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Sample records for breathing exercises

  1. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  2. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  3. Positive pressure breathing during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, E A; Heus, R

    2003-03-01

    The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without. PMID:12628576

  4. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99Tcm-Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  5. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  6. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  7. A nomogram for assessment of breathing patterns during treadmill exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, J.; Centeno, R; Galiano, D; Beaus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the breathing patterns of trained athletes under different conditions. The hypothesis is that the breathing pattern during a progressive treadmill exercise is independent of the protocol, at least in healthy people, and can be assessed using a nomogram.

  8. Effects of Deep Breathing Exercises after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Deep breathing exercises are widely used in the postoperative care to prevent or reduce pulmonary complications, but no scientific evidence for the efficacy has been found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of the thesis was to describe postoperative pulmonary function and to evaluate the efficacy of deep breathing exercises performed with or without a blow bottle device for positive expiratory pressure (PEP) 10 cmH2O or an inspiratory resistance-positive expirator...

  9. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  10. Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

  11. The effect of dynamic breathing exercises on physical training of students with hearing impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кudelko V.Е.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The program of dynamic breathing exercises that affect the development of physical qualities was developed for the hearing-impaired students. The study involved a group of students with hearing impairments that included 12 people, aged from18 to 19 years with the same diagnosis and level of physical training. The program of dynamic breathing exercises and test data results of students' physical training before and after the teaching experiment were presented. A positive increase in test results after the application of complex dynamic breathing exercises was identified.

  12. Effect of breathing techniques on blood pressure response to resistance exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Linsenbardt, S T; Thomas, T. R.; Madsen, R W

    1992-01-01

    Twenty novice male weight lifters performed resistance exercises using three different breathing techniques to determine the effects on blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured by an automated non-invasive method while subjects performed the single arm curl and double knee extension using the different breathing techniques. Performing the Valsalva manoeuvre (breath-holding) during either the single arm curl or double knee extension produced the highest blood pressu...

  13. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-01-01

    Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and l...

  14. Mindfulness-of-breathing exercise modulates EEG alpha activity during cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-Canar, Hanaan; Pizzuto, Jacquelyne; Compton, Rebecca J

    2016-09-01

    The present study investigated whether engaging in a mindful breathing exercise would affect EEG oscillatory activity associated with self-monitoring processes, based on the notion that mindfulness enhances attentional awareness. Participants were assigned to either an audio exercise in mindful breathing or an audio control condition, and then completed a Stroop task while EEG was recorded. The primary EEG measure of interest was error-related alpha suppression (ERAS), an index of self-monitoring in which alpha power is reduced, suggesting mental engagement, following errors compared to correct responses. Participants in the mindful-breathing condition showed increased alpha power during the listening exercise and enhanced ERAS during the subsequent Stroop task. These results indicate enhanced error-monitoring among those in the mindful-breathing group. PMID:27245493

  15. Effects of breathing patterns and light exercise on linear and nonlinear heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Kristin; Rieger, Annika; Kumar, Mohit; Behrens, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Despite their use in cardiac risk stratification, the physiological meaning of nonlinear heart rate variability (HRV) measures is not well understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate effects of breathing frequency, tidal volume, and light exercise on nonlinear HRV and to determine associations with traditional HRV indices. R-R intervals, blood pressure, minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory gas concentrations were measured in 24 healthy male volunteers during 7 conditions: voluntary breathing at rest, and metronome guided breathing (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 Hz) during rest, and cycling, respectively. The effect of physical load was significant for heart rate (HR; p p p p < 0.05 to <0.01). In conclusion, while light exercise does not significantly affect short-time HRV nonlinear indices, respiratory activity has to be considered as a potential contributor at rest and during light dynamic exercise. PMID:26187271

  16. [Investigation of the structure breathing pattern in competitive exercises have athletes kettlebell Lifters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, V F; Agafonkina, T V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research is to determine the breathing pattern characteristics of kettlebell athletes. The main indicators were identified: breathing frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (VE). We also searched for the dependence of these parameters using the weight of kettlebells and skill of the athletes.We used the spirograph SMP-21/01-"R-D" for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the miain indicators of kettlebell athletes breathing patterns. Athletes who achieved Masters of Sports (MS) and candidate masters of sport (CMS), their changes in breathing during exercise occurs mainly on two parameters--the frequeincy of breathing and tidal yolume. We found out while the weight of the kettlebell increases the breathing frequen- cy increases and tidal volume decreases. Athletes who achieved International Masters of Sports (MSIC), they dominated the change of one parameter of breathing--on the tidalivolume, which increases from 0.7 +/- 0.11 to 1.2 +/- 0.11 (p Kettlebell sport. In our opinion high performance level of athletes is related to undergoing breathing regulation, trying constantly to keep same level of gas composition in functional residual capacity (FRC) at a time ofperforming competition exercises. This research highlights the importance of improving breathing patterns for Kettlebell athletes if they want to improve performance. PMID:25702464

  17. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasiak Maria M; Skiepko Roman; Zietkowski Ziemowit; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk Anna

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study wa...

  18. Breathing exercises as adjuvant in the management of COPD : An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Kant S; Singh G.

    2006-01-01

    COPD is the most common chronic lung disease. It is a major cause of chronic morbidity, mortality and health care used throughout the world and resulting in an economic and social burden that is both substantial and increasing also in our country. Pharmacotherapy alone does not optimize and have limited role in im-proving dyspnea, exercise limitation and quality of life which are characteristic and troublesome features of COPD. Breathing exercises are popular among patients, physician and p...

  19. The effects of exercise on the chemical control of breathing in man

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, Jaideep Jagdeesh.; Robbins, Peter A.; Dr. Peter Robbins

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the chemical control of breathing during exercise in humans.Chapter 1 reviews some of the relevant studies in animals and humans.Chapter 2 describes the experimental apparatus and the technique of dynamic end-tidal forcing performed using a computer-controlled gas-mixing system.Chapter 3 describes a study of the effects of sustained hypoxia on ventilation during steady exercise. The acute ventilatory response to hypoxia (AHR) was increased during exercis...

