found to be better preserved in volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group than in the flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity and diaphragm excursion showed statistically significant differences between volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group (p<0.05 as compared to that flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Conclusion. Volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise can be recommended as an intervention for all patients pre- and postoperatively, over flow-oriented incentive spirometry for the generation and sustenance of pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in the management of

  18. [Effects of breathing high concentrations of oxygen on changes in blood indices during bicycle exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, A; Yoshida, M; Fuke, T; Miyazato, I; Shiba, K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine effects of hyperoxic gas mixtures on changes of blood indices during bicycle exercise of human. Oxygen-enriched gases (30% O2) were inspired during the ramp load exercise of 25 watt/min. Changes of blood indices were analyzed with Sequential Multiple Analyzer with the computer (SMAC). The improvement of exercise performance were discussed about relationship between function of hyperoxic gas and physiological mechanism. Three experimental conditions were set as follows (I) 30% O2 +N2 gases balance, (II) air (21% O2), and (III) 30% O2 +2% CO2 +N2 gases balance. Arterial blood were sampled from the radial artery of the forearm in order to analyze following items; 1) pH level, PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3 of these blood gases, 2) Blood sugar, TG, and F-CH of the blood contents, 3) red blood corpuscle, white blood corpuscle, Hb, and Ht values, 4) LDH, CK, GOT, and GPT of the blood enzymes, 5) TP, ALB, Na, K, Ca and Cl of the electric ions. In the case of inspiring hyperoxic gases, the recovery rate of blood indices increased after this ramp load exercise remarkably, and the whole exercise metabolism were removed from acidosis tendency to alkalosis value of the resting condition significantly. At hyperoxic experimental conditions, the blood sugar and oxygen consumption were much more decreased than these at normal oxygen content one during both states of exercise and recovery times. These data of the blood indices would support strongly to the hypothesis that improvement of oxygen delivery should be depended upon the enhanced performance with the hyperoxic gases. There might be effects of the hyperoxia on the cellular metabolism and on function of the vascular muscle during those aerobic exercise.

  19. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Depiazzi

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for accurate assessment of an individual’s symptoms. We will highlight the high incidence of nonasthmatic causes, which simply require reassurance or simple interventions from respiratory physiotherapists or speech pathologists.

  20. INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY AND BREATHING EXERCISES WERE NOT ABLE TO IMPROVE RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY WATER IMMERSION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Vepo,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available pulmonary volumes and capacities which could be at least in part similar to that happen in healthy individuals during water immersion. Objectives: To investigate if respiratory effects of water immersion are partially due to enhanced return venous from legs and arms and if physiotherapeutic techniques incentive spirometry (IS and breathing exercises (BE are able to improve pulmonary volumes and capacities in healthy subjects during water immersion. Design: Randomised, within-participant experimental study. Participants: 18 healthy subjects. Intervention: Stage 1 was realized to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of water immersion with and without a cuff-induced venous compression. Stage 2 was conducted to explain the effects of physiotherapeutic techniques IS and BE during water immersion. Main outcome measures: The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume the first second - FEV1, ratio of FEV/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate - PEFR and forced expiratory flow of 25-75% FVC - FEF25-75% was evaluated. Results: Water immersion decreased FVC and FEV1 after 10 minutes of immersion. After a total compression of arms and legs the reduction on FVC and FEV1 was not observed, even with only partial compression of legs (P>0.05. Conclusions: Water immersion promotes pulmonary restrictive characteristics due to increased venous return mainly from legs. The application IS and BE did not normalize the spirometric values.

  1. Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...

  2. Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture, Applied Kinesiology, and Breathing Exercises for Facial Paralysis in a Young Boy Caused by Lyme Disease-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsberger, Friedrich; Raak, C; Teuber, M

    2016-01-01

    The case study reports on the effect of pharmacological, complementary, and alternative medicine including YNSA, Applied Kinesiology, and respiratory exercises in a 9-year-old boy with facial paralysis. The boy suffered from borreliosis and one-sided facial paralysis that occurred 3.5 weeks after being bitten by a tick and persisted despite 4 weeks of medication with antibiotics. In the first treatment, muscle function as assessed by the coachman׳s test was normalized, and improvement in the facial paralysis was observed. Within 8 additional treatments over a period of 2 months, the boy showed complete recovery. The case shows a multimodal approach to facial paralysis integrating pharmacological treatment and CAM including YNSA, Applied Kinesiology, and breathing exercises. PMID:27102135

  3. Purine metabolism in response to hypoxic conditions associated with breath-hold diving and exercise in erythrocytes and plasma from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo Velasco-Martínez, Iris; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian tissues under hypoxic conditions, ATP degradation results in accumulation of purine metabolites. During exercise, muscle energetic demand increases and oxygen consumption can exceed its supply. During breath-hold diving, oxygen supply is reduced and, although oxygen utilization is regulated by bradycardia (low heart rate) and peripheral vasoconstriction, tissues with low blood flow (ischemia) may become hypoxic. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential differences in the circulating levels of purine metabolism components between diving and exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood samples were taken from captive dolphins following a swimming routine (n=8) and after a 2min dive (n=8). Activity of enzymes involved in purine metabolism (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), inosine monophosphate deshydrogenase (IMPDH), xanthine oxidase (XO), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)), and purine metabolite (hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP)) concentrations were quantified in erythrocyte and plasma samples. Enzymatic activity and purine metabolite concentrations involved in purine synthesis and degradation, were not significantly different between diving and exercise. Plasma adenosine concentration was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.03); this may be related to dive-induced ischemia. In erythrocytes, HGPRT activity was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.007), suggesting an increased capacity for purine recycling and ATP synthesis from IMP in ischemic tissues of bottlenose dolphins during diving. Purine recycling and physiological adaptations may maintain the ATP concentrations in bottlenose dolphins after diving and exercise.

  4. The effect of adding CO2 to hypoxic inspired gas on cerebral blood flow velocity and breathing during incremental exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin Fan

    Full Text Available Hypoxia increases the ventilatory response to exercise, which leads to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. We studied the effects of adding CO2 to a hypoxic inspired gas on CBF during heavy exercise in an altitude naïve population. We hypothesized that augmented inspired CO2 and hypoxia would exert synergistic effects on increasing CBF during exercise, which would improve exercise capacity compared to hypocapnic hypoxia. We also examined the responsiveness of CO2 and O2 chemoreception on the regulation ventilation ([Formula: see text]E during incremental exercise. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv; index of CBF, [Formula: see text]E, end-tidal PCO2, respiratory compensation threshold (RC and ventilatory response to exercise ([Formula: see text]E slope in ten healthy men during incremental cycling to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10 with and without augmenting the fraction of inspired CO2 (FICO2. During exercise in normoxia, augmenting FICO2 elevated MCAv throughout exercise and lowered both RC onset and[Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P0.05. The [Formula: see text]E slope above RC was unchanged with either hypoxia or augmented FICO2 (P>0.05. We found augmenting FICO2 increased CBF during sub-maximal exercise in normoxia, but not in hypoxia, indicating that the 'normal' cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia is blunted during exercise in hypoxia, possibly due to an exhaustion of cerebral vasodilatory reserve. This finding may explain the lack of improvement of exercise capacity in hypoxia with augmented CO2. Our data further indicate that, during exercise below RC, chemoreception is responsive, while above RC the ventilatory response to CO2 is blunted.

  5. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in patients with hypertension : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, Mariette R.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Logtenberg, Susan J.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Houweling, Sebastiaan T.; Bilo, Henk J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Hypertension is a chronic disorder with a high prevalence worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, it is sometimes hard to reach treatment goals for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. Methods. A r

  6. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bad breath; Halitosis ... Some disorders will produce distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of sulphur compounds by bacteria in the mouth. A fruity odor ...

  7. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  8. Correction of the single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor in exercise for variations in alveolar oxygen pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) varies inversely with the partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2). During exercise the PAO2 in the alveolar gas sample bag decreases so the TLCO increases more than would be expected from the effects of exercise alone. The effects of PAO2 on the estimation of TLCO during exercise have been investigated and studies have been performed to determine whether it is appropriate to standardise to a PAO2 of 16 kPa. METHODS--TLCO was estimated at r...

  9. Breathing exercises in upper abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis Exercícios respiratórios em cirurgia abdominal alta: revisão sistemática e metanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha T. Grams

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no consensus on the indication and benefits of breathing exercises for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications PPCs and for the recovery of pulmonary mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized studies that assessed the effects of breathing exercises on the recovery of pulmonary function and prevention of PCCs after upper abdominal surgery UAS. METHOD: Search Strategy: We searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database PEDro, Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials on pre- and postoperative UAS patients, in which the primary intervention was breathing exercises without the use of incentive inspirometers. Data Collection and Analysis: The methodological quality of the studies was rated according to the PEDro scale. Data on maximal respiratory pressures MIP and MEP, spirometry, diaphragm mobility, and postoperative complications were extracted and analyzed. Data were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analysis whenever possible. RESULTS: Six studies were used for analysis. Two meta-analyses including 66 participants each showed that, on the first day post-operative, the breathing exercises were likely to have induced MEP and MIP improvement treatment effects of 11.44 mmH2O (95%CI 0.88 to 22 and 11.78 mmH2O (95%CI 2.47 to 21.09, respectively. CONCLUSION: Breathing exercises are likely to have a beneficial effect on respiratory muscle strength in patients submitted to UAS, however the lack of good quality studies hinders a clear conclusion on the subject.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  11. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  12. Exercise and the oxidation and storage of glucose, maize-syrup solids and sucrose determined from breath 13CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, G P; Thompson, J; Scrimgeour, C M; Rennie, M J

    1996-01-01

    In order to determine which of maize syrup solids, glucose and sucrose were more readily oxidised during exercise and least readily oxidised afterwards, the rates of oxidation of three almost identical isoenergetic solutions of carbohydrates (330 ml of 18.5% w/v solutions of glucose, maize syrup solids and sucrose, 989-1050 kJ total energy) naturally enriched with 13C were examined at rest and during and after 1 h uphill walking at 75% maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in nine subjects [mean (SEM) VO2max, 45.4 (0.9) ml.kg-1.min-1]. Rates of production of expired 13CO2 were used to estimate rates of oxidation of each exogenous substrate. Energy expenditure and the contributions from total carbohydrate and fat oxidation were calculated from whole-body gas exchange. At rest, maize syrup solids were oxidised less than sucrose during the 1st h [glucose 2.7 (0.2) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 1.9 (0.3) g.h-1, sucrose 3.7 (0.2) g.h-1; maize syrup solids vs sucrose P glucose 8.3 (0.5) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 7.7 (0.5) g.h-1, sucrose 8.1 (0.4) g.h-1]. During exercise, all the carbohydrates were oxidised to the same extent [glucose 23.0 (2.8) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 23.9 (3.4) g.h-1, sucrose 27.5 (2.6) g.h-1) but during 4 h of recovery after exercise, maize syrup solids were oxidised least [glucose 4.6 (0.1) g.h-1, maize syrup solids 3.7 (0.1) g.h-1, sucrose 6.4 (0.1) g.h-1; P glucose, maize syrup solids and sucrose solutions were equally well oxidised during exercise. During recovery from exercise maize syrup solids were oxidised less than glucose, which in turn was oxidised less than sucrose.

  13. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  14. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  15. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples.

  16. Research progress of breathing exercises compliance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼吸锻炼依从性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石群; 康明

    2011-01-01

    This article summarized the current status of breathing exercises compliance in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and analyzed the influential factors from the aspects of patients and medical staff. Then it proposed the measures to improve the compliance, including reinforcing health education to enhance self - management, psychological intervention, improving medical staffs enthusiasm in health education, and increasing guide efforts, perfecting personalized exercise programs,developing and applying assistant apparatus,and so on. This review aimed to provide some references for promoting the extensive and effective application of breathing exercises to COPD patients.%文章对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼吸锻炼依从性现状进行分析,从患者和医护人员方面探讨了依从性的影响因素,并提出加强知识宣教,增强自我管理;心理干预;提高医护人员健康教育积极性,加大指导力度;增强锻炼方案的个性化;辅助仪器的研究与应用等提高依从性的对策.

  17. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  18. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  19. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  20. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  2. 呼吸操锻炼对小儿脊柱侧弯术前肺功能的影响%Effects of breathing exercise on preoperative pulmonary function in adolescent scoliosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建英; 叶文琴; 宫克; 韩文君

    2005-01-01

    背景:小儿脊柱侧弯患者术后易发生急性呼吸功能不全的危险,术前进行综合呼吸操锻炼对其预防的效果尚未确定.目的:探讨呼吸操锻炼对小儿脊柱侧弯患者术前应用的可行性和有效性.设计:非随机横断面研究.地点、对象和方法:选择上海长海医院对35例脊柱侧弯且肺功能障碍9~15岁住院患儿.术前1周对脊柱侧弯患儿实施组合的呼吸操训练,其内容包括缩唇呼吸、腹部运动呼吸、膈肌呼吸、吹气球.同时记录观察比较锻炼前后肺功能的变化.主要观察指标:呼吸操锻炼前后患儿肺活量、肺容量、用力肺活量(forced ventilation capacity,FVC)、最大通气量(maximal ventilation volume,MVV)的变化.结果:锻炼后患儿肺功能检查各项指标[肺活量,肺容量,FVC,MVV分别为(2.65±0.29),(3.56±0.79),(2.41±0.41),(70.1±17.0)L]比锻炼前[(1.77±0.36),(2.67±0.84),(2.07±0.46),(52.5±14.0)L]明显改善(t=3.64~11.28.P<0.01).结论:术前进行呼吸操锻炼能改善患儿肺功能,提高对脊柱矫形手术的耐受力,对预防和减少术后呼吸功能不全的发生有积极作用.%BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory insufficiency is common complication of surgical treatment of adolescent scoliosis patients. The preventive effects of breathing exercise before surgery is still uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and efficacy of breathing exercises for scoliosis patients before operation.DESIGN: Nonrandomized cross sectional study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and METHODS: Totally 35 hospitalized kids with scoliosis and pulmonary dysfunction aged from 9 to 15 years old were selected from Shanghai Changhai Hospital. A set of breathing exercise including which included pursed lip breathing, abdominal breathing, diaphragmatic breathing and blowing balloon was performed to these patients one week before surgery. The changes of pulmonary function were recorded and compared before and after exercises.MAIN OUTCOME

  3. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  4. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  5. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastlaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), it is hard to reach treatment objectives for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Recently, reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. We examined if an electronic device such as Resperate, by

  6. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  7. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  8. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  9. 自编瑜伽呼吸操对COPD患者肺康复的影响%Study for the effect on pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD by self designed yoga breathing exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 张连连; 胡敏; 樊胜霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨瑜伽呼吸操对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者肺康复的影响。方法将98例COPD出院患者按随机数字表法分为瑜伽组和对照组,各49例。两组患者均按2013年GOLD指南进行常规药物治疗,并接受呼吸内科常规健康教育,实验组在此基础上于出院后第7天进行自制瑜伽呼吸操训练,内容包括瑜伽呼吸操的健康教育和瑜伽呼吸操训练方法等。两组患者随访均持续1年,并于出院后第7天、3个月、6个月、12个月进行结果评估。评价指标为6 min步行试验(6M WD )及肺功能测定(FEV1)。结果两组干预后3个月、6个月、12个月6MWD差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后6个月、12个月FEV1比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);瑜伽组2项指标各阶段之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论自创瑜伽呼吸操简便易学,能提高COPD患者肺功能,增强患者活动的耐受力。%Objective To study the effect on pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD by self designed yo‐ga breathing exercise .Method 98 patients with COPD were randomly divided into yoga group and control group .49 cases in each group .Patients in two groups was given routine drug treatment based on the 2013 GOLD guidance and routine health education in respiratory medicine .Patients in yoga group was given additional self designed yoga breathing exercise training on the 7th day after discharge ,including the health education and content of yoga ,etc . The enrolled patients were set up for a regular follow up schedule for one year ,and the indexes of the seventh day , the third month ,the sixth month and the twelfth month were evaluated .The evaluation indexes included 6 minutes walk distance (6MWD) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) .Result There was significant difference in 6MWD in the third month ,sixth month and twelfth month after intervention between the two group(P< 0

  10. 情景互动式呼吸操在慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者中的应用研究%Application research on interactional and situational breathing exercises for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛颖懿; 黄丹雯; 纳媛娜; 张炜梅; 高薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the application effect of interactional and situational breathing exercises for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Method Design interactional and situational breathing exercises which combine breathing exercises and body exercises together. Divide 50 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease into observation group and control group equally according to hospitalization time. Based on routine treatment, patients in control group receive traditional breathing exercises. Patients in observation group receive interactional and situational breathing exercises. Assess patients in two groups by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Questionnaire (Chinese Version) and test on their pulmonary function 3 months before and after intervention. Take statistical analysis on compliance of breathing exercises for patients in two groups 3 months after intervention. Result Scores of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Questionnaire (Chinese Version) after intervention is (11. 88±4. 07) for observation group and (15. 60±4. 50) for control group, t= 3. 067, P=0. 004. Pulmonary function is better in observation. Rate of breathing exercises compliance is 84% in observation group and 24% in control group, x2 =18. 116, P<0. 01. Conclusion Interactional and situational breathing exercises can improve the compliance, pulmonary function and quality of life for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.%目的 观察情景互动式呼吸操在慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者中的应用效果.方法 自创呼吸操与健身操融为一体的情景互动式呼吸操.将50例慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者按入院时间分为对照组25例和观察组25例.在常规治疗基础上,对照组行传统呼吸操训练,观察组行情景互动式呼吸操训练.在干预前及干预3月后,用慢性阻塞性肺疾病评估测试问卷(中文版)对两组患者进行测评并检测肺功能,干预3月后统计两组

  11. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  12. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  13. Effect of Resistive Load on the Inspiratory Work and Power of Breathing during Exertion

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Thomas; Williams, Edgar Mark

    2012-01-01

    The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WRI) was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component) allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WRI, power of breathing, PRI an...

  14. Effects of self breathing exercise on heart rate and systolic blood pressure in adults:a Meta-analysis%自主呼吸锻炼对成人心率、收缩压影响的 Meta 分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄慧; 张艳云; 陈燕; 汪小华; 李月琴

    2016-01-01

    Objective To review the effects of self breathing exercise (SBE)on heart rate and systolic blood pressure in adults.Methods We electronically searched databases including CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials),MEDLINE,EMbase,PEDro,OVID,CNKI,VIP,WanFang Data and CBMfrom the establishment of database to November 2014 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs)of VBE and references.Two researchers assessed data according to PEDro,and the effective data was used by Meta analysis which met the including criteria.The statistical analysis used RevMan 5.0 software.Results A total of 5 RCTs were included.The results of meta-analysis showed that the effects of VBE on heart rate and systolic blood pressure in adults was statistically significant compared with control group (P <0.05).Conclusions The self breathing excise can decline adult heart rate and systolic blood pressure with low adverse effects,and it is easy to operate and is a favorable physical therapy method,which can be recommended to self health care and disease rehabilitation nursing.%目的:评价自主呼吸锻炼对成年人心率、收缩压的影响。方法计算机检索 CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials)、MEDLINE、EMbase、PEDro、OVID、中国知网(CNKI)、维普数据库(VlP)、万方数据库(Wanfang Data)和中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)。所有关于自主呼吸锻炼的随机对照试验,检索时限均为从建库至2014年11月,同时追索纳入文献的参考文献。由2名研究者根据 PEDro 量表进行评价,对符合纳入标准的 RCT 提取有效数据进行 Meta 分析。统计学分析采用RevMan 5.0软件。结果共纳入5项随机对照试验(RCT)。Meta 分析结果显示与对照组相比,自主呼吸锻炼对成年人心率、收缩压影响的差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论自主呼吸锻炼能够降低成年人的心率、收缩压,且不良反应甚小,操

  15. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health conditions that may cause breathing problems are: Anemia (low red blood cell count) Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sometimes called emphysema or chronic bronchitis Heart ...

  16. Effect of MotivationaI Interview on Breathing Exercises in Patients with Chronic Obstructive PuImonary Disease%动机性访谈促进慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼吸锻炼的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐朝; 席明霞; 卿利敏; 覃琴; 骆永梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价动机性访谈在促进慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者呼吸锻炼的效果。方法将101例COPD患者按住院号随机分为干预组和对照组,干预组采取跨理论模型架构的评估方法,根据其行为阶段运用动机性访谈进行呼吸锻炼干预,包括意识唤起、自我评价、强化管理等。对照组采用常规护理。结果干预6个月后,患者呼吸锻炼行为改变阶段及肺功能监测指标比较,干预组与对照组差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论动机性访谈通过激发患者的内在改变动机,可增强患者呼吸锻炼意愿,提高患者呼吸锻炼依从性,有效改善肺功能。%Objective To evaluate the effect of motivational interview (MI) on breathing exercises in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Totally 101 patients were randomly divided into control group and experiment group. The experiment group received motivational interview based on the assessment of breathing exercises with trans-theoretical model of change (TTM), while control group received routine care. ResuIts There were significant differences in change stages of patient ’s breathing exercises and pulmonary function between two groups six months after intervention (P<0.05). ConcIusion MI works by stimulating patient’s intrinsic motivation to make a change, promoting the willingness of breathing exercises, and can improve pulmonary function.

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regular exercise. Exercise also helps people with high blood pressure, balance problems, or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  18. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  19. Relationship between Respiratory Movements and Energy Efficiency in the Post-Exercise Recovery Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Yukari; Kamioka, Masashi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2001-01-01

    The breathing movement is highly automated but it can be voluntarily controlled in some situations. Compared with period of exercise and post-exercise, subjects could control breathing more voluntarily in the post-exercise recovery phase. So, we analyzed relationship between the strategy for controlling the breathing movement pattern and energy efficiency in this phase. Fifteen healthy men (mean age, 22.1 years) were subjected to exercise with a bicycle ergometer at 100 W for 5 minutes, then ...

  20. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  1. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  2. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  3. The effects of breathing with mainly inspiration or expiration on pulmonary function and chest expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Seong-Dae; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of inspiration- and expiration-oriented breathing on pulmonary function and chest expansion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male university students were divided randomly into inspiration-oriented and expiration-oriented breathing groups. Their pulmonary function and chest size during inspiration or expiration were evaluated and then re-evaluated after 15 minutes of breathing exercise five times a week for four weeks. [Results] The br...

  4. 呼吸兴奋剂合呼吸康复训练对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者肺功能及运动耐力的影响%The influence of pulmonary function and exercise endurance on respiratory stimulant combined with breathing rehabilitation training of COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康湘辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨呼吸兴奋剂实验呼吸康复训练对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者肺功能及运动耐力的影响.方法 选择64例COPD急性加重期的病患,随机分为实验组和对照组,两组患者均接受常规和呼吸兴奋剂治疗,实验组在病情好转,稳定后,进行呼吸康复训练,6个月后所有患者进行血气分析、肺功能和运动耐力等检查.结果 实验组治疗后,在血气分析、肺功能和运动耐力均较治疗前有明显改善(P<0.05),且实验组与对照组相比,观察指标改善明显,存在明显差异(P<0.05).结论 呼吸兴奋剂合呼吸康复训练可提高运动耐力,减轻症状,显著提高患者的肺功能.%Objective To discuss the influence of pulmonary function and exercise endurance on respiratory stimulant combined with breathing rehabilitation training of COPD.Methods 64 patients with COPD were divided into experimental group and control group, and were all accepted regular treatment and respiratory stimulant. The experimental group was accepted breathing rehabilitation training in doping. After 6 months, all patients were checked on blood gas analysis, lung function and exercise endurance.Results After 6 months, the experimental group was obviously improved than before treatment and the control group in blood gas analysis, lung function and exercise endurance(P<0.05).Conclusion pulmonary function and exercise endurance can improve exercise endurance, relieve symptoms, and improve the patients with lung function.

  5. Larynx during exercise: the unexplored bottleneck of the airways

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced shortness of breath is not uncommon in otherwise healthy young people. Based on the presenting symptoms alone, it is challenging to distinguish exercise-induced asthma (EIA) from exercise-induced obstruction of central airways, sometimes leading to diagnostic errors and inadequate treatment. Central airway obstruction usually presents with exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) during ongoing exercise. EIIS tends to peak towards the end of an exercise session or immedia...

  6. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently ... Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute on ...

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How ... to Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National ...

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  12. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  13. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  16. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  17. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  18. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  19. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  20. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  1. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Like most people, you've probably heard that physical activity and exercise are good for you. In fact, ... by staying physically active. Even moderate exercise and physical activity can improve the health of people who are ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute ... accompany aging. Playing Volleyball Helps Me Stay Active Video length: 2 min 51 sec Click to watch ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How to Get Started Exercise: ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Aging Topic last reviewed: January 2015 For an enhanced ...

  4. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    , and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath...

  5. Effect of resistive load on the inspiratory work and power of breathing during exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Powell

    Full Text Available The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WR(I was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WR(I, power of breathing, PR(I and minute ventilation, [Formula: see text] were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min(-1 with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1. Resting WR(I was 0.12 JL(-1 and PR(I was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WR(I increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of [Formula: see text], while PR(I increased exponentially. With increasing resistive load the work and power at any given [Formula: see text] increased exponentially. Calculation of the power to work ratio during loaded breathing suggests that loads above 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1 make the work of resistive breathing become inhibitive at even a moderate [Formula: see text] (>30 L sec(-1. The relationship between work done and power generated while breathing against resistive loads is independent of the exercise mode (cycling or walking and that ventilation is limited by the work required to breathe, rather than an inability to maintain or generate power.

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 sec Click to watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... this page to learn more about the health benefits of exercise. To enlarge a video, click the brackets in ...

  9. 女大学生瑜伽练习中呼吸运用的现状与分析%Analysis on the Status of Female College Students' Using of Yoga Breathing in Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓红

    2011-01-01

    在高校体育选修课程中,瑜伽通过调吸调身调心,达到身心灵合一的境界,受到众多女大学生的欢迎和喜爱,而在教学过程中,学生普遍存在一些有关呼吸方面的困惑。针对这一问题的现状进行简单分析,提出解决方案,希望对以后的教学工作有一定的指导意义。%During the elective courses in college sports,Yoga tones body by adjusting the suction-aligning,body and soul to realm of unity,and loved by many female students,but the teaching process sees some prevalent confusion in students' breath.In this paper,it provides simple analysis of the status of the problem,proposing solutions and hoping that the future teaching has some significance.

  10. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  11. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  12. Effect of isolated unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis on ventilation and exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Rui, Jing; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Chengwei; Bao, Qiyuan; Li, Jifeng; Lao, Jie

    2014-06-01

    The degree of impairment of ventilation and exercise performance after unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (UDP) induced by phrenic nerve injury has been controversial due to heterogeneity in the published clinical studies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isolated UDP on breathing and exercise performance in conscious rats. Breathing was measured by unrestrained whole body plethysmography during quiet breathing and after moderate aerobic exercise. Additionally, incremental exercise testing was performed to evaluate the effects of intensive activity. The results demonstrated that complete UDP in rats resulted in a permanent decrease of peak inspiratory flow at rest breathing. Nevertheless, adequate ventilation could be maintained, and the breathing pattern was unaltered due to a strong compensatory mechanism and central re-coordination initiated by UDP. After being affected at an early stage, the ventilatory response to exercise was gradually regained and subsequently restored. PMID:24556382

  13. Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing Fosters Relaxed and Attentive Mind: A Randomized Controlled Neuro-Electrophysiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes S. Chan; Mei-Chun Cheung; Sze, Sophia L.; Winnie Wing-Man Leung; Dejian Shi

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-electrophysiological studies on meditative breathing revealed its association with either a relaxed or an attentive state. The present study aimed to investigate whether the Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing (DTB) technique, which consists of the Passive and Active subtypes and can be considered as a relaxation exercise and Qigong, would induce both relaxed and attentive states. Twenty-two adults and 22 age-, gender- and education-matched controls received training on the Shaoli...

  14. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  15. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  16. Effect of breathing on the radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the breathing and his effect on accuracy of treatment dose delivery into treated volume. We focused on a special technique - extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (ESRT), which is characterized by high precision of patient setup and fixation. However, since the respiration causes movements of the tumor in the range of several millimeters to centimeters, the tumor volume have to be extended by safety margins. In our work, we focused on the introduction of noninvasive respiratory control system using ExacTrac. Breathing was represented by a special marker placed on the patient's body. With 35 patients we had together 157 breathing exercises, in which we investigated the range of motion of the markers during a relaxed breathing, in a deep inspiration, and in a deep expiration. We have created a software that allows to display the movement of the markers as well as the reference values of relaxed breathing and inspiration. The patients were able to track the signal on a small screen and base on this feedback to regulate their breathing. The average reproducibility of the inspiration was 93.0 % with the feedback and 74.5 % without the feedback. For 16 patients we used dynamic CT scan to study the correlation between tumor motion and the movements of the markers (0.83 ± 0.17) and as a result we estimated the required internal margins for irradiation at shallow breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) with and without feedback. In DIBH treatment situation the internal margin could be theoretically reduced by 3 mm with the feedback device. The standard deviation was rather large, and therefore the amount of margin reduction varies from patient to patient. We compared different irradiation techniques in terms of DVH and the consequent risk of complications (NTCP). Compared with the standard irradiation technique at shallow breathing, irradiation in DIBH without respiratory control reduced the volume of lung irradiated with 12 , 15 and 18 Gy and

  17. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  18. Influence of treadmill lower limbs exercise training on sports and the lung breathe function of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者下肢踏车运动训练对运动及吸气肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨阳

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨下肢踏车运动训练对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者吸气肺功能的影响.方法 选择本科收治的COPD患者40例,随机分为研究组与对照组各20例.两组均给予常规内科治疗,对照组患者进行低强度日常活动训练,研究组患者进行3个月的下肢踏车运动训练,比较两组运动前后肺通气功能、弥散功能、肺容积、最大吸气峰值流速,最大吸气压,比较研究组患者下肢运动训练前后运动持续时间和峰值运动功率.结果研究组患者训练后,运动持续时间及最大运动功率均较之前明显升高,最大吸气压、最大吸气峰值流速较之前明显增加,前后比较差异有统计学意义(P 0.05); and there were no statistically significant differences of lung ventilation, diffusion index conventional index, capacity index between two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion Lower limbs treadmill exercise training can effectively improve sports ability and lung breathe function of COPD patients.

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of ... and physical activity a regular part of your life can improve your health and help you maintain ...

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or maintain ...

  1. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... specifically planned, structured, and repetitive such as weight training, tai chi, or an aerobics class. Including both ...

  2. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... some older people who already have diseases and disabilities. That's why health experts say that older adults ... can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment ...

  3. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ...

  4. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits ... join a gym or have special equipment. Yet, studies show that "taking it easy" is risky. For ...

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... 56 sec Click to watch this video Be as Active as Possible Regular physical activity and exercise are important ... say that older adults should aim to be as active as possible. Being Inactive Can Be Risky ...

  6. 瑜伽呼吸锻炼对慢性肺源性心脏病患者心脏功能和生活质量的影响%Effects of Yoga breathing exercise on heart function and quality of life in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小芬; 郑丽霞; 唐泗明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Yoga breathing exercise on heart function and quality of life of patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease. Methods From January 2012 to May 2014 in Guangyuan Third People′s Hospital, 86 cases with chronic pulmonary heart disease were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into observation group (n=43) and control group (n=43) by adopting the method of random number table. Cases in the control group were given routine treatment and care. Based on it, patients in the observation group were given Yoga breathing exercise. The heart and lung function and the scores of WHOQOL-BREF were compared between two groups before and after 6 months treatment. Results After treatment, the pulmonary function indices included vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the ratio of FEV1 of forced vital capacity ( FEV1/FVC) , maximal mid-expiratory flow curve ( MMEF) and peak expiratory flow ( PEF) in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after treatment ( t=5. 063, 6. 556, 7. 075, 2. 672, 2. 527; P<0. 05). The heart function indices included walk test in 6 min, blood brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), pulmonary artery systolic pressure ( PASP) in the observation group were significantly better than that of the control group after treatment (t=5. 586, 17. 342, 5. 236, 6. 511; P <0. 05). After intervention, the scores of patients′ physiologic, mental, social and environmental area in the observation group were apparently higher than these of the control group (t=4. 698, 6. 477, 3. 311, 3. 407;P<0. 05). Conclusions Yoga breathing exercise can improve heart function and overall quality of life in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease by improving alveolar ventilation and ventilation efficiency, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨瑜伽呼吸锻炼对慢性肺源性心脏病( CCP)患者心脏功能和生活

  7. Communicating hope with one breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Edwards

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The central thesis of this article was that the phenomenon of hope involves states and stages of consciousness development, which can be enhanced through breath control, meditation, prayer and related practices that have formed the essence of various spiritual healing traditions for millennia. In particular, it was argued that breath control can provide a vital foundation for consciousness transformation and the development of hope. Whilst breath control alone may lead to a state of pure, transcendent and/or cosmic consciousness, the practical theological implications are that its effect of enhancing states and stages of consciousness may be anchored and amplified. This process can take place through further contemplative and intercessory meditation, prayer and related behaviour and will differ between people, groups, contexts, religious and/or spiritual traditions. A particular method of breath control called One Breath, which is associated with pure consciousness and the experience of hope was described. Such an experience typically leads to further spiritual practice, healing and transformation. It was concluded that such ongoing spiritual practice is crucial for improving consciousness development, healing and hope for individuals, societies, planet Earth and the cosmos.

  8. Managing after-work stress: paced breathing while watching video content (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, T.J.W.; Weda, J.; Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Hoogenstraaten, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. After a hard day’s work, we need to recover from work stress. Two frequently reported activities to relieve stress are television (TV) watching and paced breathing exercises. We investigated the potential of combining these techniques. Method. Two explorativeexperiments were conducted.

  9. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  10. New insights in paediatric exercise metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil; Armstrong; Alan; R.Barker

    2012-01-01

    <正>Research in paediatric exercise metabolism has been constrained by being unable to interrogate muscle in vivo.Conventionally,research has been limited to the estimation of muscle metabolism from observations of blood and respiratory gases during maximal or steady state exercise and the analysis of a few muscle biopsies taken at rest or post-exercise.The purpose of this paper is to review how the introduction of 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and breath-by-breath oxygen uptake kinetics studies has contributed to current understanding of exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.Methodologically robust studies using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and oxygen uptake kinetics with children are sparse and some data are in conflict.However,it can be concluded that children respond to exercise with enhanced oxygen utilization within the myocyte compared with adults and that their responses are consistent with a greater recruitment of type I muscle fibres.Changes in muscle metabolism are age,maturation- and sex-related and dependent on the intensity of the exercise challenge.The introduction of experimental models such as "priming exercise" and "work-to-work" transitions provide intriguing avenues of research into the mechanisms underpinning exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.

  11. The importance of exercise in lung cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, Carol

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exercise can help in a variety of different ways for people with lung cancer. Exercise can be beneficial at any stage of the patient journey through increasing strength, endurance and decreasing emotional issues. A recovery fitness program is described and provides guidance on breathing, stretching, aerobic exercise and strength training. There are more people surviving lung cancer with services needing to cater for the varying requirements of each patient. Pro...

  12. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  13. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  14. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  15. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  16. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Adhana

    2016-04-01

    Results: After three months of practicing slow breathing there was statistically significant reduction in heart rate and spontaneous respiratory rate. Shifting of pattern of breathing from thoracic pattern to abdominal pattern of breathing was also very highly significant. Conclusions: The study showed that slow breathing technique causes comprehensive change in body physiology by controlling autonomic nervous system. It regularizes rate and pattern of breathing. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1027-1030

  17. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  18. Comparação entre exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Comparison between deep breathing exercises and incentive spirometry after CABG surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alencar Renault

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos dos exercícios de respiração profunda (ERP e espirômetro de incentivo a fluxo (EI em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRVM por meio das seguintes variáveis: capacidade vital forçada - CVF, volume expiratório forçado de primeiro segundo - VEF1, pressões respiratórias máximas e saturação de oxigênio. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos a aplicação de ventilação não-invasiva por dois períodos de 30 minutos durante as primeiras 24 horas pós-extubação e distribuídos randomicamente em dois grupos, a saber: ERP (n=18 e EI (n=18, sendo as variáveis espirométricas avaliadas no pré-operatório e sétimo dia pós-operatório (DPO e a força da musculatura respiratória e saturação de oxigênio no pré-operatório, primeiro, segundo e sétimo DPO. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram considerados homogêneos em relação às variáveis demográficas e cirúrgicas. Observouse queda dos valores referentes à CVF e VEF1 entre o préoperatório e o sétimo DPO, porém sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. Houve queda das pressões respiratórias máximas no primeiro DPO, mas com restabelecimento gradual e parcial até o sétimo DPO, também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. A saturação de oxigênio foi a única variável restabelecida no sétimo DPO, mas também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas pressões respiratórias máximas, variáveis espirométricas e saturação de oxigênio entre pacientes submetidos a exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of deep breathing exercises (DBE and the flow-oriented incentive spirometry (IS in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG through the following variables: forced vital capacity

  19. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, N I; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A

    2010-01-01

    Any bodily activity or movement that enhances and maintains overall health and physical fitness is called physical exercise. Habit of regular physical exercise has got numerous benefits. Exercise is of various types such as aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise and flexibility exercise. Aerobic exercise moves the large muscle groups with alternate contraction and relaxation, forces to deep breath, heart to pump more blood with adequate tissue oxygenation. It is also called cardiovascular exercise. Examples of aerobic exercise are walking, running, jogging, swimming etc. In anaerobic exercise, there is forceful contraction of muscle with stretching, usually mechanically aided and help to build up muscle strength and muscle bulk. Examples are weight lifting, pulling, pushing, sprinting etc. Flexibility exercise is one type of stretching exercise to improve the movements of muscles, joints and ligaments. Walking is a good example of aerobic exercise, easy to perform, safe, effective, does not require any training or equipment and less chance of injury. Regular 30 minutes brisk walking in the morning with 150 minutes per week is a good exercise. Regular exercise improves the cardiovascular status, reduces the risk of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and cerebrovascular disease. It reduces body weight, improves insulin sensitivity, helps in glycemic control, prevents obesity and diabetes mellitus. It is helpful for relieving anxiety, stress, brings a sense of well being and overall physical fitness. Global trend is mechanization, labor savings and leading to epidemic of long term chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases etc. All efforts should be made to create public awareness promoting physical activity, physically demanding recreational pursuits and providing adequate facilities. PMID:20046192

  20. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...

  1. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journals about their exercise schedules and obsess about improving themselves. Unfortunately, these behaviors often compound each other, trapping the person in a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  2. Exercise Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Vardar, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective...

  3. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an over...

  4. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  5. Does Prior Training Affect Acute O2 Supply Responses During Exercise in Desaturator COPD Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Delample, Delphine; Sabate, Meritxell; Préfaut, Christian; Durand, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effects of a prior individualized training program (TP) on the response to acute oxygen supply during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients showing exercise-induced desaturation. Methods: Twenty-two COPD patients (mean [SD] FEV1 = 52.1 [3]% predicted) who desaturated on exercise participated in a TP. Exercise tolerance while breathing compressed air or oxygen was assessed using a walking test (WT) before and after TP. Oxygen ...