  20. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  1. Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath condensate of allergic asthma patients with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasiak Maria M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is a highly prevalent condition, whose pathophysiology is not well understood. Endothelins are proinflammatory, profibrotic, broncho- and vasoconstrictive peptides which play an important role in the development of airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in endothelin-1 levels in exhaled breath condensate following intensive exercise in asthmatic patients. Methods The study was conducted in a group of 19 asthmatic patients (11 with EIB, 8 without EIB and 7 healthy volunteers. Changes induced by intensive exercise in the concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC during 24 hours after an exercise challenge test were determined. Moreover, the possible correlations of these measurements with the results of other tests commonly associated with asthma and with the changes of airway inflammation after exercise were observed. Results In asthmatic patients with EIB a statistically significant increase in the concentration of ET-1 in EBC collected between 10 minutes and 6 hours after an exercise test was observed. The concentration of ET-1 had returned to its initial level 24 hours after exercise. No effects of the exercise test on changes in the concentrations of ET-1 in EBC in either asthmatic patients without EIB or healthy volunteers were observed. A statistically significant correlation between the maximum increase in ET-1 concentrations in EBC after exercise and either baseline FENO and the increase in FENO or BHR to histamine 24 hours after exercise in the groups of asthmatics with EIB was revealed. Conclusion The release of ET-1 from bronchial epithelium through the influence of many inflammatory cells essential in asthma and interactions with other cytokines, may play an important role in increase of airway inflammation which was observed after postexercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

  2. Oxygenation and Exercise Performance-Enhancing Effects Attributed to the Breathe-Right Nasal Dilator

    OpenAIRE

    Trocchio, Marc; Fisher, Jean; Wimer, Jeffrey W.; Parkman, Anna W.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, many professional football players have elected to wear spring-loaded nasal dilators during competition. Many athletes believe that wearing the “Breathe-Right” nasal dilator will increase nasal gas conduction and oxygenation to their body, subsequently improving their performance. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the advantages of wearing a nasal dilator while performing aerobic and anaerobic exercise, as opposed to not wearing a nasal dilator. It was hypothesized t...

  3. Glucose turnover in response to exercise during high- and low-FIo2 breathing in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether breathing high or low concentrations of O2 could affect glucose turnover during exercise in man. Ten healthy subjects performed two constant work-rate exercise tests, one when the fraction of inspired O2 (FIo2) was 0.15 and the other at the same work rate but when the FIo2 was 0.80. The work rate for each subject was chosen so that blood lactate would be elevated during hypoxia, but would be lower during hyperoxia. Glucose appearance (R/sub a/) and disappearance (R/sub d/) were measured using the primed, constant infusion of [3-3H]glucose. Although the work rate was the same during hypoxia and hyperoxia in each subject, hypoxic exercise was accompanied by a significantly larger rest to exercise was accompanied by a significantly larger rest to exercise increase in R/sub d/ (ΔR/sub d/) compared with hyperoxia by 265%. Similarly, ΔR/sub a/ was greater during hypoxia than during hyperoxia by 188%. Lactate to pyruvate ratios were significantly higher during hypoxic exercise suggesting a shift in the cell redox to a more reduced state. Insulin and glucagon were not affect by the FIo2, but both epinephrine and norepinephrine were increased during hypoxic exercise, which may explain the increase in R/sub a/. The regulation of blood glucose during exercise in vivo appears to be dependent on the availability of oxygen to the working muscle cells

  4. Nasal reflexes: implications for exercise, breathing, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraniuk, James N; Merck, Samantha J

    2008-04-01

    Nasal patency, with both congestion and decongestion, is affected in a wide variety of reflexes. Stimuli leading to nasal reflexes include exercise; alterations of body position, pressure, and temperature; neurologic syndromes; and dentistry. As anticipated, the vagal and trigeminal systems are closely integrated through nasobronchial and bronchonasal reflexes. However, perhaps of greater pathophysiologic importance are the naso-hypopharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes that become aggravated during sinusitis. None other than Sigmund Freud saw deeply beyond the facial adornment and recognized the deeper sexual tensions that can regulate nasal functions and psychoanalytical status. Wine, women, and song are linked with airflow through the nose-the nose, which by any other name would still smell as sweetly. PMID:18417057

  5. Effects of yoga breathing exercises on pulmonary function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: an exploratory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rojo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children, and children with DMD die prematurely because of respiratory failure. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of yoga breathing exercises, as well as the effects of those exercises on respiratory function, in such children. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DMD, recruited from among those followed at the neurology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were taught how to perform hatha yoga breathing exercises and were instructed to perform the exercises three times a day for 10 months. RESULTS: Of the 76 patients who entered the study, 35 dropped out and 15 were unable to perform the breathing exercises, 26 having therefore completed the study (mean age, 9.5 ± 2.3 years; body mass index, 18.2 ± 3.8 kg/m2. The yoga breathing exercises resulted in a significant increase in FVC (% of predicted: 82.3 ± 18.6% at baseline vs. 90.3 ± 22.5% at 10 months later; p = 0.02 and FEV1 (% of predicted: 83.8 ± 16.6% at baseline vs. 90.1 ± 17.4% at 10 months later; p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Yoga breathing exercises can improve pulmonary function in patients with DMD.

  6. Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    G.S. Alves

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD present breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion abnormalities that may contribute to exercise limitation. Twenty-two men with stable COPD (FEV1 = 42.6 ± 13.5% predicted; age 68 ± 8 years; mean ± SD on usual medication and with at least 5 years of diagnosis were evaluated at rest and during an incremental cycle exercise test (10 watts/2 min. Changes in respiratory frequency, tidal volume, rib cage and abdominal motion contribution to tidal volume and the phase angle that measures the asynchrony were analyzed by inductive respiratory plethysmography at rest and during three levels of exercise (30-50, 70-80, and 100% maximal work load. Repeated measures ANOVA followed by pre-planned contrasts and Bonferroni corrections were used for analyses. As expected, the greater the exercise intensity the higher the tidal volume and respiratory frequency. Abdominal motion contributed to the tidal volume increase (rest: 49.82 ± 11.19% vs exercise: 64.15 ± 9.7%, 63.41 ± 10%, and 65.56 ± 10.2%, respectively, P < 0.001 as well as the asynchrony [phase angle: 11.95 ± 7.24° at rest vs 22.2 ± 15° (P = 0.002, 22.6 ± 9° (P < 0.001, and 22.7 ± 8° (P < 0.001, respectively, at the three levels of exercise]. In conclusion, the increase in ventilation during exercise in COPD patients was associated with the major motion of the abdominal compartment and with an increase in the asynchrony independent of exercise intensity. It suggests that cycling exercise is an effective way of enhancing ventilation in COPD patients.

  7. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral...... <0.001). Similarly, during 100-W exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P <0.001) and MCA V(mean) from 55 to 113 cm/s ( approximately 105%), and facial immersion further increased MCA V(mean) to 122 cm/s ( approximately 88%; both P <0.001). MCA V(mean) also increased during...... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P <0.001), although Pa(CO(2)) did not significantly change. These results indicate that a breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  8. Dysanapsis and the resistive work of breathing during exercise in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominelli, Paolo B; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Bingham, Derek; Swartz, Philippa M; Road, Jeremy D; Foster, Glen E; Sheel, A William

    2015-11-15

    We asked if the higher work of breathing (Wb) during exercise in women compared with men is explained by biological sex. We created a statistical model that accounts for both the viscoelastic and the resistive components of the total Wb and independently compares the effects of biological sex. We applied the model to esophageal pressure-derived Wb values obtained during an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Subjects were healthy men (n = 17) and women (n = 18) with a range of maximal aerobic capacities (V̇o2 max range: men = 40-68 and women = 39-60 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). We also calculated the dysanapsis ratio using measures of lung recoil and forced expiratory flow as index of airway caliber. By applying the model we found that the differences in the total Wb during exercise in women are due to a higher resistive Wb rather than viscoelastic Wb. We also found that the higher resistive Wb is independently explained by biological sex. To account for the known effect of lung volumes on the dysanapsis ratio we compared the sexes with an analysis of covariance procedures and found that when vital capacity was accounted for the adjusted mean dysanapsis ratio is statistically lower in women (0.17 vs. 0.25 arbitrary units; P human airways, which result in significant male-female differences in the Wb during exercise in healthy subjects. PMID:26359483

  9. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Tarun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises ( pranayama in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1 > 70% were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group. Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing, Brahmari , and Omkara , etc. for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara . Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises ( pranayama , mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy.