  6. Suggestion and verification of compensatory exercise for one {--} sidedly oriented sportsman to prevent muscle dysbalance

    OpenAIRE

    AMBROZOVÁ, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    Graduation theses solve the suggestion and verification of compensatory exercise for one {--} sidedly oriented sportsman. Tested group is tennis-players from Teniscentrum Příbram. By the influence of one {--} sidedly oriented movement can form functional and structural fault motoric systém of muscle dysbalance and to form fault motoric stereotype. Periodic compensatory exercise which is made by relaxation, stretching and weight training with breathing exercise and relaxation exercise can help...

  7. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  8. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  9. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short...

  10. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  11. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  12. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  13. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  14. Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla

    2011-06-01

    The effects of breathing on body roll have been previously investigated for the roll of the whole trunk only. The purposes of this study were: to calculate separately the shoulder roll (SR) and hip roll (HR) of swimmers during front crawl for non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; to assess the differences in the magnitude and temporal characteristics of these variables between non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; and to examine their association with swimming performance (indicated by swimming speed). Twelve male swimmers who competed at national and international level performed two maximum 25 m front crawl trials: one non-breathing and one with breathing to their preferred side. Performance was recorded with four below and two above water synchronised cameras. SR and HR in both trials were calculated for the breathing and non-breathing sides. The timings of SR and HR peaks to each side and at the positions of neutral roll were also calculated. Swimming speed was significantly slower in the breathing trial (p rolled their shoulders and hips to the breathing side significantly more in the breathing than in the non-breathing trial (SR: p side (p < 0.01) but HR was not significantly different (p = 0.07). There was no evidence to suggest that temporal characteristics of SR or HR were associated with swimming performance.

  15. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  16. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A Zope; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefit...

  17. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  18. Breathe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taylor Swift; 侯茂荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ I see your face in my mind as I drive away Cause none of us thought tt was gonna end that way People are people, and sometimes we change our minds But it's killing me to see you go after all this time

  19. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  20. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  1. Breathing pattern and gas exchange at cardiopulmonary exercise testing in stable moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary chisease patients with different extent of lung hyperinflation%肺过度充气对稳定期中重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者在运动过程中呼吸模式及气体交换的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 刘锦铭; 谭晓越; 杨文兰; 孙兴国; 刘海舰; 陈淑娟

    2012-01-01

    下降、通气功能受限、换气效率下降及呼吸困难程度.%Objective To study the influence of lung hyperinflation on breathing pattern and gas exchange at cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in stable moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.Methods Pulmonary function test (PFT) and CPET were tested in 54 patients with stable moderate to severe COPD,and measured the parameters of ventilation,breathing pattern and gas exchange.The stopped reasons at the end of exercise testing were be noted.Patients who had an emphysematous profile with the perccntage of thoracic gas volume predicted value (Vtg%pred)<150% and the percentage of diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide predicted value (DL.CO%pred)≥80% (low lung hyperinflation,Group A),versus patients with Vtg%pred≥150% and DLCO%pred<80% (high lung hyperinflation,Group B).Results At rest,there was no significant difference in tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency between these two groups,at peak exercise,VT and minute volume ((V)E) in Group A were significant higher than Group B (P<0.001).Between the two groups,tl/tE,VT/tl and VT/tE had significant difference at peak exercise (P<0.01).The dyspnea of Group B was more severe than Group A (P<0.001).At peak exercise,the peak load,peak oxygen consumption ((V)O2),the efficiency of gas exchange and peak oxygen pulse (O2 pulse) in Gropu B were lower than Group A (P<0.05).The reason for stopping exercise was significantly different between the two groups.Peak (V)O2%pred was significant associated with Vtg%pred and DLCO%pred(r=-0.55and 0.68,P<0.001),peak (V)O2 was significant associated with peak VT (r=0.77,P<0.001),moreover,peak VT was significant associated with inspiratory capacity (r=0.63,P<0.001).Conclusions COPD patients who with the higher lung hyperinflation had the less exercise capacity,less ventilation function,reduced efficiency of gas exchange,and worse dyspnea.

  2. Effects of acute hypoxia on the oxygen uptake kinetics of older adults during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Livio; Brighenti, Alfredo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Antonetti, Tommaso; Schena, Federico

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) kinetics were studied in a group of older adults exercising in hypoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy older adults (aged 66 ± 6 years) performed 4 exercise sessions that consisted of (i) an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer while breathing normoxic room air (fractional inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) = 20.9% O(2)); (ii) an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer while breathing hypoxic room air (FiO(2) = 15% O(2)); (iii) 3 repeated square wave cycling exercises at moderate intensity while breathing normoxic room air; and (iv) 3 repeated square wave cycling exercises at moderate intensity while breathing hypoxic room air. During all exercise sessions, pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath; HHb was determined on the vastus lateralis muscle by near-infrared spectroscopy; and HR was collected beat-by-beat. The pulomary oxygen uptake kinetics became slower in hypoxia (31 ± 9 s) than in normoxia (27 ± 7 s) because of an increased mismatching between O(2) delivery to O(2) utilization at the level of the muscle. The HR and HHb kinetics did not change between hypoxia and normoxia. PMID:22680339

  3. Managing after-work stress: paced breathing while watching video content (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Tijs, T.J.W.; Weda, J.; Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Hoogenstraaten, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. After a hard day’s work, we need to recover from work stress. Two frequently reported activities to relieve stress are television (TV) watching and paced breathing exercises. We investigated the potential of combining these techniques. Method. Two explorativeexperiments were conducted. In both experiments, stress was measured through physiological monitoring (heart rate, blood pressure, skinconductance, peripheral temperature, and respiration) and the Stress Arousal Checklist [3]....

  4. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  5. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L;

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...

  6. Role of parafacial nuclei in control of breathing in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Henderson, Lauren E; Feldman, Jack L

    2015-01-21

    Contiguous brain regions associated with a given behavior are increasingly being divided into subregions associated with distinct aspects of that behavior. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarizing technologies, we functionally dissect the parafacial region in the medulla, which contains key elements of the central pattern generator for breathing that are important in central CO2-chemoreception and for gating active expiration. By transfecting different populations of neighboring neurons with allatostatin or HM4D Gi/o-coupled receptors, we analyzed the effect of their hyperpolarization on respiration in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized rats. We identify two functionally separate parafacial nuclei: ventral (pFV) and lateral (pFL). Disinhibition of the pFL with bicuculline and strychnine led to active expiration. Hyperpolarizing pFL neurons had no effect on breathing at rest, or changes in inspiratory activity induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia; however, hyperpolarizing pFL neurons attenuated active expiration when it was induced by hypercapnia, hypoxia, or disinhibition of the pFL. In contrast, hyperpolarizing pFV neurons affected breathing at rest by decreasing inspiratory-related activity, attenuating the hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced increase in inspiratory activity, and when present, reducing expiratory-related abdominal activity. Together with previous observations, we conclude that the pFV provides a generic excitatory drive to breathe, even at rest, whereas the pFL is a conditional oscillator quiet at rest that, when activated, e.g., during exercise, drives active expiration. PMID:25609622

  7. Completion report : Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has been shown to be benefi cial in diabetes in many studies, though randomized control trials are few. The aim of this randomized control trial was to see the effect of Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (comprehensive yogic breathing program on quality of life, glycemic control, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in the causation of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a maneuver to prevent progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy holds signifi cance. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication and diet and exercise advice were randomized into two groups: (1 Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2 Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. At 6 months, quality of life and postprandial plasma glucose signifi cantly improved in the group practicing yoga compared to baseline, but there was no significant improvement in the fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Results: On per protocol analysis, sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions signifi cantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing. Conclusion: This randomized control trial points towards the beneficial effect of yogic breathing program in preventing progression of cardiac neuropathy. This has important implications as cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been considered as one of the factors for sudden cardiac deaths.Keywords: comprehensive yogic breathing program, diabetes mellitus, cardiac autonomic function

  8. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  9. Pulmonary artery pressure limits exercise capacity at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Naeije, Robert; Huez, Sandrine; Lamotte, Michel; Retailleau, Kathleen; Neupane, S; Abramowicz, Daniel; Faoro, Vitalie

    2010-01-01

    Altitude exposure is associated with decreased exercise capacity and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Echocardiographic measurements of pulmonary haemodynamics and a cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed in 13 healthy subjects at sea level, in normoxia and during acute hypoxic breathing (1 h, 12% oxygen in nitrogen), and in 22 healthy subjects after acclimatisation to an altitude of 5,050 m. The measurements were obtained after randomisation, double-blinded to the intake ...

  10. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. Forget “no pain, no ... questions or think you have injured yourself seriously. Benefits of regular exercise Reduces your risk of heart disease, high blood ...

  11. Rapid eye movement sleep in breath holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohyama, J; Hasegawa, T; Shimohira, M; Fukumizu, M; Iwakawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    One-night polysomnography was performed on seven subjects suffering from breath-holding spells, including one whose death was suggested to be a consequence of a breath-holding spell. The fatal case showed no rapid eye movements (REMs) during REM sleep, although he exhibited REMs during wakefulness. The average numbers of both REMs and bursts of REMs in REM sleep in the other six breath holders were significantly lower than those in age-matched controls. The breath holders showed no airway obstruction, desaturation, or sleep fragmentation. Since the rapid ocular activity in REM sleep is generated in the brain stem, we hypothesized that a functional brainstem disturbance is involved in the occurrence of breath-holding spells.

  12. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  13. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  14. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  15. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  16. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  17. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  18. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my workout? Glossary What are some of the benefits of exercise for postpartum women? Exercise has the following benefits ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ...

  19. Exercise and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? ... healthier while ageing with HIV. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? Regular, moderate exercise has many of ...

  20. Severe hypoxia during incremental exercise to exhaustion provokes negative post-exercise affects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Stavrou, Nektarios A M; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-03-15

    The post-exercise emotional response is mainly dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed; moderate exercise causes positive feelings, whereas maximal exercise may prompt negative affects. Acute hypoxia impairs peak O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), resulting in a shift to a lower absolute intensity at the point of exhaustion. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine whether a severe hypoxic stimulus would influence the post-exercise affective state in healthy lowlanders performing an incremental exercise to exhaustion. Thirty-six male lowlanders performed, in a counter-balanced order and separated by a 48-h interval, two incremental exercise trials to exhaustion to determine their V̇O2peak, while they were breathing either room air (AIR; FiO2: 0.21), or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO; FiO2: 0.12). Before and immediately after each trial, subjects were requested to complete two questionnaires, based on how they felt at that particular moment: (i) the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, and (ii) the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List. During the post-exercise phase, they also completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. V̇O2peak was significantly lower in the HYPO than the AIR trial (~15%; pnegative post-exercise emotions, induces higher levels of perceived fatigue and decreases motivation; the affective responses coincide with the comparatively lower V̇O2peak than that achieved in normoxic conditions.

  1. Evaluation of noninvasive cardiac output methods during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Barrows, Linda H.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Noninvasive techniques to estimate cardiac output (Qc) will be used during future space flight. This retrospective literature survey compared the Qc techniques of carbon dioxide rebreathing (CO2-R), CO2 single breath (CO2-S), Doppler (DOP), impedance (IM), and inert gas (IG: acetylene or nitrous oxide) to direct (DIR) assessments measured at rest and during exercise.

  2. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  3. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  4. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  5. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  6. Exercise & Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents At ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  7. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is the only state that requires exercise physiologists to be licensed, although many states have ...

  8. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system is a device intended to measure fractional nitric oxide in human breath. Measurement of changes...

  10. An introduction to the psychophysiology of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    1994-06-01

    Breathing can be viewed as an independent variable which affects emotion, cognition, and behavior as well as a dependent variable which reflects changes in emotion, cognition, and behavior. This bidirectional interaction is basic to an appreciation of the significance of breathing in terms of its relevance in research and application. The underlying premise of the present article is that since breathing is a behavior that is under voluntary as well as reflexive control, it can be modified according to the principles of both instrumental training (operant conditioning) and Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. The implications of this premise are relevant to theory, diagnosis, and treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders (e.g., panic disorder, phobias, test anxiety, occupational strain, and related psychosomatic disorders), and to basic and applied research in the psychophysiology of breathing.

  11. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  12. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...

  13. Oropharyngeal origin of markers in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Marteus, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Normal NO formation in the human airways occurs primarily in the nasal airways, where it is catalyzed by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and in the oropharyngeal tract, via as yet not fully defined pathways. This NO can be detected in exhaled breath and when inflammation is present in the airways, for example in asthma, the concentration of NO is increased. Although most studies on non-invasive measurements of airway inflammation have focused on NO in exhaled breath, there has...

  14. Exercise beyond menopause: Dos and Don'ts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nalini; Mishra, V N; Devanshi

    2011-07-01

    With a significant number of women belonging to the status of menopause and beyond, it is imperative to plan a comprehensive health program for them, including lifestyle modifications. Exercise is an integral part of the strategy. The benefits are many, most important being maintenance of muscle mass and thereby the bone mass and strength. The exercise program for postmenopausal women should include the endurance exercise (aerobic), strength exercise and balance exercise; it should aim for two hours and 30 minutes of moderate aerobic activity each week. Every woman should be aware of her target heart rate range and should track the intensity of exercise employing the talk test. Other deep breathing, yoga and stretching exercises can help to manage the stress of life and menopause-related symptoms. Exercises for women with osteoporosis should not include high impact aerobics or activities in which a fall is likely. The women and the treating medical practitioner should also be aware of the warning symptoms and contraindications regarding exercise prescription in women beyond menopause. The role of exercise in hot flashes, however, remains inconclusive. Overall, exercising beyond menopause is the only noncontroversial and beneficial aspect of lifestyle modification and must be opted by all. PMID:22408332

  15. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  16. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  17. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  18. Right Atrial Pressure Affects the Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Right Ventricular Function in Spontaneously Breathing COPD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerrigter, Bart; Trip, Pia; Bogaard, Harm Jan; Groepenhoff, Herman; Oosterveer, Frank; Westerhof, Nico; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary interactions are influenced by right atrial pressure. Methods Twenty-one patients with COPD underwent simultaneous measurements of intrathoracic, right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures during spontaneous breathing at rest and during exercise. Intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure were used to calculate right atrial filling pressure. Dynamic changes in pulmonary artery pulse pressure during expiration were examined to evaluate changes in right ventricular output. Results Pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreased up to 40% during expiration reflecting a decrease in stroke volume. The decline in pulse pressure was most prominent in patients with a low right atrial filling pressure. During exercise, a similar decline in pulmonary artery pressure was observed. This could be explained by similar increases in intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure during exercise, resulting in an unchanged right atrial filling pressure. Conclusions We show that in spontaneously breathing COPD patients the pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreases during expiration and that the magnitude of the decline in pulmonary artery pulse pressure is not just a function of intrathoracic pressure, but also depends on right atrial pressure. PMID:22272306

  19. Right atrial pressure affects the interaction between lung mechanics and right ventricular function in spontaneously breathing COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Boerrigter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary interactions are influenced by right atrial pressure. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with COPD underwent simultaneous measurements of intrathoracic, right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures during spontaneous breathing at rest and during exercise. Intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure were used to calculate right atrial filling pressure. Dynamic changes in pulmonary artery pulse pressure during expiration were examined to evaluate changes in right ventricular output. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreased up to 40% during expiration reflecting a decrease in stroke volume. The decline in pulse pressure was most prominent in patients with a low right atrial filling pressure. During exercise, a similar decline in pulmonary artery pressure was observed. This could be explained by similar increases in intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure during exercise, resulting in an unchanged right atrial filling pressure. CONCLUSIONS: We show that in spontaneously breathing COPD patients the pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreases during expiration and that the magnitude of the decline in pulmonary artery pulse pressure is not just a function of intrathoracic pressure, but also depends on right atrial pressure.

  20. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Liao; Han-Hong Lin; He-Lin Ruo; Po-Hsiang Hsu

    2015-01-01

    In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath...

  1. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Si-qian; Chen, Bao-Jun; LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-01-01

    Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further res...

  2. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  3. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-03-01

    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  4. Exercise gaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smaerup, M.; Grönvall, E.; Larsen, S. B.;

    2016-01-01

    , but their knowledge and understanding of the training programme were insufficient. The participants asked for a greater variation in the exercises and asked for closer contact with the physiotherapist. When Mitii is used for vestibular rehabilitation, the system has some limitations. Conclusions The modest level...... understanding of the training programme with supplying information on the parts of the vestibular system addressed by the training. Implications for Rehabilitation Computer-assisted technologies should generate feedback on the quality of user performance and inform the patient of the relevance of the exercise......Purpose The purpose of the study was to identify possible reasons for a modest level of exercise compliance during computer-assisted training for vestibular rehabilitation. Method Qualitative design and analysis of 14 semi-structured interviews with seven participants before and after a period...

  5. A breath of fresh air!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1 the teams in charge of the cooling and ventilation systems of the CERN accelerators will perform maintenance work on all the equipment for which they are responsible. What with replacing complete systems, making improvements or bringing equipment back up to scratch, their workload looks like being a heavy one over the coming months.   Installing a fan in a cooling tower at Point 6 of the LHC in 2009. A similar exercise will be carried out in a few weeks. CERN's Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the cooling systems, pumping stations, air-conditioning facilities and fluid distribution systems for CERN's Computer Centre, the PS, the SPS, the LHC and their respective experiment areas. All these systems are equally indispensable and their maintenance is far from being a straightforward operation. During operating periods, the technical stops are too short for any major maintenance work. Although the work take...

  6. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: Comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. Patients and methods: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPMTM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three-field mono-isocentric wide tangential photon field treatment plan for each scan. The target included the remaining breast, internal mammary nodes and periclavicular nodes. Results: The mean anteroposterior chest wall excursion during FB was 2.5 mm. For IG and EG, the mean excursions within gating windows were 1.1 and 0.7 mm, respectively, whereas for DIBH and EBH the excursions were 4.1 and 2.6 mm, respectively. For patients with left-sided cancer, the median heart volume receiving more than 50% of the prescription dose was reduced from 19.2% for FB to 2.8% for IG and 1.9% for DIBH, and the median left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery volume was reduced from 88.9% to 22.4% for IG and 3.6% for DIBH. Simultaneously, the median ipsilateral relative lung volume irradiated to >50% of the prescribed target dose for both right- and left-sided cancers was reduced from 45.6% for FB to 29.5% for IG and 27.7% for DIBH. For EBH and EG, both the irradiated heart, LAD and lung volumes increased compared to FB. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate the dosimetric benefits

  7. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  8. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma: Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Kelly; Shaw, Michele R.; Postma, Julie; Katz, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a major cause of illness, missed school days, and hospitalization in children. One type of asthma common in children is exercise-induced asthma (EIA). EIA causes airway narrowing with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath during exercise. The purpose of this article is to review the literature relevant to screening children and…

  9. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  10. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  11. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheezing - exercise-induced; Reactive airway disease - exercise ... Having asthma symptoms when you exercise does not mean you cannot or should not exercise. But be aware of your EIA triggers. Cold or dry air may ...

  12. Exercise and age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age and exercise ... It is never too late to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry ... as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also reduce your risk of heart disease, ...

  13. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  14. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylitis Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Exercise & Posture Learn About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  15. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  16. Coordination-related changes in the rhythms of breathing and walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Coordination of the respiratory rhythm with the rhythm of limb movements has often been observed during rhythmical exercise (e.g. in locomotion). It is usually associated with changes in the respiratory time course, but not in the locomotor rhythm. Therefore, we hypothesised that in walking, the extent of coordination-related changes (CRC) in respiratory parameters would increase with closer coordination. With respect to the controversially discussed question of a possible energetic advantage due to coordination, we devoted particular interest to the CRC in oxygen uptake (VO2). In addition, we investigated the incidence and the extent of CRC in the stepping rhythm. We examined 18 volunteers walking on a treadmill at three different workload levels, which were adjusted by altering either the velocity or slope of the treadmill. Each walking test was carried out twice, once with spontaneous breathing and once with breathing paced by a step-related acoustic signal to enhance the coordination between breathing and walking. No correlation was found between the CRC in the analysed parameters and the degree of coordination. However, the extent of CRC of ventilation and VO2 decreased with increasing workload. With the transition to coordination, increases and decreases of VO2 occurred about equally often. From this we conclude that energetic economisation in walking, as reflected by a reduction in VO2, is rather a side-effect of coordination, and is probably due to a more precise regulation of the breathing pattern. The economisation was more pronounced at higher work loads than at lower work loads. Our results revealed that coordination is also associated with changes in the stepping rate, which occurred more frequently when the variability of breathing was restricted by acoustic pacing of the breathing rhythm. This finding suggests that the choice of walking rhythm is not completely free, but can be influenced by the breathing rhythm. CRC in the walking rhythm might

  17. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  18. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  19. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  20. Effects of ozone exposure: a comparison between oral and nasal breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, B.; Silverman, F.; Cole, P.; Corey, P.

    1988-09-01

    Mode of inhalation, by nose or by mouth, as a determinant of pulmonary toxicity to acute inhalant exposure has been investigated incompletely. This communication addresses whether there are significant differences in toxic pulmonary responses to acute ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure between differing modes of inhalation (nasal vs. oral breathing). Changes in the results of pulmonary function tests and symptomatology of healthy young adults were compared following both exclusive nose and exclusive mouth breathing during a 30-min exposure to approximately 0.4 ppm O/sub 3/ under conditions of moderate continuous exercise. In this single-blind, randomized, crossover study, no significant differences in either the results of pulmonary function tests or in symptomatology were found between the two modes of inhalation.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in community psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie N. Anderson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sleep disturbance is prominent in many neuropsychiatric disorders and may precipitate or exacerbate a range of psychiatric conditions. Few studies have investigated sleep disordered breathing and in particular obstructive sleep apnoea in community psychiatric patients and the commonly used screening instruments have not been evaluated in patients with psychiatric disorders. The objective is to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in a community cohort with chronic mental illness on long term psychotropic medication, and to assess the effectiveness of commonly used screening instruments to detect abnormal sleep. Methods: 52 patients completed sleep questionnaires and 50 undertook overnight oximetry. Results: 52% (n = 26 had sleep-disordered breathing; 20% (n = 10 had moderate/severe sleep apnoea. The Epworth Sleepiness Score and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory did not predict sleep disordered breathing. Conclusions: Patients with psychiatric disorders in the community have a high rate of undiagnosed sleep disordered breathing, which is not reliably detected by established sleep disorder screening questionnaires.

  2. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  3. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  4. Pulse Ejection Presentation System Synchronized with Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Ami; Sato, Junta; Ohtsu, Kaori; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    Trials on transmission of olfactory information together with audio/visual information are currently being conducted in the field of multimedia. However, continuous emission of scents in high concentration creates problems of human adaptation and remnant odors in air. To overcome such problems we developed an olfactory display in conjunction with Canon Inc. This display has high emission control in the ink-jet so that it can provide stable pulse emission of scents. Humans catch a scent when they breathe in and inhale smell molecules in air. Therefore, it is important that the timing of scent presentation is synchronized with human breathing. We also developed a breath sensor which detects human inspiration. In this study, we combined the olfactory display with the breath sensor to make a pulse ejection presentation system synchronized the breath. The experimental evaluation showed that the system had more than 90 percent of detection rate. Another evaluation was held at KEIO TECHNO-MALL 2007. From questionnaire results of the participants, we found that the system made the user feel continuous sense of smell avoiding adaptation. It is expected that our system enables olfactory information to be synchronized with audio/visual information in arbitrary duration at any time.

  5. Mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) devices and their use for pollution exposure monitoring in breath and ambient air-pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Salmond, Jennifer; Dirks, Kim N; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Studies of health effects of air pollution exposure are limited by inability to accurately determine dose and exposure of air pollution in field trials. We explored the feasibility of using a mobile selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) device, housed in a van, to determine ambient air and breath levels of benzene, xylene and toluene following exercise in areas of high motor vehicle traffic. The breath toluene, xylene and benzene concentration of healthy subjects were measured before and after exercising close to a busy road. The concentration of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), in ambient air were also analysed in real time. Exercise close to traffic pollution is associated with a two-fold increase in breath VOCs (benzene, xylene and toluene) with levels returning to baseline within 20 min. This effect is not seen when exercising away from traffic pollution sources. Situating the testing device 50 m from the road reduced any confounding due to VOCs in the inspired air prior to the breath testing manoeuvre itself. Real-time field testing for air pollution exposure is possible using a mobile SIFT-MS device. This device is suitable for exploring exposure and dose relationships in a number of large scale field test scenarios.

  6. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  7. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Thalakkotur Lazar; Pownraj, Prabhahari; Abdulla, Sukhananazerin; Pullithadathil, Biji

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques. PMID:26854142

  8. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its related effects. Additionally, various medical monitoring techniques used for breath analysis have been discussed. It also includes the current scenario of breath analysis with nanotechnology-oriented techniques

  9. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  10. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  11. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Reducing the treatment margin for organ motion during breathing reduces the volume of irradiated normal tissues. This may allow a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the target volume for thoracic and abdominal tumors. However, such margin reduction must not increase the risk of marginal misses which may lead to local failure. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using Active Breathing Control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Planning CT scans and radiation delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions such that a minimal margin for breathing motion can be prescribed safely. Methods and Materials. An active breathing control (ABC) apparatus was constructed consisting of two pairs of flow monitor and scissors valve; one each to control the inhalation and exhalation paths to the patient. The patient breathed through a mouth-piece or face mask connected to the ABC apparatus. A personal computer was used to process the respiratory signal and to display the changing lung volume in real-time. At some time after the patient achieved a stable breathing pattern, the operator activated ABC at a pre-selected point in the breathing cycle. Both valves were then closed to immobilize breathing motion. The period of active breath-hold was that which could be comfortably and repeatedly tolerated by each individual patient, as determined during a training session. The feasibility of the ABC procedure was studied by acquiring volumetric CT scans of a patient during active breath-hold. A helical CT scanner was used. These ABC scans were acquired at one-half to one-third the dose delivered with routine CT scanning. Nine patients with tumors in the thorax and abdomen were studied. Contiguous CT slices were obtained for a region which encompassed the target volume. At least 4 sets of volumetric scans were obtained; one with the patient breathing normally; two ABC scans at the same point near the end of normal inspiration

  12. Right Atrial Pressure Affects the Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Right Ventricular Function in Spontaneously Breathing COPD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boerrigter, B.G.; Trip, P.; Bogaard, H.J.; Groepenhoff, H.; Oosterveer, F.; Westerhof, N.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary...

  13. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  14. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  15. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P relationship was increased from CON by approximately 22% during CUFF, 40% during PP, and 41% during CUFF+PP. CONCLUSIONS: As intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated immediately upon application of LBPP during PP and CUFF+PP without a concomitant increase in VE, it seems unlikely that LBPP-induced increases in VE can be attributed to activation of the mechanoreflex. These findings suggest that LBPP-induced reductions in perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  16. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  17. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown......Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive......, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment...

  18. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  19. 萨克斯呼吸的生理原理探究%Sax physiological principle of breathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锴

    2015-01-01

    根据西洋乐器的分类方法,萨克斯是一种木管乐器,呼吸是提供其发音的唯一动力,没有气息,萨克斯就无法变成真正的"乐器".同时,气息也是学习萨克斯过程中非常难把握的一个要素,气息的好坏对萨克斯的演奏有着直接的影响.掌握了正确的呼吸方法,气息的练习就会事倍功半.本文笔者在结合萨克斯的基本演奏的基础上,对萨克斯演奏过程中的气息原理、呼吸方法和演奏技巧进行论述,探究如何运用呼吸才可以使萨克斯演奏出好的音色.%According to the classification of Western musical instruments, saxophone is a woodwind instrument, the breath is provide the only motive of the pronunciation, no breath Sachs wil not become real "instruments." At the same time, the breath is also a factor that is very difficult to grasp in the process of learning Sax, the quality of the atmosphere has a direct impact on the performance of Sax. Master the correct breathing, breathing exercises wil be less effective. In this paper, the author on the basis of combination of saxophone playing. Saxophone playing in the process of breath principle, respiration and playing skils are discussed, explore how to use breathing can make saxophone playing the sound.

  20. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  1. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  2. Circulatory effects of expiratory flow-limited exercise, dynamic hyperinflation and expiratory muscle pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Macklem

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research in normal subjects exercising with and without expiratory flow limitation at 1 L·s–1 imposed by a Starling resistor in the expiratory line, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, using optoelectronic plethysmography to measure respiratory kinematics, combined with mouth, pleural and abdominal pressure measurements, to assess work of breathing and respiratory muscle performance. In normal subjects, flow-limited exercise resulted in the following: 1 Impaired exercise performance due to intolerable dyspnoea; 2 hypercapnia; 3 excessive respiratory muscle recruitment; 4 blood shifts from trunk to extremities; 5 a 10% reduction in cardiac output and a 5% reduction in arterial oxygen saturation, decreasing energy supplies to working respiratory and locomotor muscles. In both normal subjects and in COPD patients, dynamic hyperinflation did not always occur. Those patients that hyperinflated had worse lung function and less work of breathing, but better exercise performance than the others, in whom expiratory muscle recruitment prevented dynamic hyperinflation at the cost of increased work of breathing and excessive oxygen cost of breathing. This established an early competition between respiratory and locomotor muscles for available energy supplies. Dynamic hyperinflation is a better exercise strategy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than expiratory muscle recruitment, but the benefit it confers is small.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing in acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L K Dzeranova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is higly prevalent in acromegaly, disturbing patients quality of life and increasing the risk of acute cardiovascular compications. Presented clinical case discusses key considerations for timely diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and treatment planning. The case of 41 y.o. woman with newly diagnosed acromegaly and concomitant sleep apnea is typical for this disease.

  4. Coordination of breathing with nonrespiratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, James C

    2012-04-01

    Many articles in this section of Comprehensive Physiology are concerned with the development and function of a central pattern generator (CPG) for the control of breathing in vertebrate animals. The action of the respiratory CPG is extensively modified by cortical and other descending influences as well as by feedback from peripheral sensory systems. The central nervous system also incorporates other CPGs, which orchestrate a wide variety of discrete and repetitive, voluntary and involuntary movements. The coordination of breathing with these other activities requires interaction and coordination between the respiratory CPG and those governing the nonrespiratory activities. Most of these interactions are complex and poorly understood. They seem to involve both conventional synaptic crosstalk between groups of neurons and fluid identity of neurons as belonging to one CPG or another: neurons that normally participate in breathing may be temporarily borrowed or hijacked by a competing or interrupting activity. This review explores the control of breathing as it is influenced by many activities that are generally considered to be nonrespiratory. The mechanistic detail varies greatly among topics, reflecting the wide variety of pertinent experiments.

  5. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  6. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  7. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  8. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  9. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary Sumer; Choudhary Sanjiw

    2009-01-01

    To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  10. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  11. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  12. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath interaction, the system effectively influenced user breath such that their breathing features turned into patterns that appeared when people were relaxed. An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three forms of regulation, the free breathing mode, the pure guiding mode, and the local-mapping mode. Experiment results show that multimedia-assisted breath interaction successfully deepened and slowed down user breath, compared with free breathing mode. Besides objective breathing feature changes, subjective feedback also showed that participants were satisfied and became relaxed after using this system.

  13. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  14. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  15. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  16. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  17. Effects of hypoxia on interval moderate exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TASOS ADAMOS, ZISIS PAPANIKOLAOU, VASILIOS VOUTSELAS,DIMITRIOS SOULAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a controversy in the published scientific data whether extended training at altitude increases performance at sea level. The effect of hypoxia at rest and on the response to interval moderate exercise was determined in six healthy male individuals during an incremental 3×5min exercise cycle test (5min recovery at sea level and in a hypobaric chamber (10000 feet/3100m altitude. Ventilation rate (VE, breathing frequency (BF, heart rate (HR, cardiac output (Q, blood lactate (Labl and % of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured. Blood samples were drawn at rest and at the end of each exercise bout. Hypoxia led to a significant increase in VE during exercise (81.7 vs. 62, 87 vs. 66, 89 vs. 64ml/l, for the three exercise bouts, respectively p<.05. There was also a significant increase in BF (11.3 vs. 10, 29 vs. 25, 32 vs. 24, 33 vs. 25, p<.05, HR (73 vs. 62, 153 vs. 138, 161 vs. 138, 166 vs. 137b/min, p<.05, Q (4.8 vs. 4, 13.1 vs. 12.5, 14.6 vs. 12.2, 15.5 vs. 12.8l/min, p<.05 and Labl (0.41 vs. 0.35, 3.8 vs. 2.6, 4.7 vs 3, 5.9 vs 2.9 mmol/l, p<.05 at rest and during exercise. Hypoxia lowered SaO2 at rest and exercise (99.3 vs 98.6, 98.1 vs 95.1, 98.5 vs 95.3, 98.3 vs 95.5%, p<.05. The results suggest that there is a hypoxic augmentation of the cardiorespiratory variables measured. Also we concluded that exercise potentiated the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia by increasing VE, breathing frequency, heart rate, cardiac output, blood lactate and decreasing SaO2.

  18. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  19. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of pswim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale.

  20. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  1. Breathing adapted radiotherapy of breast cancer: reduction of cardiac and pulmonary doses using voluntary inspiration breath-hold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders N; Korreman, Stine; Nyström, Håkan;

    2004-01-01

    anterioposterior chest wall excursion. Each patient underwent three scans: during free breathing (FB), voluntary expiration breath-hold (EBH) and voluntary deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). For each scan, an optimised treatment plan was designed with conformal tangential fields encompassing the clinical target...

  2. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  3. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, N G; Hardavella, G

    2011-09-01

    Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often exhale along the same flow-volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFL(T)). Therefore, EFL(T), namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFL(T) leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFL(T) occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage), in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFL(T) are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique. PMID:21881143

  4. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high blood pressure Severe anemia What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy? Regular exercise during pregnancy benefits you ... weeks after childbirth. In addition to these health benefits, exercise after pregnancy can help you lose the extra ...

  5. Exercise ODIN (BER 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic exercise named ODIN was held 26. November 1993. This was an exercise of management of the last phase of a nuclear accident. The report gives an evaluation of the Norwegian management of the exercise. 2 refs., 3 figs

  6. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (pworld-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency.

  7. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (pperformance in world-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency. PMID:27083403

  8. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  9. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  10. Monitoring Breathing via Signal Strength in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Patwari, Neal; R., Sai Ananthanarayanan P; Kasera, Sneha K; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows experimentally that standard wireless networks which measure received signal strength (RSS) can be used to reliably detect human breathing and estimate the breathing rate, an application we call "BreathTaking". We show that although an individual link cannot reliably detect breathing, the collective spectral content of a network of devices reliably indicates the presence and rate of breathing. We present a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of breathing rate, amplitude, and phase, which uses the RSS data from many links simultaneously. We show experimental results which demonstrate that reliable detection and frequency estimation is possible with 30 seconds of data, within 0.3 breaths per minute (bpm) RMS error. Use of directional antennas is shown to improve robustness to motion near the network.

  11. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  12. Effects of exercise on dose and dose distribution of inhaled automotive pollutants. Research report, Jun 84-Oct 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinman, M.T.; Mautz, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The study evaluated how changes in ventilation rate and the entry route of air pollutants into the respiratory tract (nose versus mouth breathing) affect the respiratory tract uptake and penetration of inhaled gaseous and particle pollutants in automobile emissions. Beagle dogs were exposed at rest or while exercising to nitrogen dioxide (1 and 5 ppm), formaldehyde (2 and 10 ppm), and an aerosol of ammonium nitrate particles (0.3 micro MMAD at 1 mg/m). Total respiratory system uptake and effects on breath time expired tidal volume, fractional expiration time, minute ventilation, respiratory gas exchange, ventilation equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide, and dynamic pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured. Regional penetration of pollutants through oral and nasal airways and pollutant uptake in the lung were measured in a separate group of six tracheostomized dogs. Dogs exposed to 5 ppm nitrogen at rest tended to breathe more rapidly and more shallowly than dogs exposed to purified air. Rapid-shallow breathing was not observed when the dogs were exposed during exercise to 5 ppm nitrogen dioxide. Dogs exposed to a mixture of 10 ppm formaldehyde and 1 mg/m 3 ammonium nitrate particles during exercise showed a shift to larger tidal volume breathing. The total respiratory system uptake of formaldehyde in the mixture was larger than that measured for 10 ppm of formaldehyde alone in another exercise and exposure study. In tracheostomized dogs exposed at rest, formaldehyde was rapidly removed from inspired air by the upper airways and penetrated to the trachea, whether breathing was by nose or mouth. Nitrogen dioxide penetrated the upper airways more readily. For both gases, penetration was greater during mouth breathing than during nose breathing, and penetration increased with increased ventilation.

  13. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  14. Effect of ozone on breathing in dogs: vagal and nonvagal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nadel, J.A.; Hahn, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    We exposed two awake dogs with a chronic tracheostomy and the cervical vagus nerves exteriorized in skin loops to 1.0 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 2 h at intervals of 4 wk. We measured ventilatory variables before and after O/sub 3/ exposure during rest and exercise before and after vagal block. We compared the effects of vagal blockade, exercise, and O/sub 3/ on the primary determinants of breathing pattern (VT/TI, VT/TE, TI, and TE) in each of three conditions: base line (steady state), during hypercapnia, and after inhalation of 1% histamine. Under base-line conditions, O/sub 3/ increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume (VT) by shortening time of expiration (TE) and time of inspiration (TI) without affecting VT/TI, an indicator of the neural drive to breathing. During progressive hypercapnia, O/sub 3/ shortened TE and TI by effects both on tonic (nonvolume-related) and on phasic (volume-related) vagal inputs, and only the latter were prevented completely by cooling of the vagus nerves. Histamine-induced tachypnea was increased by O/sub 3/ and was totally blocked by cooling the vagus nerves. It was concluded that O/sub 3/ shortens the timing of respiration without increasing ventilatory drive, shortens TI and TE through vagal and nonvagal pathways, increases tonic nonvagal and phasic vagal inputs, and stimulates more than one vagal fiber type.

  15. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  16. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  17. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Seham F. A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig U...

  18. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  19. Breath sampling control for medical application

    OpenAIRE

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Jörg I.; Westhoff, Michael; Züchner, Klaus; Carstens, Eike T. H.; Perl, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Sampling of breath under human control or automated control with sensors was combined with chemical determination of a synthetic sample using multi-capillary column ion mobility spectrometry to measure quantitative variability. Variation was 19% with an automated inlet and 33% with human control. Sensors to operate an automated inlet were also evaluated with human subjects and included carbon dioxide (CO2), flow (direction and velocity), volume (integrated from the flow rate) and humidity, al...

  20. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment...