  10. Control and sensation of breathing during cycling exercise in hypoxia under naloxone: a randomised controlled crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Koglin, Laurent; Kayser, Bengt E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioid receptors are possibly involved in the perception of exertion and the ventilatory response to exercise. We compared incremental cycling exercise in conditions of normoxia and hypoxia (11% O2) after injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (30 mg i.v.) or placebo. Naloxone was expected to increase sensation of breathing and cycling and to curtail exercise performance more in hypoxia. Methods Ten healthy subjects (29 ± 2 years, 183 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 7 kg, mean ± SD) cyc...

  11. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  12. The contribution of air breathing to aerobic scope and exercise performance in the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, David J.; Steffensen, John Fleng; Taylor, Edwin W.;

    2012-01-01

    ) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 body lengths (BL) s(-1) and an active metabolic rate (AMR) of 350±21 mg kg(-1) h(-1), with 38±6% derived from air breathing. All of the knifefish exhibited a significant increase in air-breathing frequency (f(AB)) with swimming speed. If denied access to air in normoxia......The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm......, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved...

  13. The effects of regular breathing exercise and making bubbles on the pain of catheter insertion in school age children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheriyan, Samaneh; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ranjbar, Hadi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment procedures are the most common sources of pain in children. Children with chronic diseases such as thalassemia experience many pains during painful procedures including at times of diagnosis, treatment and control of their disease. Several methods have been reported to reduce pain. Clinical professionals usually use distraction techniques to reduce pain. However, there is no agreement between them that which distraction technique is better for reducing pain. The aim of this study was omparing the effects of regular breathing exercise and making bubbles on the pain of catheter insertion in school age children. METHODS: This was a clinical trial on 60 children in the age range of 6 to 12 years, who were suffering from thalassemia and had a file in the Center for Thalassemia. Participants were randomly divided into two groups of experiment and control. Bubble making was performed for the first group and regular breathing exercise was performed for the second group. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, a scale for pediatric pain behavioral symptoms and Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis, and Mann Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation). RESULTS: The mean pain score based on the numerical scale was 5.60 ± 3.13 in the control group, 1.60 ± 1.75 in the bubble-making group and 1.85 ± 1.42 in the breathing exercise group. The mean score of behavioral pain symptoms was 3.80 ± 2.80 in the control group, 1.15 ± 1.13 in the bubble-making group, and 0.96 ± 0.75 in the breathing exercise group. Results showed a significant difference in the mean pain scores (based on numeric scale and pain behavior scale) between the control group and other groups after the injection, but the difference in the mean pain scores between the two groups of experiment after the injection was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: According to

  14. The effect of climbing Mount Everest on spleen contraction and increase in hemoglobin concentration during breath holding and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engan, Harald K; Lodin-Sundström, Angelica; Schagatay, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2014-04-01

    Release of stored red blood cells resulting from spleen contraction improves human performance in various hypoxic situations. This study determined spleen volume resulting from two contraction-evoking stimuli: breath holding and exercise before and after altitude acclimatization during a Mount Everest ascent (8848 m). Eight climbers performed the following protocol before and after the climb: 5 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m during rest, 20 min oxygen respiration, 20 min ambient air respiration at 1370 m, three maximal-effort breath holds spaced by 2 min, 10 min ambient air respiration, 5 min of cycling at 100 W, and finally 10 min ambient air respiration. We measured spleen volume by ultrasound and capillary hemoglobin (HB) concentration after each exposure, and heart rate (HR) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) continuously. Mean (SD) baseline spleen volume was unchanged at 213 (101) mL before and 206 (52) mL after the climb. Before the climb, spleen volume was reduced to 184 (83) mL after three breath holds, and after the climb three breath holds resulted in a spleen volume of 132 (26) mL (p=0.032). After exercise, the preclimb spleen volume was 186 (89) mL vs. 112 (389) mL) after the climb (p=0.003). Breath hold duration and cardiovascular responses were unchanged after the climb. We concluded that spleen contraction may be enhanced by altitude acclimatization, probably reflecting both the acclimatization to chronic hypoxic exposure and acute hypoxia during physical work. PMID:24673535

  15. Comparison of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise, Volume and Flow Incentive Spirometry, on Diaphragm Excursion and Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaparthi, Gopala Krishna; Augustine, Alfred Joseph; Anand, R; Mahale, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effects of diaphragmatic breathing exercises and flow and volume-oriented incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methodology. We selected 260 patients posted for laparoscopic abdominal surgery and they were block randomization as follows: 65 patients performed diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 65 patients performed flow incentive spirometry, 65 patients performed volume incentive spirometry, and 65 patients participated as a control group. All of them underwent evaluation of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), and diaphragm excursion measurement by ultrasonography before the operation and on the first and second postoperative days. With the level of significance set at p breathing exercise group than in the flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity) and diaphragm excursion showed statistically significant differences between volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group (p breathing exercise can be recommended as an intervention for all patients pre- and postoperatively, over flow-oriented incentive spirometry for the generation and sustenance of pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in the management of laparoscopic abdominal surgery. PMID:27525116

  16. Evaluation of the Effects of Home-Based Deep Breathing Exercises in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raif Çakmur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises (DBEs on pulmonary functions and fatigue in patients with mild and moderate stages of Parkinson's disease (PD. Method: This study included 24 patients diagnosed with idiopathic PD in the Neurology Department at Dokuz Eylul University Hospital. The subjects were assigned to 15 repetitive DBEs 3 times a day for 12 weeks. The patients’ pulmonary function test results and fatigues were evaluated before and after a 12-week DBE program.Results: After a 12-week BDE program, an increase was determined in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV (p<0.05. There was a decrease in the patients’ fatigue levels after the breathing exercises (p <0.05. Discussion: Home-based DBEs improved pulmonary function test results and fatigue in patients with mild to moderate PD. Therefore, we consider that DBEs which can be easily performed in any environment and do not require any equipment should be recommended to all patients with PD to improve respiratory functions and fatigue. (Arc­hi­ves of Neu­ropsy­chi­atry 2012;49: 59-62

  17. Effect of exercise duration on pro-oxidants and pH in exhaled breath condensate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuesta, M; Alvear, M; Carbonell, T; García, C; Guzmán-Venegas, R; Araneda, O F