  1. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  2. Lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide and carbon monoxide is impaired similarly following short-term graded exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Lands, Larry C

    2005-02-01

    Study aimed to determine whether short-term graded exercise affects single-breath lung diffusion capacity for nitric oxide (DLNO) and carbon monoxide (DLCO) similarly, and whether the DLNO/DLCO ratios during rest are altered post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. Eleven healthy subjects (age=29+/-6 years; weight=76.6+/-13.2 kg; height=177.9+/-13.2 cm; and maximal oxygen uptake or V(.-)(O(2max) = 52.7 +/- 9.3 ml kg(-1) min(-1))performed simultaneous single-breath DLNO and DLCO measurements at rest (inspired NO concentration=43.2+/-4.1 ppm, inspired CO concentration=0.30%) 15 min before and 2h after a graded exercise test to exhaustion (exercise duration=593+/-135 s). Resting DLNO and DLCO was similarly reduced 2h post-exercise (DLNO=-7.8+/-3.5%, DLCO=-10.3+/-6.9%, and PDLNO post-exercise such that 68% of the variance in the change in DLCO was accounted for by the variance in the change in DLNO (PDLNO/DLCO ratio was not altered post-exercise (5.87+/-0.37) compared to pre-exercise (5.70+/-0.34). We conclude that the decrease in single-breath DLNO and DLCO from pre- to post-exercise is similar, the magnitude of the change in DLCO closely reflects that of the change in DLNO, and single-breath DLNO/DLCO ratios are independent of the timing of measurement suggesting that using NO and CO transfer gases are valid in looking at short-term changes in lung diffusional conductance.

  3. Upper extremity kinematics and body roll during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, C J; Bartlett, R M; Baltzopoulos, V; Coombs, R

    1999-09-01

    Front crawl swimmers often restrict the number of breaths they take during a race because of the possible adverse effects of the breathing action on resistance or stroke mechanics. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in the kinematics of the trunk and upper extremity used during preferred-side breathing and breath-holding front crawl swimming. Six male swimmers performed trials at their 200 m race pace under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater arm stroke was filmed from the front and side using video cameras suspended over periscope systems. Video recordings were digitized at 50 Hz and the three-dimensional coordinates of the upper extremity obtained using a direct linear transformation algorithm. Body roll angles were obtained by digitizing video recordings of a balsa wood fin attached to the swimmers' backs. The swimmers performed the breathing action without any decrement in stroke length (mean +/- s: breathing 2.24 +/- 0.27 m; breath-holding 2.15 +/- 0.22 m). Stroke widths were similar in the breathing (0.28 +/- 0.07 m) and breath-holding (0.27 +/- 0.07 m) trials, despite swimmers rolling further when taking a breath (66 +/- 5 degrees) than when not (57 +/- 4 degrees). The timing of the four underwater phases of the stroke was also unaffected by the breathing action, with swimmers rolling back towards the neutral position during the insweep phase. In conclusion, the results suggest that front crawl swimmers can perform the breathing action without it interfering with their basic stroke parameters. The insweep phase of the stroke assists body roll and not vice versa as suggested in previous studies.

  4. Determination of breath isoprene allows the identification of the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal during real-time propofol breath monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Souza, Kimberly; Praun, Siegfried; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2013-10-01

    Real-time measurement of propofol in the breath may be used for routine clinical monitoring. However, this requires unequivocal identification of the expiratory phase of the respiratory propofol signal as only expiratory propofol reflects propofol blood concentrations. Determination of CO2 breath concentrations is the current gold standard for the identification of expiratory gas but usually requires additional equipment. Human breath also contains isoprene, a volatile organic compound with low inspiratory breath concentration and an expiratory concentration plateau. We investigated whether breath isoprene could be used similarly to CO2 to identify the expiratory fraction of the propofol breath signal. We investigated real-time breath data obtained from 40 study subjects during routine anesthesia. Propofol, isoprene, and CO2 breath concentrations were determined by a combined ion molecule reaction/electron impact mass spectrometry system. The expiratory propofol signal was identified according to breath CO2 and isoprene concentrations and presented as median of intervals of 30 s duration. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to detect differences (bias) in the expiratory propofol signal extracted by the two identification methods. We investigated propofol signals in a total of 3,590 observation intervals of 30 s duration in the 40 study subjects. In 51.4 % of the intervals (1,844/3,590) both methods extracted the same results for expiratory propofol signal. Overall bias between the two data extraction methods was -0.12 ppb. The lower and the upper limits of the 95 % CI were -0.69 and 0.45 ppb. Determination of isoprene breath concentrations allows the identification of the expiratory propofol signal during real-time breath monitoring.

  5. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NOx, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCPAS), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NOx signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOCPAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  6. Exercise and Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, Wim; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2009-01-01

    Physical exercise affects the equilibrium of the internal environment. During exercise the contracting muscles generate force or power and heat. So physical exercise is in fact a form of mechanical energy. This generated energy will deplete the energy stocks within the body. During exercise, metabol

  7. Dissociation between lactate and proton exchange in muscle during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Juel, Carsten; Hellsten, Ylva;

    1997-01-01

    1. Transport of lactate, H+ and fluid across muscle sarcolemma was studied in contracting muscles under varying blood acid-base conditions. 2. Subjects performed two-legged submaximal knee-extensor exercise for 29-35 min consisting of warming up for 5 min followed by 10 min of leg exercise (L1......), leg and arm exercise for 6-10 min (L2 + A) and leg exercise for 10 min (L3). The experimental protocol was performed on two occasions; inspiring air (normoxia, N) or breathing 14% O2 in N2 (hypoxia, H). Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood was sampled before and during......, the difference between net proton and lactate release was positive throughout exercise and of similar magnitude in N and H. 5. The present data suggest that (1) H+ exchange in muscle during submaximal exercise can to a large extent occur through mechanisms other than via coupling to lactate; (2) muscle transport...

  8. Improvement of myocardial perfusion status in response to indian vedic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Yoga is the buzz word all over the world today. Amidst their busy schedule, people tend to ignore their personal health. Management of various disorders, especially those involving interventions, surgical or radiological, is very expensive. The Indian Vedic Exercises, of which Pranaayaama is one, emphasize on prevention of the diseases in order to keep the individual in good health. It is equally applicable to those who have already suffered from various disorders and in whom both improvement and/or avoidance of further deterioration are required. However, no Objective assessment of the disease status in response to these exercises has been reported so far. Objectives: This pilot study has been undertaken on patients with reversible myocardial perfusion defects to Objectively monitor the improvements in the myocardial perfusion in response to a breathing exercise, Pranayama, a breathing technique prescribed in the Indian Vedic Sciences. Methods: Two patients who were found to have reversible myocardial perfusion defects were taken up in this study. These defects were diagnosed from the myocardial perfusion SPECT done in stressed (on Tread Mill) and resting states with 99m Technetium labeled MIBI.These patients were taught the pranayama technique which is done for about 30 minutes every day. At the end of four months from the commencement of this technique, the myocardial perfusion SPECT studies were repeated. Details of the exercise in the form of a CD are available on request. Results: Overall good improvements were observed in all the quantitative parameters in the TMT and SPECT studies in the studies done after the pranayama procedures in both the patients. Perfusion defects seen in the stress images of the initial studies have almost completely reversed in the stress images of the later study. Patients are asymptomatic and are leading a comfortable life. Conclusion: This is only a study of two cases to Objectively evaluate the effects of pranayama

  9. A size-based emphysema severity index: robust to the breath-hold-level variations and correlated with clinical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongeun; Lee, Minho; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the power-law exponents (D) of emphysema hole-size distributions as a competent emphysema index. Robustness to extreme breath-hold-level variations and correlations with clinical parameters for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated and compared to a conventional emphysema index (EI%). Patients and methods A total of 100 patients with COPD (97 males and three females of mean age 67±7.9 years) underwent multidetector row computed tomography scanning at full inspiration and full expiration. The diameters of the emphysematous holes were estimated and quantified with a fully automated algorithm. Power-law exponents (D) of emphysematous hole-size distribution were evaluated. Results The diameters followed a power-law distribution in all cases, suggesting the scale-free nature of emphysema. D of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography of patients showed intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8, indicating statistically absolute agreement of different breath-hold levels. By contrast, the EI% failed to agree. Bland–Altman analysis also revealed the superior robustness of D to EI%. D also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as airflow limitation, diffusion capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Conclusion The D of emphysematous hole-size distribution is robust to breath-hold-level variations and sensitive to the severity of emphysema. This measurement may help rule out the confounding effects of variations in breath-hold levels. PMID:27536095

  10. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Varun; Neeraj; Ushadhar; Yogesh; Rinku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were ...

  11. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  12. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  13. Wearable sensors and feedback system to improve breathing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Mitchell, Edmond; Ward, Tomas; O'Connor, Noel E.; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Breathing is an important factor in our well-being as it oxygenates the body, revitalizes organs, cells and tissues. It is a unique physiological system in that it is both voluntary and involuntary. By breathing in a slow, deep and regular manner, the heartbeat become smooth and regular, blood pressure normalizes, stress hormones drop, and muscles relax. Breathing techniques are important for athletes to improve performance and reduce anxiety during competitions. Patients with respiratory ...

  14. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  15. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  16. Optimization of an adaptive neural network to predict breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J; Pokhrel, Damodar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal configuration and performance of an adaptive feed forward neural network filter to predict breathing in respiratory motion compensation systems for external beam radiation therapy. Method and Materials: A two-layer feed forward neural network was trained to predict future breathing amplitudes for 27 recorded breathing histories. The prediction intervals ranged from 100 to 500 ms. The optimal sampling frequency, number of input samples, training rate, and numb...

  17. Spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriely, N; Nissan, M.; Rubin, A. H.; Cugell, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to establish a reliable bank of information on the spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds from healthy men and women, both non-smokers and smokers. METHODS--Chest wall breath sounds from 272 men and 81 women were measured using contact acoustic sensors, amplifiers, and fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral analysis software. Inspiratory and expiratory sounds were picked up at three standard locations on the chest wall during breathing...

  18. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  19. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min–1. A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min–1, and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  20. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent......Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...

  2. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  3. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  4. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  5. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, R.; M.E. O'Hara; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P; Shah, T; T. Whitehouse; Mayhew, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims: To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods: A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after live...

  6. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  7. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  8. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  9. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  10. Exercise intensity modulates capillary perfusion in correspondence with ACE I/D modulated serum angiotensin II levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the renin–angiotensin system is stimulated. We hypothesized that the increase in serum angiotensin II (AngII levels after exercise is dependent on exercise intensity and duration and secondly that people with the ACE-II genotype will show a higher increase in AngII serum levels. We also assumed that perfusion of upper limbs is transiently reduced with maximal cycling exercise and that subjects with the ACE-II compared to the ACE-ID/DD genotype will have a higher capillary perfusion due to lower AngII levels. Ten healthy subjects completed a maximal exercise test, a 12-min exercise test at ventilatory threshold and a 3-min test at the respiratory compensation point. AngII serum levels and capillary recruitment of the skin in the third finger were measured before and after exercise and breath-by-breath gas exchange during exercise was assessed. Baseline levels of AngII levels were lower prior to the 3-min test which took place on average 5 days after the last exercise. A two-fold increase compared to baseline levels was found for AngII only immediately after the 3-min test and not after the maximal exercise test and 12-min of exercise. Subjects without the I allele showed a decrease in AngII values after the maximal test in contrast to subjects with the ACE-II/ID genotype. Subjects with the ACE-II genotype had a 1.8 times significant higher capillary perfusion in the finger after exercise. A trend was observed for a 34.3% decreased capillary recruitment in the ACE-ID/DD genotype after exercise. We conclude that the rise in AngII after exercise is intensity dependent and that variability in serum AngII and capillary perfusion is related to the ACE I/D polymorphism.

  11. Chemosensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and the Ventilatory Response to Exercise in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Stickland

    Full Text Available COPD is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and a potentiated ventilatory response to exercise. Enhanced carotid chemoreceptor (CC activity/sensitivity is present in other clinical conditions, has been shown to contribute to sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, and is predictive of mortality. CC activity/sensitivity, and the resulting functional significance, has not been well examined in COPD. We hypothesized that CC activity/sensitivity would be elevated in COPD, and related to increased pulse wave velocity (a marker of CV risk and the ventilatory response to exercise.30 COPD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were examined. Participants performed baseline cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function testing. CC activity was later evaluated by the drop in ventilation with breathing 100% O2, and CC sensitivity was then assessed by the ventilatory response to hypoxia (ΔVE/ΔSpO2. Peripheral arterial stiffness was subsequently evaluated by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV using applanation tonometry while the subjects were breathing room air, and then following chemoreceptor inhibition by breathing 100% O2 for 2 minutes.CC activity, CC sensitivity, PWV and the ventilatory response to exercise were all increased in COPD relative to controls. CC sensitivity was related to PWV; however, neither CC activity nor CC sensitivity was related to the ventilatory response to exercise in COPD. CC inhibition by breathing 100% O2 normalized PWV in COPD, while no effect was observed in controls.CC activity and sensitivity are elevated in COPD, and appear related to cardiovascular risk; however, CC activity/sensitivity does not contribute to the potentiated ventilatory response to exercise.

  12. Real-time 3D visualization of the thoraco-abdominal surface during breathing with body movement and deformation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšič, K; Jezeršek, M; Možina, J

    2015-07-01

    Real-time 3D visualization of the breathing displacements can be a useful diagnostic tool in order to immediately observe the most active regions on the thoraco-abdominal surface. The developed method is capable of separating non-relevant torso movement and deformations from the deformations that are solely related to breathing. This makes it possible to visualize only the breathing displacements. The system is based on the structured laser triangulation principle, with simultaneous spatial and color data acquisition of the thoraco-abdominal region. Based on the tracking of the attached passive markers, the torso movement and deformation is compensated using rigid and non-rigid transformation models on the three-dimensional (3D) data. The total time of 3D data processing together with visualization equals 20 ms per cycle.In vitro verification of the rigid movement extraction was performed using the iterative closest point algorithm as a reference. Furthermore, a volumetric evaluation on a live subject was performed to establish the accuracy of the rigid and non-rigid model. The root mean square deviation between the measured and the reference volumes shows an error of  ±0.08 dm(3) for rigid movement extraction. Similarly, the error was calculated to be  ±0.02 dm(3) for torsional deformation extraction and  ±0.11 dm(3) for lateral bending deformation extraction. The results confirm that during the torso movement and deformation, the proposed method is sufficiently accurate to visualize only the displacements related to breathing. The method can be used, for example, during the breathing exercise on an indoor bicycle or a treadmill.

  13. [Physical exercise and bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2016-06-26

    An article was published in the Lancet in 1935 about the therapy of asthmatic patients, using a special breathing exercise (the authors used a control group, too). Swimming, as a complementary therapy for asthmatic children, was first recommended in 1968, by authors from the United States. In Hungary, regular swimming training for asthmatic children is in use since August, 1981. As the result of this exercise, the physical fitness of asthmatic children (using this method regularly for years) increased dramatically, and it is much better compared to that found in the non asthmatic, non swimming children of the same age group. The requirement for asthma medication decreased, and the severity of their disease significantly decreased, also. On the other hand, asthma is not a rarity even among elite athletes. It is most frequent in the endurance sports (for example in Northern Europe among cross-country skiers its prevalence is between 14-54%, among long distance runners 15-24%, and among swimmers 13-44%). The possible reason is related to the fact that elite athletes inspire 200 liter air/minute (mostly through the mouth). Air pollution and allergens can penetrate in the lower respiratory tract. The air causes cooling and drying of the mucosa of the airways and, as a consequence, mediators are liberated which produce oedema of the mucosa, and bronchoconstriction. Beta-2-receptor agonists inhalation can prevent (or decrease significantly) this phenomenon. These agents are used regularly by elite athletes, too. The non-medical possibilities for prevention include wearing a special mask, frequent ventilation of the swimming pool's air, consumption of omega-3-fatty acid, and inhalation of dry salt (very small, and very clear sodiumchloride particles).

  14. [Physical exercise and bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endre, László

    2016-06-26

    An article was published in the Lancet in 1935 about the therapy of asthmatic patients, using a special breathing exercise (the authors used a control group, too). Swimming, as a complementary therapy for asthmatic children, was first recommended in 1968, by authors from the United States. In Hungary, regular swimming training for asthmatic children is in use since August, 1981. As the result of this exercise, the physical fitness of asthmatic children (using this method regularly for years) increased dramatically, and it is much better compared to that found in the non asthmatic, non swimming children of the same age group. The requirement for asthma medication decreased, and the severity of their disease significantly decreased, also. On the other hand, asthma is not a rarity even among elite athletes. It is most frequent in the endurance sports (for example in Northern Europe among cross-country skiers its prevalence is between 14-54%, among long distance runners 15-24%, and among swimmers 13-44%). The possible reason is related to the fact that elite athletes inspire 200 liter air/minute (mostly through the mouth). Air pollution and allergens can penetrate in the lower respiratory tract. The air causes cooling and drying of the mucosa of the airways and, as a consequence, mediators are liberated which produce oedema of the mucosa, and bronchoconstriction. Beta-2-receptor agonists inhalation can prevent (or decrease significantly) this phenomenon. These agents are used regularly by elite athletes, too. The non-medical possibilities for prevention include wearing a special mask, frequent ventilation of the swimming pool's air, consumption of omega-3-fatty acid, and inhalation of dry salt (very small, and very clear sodiumchloride particles). PMID:27319382

  15. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow.

  16. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  17. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...); and (4) Be grade A, B, or C. (h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades A, B, or C produced...,000 parts per million of carbon dioxide; (ii) 20 parts per million carbon monoxide; (iii) 5 milligrams.... (f) Oxygen used for breathing mixtures must— (1) Meet the requirements of Federal Specification...

  18. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  19. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  20. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  1. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  2. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis - exercise; Low bone density - exercise; Osteopenia - exercise ... your bones strong and lower your risk of osteoporosis and fractures as you get older. Before you begin an exercise program, talk with your health care provider if: ...

  3. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually cause harm. Studies have shown ... 20 to 30 minute walks Going to the gym every other day Playing golf regularly Exercise makes ...

  4. Endocannabinoids and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, A; McDaniel, WF

    2004-01-01

    Exercise induces changes in mental status, particularly analgesia, sedation, anxiolysis, and a sense of wellbeing. The mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown. Recent findings show that exercise increases serum concentrations of endocannabinoids, suggesting a possible explanation for a nu

  5. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the ... who have OA of the hip and the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to ...

  6. Learn to love exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mix it up. For example, you might play golf on a Saturdays, take tango classes on Mondays, ... American Council on Exercise. 5 Tips for Learning to Love Exercise (or at Least Develop a Crush on It). ... ...

  7. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they also might try getting some experience with swimming or bicycling -- other forms of exercise that will ... don't jog because that's an impact loading. Swimming -- an excellent exercise for knee or hip disease. ...

  8. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  9. Kids and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise ... longer than 2 hours. previous continue Raising Fit Kids Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet ...

  10. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most ... the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen ...

  11. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and disability. Marian Minor, PT, Ph.D.: And we know that people who have OA of the ... you exercise for 30 minutes all at once. We used to think that isometric exercise, or the ...

  12. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financing Living Donation Home / After The Transplant / Staying Healthy / Diet And Exercise Medications Post-Transplant Medications Types of ... be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your ...

  13. Diet and Exercise Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested ... caffeine content (tea, sodas, chocolate drinks) and caffeinated coffee to two cups per day. Minimize alcohol to ...

  14. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to exercise, that's very ...

  15. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ph.D.: You can break your exercise session up into 10 minutes, three times a day and ... that's a powerful tool to helping people stay up with an exercise program. And then the final ...

  16. Exercise for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  17. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  18. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  19. How Exercise Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most ... the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen ...

  20. The effect of vocal and instrumental music on cardio respiratory variables, energy expenditure and exertion levels during sub maximal treadmill exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Sejil, T V; Rao, Shwetha; Roshan, C J; Roshan, C J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of vocal and instrumental music on various physiological parameters during submaximal exercise. Each subject underwent three sessions of exercise protocol without music, with vocal music, and instrumental versions of same piece of music. The protocol consisted of 10 min treadmill exercise at 70% HR(max) and 20 min of recovery. Minute to minute heart rate and breath by breath recording of respiratory parameters, rate of energy expenditure and perceived exertion levels were measured. Music, irrespective of the presence or absence of lyrics, enabled the subjects to exercise at a significantly lower heart rate and oxygen consumption, reduced the metabolic cost and perceived exertion levels of exercise (P Music having a relaxant effect could have probably increased the parasympathetic activation leading to these effects. PMID:24617166

  1. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  2. Significance of Befitting Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 秀雄||スズキ, ヒデオ||Suzuki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    This study clarifies the importance and significance of “Befitting Exercise" which is necessary for maintaining one's health positively. Usually positive physical exercise is not self-generated where the individual has low psychological motivation. What is at issue for most people seems to be a regime of exercise that suits the wider framework of their lives. Clearly a positive approach to exercise is personally derived and thus needs to fit within the positive image the individual has of exe...

  3. THE ECONOMICS OF INTENSE EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, David O.; Jena, Anupam B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercis...

  4. Effects of a Period of Selected Activity on Lung Capacities in Children 5-10 Years with Asthma Caused by Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aasthma due to causing disruption in the work of breathing and obstruction of the pulmonary tract creates the physical restrictions in the social, emotional and psychological, aspects and performing daily life activities, hence the present study is conducted to determine the impact of a period of selected activity on some spirometry parameters of children from 5 to 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise.Materials and Methods: In this half experimental respiratory research, respiratory indexes of 11 children including 5 boys under the age of 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise were measured before and after eight weeks of selected exercises and pranayama by spirometry were measured.Results: The results showed that the selected exercise routine improves on the status of activities and being short of breath (Z=0/003. Also the average of spirometry indexes prior to a ten minutes exercise, before and after the intervention, compared with the average of spirometry indexes after a ten minute exercise, before and after intervention in the parameters: (fev1 the volume of the expiratory force in the first second, and (PEF the maximum expiratory flow, the results are statistically significant (p 0.05.Conclusions: The present study shows the impact of the selected exercises in improving mobility status and being short of breath and reducing asthma symptoms caused by exercise (EIA as well as strengthening the respiratory muscles significantly.

  5. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  6. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  7. WOMEN AND EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Tarran, Leanne

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the social attitudes and expectations that limit women's freedom to move in the world. The history of gendered attitudes to exercise, current gendered differences in patterns of exercise and issues of body image and ageing are discussed. The importance of these issues when considering exercise as a preventative health measure is emphasised.

  8. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  9. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise.

  10. Exercising in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  11. Stretch Band Exercise Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirka, Nicholas; Hume, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to use stretch bands for improving total body fitness and quality of life. A stretch band exercise program offers a versatile and inexpensive option to motivate participants to exercise. The authors suggest practical exercises that can be used in physical education to improve or maintain muscular strength and endurance,…

  12. Decompression Sickness During Simulated Low Pressure Exposure is Increased with Mild Ambulation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Martina, S. D.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation (nucleation) and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psia exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity - one employing cycling and non-cycling exercise (CEVIS: 'cycle ergometer vibration isolation system') and one relying on non-cycling exercise only (ISLE: 'in-suit light exercise'). Current efforts investigate whether light exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation.

  13. Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Erika; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of exercise intensity on retrograde blood flow and shear rate (SR) in an inactive limb during exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer to estimate peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) while breathing normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2 = 0.21]) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.12 or 0.13) gas mixtures. Subjects then performed four exercise bouts at the same relative intensities (30 and 60% V˙O2peak) for 30 min under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were simultaneously recorded, using Doppler ultrasonography. Retrograde SR was enhanced with increasing exercise intensity under both conditions at 10 min of exercise. Thereafter, retrograde blood flow and SR in normoxia returned to pre-exercise levels, with no significant differences between the two exercise intensities. In contrast, retrograde blood flow and SR in hypoxia remained significantly elevated above baseline and was significantly greater at 60% than at 30% V˙O2peak. We conclude that differences in exercise intensity affect brachial artery retrograde blood flow and SR during prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26038470

  14. Sleep-disordered breathing and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Latisha K; Avidan, Alon Y

    2008-01-01

    Sleep and stroke have an important and fascinating interaction. Patients with sleep-disordered breathing present with cardiovascular heart disease, cognitive decline, and increased risk of stroke. Stroke adversely affects sleep and factors such as prolonged immobilization, chronic pain, nocturnal hypoxia, and depression, which can also adversely impact sleep quality. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), one of the most common and serious sleep disturbances, manifests itself in almost 50% of all stroke patients. Sleep apnea patients who experience a stroke may be at a greater impairment in their rehabilitation potential and have increased risk of secondary stroke and mortality. Given these factors, the practicing neurologist should possess the skills to appropriately recognize, rapidly diagnose, and properly manage stroke patients with OSA.

  15. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  16. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  17. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  18. Breathing pattern--gas exchange relation and acute effect of almitrine in severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, S; Bellone, A; Castelli, T; Mendoza, M; Daniele, R

    1988-01-01

    Using a double-blind cross-over design, a single oral dose of 100 mg almitrine bismethylate and placebo were administered to 7 patients with chronic airflow limitation. In all patients, arterial blood gases at rest, ventilation and breathing pattern at rest and on exercise were measured before and 3 h after administration. Ventilation increased and PaCO2 decreased after almitrine; the mean PaO2 increase was statistically significant after active drug but the value increased more when tidal volume increased. It is concluded that in man the well-documented improvement in the V/Q relationship after almitrine is in part related to a pure ventilatory effect though the possibility of increasing ventilation by mainly increasing tidal volume. PMID:2907669

  19. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  20. Clamping end-tidal carbon dioxide during graded exercise with control of inspired oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Saro D; Kessler, Cathie; Duffin, James; Wells, Greg D; Jacobs, Ira

    2016-09-01

    Exercise- and hypoxia-induced hyperventilation decreases the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), which in turn exerts many physiological effects. Several breathing circuits that control PETCO2 have been previously described, but their designs are not satisfactory for exercise studies where changes in inspired oxygen (FIO2) may be desired. This study is the first report of a breathing system that can maintain PETCO2 constant within a single session of graded submaximal exercise and graded hypoxia. Thirteen fit and healthy subjects completed two bouts of exercise consisting of three 3min stages on a cycle ergometer with increasing exercise intensity in normoxia (Part A; 142±14, 167±14, 192±14W) or with decreasing FIO2 at a constant exercise intensity (Part B; 21, 18, and 14%). One bout was a control (CON) where PETCO2 was not manipulated, while during the other bout the investigator clamped PETCO2 within 2mmHg (CO2Clamp) using sequential gas delivery (SGD). During the final 30s of each exercise stage during CO2Clamp, PETCO2 was successfully maintained in Part A (43±4, 44±4, 44±3mmHg; P=0.44) and Part B (45±3, 46±3, 45±3mmHg; P=0.68) despite the increases in ventilation due to exercise. These findings demonstrate that this SGD circuit can be used to maintain isocapania in exercising humans during progressively increasing exercise intensities and changing FIO2. PMID:27236039

  1. Effect of slow rhythmic voluntary breathing pattern on isometric handgrip among health care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajajeyakumar M, Janitha A, Madanmohan, Balachander J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand grip strength is a widely used test in experimental and epidemiologicalstudies. The measure of hand grip strength is influenced by several factors, including age; gender; different angle of the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist; and posture.So we planned to study theeffect of slow voluntary breathing exercise (Savitri Pranayam onthe various strengths of isometric hand grip (IHG amongyoung health care students.Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 volunteers 17-20 yrs.The subjects were randomly assigned to Pranayam and control groups. They were divided into two groups: control (n=30, Savitri (n=30 Savitri group were practiced slow yogic breathing for three months, Paired’ test was done to compare the values within group and unpaired’ test was done to compare the values between male and female subjects.Results: In Savitri Pranayam group, the blood pressure responses to IHG were higher in males, as compared to females.The rate pressure product (RPP also decreased during IHG 60%. A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed at the end of the study period. Briefly, a gender difference in various parameters such as MAP, QTc existed in the control group at the beginning of the study and the differences persisted at the end of three months.Conclusion: Our study reported that slow Pranayam are known to enhance parasympathetic tone, produce a highly significant decrease in oxygen consumption and psychosomatic relaxation.

  2. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  3. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  4. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  5. Wellness through a comprehensive Yogic breathing program – A controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlander Torsten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of psychosocial disturbances give rise to increased risks and vulnerability for a wide variety of stress-related chronic pain and other illnesses. Relaxation exercises aim at reducing stress and thereby help prevent these unwanted outcomes. One of the widely used relaxation practices is yoga and yogic breathing exercises. One specific form of these exercises is Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (SK&P which are understood to have favourable effects on the mind-body system. The goal of this pilot study was to design a protocol that can investigate whether SK&P can lead to increased feeling of wellness in healthy volunteers. Methods Participants were recruited in a small university city in Sweden and were instructed in a 6-day intensive program of SK&P which they practiced daily for six weeks. The control group was instructed to relax in an armchair each day during the same period. Subjects included a total of 103 adults, 55 in the intervention (SK&P group and 48 in the control group. Various instruments were administered before and after the intervention. Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale measured the degree of anxiety and depression, Life Orientation Test measured dispositional optimism, Stress and Energy Test measured individual's energy and stress experiences. Experienced Deviation from Normal State measured the experience of altered state of consciousness. Results There were no safety issues. Compliance was high (only 1 dropout in the SK&P group, and 5 in the control group. Outcome measures appeared to be appropriate for assessing the differences between the groups. Subjective reports generally correlated with the findings from the instruments. The data suggest that participants in the SK&P group, but not the control group, lowered their degree of anxiety, depression and stress, and also increased their degree of optimism (ANOVA; p Conclusion These data indicate that the experimental protocol that is

  6. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  7. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  8. Thinking about breathing: Effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Marghescu, Domnica; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosemarie

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), the increase and decrease in instantaneous heart rate (HR) with inspiration and expiration, is commonly evaluated as function of breathing frequency f. However, to the extent that RSA plays a role in the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be expected to correlate better with HR/f ('breathing specific heart rate') than with f, because the former is a better reflection of the cardio-respiratory coupling. We measured RSA breath-by-breath in 209 young men and women during spontaneous breathing and during volitional breathing under auditory cues at vastly different f. In either case, and for both genders, RSA correlated better with HR/f than with f. As HR/f increased so did RSA, in a linear manner. When compared on the basis of HR/f, RSA did not differ significantly between spontaneous and volitional breathing. It is proposed that RSA is a central mechanism that ameliorates the matching between the quasi-continuous pulmonary blood flow and the intermittent airflow, irrespective of the type of ventilatory drive (cortical or autonomic). PMID:26724603

  9. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  10. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  11. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  12. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  13. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  14. [Practical advice for exercise-induced asthma in children: experience of the exercise training centre of Necker-Enfants malades hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, C; Fuchs-Climent, D; Clairicia, M; Leborgne, P; Salort, M; De Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2005-01-01

    Now, to care exercise-induced asthma is not only to prescribe drugs. It is a global and interdisciplinary approach: the pulmonary rehabilitation, matching a therapeutic education and a physical training, with the goal of promoting a regular physical activity in the asthmatic child, achieving physiological benefits and improvement of quality of life. Getting from the experience of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital's Training Centre, a few advises encourage the physical practice of the asthmatic child, and decrease risks of exercise-induced asthma: optimisation of treatments;progressive beginning and end of exercises; use of the diaphragmatic breathing, keeping up with the exercise; use of the ventilatory threshold (or dysponea threshold) as intensity of the aerobic training; practice of different activities promoting play and conviviality in sports and allowing the integration of sports in the daily life of the asthmatic child. PMID:15653067

  15. [Practical advice for exercise-induced asthma in children: experience of the exercise training centre of Necker-Enfants malades hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, C; Fuchs-Climent, D; Clairicia, M; Leborgne, P; Salort, M; De Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2005-01-01

    Now, to care exercise-induced asthma is not only to prescribe drugs. It is a global and interdisciplinary approach: the pulmonary rehabilitation, matching a therapeutic education and a physical training, with the goal of promoting a regular physical activity in the asthmatic child, achieving physiological benefits and improvement of quality of life. Getting from the experience of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital's Training Centre, a few advises encourage the physical practice of the asthmatic child, and decrease risks of exercise-induced asthma: optimisation of treatments;progressive beginning and end of exercises; use of the diaphragmatic breathing, keeping up with the exercise; use of the ventilatory threshold (or dysponea threshold) as intensity of the aerobic training; practice of different activities promoting play and conviviality in sports and allowing the integration of sports in the daily life of the asthmatic child.

  16. Breath isoprene: Muscle dystrophy patients support the concept of a pool of isoprene in the periphery of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J.; Mochalski, P.; Unterkofler, K.; Teschl, G.; Klieber, M.; Stein, M.; Amann, A.; Baumann, M.

    2016-01-01

    Breath isoprene accounts for most of the hydrocarbon removal via exhalation and is thought to serve as a non-invasive indicator for assaying several metabolic effects in the human body. The primary objective of this paper is to introduce a novel working hypothesis with respect to the endogenous source of this compound in humans: the idea that muscle tissue acts as an extrahepatic production site of substantial amounts of isoprene. This new perspective has its roots in quantitative modeling studies of breath isoprene dynamics under exercise conditions and is further investigated here by presenting pilot data from a small cohort of late stage Duchenne muscle dystrophy patients (median age 21, 4 male, 1 female). For these prototypic test subjects isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath and peripheral venous blood range between 0.09–0.47 and 0.11–0.72 nmol/l, respectively, amounting to a reduction by a factor of 8 and more as compared to established nominal levels in normal healthy adults. While it remains unclear whether isoprene can be ascribed a direct physiological mechanism of action, some indications are given as to why isoprene production might have evolved in muscle. PMID:22683640

  17. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  18. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  19. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon. T...

  20. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to restrict their physical activities, be unable to work, and confine themselves to their homes. People realize too late that quality of life is directly related to quality of breathing. "This ...

  1. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  2. Breakdown in Breathing: The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe A Breakdown in Breathing The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited illness that ravages the ... B. Guggino, a researcher with the Johns Hopkins Cystic Fibrosis Center. But in CF, “the mucus gets sticky, ...

  3. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  4. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  5. Oral and nasal flowrate partitioning in healthy subjects performing graded exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malarbet, J.L.; Roy, M. (CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Bertholon, J.F.; Taieb, G. (Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Saint-Denis (France)); Becquemin, M.H.; Bouchikhi, A. (Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-01-01

    An experimental device was designed to measure partitioning of airflow between nose and mouth in response to incrementally graded exercise on an ergometer bicycle. Oral and nasal flow rates were recorded separately by two Fleisch pneumotachographs; cardiac frequency and arterial blood pressure were also recorded. Posterior rhinomanometry and flow rates during maximal vital capacity manoeuvre were simultaneously measured. Airflow fractions by mouth breathing were dependent upon the total ventilation required: at the maximal work load completed by ten subjects, they ranged from 30 to 67%. In six of them, breathing became abruptly oronasal at ventilation levels from 38 to 65 1. min[sup -1]. In the other four, oral breathing was already considerable at rest; and it increased regularly towards maximal ventilation. In these subjects, the oral to nasal airflow ratios, measured by the flow-volume curve method, were higher than in the other six. (author).

  6. Water exercise in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, V L

    1996-08-01

    Exercise in the water offers several physiological advantages to the pregnant woman. The hydrostatic force of water pushes extravascular fluid into the vascular spaces, producing an increase in central blood volume that may lead to increased uterine blood flow. This force is proportional to the depth of immersion. The increase in blood volume is proportional to the woman's edema. A marked diuresis and natriuresis accompanies the fluid shifts. The buoyancy of water supports the pregnant women. Water is thermoregulating. Studies of pregnant women exercising in the water have shown less fetal heart rate changes in the water than on land in response to exertion. Pregnant women's heart rates and blood pressures during water exercise are lower than on land exercise, reflecting the immersion-induced increase in circulating blood volume. The physiology of water exercise offers some compensation for the physiological changes of exercise on land that may beneficially affect pregnancy.

  7. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  8. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Acharya Balkrishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management...

  9. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts’ Breathing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Baldi; Graziano Cerri; Franco Chiaraluce; Lorenzo Eusebi; Paola Russo

    2014-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing fre...

  10. Pattern of lung volumes in patients with sighing breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljadeff, G.; Molho, M; I. Katz; Benzaray, S.; Yemini, Z.; Shiner, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Sighing breathing is observed in subjects suffering from anxiety with no apparent organic disease. METHODS--Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates were measured in 12 patients with a sighing pattern of breathing and in 10 normal subjects matched for age, gender, and anthropometric data. In both groups the measurements were made by spirographic and plethysmographic techniques. In normal subjects functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) were measured during normal...

  11. Breathing Rate Prediction Using Finger-tip Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmanian, Holakou

    2015-01-01

    Personalized health-care is trending and individuals tend to wear sensors in order to record their own health data. As a part of this trend, any redundancy in the data captured by wearable sensors must be exploited to reduce the number of devices one may wear. In this thesis, we work with a device which senses breathing and pulse through pressure tube and pulse oximetry, respectively. Extracting the dependency between these two measurements, we approximately predict the breathing rate by firs...

  12. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  13. Physiological modeling of isoprene dynamics in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    King, Julian; Koc, Helin; Unterkofler, Karl; Mochalski, Paweł; Kupferthaler, Alexander; Teschl, Gerald; Teschl, Susanne; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human breath contains a myriad of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are reflective of ongoing metabolic or physiological processes. While research into the diagnostic potential and general medical relevance of these trace gases is conducted on a considerable scale, little focus has been given so far to a sound analysis of the quantitative relationships between breath levels and the underlying systemic concentrations. This paper is devoted to a thorough mod...

  14. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  15. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A Aksenov; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M.; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlant...

  16. Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Keisuke; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging. Methods A series o...

  17. Compliance with physical exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    ), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Results: Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally...... or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise....

  18. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Molis, Marc A.; Molis, Whitney E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a phenomenon of airway narrowing that occurs during or after exercise or physical exertion. This condition has been reported in a range of sporting activities but is most common in participants of cold-weather sports (eg, Nordic skiing) and indoor sports (eg, ice-skating and swimming). Traditionally, the terms exercise induced-asthma (EIA) and EIB have been used interchangeably; however, more recent evidence suggests that these entities are sepa...

  19. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Raoufy

    Full Text Available Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI and lung volume (LV among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management.

  20. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  1. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  2. Outcome of Breathing Exercise (Pranayam) on Spirometric Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals: a Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari S.; Tiwari S.K; Gehlot S.; Singh G.

    2012-01-01

    Pranayama aims by carrying the involuntary functions of the respiratory mechanism within human control. The term pranayama has comprised by two words: Prana + Ayama. Prana is the vital force and energy which permeates the whole universe. Prana is novel subtle than air and can be defined as the energy essence that is within everything in the universe. In present time emphasis is on the beneficial effects of Pranayam in various diseases i.e. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and depressi...

  3. The usage of Strelnikova's breathing exercises a chronic disease of the sinus paranasalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikiy B.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed that using in treatment of the chronic diseases sinus paranasalis of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity on system Yoga brings about defogging from viscous, thick, rack slime, liquidations of the stagnant phenomena's in nose cavity. Using the respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy does simple not traumatic drainage of the sinus paranasalis that brings about natural defogging nose cavity to account of the evacuations secret of the sinus paranasalis. Thereby, using in physical rehabilitation and recovery of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity for system Yoga with respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy enables significantly improves the condition of children in a dispensary condition.