    2016-06-01

    Exercise promotes pulmonary oxidative imbalance. In this regard, some evidence has been obtained from the study of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) during urban races, in which the factors involved in the occurrence of this process are still not characterized. In this paper, under laboratory conditions, both the role of time of exercise on the generation of pro-oxidants (H2O2, NO2 (-)) and pH have been assessed in EBC of 16 under-trained subjects who completed three tests of cycloergometric exercise at low intensity (30 % of VO2 max) with a duration of 10, 30, and 90 min. Samples were obtained as follows: immediately before and at 80 min post exertion in each test. In the 90-min test, an increase in H2O2, NO2 (-) concentration in EBC at 80 min post exertion with no changes in the pH was observed. Total O2 consumption and total ventilation weakly correlated with the changes in H2O2 and NO2 (-). In conclusion, the concentration of pro-oxidants in the EBC depends on the duration of the exercise when it is performed at low intensity under laboratory conditions. PMID:27097598

  18. SIFT-MS Analysis of Nose-Exhaled Breath; Mouth Contamination and the Influence of Exercise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Španěl, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2013 (2013), s. 565-575. ISSN 1573-4110 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry * breath analysis * nose exhalation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  19. Closed and open breathing circuit function in healthy volunteers during exercise at Mount Everest base camp (5300 m).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-08-01

    We present a randomised, controlled, crossover trial of the Caudwell Xtreme Everest (CXE) closed circuit breathing system vs an open circuit and ambient air control in six healthy, hypoxic volunteers at rest and exercise at Everest Base Camp, at 5300 m. Compared with control, arterial oxygen saturations were improved at rest with both circuits. There was no difference in the magnitude of this improvement as both circuits restored median (IQR [range]) saturation from 75%, (69.5-78.9 [68-80]%) to > 99.8% (p = 0.028). During exercise, the CXE closed circuit improved median (IQR [range]) saturation from a baseline of 70.8% (63.8-74.5 [57-76]%) to 98.8% (96.5-100 [95-100]%) vs the open circuit improvement to 87.5%, (84.1-88.6 [82-89]%; p = 0.028). These data demonstrate the inverse relationship between supply and demand with open circuits and suggest that ambulatory closed circuits may offer twin advantages of supplying higher inspired oxygen concentrations and\\/or economy of gas use for exercising hypoxic adults.

  20. A novel ambulatory closed circuit breathing system for use during exercise.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    We describe a unique ambulatory closed circuit for delivering high fractions of inspired oxygen to an exercising user who does not require isolation from their environment. We describe the major components and their function and suggest potential applications for such a circuit. This circuit may benefit patients who are chronically dependant on oxygen, are unable to exercise due to hypoxia, or require oxygen supplementation at high altitude.

  1. Comparison of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercise, Volume and Flow Incentive Spirometry, on Diaphragm Excursion and Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishna Alaparthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effects of diaphragmatic breathing exercises and flow and volume-oriented incentive spirometry on pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in patients undergoing laparoscopic abdominal surgery. Methodology. We selected 260 patients posted for laparoscopic abdominal surgery and they were block randomization as follows: 65 patients performed diaphragmatic breathing exercises, 65 patients performed flow incentive spirometry, 65 patients performed volume incentive spirometry, and 65 patients participated as a control group. All of them underwent evaluation of pulmonary function with measurement of Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR, and diaphragm excursion measurement by ultrasonography before the operation and on the first and second postoperative days. With the level of significance set at p<0.05. Results. Pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion showed a significant decrease on the first postoperative day in all four groups (p<0.001 but was evident more in the control group than in the experimental groups. On the second postoperative day pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity and diaphragm excursion were found to be better preserved in volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group than in the flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Pulmonary function (Forced Vital Capacity and diaphragm excursion showed statistically significant differences between volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise group (p<0.05 as compared to that flow incentive spirometry group and the control group. Conclusion. Volume incentive spirometry and diaphragmatic breathing exercise can be recommended as an intervention for all patients pre- and postoperatively, over flow-oriented incentive spirometry for the generation and sustenance of pulmonary function and diaphragm excursion in the management of

  2. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Depiazzi

    2016-06-01

    This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for accurate assessment of an individual’s symptoms. We will highlight the high incidence of nonasthmatic causes, which simply require reassurance or simple interventions from respiratory physiotherapists or speech pathologists.

  3. INCENTIVE SPIROMETRY AND BREATHING EXERCISES WERE NOT ABLE TO IMPROVE RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY CHARACTERISTICS INDUCED BY WATER IMMERSION IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Vepo,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available pulmonary volumes and capacities which could be at least in part similar to that happen in healthy individuals during water immersion. Objectives: To investigate if respiratory effects of water immersion are partially due to enhanced return venous from legs and arms and if physiotherapeutic techniques incentive spirometry (IS and breathing exercises (BE are able to improve pulmonary volumes and capacities in healthy subjects during water immersion. Design: Randomised, within-participant experimental study. Participants: 18 healthy subjects. Intervention: Stage 1 was realized to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of water immersion with and without a cuff-induced venous compression. Stage 2 was conducted to explain the effects of physiotherapeutic techniques IS and BE during water immersion. Main outcome measures: The pulmonary function (forced vital capacity - FVC, forced expiratory volume the first second - FEV1, ratio of FEV/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate - PEFR and forced expiratory flow of 25-75% FVC - FEF25-75% was evaluated. Results: Water immersion decreased FVC and FEV1 after 10 minutes of immersion. After a total compression of arms and legs the reduction on FVC and FEV1 was not observed, even with only partial compression of legs (P>0.05. Conclusions: Water immersion promotes pulmonary restrictive characteristics due to increased venous return mainly from legs. The application IS and BE did not normalize the spirometric values.

  4. Effects of slow breathing exercise on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions & galvanic skin resistance in healthy human volunteers - a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...

  5. Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture, Applied Kinesiology, and Breathing Exercises for Facial Paralysis in a Young Boy Caused by Lyme Disease-A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsberger, Friedrich; Raak, C; Teuber, M

    2016-01-01

    The case study reports on the effect of pharmacological, complementary, and alternative medicine including YNSA, Applied Kinesiology, and respiratory exercises in a 9-year-old boy with facial paralysis. The boy suffered from borreliosis and one-sided facial paralysis that occurred 3.5 weeks after being bitten by a tick and persisted despite 4 weeks of medication with antibiotics. In the first treatment, muscle function as assessed by the coachman׳s test was normalized, and improvement in the facial paralysis was observed. Within 8 additional treatments over a period of 2 months, the boy showed complete recovery. The case shows a multimodal approach to facial paralysis integrating pharmacological treatment and CAM including YNSA, Applied Kinesiology, and breathing exercises. PMID:27102135

  6. Purine metabolism in response to hypoxic conditions associated with breath-hold diving and exercise in erythrocytes and plasma from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Castillo Velasco-Martínez, Iris; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian tissues under hypoxic conditions, ATP degradation results in accumulation of purine metabolites. During exercise, muscle energetic demand increases and oxygen consumption can exceed its supply. During breath-hold diving, oxygen supply is reduced and, although oxygen utilization is regulated by bradycardia (low heart rate) and peripheral vasoconstriction, tissues with low blood flow (ischemia) may become hypoxic. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential differences in the circulating levels of purine metabolism components between diving and exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood samples were taken from captive dolphins following a swimming routine (n=8) and after a 2min dive (n=8). Activity of enzymes involved in purine metabolism (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), inosine monophosphate deshydrogenase (IMPDH), xanthine oxidase (XO), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)), and purine metabolite (hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP)) concentrations were quantified in erythrocyte and plasma samples. Enzymatic activity and purine metabolite concentrations involved in purine synthesis and degradation, were not significantly different between diving and exercise. Plasma adenosine concentration was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.03); this may be related to dive-induced ischemia. In erythrocytes, HGPRT activity was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.007), suggesting an increased capacity for purine recycling and ATP synthesis from IMP in ischemic tissues of bottlenose dolphins during diving. Purine recycling and physiological adaptations may maintain the ATP concentrations in bottlenose dolphins after diving and exercise. PMID:26506131

  7. The effect of adding CO2 to hypoxic inspired gas on cerebral blood flow velocity and breathing during incremental exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Lin Fan

    Full Text Available Hypoxia increases the ventilatory response to exercise, which leads to hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia and subsequent reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. We studied the effects of adding CO2 to a hypoxic inspired gas on CBF during heavy exercise in an altitude naïve population. We hypothesized that augmented inspired CO2 and hypoxia would exert synergistic effects on increasing CBF during exercise, which would improve exercise capacity compared to hypocapnic hypoxia. We also examined the responsiveness of CO2 and O2 chemoreception on the regulation ventilation ([Formula: see text]E during incremental exercise. We measured middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv; index of CBF, [Formula: see text]E, end-tidal PCO2, respiratory compensation threshold (RC and ventilatory response to exercise ([Formula: see text]E slope in ten healthy men during incremental cycling to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FIO2 = 0.10 with and without augmenting the fraction of inspired CO2 (FICO2. During exercise in normoxia, augmenting FICO2 elevated MCAv throughout exercise and lowered both RC onset and[Formula: see text]E slope below RC (P0.05. The [Formula: see text]E slope above RC was unchanged with either hypoxia or augmented FICO2 (P>0.05. We found augmenting FICO2 increased CBF during sub-maximal exercise in normoxia, but not in hypoxia, indicating that the 'normal' cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia is blunted during exercise in hypoxia, possibly due to an exhaustion of cerebral vasodilatory reserve. This finding may explain the lack of improvement of exercise capacity in hypoxia with augmented CO2. Our data further indicate that, during exercise below RC, chemoreception is responsive, while above RC the ventilatory response to CO2 is blunted.

  8. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  9. Correction of the single breath carbon monoxide transfer factor in exercise for variations in alveolar oxygen pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Kendrick, A. H.; Laszlo, G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLCO) varies inversely with the partial pressure of alveolar oxygen (PAO2). During exercise the PAO2 in the alveolar gas sample bag decreases so the TLCO increases more than would be expected from the effects of exercise alone. The effects of PAO2 on the estimation of TLCO during exercise have been investigated and studies have been performed to determine whether it is appropriate to standardise to a PAO2 of 16 kPa. METHODS--TLCO was estimated at r...

  10. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  11. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physical Therapist View full profile COPD: Lifestyle Management Exercise An exercise program is another very important step ... riding a stationary bike. Medication to Help You Exercise People with COPD often use a metered-dose ...

  12. Breathing exercises in upper abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis Exercícios respiratórios em cirurgia abdominal alta: revisão sistemática e metanálise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha T. Grams

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is currently no consensus on the indication and benefits of breathing exercises for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications PPCs and for the recovery of pulmonary mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review of randomized and quasi-randomized studies that assessed the effects of breathing exercises on the recovery of pulmonary function and prevention of PCCs after upper abdominal surgery UAS. METHOD: Search Strategy: We searched the Physiotherapy Evidence Database PEDro, Scientific Electronic Library Online SciELO, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials on pre- and postoperative UAS patients, in which the primary intervention was breathing exercises without the use of incentive inspirometers. Data Collection and Analysis: The methodological quality of the studies was rated according to the PEDro scale. Data on maximal respiratory pressures MIP and MEP, spirometry, diaphragm mobility, and postoperative complications were extracted and analyzed. Data were pooled in fixed-effect meta-analysis whenever possible. RESULTS: Six studies were used for analysis. Two meta-analyses including 66 participants each showed that, on the first day post-operative, the breathing exercises were likely to have induced MEP and MIP improvement treatment effects of 11.44 mmH2O (95%CI 0.88 to 22 and 11.78 mmH2O (95%CI 2.47 to 21.09, respectively. CONCLUSION: Breathing exercises are likely to have a beneficial effect on respiratory muscle strength in patients submitted to UAS, however the lack of good quality studies hinders a clear conclusion on the subject.

  13. Hydrogen peroxide release and acid-base status in exhaled breath condensate at rest and after maximal exercise in young, healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Exhaled breath condensate (EBC contains among a large number of mediators hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a marker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress. Similarly EBC pH also changes in respiratory diseases. It was the aim of our investigation to prove if hydrogen peroxide release and changes in pH of EBC changes with exercise. Methods EBC was collected from 100 litres exhaled air along with samples of arterialized blood of 16 healthy subjects (9 males, 7 females, age 23 ± 1 years. EBC hydrogen peroxide was analyzed with EcoCheck amperometer (FILT, Berlin. The rate of H2O2 release was calculated from the concentration and collection time. pH and PCO2 in blood and in EBC were measured with the Radiometer blood gas analyzer, EBC was equilibrated with a gas mixture (5% CO2 in O2. The bicarbonate concentration was calculated according to the law of mass action for CO2 and HCO3- (pK = 6.1. Results H2O2 concentration in EBC was 190 ± 109 nmol/l, and H2O2 release at rest was 31.0 ± 18.3 pmol/min. At maximal exercise, the H2O = concentration in EBC increased to 250 ± 120 nmol/l, and H2O2 release significantly increased at maximal exercise to 84.4 ± 39.9 pmol/min (P 2 equilibrated EBC was at 6.08 ± 0.23 and the [HCO3 -] was 1.03 ± 0.40 mmol/l. At maximum exercise, pH 6.18 ± 0.17 and [HCO3-] 1.23 ± 0.30 mmol/l remained almost unaltered. Conclusions The rate of H2O2 release in EBC increased during exhausting exercise (external load: 300 Watt by a factor of 2, whereas the pH and the bicarbonate concentration of the EBC, equilibrated with 5% CO2 at 37°C were not significantly altered. It has to be proven by further experiments whether there is a linear relationship between the rates of H2O2 release in EBC in graded submaximal exercise.

  14. Intervention program in college instrumental musicians, with kinematics analysis of cello and flute playing: a combined program of yogic breathing and muscle strengthening-flexibility exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hie; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv; Matz, Rachel

    2012-06-01

    College musicians encounter health risks not dissimilar to those of professional musicians. Fifteen collegiate instrumental musicians participated in the intervention program of yogic-breathing and muscle-strengthening and flexibility exercises for 8 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention data from the Health-Pain-Injury Inventory (HPI) and the Physical & Musical-Performance Efficacy Assessment Survey (PME) were analyzed for the effects of the program on the musicians' physical and musical-performance efficacy. HPI results showed that the majority of our sample had healthy lifestyles and minimal pain and injuries but irregular eating and exercise habits. The pre-intervention PME data showed a high level of musical efficacy (i.e., awareness of music technique, tone, and flow) but a low-level of physical efficacy (i.e., awareness of posture, tension, and movement flexibility). Post-intervention data showed that the program improved physical efficacy by increased awareness of posture and tension. In 2 volunteer musicians, kinematics motion analysis was conducted for exploratory purposes. Our cellist played the scale using a larger range of motion (ROM) in right shoulder flexion and abduction and slightly increased rotation while keeping decreased right elbow ROM after the intervention program. The flutist shifted the body weight from one foot to the other more in the second playing post-intervention. These changes can be attributed to the increased physical efficacy that allowed freedom to express musicality. Findings from these case scenarios provide empirically based hypotheses for further study. We share our experience so that others may use our model and instruments to develop studies with larger samples. PMID:22739821

  15. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  16. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

  17. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  18. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... article Exercise / physical activity with MS Judy Boone, physical therapist Lynn Williams, Dan Melfi and Dave Altman discuss ... adjusted as changes occur in MS symptoms. A physical therapist experienced with MS can be helpful in designing, ...

  19. Research progress of breathing exercises compliance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼吸锻炼依从性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石群; 康明

    2011-01-01

    This article summarized the current status of breathing exercises compliance in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and analyzed the influential factors from the aspects of patients and medical staff. Then it proposed the measures to improve the compliance, including reinforcing health education to enhance self - management, psychological intervention, improving medical staffs enthusiasm in health education, and increasing guide efforts, perfecting personalized exercise programs,developing and applying assistant apparatus,and so on. This review aimed to provide some references for promoting the extensive and effective application of breathing exercises to COPD patients.%文章对慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者呼吸锻炼依从性现状进行分析,从患者和医护人员方面探讨了依从性的影响因素,并提出加强知识宣教,增强自我管理;心理干预;提高医护人员健康教育积极性,加大指导力度;增强锻炼方案的个性化;辅助仪器的研究与应用等提高依从性的对策.

  20. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  1. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  2. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  3. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  4. 呼吸操锻炼对小儿脊柱侧弯术前肺功能的影响%Effects of breathing exercise on preoperative pulmonary function in adolescent scoliosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建英; 叶文琴; 宫克; 韩文君

    2005-01-01

    背景:小儿脊柱侧弯患者术后易发生急性呼吸功能不全的危险,术前进行综合呼吸操锻炼对其预防的效果尚未确定.目的:探讨呼吸操锻炼对小儿脊柱侧弯患者术前应用的可行性和有效性.设计:非随机横断面研究.地点、对象和方法:选择上海长海医院对35例脊柱侧弯且肺功能障碍9~15岁住院患儿.术前1周对脊柱侧弯患儿实施组合的呼吸操训练,其内容包括缩唇呼吸、腹部运动呼吸、膈肌呼吸、吹气球.同时记录观察比较锻炼前后肺功能的变化.主要观察指标:呼吸操锻炼前后患儿肺活量、肺容量、用力肺活量(forced ventilation capacity,FVC)、最大通气量(maximal ventilation volume,MVV)的变化.结果:锻炼后患儿肺功能检查各项指标[肺活量,肺容量,FVC,MVV分别为(2.65±0.29),(3.56±0.79),(2.41±0.41),(70.1±17.0)L]比锻炼前[(1.77±0.36),(2.67±0.84),(2.07±0.46),(52.5±14.0)L]明显改善(t=3.64~11.28.P<0.01).结论:术前进行呼吸操锻炼能改善患儿肺功能,提高对脊柱矫形手术的耐受力,对预防和减少术后呼吸功能不全的发生有积极作用.%BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory insufficiency is common complication of surgical treatment of adolescent scoliosis patients. The preventive effects of breathing exercise before surgery is still uncertain.OBJECTIVE: To explore the feasibility and efficacy of breathing exercises for scoliosis patients before operation.DESIGN: Nonrandomized cross sectional study.SETTING, PARTICIPANTS and METHODS: Totally 35 hospitalized kids with scoliosis and pulmonary dysfunction aged from 9 to 15 years old were selected from Shanghai Changhai Hospital. A set of breathing exercise including which included pursed lip breathing, abdominal breathing, diaphragmatic breathing and blowing balloon was performed to these patients one week before surgery. The changes of pulmonary function were recorded and compared before and after exercises.MAIN OUTCOME

  5. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  6. Effect of device-guided breathing exercises on blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logtenberg, Susan J.; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastlaan T.; Groenier, Klaas H.; Bilo, Henk J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), it is hard to reach treatment objectives for blood pressure (BP) with classical treatment options. Recently, reducing breathing frequency has been advocated as a method to reduce BP. We examined if an electronic device such as Resperate, by

  7. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  8. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  9. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

  10. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  11. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  12. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  13. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  14. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  15. 自编瑜伽呼吸操对COPD患者肺康复的影响%Study for the effect on pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD by self designed yoga breathing exercise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞; 张连连; 胡敏; 樊胜霞

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨瑜伽呼吸操对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者肺康复的影响。方法将98例COPD出院患者按随机数字表法分为瑜伽组和对照组,各49例。两组患者均按2013年GOLD指南进行常规药物治疗,并接受呼吸内科常规健康教育,实验组在此基础上于出院后第7天进行自制瑜伽呼吸操训练,内容包括瑜伽呼吸操的健康教育和瑜伽呼吸操训练方法等。两组患者随访均持续1年,并于出院后第7天、3个月、6个月、12个月进行结果评估。评价指标为6 min步行试验(6M WD )及肺功能测定(FEV1)。结果两组干预后3个月、6个月、12个月6MWD差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);干预后6个月、12个月FEV1比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);瑜伽组2项指标各阶段之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论自创瑜伽呼吸操简便易学,能提高COPD患者肺功能,增强患者活动的耐受力。%Objective To study the effect on pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD by self designed yo‐ga breathing exercise .Method 98 patients with COPD were randomly divided into yoga group and control group .49 cases in each group .Patients in two groups was given routine drug treatment based on the 2013 GOLD guidance and routine health education in respiratory medicine .Patients in yoga group was given additional self designed yoga breathing exercise training on the 7th day after discharge ,including the health education and content of yoga ,etc . The enrolled patients were set up for a regular follow up schedule for one year ,and the indexes of the seventh day , the third month ,the sixth month and the twelfth month were evaluated .The evaluation indexes included 6 minutes walk distance (6MWD) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) .Result There was significant difference in 6MWD in the third month ,sixth month and twelfth month after intervention between the two group(P< 0

  16. 情景互动式呼吸操在慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者中的应用研究%Application research on interactional and situational breathing exercises for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛颖懿; 黄丹雯; 纳媛娜; 张炜梅; 高薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the application effect of interactional and situational breathing exercises for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Method Design interactional and situational breathing exercises which combine breathing exercises and body exercises together. Divide 50 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease into observation group and control group equally according to hospitalization time. Based on routine treatment, patients in control group receive traditional breathing exercises. Patients in observation group receive interactional and situational breathing exercises. Assess patients in two groups by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Questionnaire (Chinese Version) and test on their pulmonary function 3 months before and after intervention. Take statistical analysis on compliance of breathing exercises for patients in two groups 3 months after intervention. Result Scores of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Questionnaire (Chinese Version) after intervention is (11. 88±4. 07) for observation group and (15. 60±4. 50) for control group, t= 3. 067, P=0. 004. Pulmonary function is better in observation. Rate of breathing exercises compliance is 84% in observation group and 24% in control group, x2 =18. 116, P<0. 01. Conclusion Interactional and situational breathing exercises can improve the compliance, pulmonary function and quality of life for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.%目的 观察情景互动式呼吸操在慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者中的应用效果.方法 自创呼吸操与健身操融为一体的情景互动式呼吸操.将50例慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者按入院时间分为对照组25例和观察组25例.在常规治疗基础上,对照组行传统呼吸操训练,观察组行情景互动式呼吸操训练.在干预前及干预3月后,用慢性阻塞性肺疾病评估测试问卷(中文版)对两组患者进行测评并检测肺功能,干预3月后统计两组

  17. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  18. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regular exercise. Exercise also helps people with high blood pressure, balance problems, or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  20. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  1. Effect of Resistive Load on the Inspiratory Work and Power of Breathing during Exertion

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Thomas; Williams, Edgar Mark

    2012-01-01

    The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WRI) was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component) allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WRI, power of breathing, PRI an...

  2. A non-pharmacologic approach to the treatment of exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    OpenAIRE

    Schachter, E N; Lee, M.; Gerhard, H.; Brown, S.

    1980-01-01

    We investigated the effects of breathing air warmed and fully saturated to body temperature (AWS) before, during, and after exercise in asthmatic subjects. Airway responses to submaximal exercise on a cycloergometer were measured on four separate days in 14 asthmatic volunteers. On day 1 the subjects exercised breathing ambient air (AA). On the subsequent three days exercise was performed with the subjects breathing AWS, (1) for five minutes preceding, (2) during, and (3) for five minutes fol...

  3. Relationship between Respiratory Movements and Energy Efficiency in the Post-Exercise Recovery Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Ohashi, Yukari; Kamioka, Masashi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2001-01-01

    The breathing movement is highly automated but it can be voluntarily controlled in some situations. Compared with period of exercise and post-exercise, subjects could control breathing more voluntarily in the post-exercise recovery phase. So, we analyzed relationship between the strategy for controlling the breathing movement pattern and energy efficiency in this phase. Fifteen healthy men (mean age, 22.1 years) were subjected to exercise with a bicycle ergometer at 100 W for 5 minutes, then ...

  4. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  5. Larynx during exercise: the unexplored bottleneck of the airways

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced shortness of breath is not uncommon in otherwise healthy young people. Based on the presenting symptoms alone, it is challenging to distinguish exercise-induced asthma (EIA) from exercise-induced obstruction of central airways, sometimes leading to diagnostic errors and inadequate treatment. Central airway obstruction usually presents with exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) during ongoing exercise. EIIS tends to peak towards the end of an exercise session or immedia...

  6. The effects of breathing with mainly inspiration or expiration on pulmonary function and chest expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Seong-Dae; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effects of inspiration- and expiration-oriented breathing on pulmonary function and chest expansion. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy male university students were divided randomly into inspiration-oriented and expiration-oriented breathing groups. Their pulmonary function and chest size during inspiration or expiration were evaluated and then re-evaluated after 15 minutes of breathing exercise five times a week for four weeks. [Results] The br...

  7. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  8. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging ... of the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health ...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z > Exercise: Benefits of Exercise: Health Benefits In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently ... Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National Institute on ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exercise can improve or maintain some aspects of cognitive function, such as your ability to shift quickly ... Click to watch this video For more on cognitive function and exercise, see "Do Exercise and Physical ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  13. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can ... yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a ...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... activity campaign from the National Institute on Aging. Exercise or Physical Activity? Some people may wonder what ...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How ... to Try Exercise: How to Stay Active The information in this topic was provided by the National ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment for many chronic conditions. For example, studies show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ...

  17. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with ...

  18. Low latency breathing frequency detection and monitoring on a personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskovsek, Matevz; Ahlin, Dragomira; Cancer, Rok; Hosta, Milan; Enova, Dusan; Pusenjak, Nika; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a low latency respiratory/breathing frequency detection system that is fast (power supply and operates fully via computer-standard USB connection. Exercises in controlling ones breathing frequency, usually referred to as paced-breathing exercises, have shown positive effects in treating pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases and stress/anxiety-related disorders. We developed a breathing frequency detection system which uses two pairs of microphones to detect exhalation activity, eliminate noise from the environment and stream the recording data via USB connection to a personal computer. It showed 97.1% reliability (10 subjects) when monitoring breathing activity in non-guided free breathing and 100% reliability (10 subjects) when monitoring breathing activity during interactive paced-breathing exercises. We also evaluated the breathing frequency detection systems noise elimination functionality which showed a reduction of 84.2 dB for stationary (white noise) and a reduction of 79.3 dB for non-stationary (hands clapping) noise. PMID:21767133

  19. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  20. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... show that people with arthritis, heart disease, or diabetes benefit from regular exercise. Exercise also helps people ... or difficulty walking. To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, ...

  1. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  2. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  3. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  4. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  5. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Like most people, you've probably heard that physical activity and exercise are good for you. In fact, ... by staying physically active. Even moderate exercise and physical activity can improve the health of people who are ...

  6. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was provided by the National Institute on Aging Topic last reviewed: January 2015 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise ...

  7. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Videos quiz yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute ... accompany aging. Playing Volleyball Helps Me Stay Active Video length: 2 min 51 sec Click to watch ...

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... yourself MedlinePlus for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Exercise: How to Get Started Exercise: ... topic was provided by the National Institute on Aging Topic last reviewed: January 2015 For an enhanced ...

  9. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 sec Click to watch this video To learn about exercise and diabetes, see "Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes" from Go4Life®, the exercise and physical ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You ... this page to learn more about the health benefits of exercise. To enlarge a video, click the brackets in ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise Health Benefits One of the Healthiest Things You Can Do ... Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits and that older adults can gain a lot ...

  13. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  14. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  15. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  16. Effect of resistive load on the inspiratory work and power of breathing during exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Powell

    Full Text Available The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WR(I was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WR(I, power of breathing, PR(I and minute ventilation, [Formula: see text] were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min(-1 with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1. Resting WR(I was 0.12 JL(-1 and PR(I was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WR(I increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of [Formula: see text], while PR(I increased exponentially. With increasing resistive load the work and power at any given [Formula: see text] increased exponentially. Calculation of the power to work ratio during loaded breathing suggests that loads above 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1 make the work of resistive breathing become inhibitive at even a moderate [Formula: see text] (>30 L sec(-1. The relationship between work done and power generated while breathing against resistive loads is independent of the exercise mode (cycling or walking and that ventilation is limited by the work required to breathe, rather than an inability to maintain or generate power.

  17. 女大学生瑜伽练习中呼吸运用的现状与分析%Analysis on the Status of Female College Students' Using of Yoga Breathing in Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范晓红

    2011-01-01

    在高校体育选修课程中,瑜伽通过调吸调身调心,达到身心灵合一的境界,受到众多女大学生的欢迎和喜爱,而在教学过程中,学生普遍存在一些有关呼吸方面的困惑。针对这一问题的现状进行简单分析,提出解决方案,希望对以后的教学工作有一定的指导意义。%During the elective courses in college sports,Yoga tones body by adjusting the suction-aligning,body and soul to realm of unity,and loved by many female students,but the teaching process sees some prevalent confusion in students' breath.In this paper,it provides simple analysis of the status of the problem,proposing solutions and hoping that the future teaching has some significance.

  18. Effect of isolated unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis on ventilation and exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yali; Rui, Jing; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Chengwei; Bao, Qiyuan; Li, Jifeng; Lao, Jie

    2014-06-01

    The degree of impairment of ventilation and exercise performance after unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (UDP) induced by phrenic nerve injury has been controversial due to heterogeneity in the published clinical studies. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of isolated UDP on breathing and exercise performance in conscious rats. Breathing was measured by unrestrained whole body plethysmography during quiet breathing and after moderate aerobic exercise. Additionally, incremental exercise testing was performed to evaluate the effects of intensive activity. The results demonstrated that complete UDP in rats resulted in a permanent decrease of peak inspiratory flow at rest breathing. Nevertheless, adequate ventilation could be maintained, and the breathing pattern was unaltered due to a strong compensatory mechanism and central re-coordination initiated by UDP. After being affected at an early stage, the ventilatory response to exercise was gradually regained and subsequently restored. PMID:24556382

  19. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  20. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  1. Deadspace breathing as a screening test for early lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breathing through added external deadspace (V/sub Dext/) was found to increase the tidal volume of normal dogs in order to achieve alveolar ventilation adequate for gas exchange. Addition of V/sub Dext/ did not alter alveolar-arterial gas gradients or cardiovascular function. Respiratory patterns during V/sub Dext/ breathing were compared with variables measured during treadmill exercise to investigate deadspace breathing as an indicator of early lung dysfunction caused by radiation pneumonitis in dogs. Dogs were evaluated clinically, radiographically and by pulmonary function tests at rest before and after inhaling 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles. By 4 mo after inhalation of 32 to 50 μCi/kg 144Ce, there were increases in respiratory frequency and minute volume during V/sub Dext/ breathing and in minute volume and the ventilatory equivalent for O2 while running. No other significant functional, radiographic or clinical changes were noted. The dogs were sacrificed and scattered foci of inflammation were found in their lungs. Deadspace testing detected early, subclinical lung alterations with a sensitivity and at a time identical to treadmill testing and did not require whole-body exercise or training

  2. The role of outcome expectancies for a training program consisting of meditation, breathing exercises, and cold exposure on the response to endotoxin administration: a proof-of-principle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middendorp, Henriët; Kox, Matthijs; Pickkers, Peter; Evers, Andrea W M

    2016-04-01

    Expectancies play a major role for the treatment outcome of a broad variety of immune-mediated conditions and may strengthen or mimic the effects of regular long-term therapies. This study adds to a recently published study of Kox et al. (PNAS 111:7379-7384, 2014) on the ability to voluntarily influence the physiological stress response in healthy men after a training program consisting of meditation, breathing techniques, and exposure to cold, which found highly promising results on the clinical, autonomic, and immune response to experimentally induced inflammation (using the experimental human endotoxemia model). Within this project, a number of variables were included to assess the role of generalized (optimism, neuroticism) and specific outcome expectancies (related to the effects of the training on health) on the response to endotoxin administration after training. Indications were found that especially the generalized outcome expectancy optimism is a potential determinant of the autonomic (epinephrine: rho = 0.76, p < .01) and immune response (interleukin-10: rho = 0.60, p < .05) to induced inflammation after training, whereas more specific expectations with regard to the effects of the training could be especially relevant for the clinical symptom report (flu-like symptoms: rho = -0.71, p < .01). This proof-of-principle study provides first indications for potential innovative treatments to change immune-modulating responses by means of psychological mechanisms. If replicated, these findings may be used for predicting training responses and potentiate their effects by means of optimism-inducing interventions in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic conditions. PMID:26194270

  3. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  4. Breathing as user interface for pulmonary rehabilitation : respiration tracking using the Wii remote controller

    OpenAIRE

    Guirao Aguilar, Julian

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Respiration exercises are an important part of the pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) patients. Furthermore, there is evidence that showing feedback about their respiration pattern helps them to improve their breathing skills. This study tests the feasibility of monitoring respiration using the Wiimote's infrared camera and showing BPM (breaths per minute) as feedback. A summary of the challenges addressed to achieve such a solution can also...

  5. Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing Fosters Relaxed and Attentive Mind: A Randomized Controlled Neuro-Electrophysiological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes S. Chan; Mei-Chun Cheung; Sze, Sophia L.; Winnie Wing-Man Leung; Dejian Shi

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-electrophysiological studies on meditative breathing revealed its association with either a relaxed or an attentive state. The present study aimed to investigate whether the Shaolin Dan Tian Breathing (DTB) technique, which consists of the Passive and Active subtypes and can be considered as a relaxation exercise and Qigong, would induce both relaxed and attentive states. Twenty-two adults and 22 age-, gender- and education-matched controls received training on the Shaoli...

  6. Clinical applications of breath testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

  7. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  8. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Health Benefits Benefits for Everyday Life Frequently Asked Questions Learn More Exercise: Benefits of ... and physical activity a regular part of your life can improve your health and help you maintain ...

  9. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Institute on Aging. Some people may wonder what the difference is between physical activity and exercise. Physical activities are activities that get your body moving such as gardening, walking the dog ...

  10. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the healthiest things you can do for yourself. Studies have shown that exercise provides many health benefits ... join a gym or have special equipment. Yet, studies show that "