  4. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  5. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  6. Alterations in Salivary Proteome following Single Twenty-Minute Session of Yogic Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yogic breathing (YB has been suggested to reduce stress and blood pressure and increase cognitive processes. However, alterations after YB at the molecular level are not well established. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized into two groups (N=10 per group: YB or attention controls (AC. The YB group performed two YB exercises, each for ten minutes, for a total of twenty minutes in a single session. AC group read a text of their choice for 20 minutes. Saliva was collected at baseline and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Using Mass Spectrometry (MS, we initially found that 22 proteins were differentially expressed and then validated deleted in malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1 and Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2 using Western Blotting. DMBT1 was elevated in 7 of YB group by 10-fold and 11-fold at 10 and 15 minutes, respectively, whereas it was undetectable in the time-matched AC group (P<0.05. There was a significant interaction between groups and time assessed by two-way ANOVA (P<0.001. IGLC2 also showed a significant increase in YB group as measured by Western Blotting. These data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating and detecting salivary protein biomarkers in response to an acute Yoga exercise. This trial is registered with ClincalTrials.gov NCT02108769.

  7. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  8. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  9. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  10. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  11. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24 hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  12. Mechanisms to dyspnoea and dynamic hyperinflation related exercise intolerance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Janos

    2015-06-01

    Expiratory flow limitation can develop in parallel with the progression of COPD, and as a consequence, dynamic hyperinflation and lung mechanical abnormalities can develop. Dynamic hyperinflation can cause increased breathlessness and reduction in exercise tolerance. Achievement of critical inspiratory reserve volume is one of the main factors in exercise intolerance. Obesity has specific lung mechanical effects. There is also a difference concerning gender and dyspnoea. Increased nerve activity is characteristic in hyperinflation. Bronchodilator therapy, lung volume reduction surgery, endurance training at submaximal intensity, and heliox or oxygen breathing can decrease the degree of dynamic hyperinflation.

  13. Effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children: An ultrasonographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the functions of the facial muscle can establish changes in facial skeleton and in the development of occlusion. The effect of mouth breathing on the facial morphology is probably greatest during the growth period. Removal of nasal obstruction, adenoids, and tonsils have not given beneficial results in the reversion of the habit unless intercepted with various muscle exercises. Hence, this study was conducted to ultrasonographically evaluate the effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children.

  14. Mechanisms to dyspnoea and dynamic hyperinflation related exercise intolerance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Janos

    2015-06-01

    Expiratory flow limitation can develop in parallel with the progression of COPD, and as a consequence, dynamic hyperinflation and lung mechanical abnormalities can develop. Dynamic hyperinflation can cause increased breathlessness and reduction in exercise tolerance. Achievement of critical inspiratory reserve volume is one of the main factors in exercise intolerance. Obesity has specific lung mechanical effects. There is also a difference concerning gender and dyspnoea. Increased nerve activity is characteristic in hyperinflation. Bronchodilator therapy, lung volume reduction surgery, endurance training at submaximal intensity, and heliox or oxygen breathing can decrease the degree of dynamic hyperinflation. PMID:26100306

  15. Pulmonary function and exercise-associated changes with chronic low-level paraquat exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, M B; Stoecklin, Maria T; Lee, Kiyoung; Lupercio, Rafael; Zeballos, R. Jorge; Enright, Paul; Hennessy, Tamara E.; Laurel A. Beckett

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chronic, low-level paraquat exposure causes restrictive lung function with gas transfer impairment. Three hundred thirty-eight Costa Rican farm workers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms completed a questionnaire, spirometry and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Subjects 40 years of age or older, without other medical risk factors, completed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Most (66.6%) were paraquat hand...

  16. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  17. Water Exercise Causes Ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)

  18. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FENG'AN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."

  19. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  20. Bacterial contamination of anesthesia machines’ internal breathing-circuit-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, Verena; Borsoi, Livia; Berger, Jutta; Blacky, Alexander; Dieb-Elschahawi, Magda; Assadian, Ojan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines’ internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines’ breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined. Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines’ breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted. Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded. Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturer’s recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized. PMID:22242095

  1. Exercise and functional foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito Yuji

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.

  2. Acute Effect on Arterial Stiffness after Performing Resistance Exercise by Using the Valsalva Manoeuvre during Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yip Vincent Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Performing resistance exercise could lead to an increase in arterial stiffness. Objective. We investigate the acute effect on arterial stiffness by performing Valsalva manoeuvre during resistance exercise. Materials and Methods. Eighteen healthy young men were assigned to perform bicep curls by using two breathing techniques (exhalation and Valsalva manoeuvre during muscle contraction on two separate study days. Carotid pulsed wave velocity (cPWV was measured as an indicator to reflect the body central arterial stiffness using a high-resolution ultrasound system, and its value was monitored repeatedly at three predefined time intervals: before resistance exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise. Results. At the 0th minute after resistance exercise was performed using the Valsalva manoeuvre during exertion, a significant increase in cPWV (4.91 m/s ± 0.52 compared with the baseline value (4.67 m/s ± 0.32, P=0.008 was observed, and then it nearly returned to its baseline value at the 15th minute after exercise (4.66 m/s ± 0.44, P=0.010. These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion. Our result suggests short duration of resistance exercise may provoke a transient increase in central arterial stiffness in healthy young men.

  3. Turtle Graphics: Exercises in Haskell

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert

    2004-01-01

    This document contains a collection of programming exercises in the functional programming language Haskell. The exercises are all concerned with Turtle Graphics - interpreting and generating programs for ''turtles''.

  4. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denz Hubert

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive diagnosis of lung cancer would improve prognosis and enlarge treatment options. Analysis of exhaled breath would be an ideal diagnostic method, since it is non-invasive and totally painless. Methods Exhaled breath and inhaled room air samples were analyzed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS and solid phase microextraction with subsequent gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS. For the PTR-MS measurements, 220 lung cancer patients and 441 healthy volunteers were recruited. For the GCMS measurements, we collected samples from 65 lung cancer patients and 31 healthy volunteers. Lung cancer patients were in different disease stages and under treatment with different regimes. Mixed expiratory and indoor air samples were collected in Tedlar bags, and either analyzed directly by PTR-MS or transferred to glass vials and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS. Only those measurements of compounds were considered, which showed at least a 15% higher concentration in exhaled breath than in indoor air. Compounds related to smoking behavior such as acetonitrile and benzene were not used to differentiate between lung cancer patients and healthy volunteers. Results Isoprene, acetone and methanol are compounds appearing in everybody's exhaled breath. These three main compounds of exhaled breath show slightly lower concentrations in lung cancer patients as compared to healthy volunteers (p Conclusion GCMS-SPME is a relatively

  5. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  6. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  7. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  8. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. PMID:26159687

  9. Differential effects of mindful breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and loving-kindness meditation on decentering and negative reactions to repetitive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Greg; Greeson, Jeff; Senville, Joanna

    2010-10-01

    Decentering has been proposed as a potential mechanism of mindfulness-based interventions but has received limited empirical examination to date in experimental studies comparing mindfulness meditation to active comparison conditions. In the present study, we compared the immediate effects of mindful breathing (MB) to two alternative stress-management techniques: progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) to test whether decentering is unique to mindfulness meditation or common across approaches. Novice meditators (190 female undergraduates) were randomly assigned to complete one of three 15-min stress-management exercises (MB, PMR, or LKM) presented by audio recording. Immediately after the exercise, participants completed measures of decentering, frequency of repetitive thoughts during the exercise, and degree of negative reaction to thoughts. As predicted, participants in the MB condition reported greater decentering relative to the other two conditions. The association between frequency of repetitive thought and negative reactions to thoughts was relatively weaker in the MB condition than in the PMR and LKM conditions, in which these two variables were strongly and positively correlated. Consistent with the construct of decentering, the relative independence between these two variables in the MB condition suggests that mindful breathing may help to reduce reactivity to repetitive thoughts. Taken together, results help to provide further evidence of decentering as a potential mechanism that distinguishes mindfulness practice from other credible stress-management approaches.

  10. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  11. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences.

  12. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts’ Breathing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed.

  13. Liquid intake monitoring through breathing signal using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design, system structure and performance for a wireless and wearable diet monitoring system. Food and drink intake can be detected by the way of detecting a person's swallow events. The system works based on the key observation that a person's otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted by a short apnea when she or he swallows as a part of solid or liquid intake process. We detect the swallows through the difference between normal breathing cycle and breathing cycle with swallows using a wearable chest-belt. Three popular machine learning algorithms have been applied on both time and frequency domain features. Discrimination power of features is then analyzed for applications where only small number of features is allowed. It is shown that high detection performance can be achieved with only few features.

  14. Breathing detection with a portable impedance measurement system: first measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Axel; Foussier, Jerome; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    For monitoring the health status of individuals, detection of breathing and heart activity is important. From an electrical point of view, it is known that breathing and heart activity change the electrical impedance distribution in the human body over the time due to ventilation (high impedance) and blood shifts (low impedance). Thus, it is possible to detect both important vital parameters by measuring the impedance of the thorax or the region around lung and heart. For some measurement scenarios it is also essential to detect these parameters contactless. For instance, monitoring bus drivers health could help to limit accidents, but directly connected systems limit the drivers free moving space. One measurement technology for measuring the impedance changes in the chest without cables is the magnetic impedance tomography (MIT). This article describes a portable measurement system we developed for this scenario that allows to measure breathing contactless. Furthermore, first measurements with five volunteers were performed and analyzed.

  15. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  16. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Koyamatsu, Jun; Nobuyoshi, Masaharu; Murase, Kunihiko; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE) or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  17. Tasks and means of therapeutic exercises in patients with breast cancer in pre- and postoperative periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Grushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of radical treatment for patients with breast cancer (BC is a surgical intervention: radical mastectomy (RME of different modifications or organ-sparing operations. In the preoperative period, the tasks of therapeutic exercises (TEs are psychological preparation of a patient for active participation in his / her treatment, as well as complete breath training. Classes are done in a group of convalescents, by applying dynamic and static breathing exercises. In the early postoperative period, the tasks of TEs are to prevent hypostatic pneumonia, surgical-site shoulder joint stiffness and to improve systemic and regional blood and lymph circulation. Analysis of 1235 patients who had undergone RME and 212 patients who had radical resection showed that restricted shoulder joint motion due to hand immobilization in an adducted position and late initiation of TEs occurred in 44.6 and 33.5 % of the patients, respectively. Individual TEs classes include breathing exercises, position treatment, and special exercises to restore shoulder joint function and to control posture. Lymphadenectomy and failure to ligate intersected lymphatic vessels lead to inevitable lymphorrhea and seroma. Analysis of 1447 patents indicated that early initiation of TEs failed to affect seroma duration and extent and wound dehiscence. In the latter (that, according to the author»s data, occurs in 3.7 % of cases after RME and in 9.2 % after preoperative radiotherapy, TEs are limited by position treatment until the wound heals or secondary sutures are applied. The tasks of the late postoperative period are recovery of the full range of shoulder joint motion, normal posture, cardiovascular and respiratory adjustments to increased physical exercises, and general tonic exposure. The paper gives TEs sets developed for each period.

  18. Labeling exercise fat-burning increases post-exercise food consumption in self-imposed exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenzl, Navina; Bartsch, Katja; Koenigstorfer, Joerg

    2014-10-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether the label given to an exercise bout affects immediate post-exercise food intake. The authors hypothesized that explicitly labeling an exercise bout 'fat-burning' (vs. labeling an exercise bout 'endurance' exercise) would increase post-exercise food intake in individuals who self-impose physical activity, because they are more likely to see the label as signal of activated fat metabolism and license to reward oneself. No such effect was expected for individuals who do not self-impose physical activity but consider exercise enjoyable. Ninety-six participants took part in an experiment manipulating the label given to an exercise bout (fat-burning exercise or endurance exercise) between participants. They cycled on an ergometer for 20 minutes at a consistent work rate (55-65% of predicted VO2 max) and were offered ad libitum food (i.e., pretzel pieces) after the exercise bout. The results showed that self-imposed exercisers, that is, individuals with low behavioral regulation and individuals with high psychological distress, high fatigue levels, and low positive well-being when exercising, ate more food after exercise when the bout was labeled fat-burning exercise rather than endurance exercise. The results help develop health interventions, indicating that the tendency to compensate for energy expended following physical activity depends on both the label given to the exercise bout and the degree to which individuals self-impose physical activity.

  19. CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K I; Ayappa, I; Sorkin, I B; Norman, R G; Rapoport, D M; Goldring, R M

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of apnea to chronic hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has not been clarified. Using a model (D. M. Rapoport, R. G. Norman, and R. M. Goldring. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2302-2309, 1993), we previously illustrated failure of CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing resulting from temporal dissociation between ventilation and perfusion ("temporal V/Q mismatch"). This study measures acute kinetics of CO(2) during periodic breathing and addresses interapnea ventilatory compensation for maintenance of CO(2) homeostasis in 11 patients with OSA during daytime sleep (37-171 min). Ventilation and expiratory CO(2) and O(2) fractions were measured on a breath-by-breath basis by means of a tight-fitting full facemask. Calculations included CO(2) excretion, metabolic CO(2) production, and CO(2) balance (metabolic CO(2) production - exhaled CO(2)). CO(2) balance was tabulated for each apnea/hypopnea event-interevent cycle and as a cumulative value during sleep. Cumulative CO(2) balance varied (-3,570 to +1,388 ml). Positive cumulative CO(2) balance occurred in the absence of overall hypoventilation during sleep. For each cycle, positive CO(2) balance occurred despite increased interevent ventilation to rates as high as 45 l/min. This failure of CO(2) homeostasis was dependent on the event-to-interevent duration ratio. The results demonstrate that 1) periodic breathing provides a mechanism for acute hypercapnia in OSA, 2) acute hypercapnia during periodic breathing may occur without a decrease in average minute ventilation, supporting the presence of temporal V/Q mismatch, as predicted from our model, and 3) compensation for CO(2) accumulation during apnea/hypopnea may be limited by the duration of the interevent interval. The relationship of this acute hypercapnia to sustained chronic hypercapnia in OSA remains to be further explored. PMID:10642388

  20. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Bayley, Mark;

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems that...... bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending on...

  1. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic pathway of 14C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14CO2. This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14CO2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites

  2. Atrial Electrical Remodeling and Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Baranchuk; Diego Conde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor: We read with interest the article from Bitter et al. (1 published in the last volume of JAFIB. This non-systematic review covers some of the most important physiopathological aspects of the link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB and atrial fibrillation (AFib. We do agree with the authors on the role of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. These topics were, to our understanding and perspective, very well covered by the authors on this review. However, despite that the authors mentioned atrial remodeling a couple of times during their review, we are not sure that this topic and specifically atrial electrical remodeling, was properly discussed and referenced. The pathophysiology linking SDB to AF is multifactorial and may involve repetitive hypoxemia, increased sympathetic drive, fluctuations in intrathoracic pressure and systemic inflammation (2. These physiologic changes may induce structural and electrical remodeling serving as a substrate to the development of AFib. An indirect marker for such electrical remodeling is the prolongation of atrial conduction time, represented by increased maximum P-wave duration in the surface ECG. In a prior study, we showed that an increased P-wave duration has been associated with SDB (3. Interatrial block (IAB, defined as a surface P-wave duration > 120 ms, was more prevalent in patients with moderate-severe SDB (34.7% SDB vs. 0% controls, p 25 were independent predictors of maximum P-wave duration (p=0.001 and p<0.001 respectively (3. Another non-invasive method to determine atrial electrical remodeling is the Signal-averaged P-wave (SAPW duration. The SAPW duration represents the average of all P-wave durations in a given number of consecutive heartbeats. We recently postulated that SAPW would be useful to identify atrial electrical remodeling in patients with severe SDB and that treatment with C-PAP for 4-6 weeks may induce reverse atrial electrical remodeling (4

  3. Cardiovascular control during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R;

    2003-01-01

    We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

  4. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... let them maintain the exercise habit. Dr. Moskowitz: What I tell patients-- don't jog because that's ... to help them maintain good habits longer. Therapist: What we want you to do is straighten out ...

  5. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000357.htm Rotator cuff exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that ...

  6. Exercises in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasiński, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    This second of two Exercises in Analysis volumes covers problems in five core topics of mathematical analysis: Function Spaces, Nonlinear and Multivalued Maps, Smooth and Nonsmooth Calculus, Degree Theory and Fixed Point Theory, and Variational and Topological Methods. Each of five topics corresponds to a different chapter with inclusion of the basic theory and accompanying main definitions and results, followed by suitable comments and remarks for better understanding of the material. Exercises/problems are presented for each topic, with solutions available at the end of each chapter. The entire collection of exercises offers a balanced and useful picture for the application surrounding each topic. This nearly encyclopedic coverage of exercises in mathematical analysis is the first of its kind and is accessible to a wide readership. Graduate students will find the collection of problems valuable in preparation for their preliminary or qualifying exams as well as for testing their deeper understanding of the ...

  7. Getting Exercise in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not at the level of NCAA competition, there are opportunities to play team sports. Check ... Excessive exercise is also a component of certain eating disorders . If you suspect your fitness is getting ...

  8. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lead to less pain and disability. Marian Minor, PT, Ph.D.: And we know that people who ... weight on the joint that's involved. Marion Minor, PT, Ph.D.: You can break your exercise session ...

  9. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most effective at managing and ... joint, that you just held the joint in one position and tightened the muscles around it, was ...

  10. Diabetes and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behalf of the American Heart Association Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; ...

  11. Exercise and Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their muscles and bones. These injuries include stress fractures, shin splints (which cause pain at the lower front part of the leg), and knee injuries. Exercises that can cause stress injuries include ...

  12. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitness - exercise clothing ... you heat up, as well as carry a water bottle. In the rain or wind, wear an ... nylon shell. Look for the words "waterproof" or "water-resistant" on the label. Ideally, this layer should ...

  13. Why Exercise Is Cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... roller hockey, jogging (or walking quickly), inline skating, soccer, cross-country skiing, biking, or rowing. And don' ... push-ups pull-ups tug-of-war rowing running inline skating bike riding continue Exercise Makes You ...

  14. Exercises in environmental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2007-01-01

    Presents a collection of problems and exercises in environmental science. This book can be used in many courses in environmental studies especially environmental physics, energy and the environment, and atmospheric physics. The mathematical background is given in an introductory chapter.

  15. Troponin and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresslien, T; Agewall, S

    2016-10-15

    Cardiac troponins are the preferred biomarkers in diagnostic of myocardial infarction, but these markers also can rise in response to exercise. Multiple studies have assessed troponins post-exercise, but the results have varied and there have been disagreements about the mechanism of troponin release. The aim of this paper was to review the literature, and to consider factors and mechanisms regarding exercise-induced increase of troponin. 145 studies were found after a search in pubmed and inclusion of additional articles found in the reference list of the first articles. Results showed that troponin rises in 0-100% of subjects after prolonged heavy exercise like marathon, but also after short-term and intermittent exercise like 30min of running and basketball. The variation can be due to factors like intensity, age, training experience, variation in sample size, blood sample timing and troponin assay. The pattern of troponin level post-exercise corresponds to release from the cytosolic compartment of cardiomyocytes. Increased membrane permeability might be caused by production of reactive oxygen species or alterations in calcium, pH, glucose/fat metabolism or in communication between integrins. Other suggested mechanisms are increased cardiovascular stress, inflammation, vasculitis, release of troponin degradation products in "blebs", dehydration, impaired renal clearance and expression of cardiac troponin in skeletal muscle. It can be concluded that both heavy and light exercise may cause elevated troponin, which have to be considered when patient are suspected to have a myocardial infarction. Several factors probably influence post-exercise levels of troponin, but the mechanism of release is most likely physiologic. PMID:27420587

  16. Exercise Therapy for Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, Angela J.; Webber, Sandra C.; Brachaniec, Mary; Bidonde, Julia; Bello-Haas, Vanina Dal; Danyliw, Adrienne D.; Overend, Tom J.; Richards, Rachel S.; Sawant, Anuradha; Schachter, Candice L.

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome, a chronic condition typically characterized by widespread pain, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and other somatic symptoms, negatively impacts physical and emotional function and reduces quality of life. Exercise is commonly recommended in the management of people with fibromyalgia, and interest in examining exercise benefits for those with the syndrome has grown substantially over the past 25 years. Research supports aerobic and strength training ...

  17. Diabetes and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Peirce, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    Exercise is frequently recommended in the management of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus and can improve glucose uptake by increasing insulin sensitivity and lowering body adiposity. Both alone and when combined with diet and drug therapy, physical activity can result in improvements in glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. In addition, exercise can also help to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, in particular in those at higher risk, and has an important role in reducing the significa...

  18. Exercise, Inflammation and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey A Woods; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Martin, Stephen A.; Kistler, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    Aging results in chronic low grade inflammation that is associated with increased risk for disease, poor physical functioning and mortality. Strategies that reduce age-related inflammation may improve the quality of life in older adults. Regular exercise is recommended for older people for a variety of reasons including increasing muscle mass and reducing risk for chronic diseases of the heart and metabolic systems. Only recently has exercise been examined in the context of inflammation. This...

  19. Effects of blood transfusion on exercise capacity in thalassemia major patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Benedetto

    Full Text Available Anemia has an important role in exercise performance. However, the direct link between rapid changes of hemoglobin and exercise performance is still unknown.To find out more on this topic, we studied 18 beta-thalassemia major patients free of relevant cardiac dysfunction (age 33.5±7.2 years,males = 10. Patients performed a maximal cardiopulmolmonary exercise test (cycloergometer, personalized ramp protocol, breath-by-breath measurements of expired gases before and the day after blood transfusion (500 cc of red cell concentrates. After blood transfusion, hemoglobin increased from 10.5±0.8 g/dL to 12.1±1.2 (p<0.001, peak VO2 from 1408 to 1546mL/min (p<0.05, and VO2 at anaerobic threshold from 965 to 1024mL/min (p<0.05. No major changes were observed as regards heart and respiratory rates either at peak exercise or at anaerobic threshold. Similarly, no relevant changes were observed in ventilation efficiency, as evaluated by the ventilation vs. carbon dioxide production relationship, or in O2 delivery to the periphery as analyzed by the VO2 vs. workload relationship. The relationship between hemoglobin and VO2 changes showed, for each g/dL of hemoglobin increase, a VO2 increase = 82.5 mL/min and 35 mL/min, at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold, respectively. In beta-thalassemia major patients, an acute albeit partial anemia correction by blood transfusion determinates a relevant increase of exercise performance, observed both at peak exercise and at anaerobic threshold.

  20. Do Exercises Suitable To Yourself

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IF You Are Thin—Choose fast, bursting exercises to build up your muscles. Take such exercises for 20 minutes everyday or 50 minutes every other day. For example, weight training and working particularly on isolated parts of your body. If You Are Stout—Choose slow, low intensity endurance exercises. Continue such exercises for a long time and you can effectively mobilize the fat stored in your body to participate in the supply of consumed energy; besides slow exercises can help

  1. Exercise in Quality Assurance: A Laboratory Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    simplifying considerably the estimation of uncertainties. To the broad majority of students, the mathematical procedures are cumbersome but we present a laboratory exercise that seemed to arouse an interest among students and promoted enthusiasm and understanding. There are several schools of quality...... of measurement is represented by standard deviation that approaches an inherently true value that is specific for the detector, given that a high number of repetitions were performed. Thus, a low uncertainty is not necessarily a token of quality....

  2. Exercise and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  3. Influence of regular exercise on gastric emptying in healthy men: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Tanaka, Kentaro; Mori, Hideki; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), including functional dyspepsia (FD), are common chronic disorders even in the younger population. Physical activity is advocated for patients with FGIDs, although the evidence is insufficient. We investigated the association between the intensity of regular exercise and gastric emptying to determine the effect of physical activity on dyspeptic symptoms. Thirty healthy individuals were selected and divided into three groups (low, moderate, and high) using the index of total exercise intensity in a week. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, stool forms, scores of anxiety and depression, and scores of sleep quality were also compared. Baseline scores of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality were not different among the three groups. Gastric emptying was significantly faster in low-intensity exercise group than the moderate-intensity exercise group. Although the presence of loose stool and alcohol consumption were also associated with the intensity of regular exercise, these variables were not confounders. In conclusion, the intensity of regular exercise was independently associated with gastric emptying in healthy individuals. These baseline data would be useful for consideration of an optimal exercise intervention for the treatment of FD.

  4. The Effect of 8 weeks aerobic exercise and yoga on primary dismenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Siahpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dysmenorrhea, menstrual cramps without physical pain is a common complaint in gynecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic training on primary Dysmenorrhea in a period of 8 weeks. Materials & Methods: In the present clinical-trial study, 60 non-athlete girls with primary Dysmenorrhea were randomly divided into three groups: aerobic training, yoga and control groups. Based on the visual analog scale of pain intensity, pain duration and amount of analgesics administered was assessed before and after the period of primary Dysmenorrhea using a questionnaire. In this eight-week exercise program, the aerobic exercises group for 60 minutes in three weeks and yoga exercises group in three sessions per week for 60 minutes, the yoga breathing techniques, exercises, asana and relaxation techniques were performed. There was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney (p0.05. There was a significant decrease in the analgesic consumption in the yoga group compared to the exercise group (p<0/05. Conclusion: Both aerobic and yoga are effective in the treatment of primary Dysmenorrhea, but yoga has a greater reduction property on drug dosage. Key words: primary dysmenorrhea, aerobic exercise, yoga exercise, female student

  5. Developing pulmonary vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis, detected with non-invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dumitrescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc may develop exercise intolerance due to musculoskeletal involvement, restrictive lung disease, left ventricular dysfunction, or pulmonary vasculopathy (PV. The latter is particularly important since it may lead to lethal pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. We hypothesized that abnormalities during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in patients with SSc can identify PV leading to overt PAH. METHODS: Thirty SSc patients from the Harbor-UCLA Rheumatology clinic, not clinically suspected of having significant pulmonary vascular disease, were referred for this prospective study. Resting pulmonary function and exercise gas exchange were assessed, including peakVO2, anaerobic threshold (AT, heart rate-VO2 relationship (O2-pulse, exercise breathing reserve and parameters of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, as evidenced by elevated ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2 and reduced end-tidal pCO2 (PETCO2 at the AT. RESULTS: Gas exchange patterns were abnormal in 16 pts with specific cardiopulmonary disease physiology: Eleven patients had findings consistent with PV, while five had findings consistent with left-ventricular dysfunction (LVD. Although both groups had low peak VO2 and AT, a higher VE/VCO2 at AT and decreasing PETCO2 during early exercise distinguished PV from LVD. CONCLUSIONS: Previously undiagnosed exercise impairments due to LVD or PV were common in our SSc patients. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing may help to differentiate and detect these disorders early in patients with SSc.

  6. The Lack, Magill and Bain anaesthetic breathing systems: a direct comparison in spontaneously-breathing anaesthetized adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, D.

    1982-01-01

    The performances of the Lack (Mapleson A), Magill (Mapleson A) and Bain (Mapleson D) anaesthetic breathing systems were compared in each of 20 anaesthetized adult patients breathing spontaneously with fresh gas flows of 70 ml kg-1 min-1. In every patient the Lack system caused the least rebreathing, as seen by the lowest inspired and end-expired CO2 tensions using capnography. The Magill caused more rebreathing than the Lack though less than the Bain. Comparative fresh gas flows for each syst...

  7. THE CHANGES IN LEVEL OF 8-ENDORPHIN, INTERLEUKIN-2, INTERLEUKIN-4, INTERLEUKIN-6, IMUNOGLOBULIN AND CORTISOL HORMONE ON PRACTICES OF BRETHING EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumpis Agus Sudarku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study was to reveal the changes of immunity at breathing exercises. This was an experimental study. With randomized pre-posttest control group design. Methods: The population were students of MA Mu'alimin, in Yogyakarta. Respondents were 15 students for each groups. The unit analysis were data analysis from blood taken from vena cubiti. The dependent variables were levels of IL 6, IL 4, IL 2, cortisol, Beta Endorphin, and lgG. The training programme was conducted in 7 weeks, 3 times per week, sub maximal intensity, and 6 sets per session. The laboratory vanable were the ELISA method. Results: Manova test were p: 0,000 Implied that there were differences (Wilk Lambda pBreathing exercises could increase physical fitness and impenetrability of proven body manifestly. Breathing exercise increased beta endorphin, immunoglobulin G and interleukin 6, while interleukin 2 and interleukin 4 did not increase Cortisol level did not decrease stgnificantly but there was an indication of level of cortisol decrease. Immunity modulator which caused breathing exercise stressor got by 3 groups with strong contribution on the basis concept of psychoneuroimmunologic. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, modulation

  8. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  9. Effects of Heliox in Stable COPD Patients at Rest and during Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pecchiari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliox has been administered to stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients at rest and during exercise on the assumption that this low density mixture would have reduced work of breathing, dynamic hyperinflation, and, consequently, dyspnea sensation. Contrary to these expectations, beneficial effects of heliox in these patients at rest have been reported only sporadically, and the majority of the studies performed until now suggests that heliox is not a therapeutic option in spontaneously breathing resting COPD patients. On the other hand, when it is administered to COPD patients exercising at a constant work rate, heliox systematically decreases dyspnea sensation, and, often but not always, increases exercise tolerance. For these reasons, heliox has been evaluated as a non pharmacological tool to power rehabilitation programs. The conflicting results provided by the published trials probably point at a substantial heterogeneity of the COPD patients population in terms of respiratory mechanics and gas exchange. Therefore, further studies, aimed to the identification of mechanisms conditioning the response of exercising COPD patients to heliox, are warranted, before heliox administration, which is costly and cumbersome, can be routinely used in rehabilitation programs.

  10. Influence of angular velocity on vastus lateralis and rectus femoris oxygenation dynamics during knee extension exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Romain; Wilkinson, Jennifer; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in angular velocity would alter vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) oxygenation status during maximal isokinetic knee extension exercises. Eleven recreationally active male participants randomly performed ten maximal knee extensions at 30, 60, 120 and 240° s(-1). Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) were acquired from the VL and RF muscles by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) was recorded throughout the tests. Peak torque and VO(2p) significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). Interestingly, RF and VL TOI significantly increased as a function of velocity (P<0·05), whereas [tHb] significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). A greater number of muscle fibre recruited at slow velocity, where the torque and VO(2p) were the highest, might explain the lower VL and RF TOI observed herein. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [tHb] changes) during isokinetic knee extension exercises performed at slow angular velocity might have been induced by a higher intramuscular pressure during the contraction phases as well as a greater microcirculatory vasodilatation during relaxation phases. Implementing slow-velocity isokinetic exercises in rehabilitation or other training programmes could delay the short-term anoxia generated by such exercises and result in muscle metabolism enhancement. PMID:21771253

  11. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  12. Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Abate, Armando; Pinnarò, Paola; D’Andrea, Marco; Infusino, Erminia; Landoni, Valeria; Soriani, Antonella; Giordano, Carolina; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Strigari, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose...

  13. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults. Methods Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured. Results Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decreased t...

  14. Prediction values regarding Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)from Sybil's forwarded email

    OpenAIRE

    ALS-NSCORT,

    2003-01-01

    3 worksheets Provider Notes:Kim, I have attached an excel file that has predictions (very rough) regarding Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)effluent quality. There are 3 sheets included in the file, Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)I (B1) liquid composition, Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)1 gas composition, and BreatheII (B2) liquid composition.

  15. The role of size in synchronous air breathing of Hoplosternum littorale

    OpenAIRE

    Sloman, K.A.; Sloman, R.D.; De Boeck, G.; Scott, G R; Iftikar, F.I.; C. M. Wood; V.M.F. Almeida-Val; A.L. Val

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized air breathing may have evolved as a way of minimizing the predation risk known to be associated with air breathing in fish. Little is known about how the size of individuals affects synchronized air breathing and whether some individuals are required to surface earlier than necessary in support of conspecifics, while others delay air intake. Here, the air-breathing behavior of Hoplosternum littorale held in groups or in isolation was investigated in relation to body mass, oxygen ...

  16. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  17. Airflow Characteristics At The Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Velte, Clara Marika;

    2011-01-01

    was the same: 4, 6, 8 and 10 L/s. The mean velocity field at the breathing zone was obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry: a dual cavity laser (λ = 532 nm) and two CCD cameras with 35 and 60 mm lenses. Seeding, glycerol droplets, was added to the total volume supply. The maximum absolute mean velocity...

  18. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  19. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  20. Modeling of the expiratory flow pattern of spontaneously breathing cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, D; van der Grinten, CPM; Bogaard, JM; van der Ent, CK; Luijendijk, SCM

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory System (tauRS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle a

  1. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-26

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  2. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh, Dam Thi Van; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase toge

  3. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anh, Dam T.V.; Olthuis, W.; Bergveld, P.; Berg, van den A.

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  4. Quantum spin ice on the breathing pyrochlore lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savary, Lucile; Wang, Xiaoqun; Kee, Hae-Young; Kim, Yong Baek; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-08-01

    The Coulombic quantum spin liquid in quantum spin ice is an exotic quantum phase of matter that emerges on the pyrochlore lattice and is currently actively searched for. Motivated by recent experiments on the Yb-based breathing pyrochlore material Ba3Yb2Zn5O11 , we theoretically study the phase diagram and magnetic properties of the relevant spin model. The latter takes the form of a quantum spin ice Hamiltonian on a breathing pyrochlore lattice, and we analyze the stability of the quantum spin liquid phase in the absence of the inversion symmetry which the lattice breaks explicitly at lattice sites. Using a gauge mean-field approach, we show that the quantum spin liquid occupies a finite region in parameter space. Moreover, there exists a direct quantum phase transition between the quantum spin liquid phase and featureless paramagnets, even though none of theses phases break any symmetry. At nonzero temperature, we show that breathing pyrochlores provide a much broader finite-temperature spin liquid regime than their regular counterparts. We discuss the implications of the results for current experiments and make predictions for future experiments on breathing pyrochlores.

  5. Identification of breathing cracks in a beam structure with entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimarshana, Buddhi; Wu, Nan; Wu, Christine

    2016-04-01

    A cantilever beam with a breathing crack is studied to detect and evaluate the crack using entropy measures. Closed cracks in engineering structures lead to proportional complexities to their vibration responses due to weak bi-linearity imposed by the crack breathing phenomenon. Entropy is a measure of system complexity and has the potential in quantifying the complexity. The weak bi-linearity in vibration signals can be amplified using wavelet transformation to increase the sensitivity of the measurements. A mathematical model of harmonically excited unit length steel cantilever beam with a breathing crack located near the fixed end is established, and an iterative numerical method is applied to generate accurate time domain dynamic responses. The bi-linearity in time domain signals due to the crack breathing are amplified by wavelet transformation first, and then the complexities due to bi-linearity is quantified using sample entropy to detect the possible crack and estimate the crack depth. It is observed that the method is capable of identifying crack depths even at very early stages of 3% with the increase in the entropy values more than 10% compared with the healthy beam. The current study extends the entropy based damage detection of rotary machines to structural analysis and takes a step further in high-sensitivity structural health monitoring by combining wavelet transformation with entropy calculations. The proposed technique can also be applied to other types of structures, such as plates and shells.

  6. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. PMID:22835436

  7. Functional morphology and evolution of aspiration breathing in tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Owerkowicz, Tomasz

    2006-11-01

    In the evolution of aspiration breathing, the responsibility for lung ventilation gradually shifted from the hyobranchial to the axial musculoskeletal system, with axial muscles taking over exhalation first, at the base of Tetrapoda, and then inhalation as well at the base of Amniota. This shift from hyobranchial to axial breathing freed the tongue and head to adapt to more diverse feeding styles, but generated a mechanical conflict between costal ventilation and high-speed locomotion. Some "lizards" (non-serpentine squamates) have been shown to circumvent this speed-dependent axial constraint with accessory gular pumping during locomotion, and here we present a new survey of gular pumping behavior in the tuatara and 40 lizard species. We observed gular pumping behavior in 32 of the 40 lizards and in the tuatara, indicating that the ability to inflate the lungs by gular pumping is a shared-derived character for Lepidosauria. Gular pump breathing in lepidosaurs may be homologous with buccal pumping in amphibians, but non-ventilatory buccal oscillation and gular flutter have persisted throughout amniote evolution and gular pumping may have evolved independently by modification of buccal oscillation. In addition to gular pumping in some lizards, three other innovations have evolved repeatedly in the major amniote clades to circumvent the speed-dependent axial constraint: accessory inspiratory muscles (mammals, crocodylians and turtles), changing locomotor posture (mammals and birds) and respiratory-locomotor phase coupling to reduce the mechanical conflict between aspiration breathing and locomotion (mammals and birds).

  8. Ask Your Dental Hygienist about Understanding and Eliminating Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall health, dental hygienists educate patients about proper oral hygiene and treat and in turn help prevent can cause more harm than good. periodontal disease bad breath. Carefully Use ... to clear away istered dental hygienist (RDH) or visit the ADHA website, at ...

  9. Medical diagnostics by laser-based analysis of exhaled breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco

    2002-08-01

    IMany trace gases can be found in the exhaled breath, some of them giving the possibility of a non invasive diagnosis of related diseases or allowing the monitoring of the disease in the course of its therapy. In the present lecture the principle of medical diagnosis based on the breath analysis will be introduced and the detection of trace gases in exhaled breath by high- resolution molecular spectroscopy in the IR spectral region will be discussed. A number of substrates and the optical systems for their laser detection will be reported. The following laser based experimental systems has been realised in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory in ENEA in Frascati for the analysis of specific substances in the exhaled breath. A tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) appartus for the measurement of 13C/12C isotopic ratio in carbon dioxide, a TDLAS apparatus for the detection of CH4 and a CO2 laser based photoacoustic system to detect trace ethylene at atmospheric pressure. The experimental set-up for each one of the a.m. optical systems will be shown and the related medical applications will be illustrated. The concluding remarks will be focuses on chemical species that are of major interest for medical people today and their diagnostic ability.

  10. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools.RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction.CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  11. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki;

    2011-01-01

    ) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  12. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki; Melikov, Arsen Krikor;

    2011-01-01

    . Passive method for control over the airflow characteristics at the breathing zone to increase the amount of clean air in inhalation consisted of a rectangular board (0.63 m x 0.36 m) placed below the table and pressed against the abdominal. It acted as a barrier reducing the convection flow upcoming from...

  13. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  14. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  15. CFD Simulations of Contaminant Transport between two Breathing Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Experiments have shown that exhalation from one person is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person at a distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the dependency of the personal exposure on some physical parameters, namely: Pulmonary ventilation rate...

  16. Vertebro-basilar Ischemia and Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Guoxiong; Yang Hongjun; Zhu Shixiu; Zhang Kejing

    2000-01-01

    @@Introduction The relationship between cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) has attracted people's attention more and more in the past years. However,the subtentorial ischemic attacks - vertibrobasilar ischemia (VBI) has not been reported yet. This study is to show the interaction between VBI and SRBD.

  17. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Symptoms of ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB among children with inattention and hyperactivity was determined in 866 patients, aged 2.0 to 13.9 years (mean; 6.8 yrs, evaluated in two general pediatric clinics at the University of Michigan and University of Pittsburg.

  18. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  19. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AS BREATH BIOMARKERS FOR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE SMOKING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time breath measurement technology was used to investigate the suitability of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to serve as breath biomarkers for active and passive smoking and to measure actual exposures and resulting breath concentrations for persons exposed to toba...

  20. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing... after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof...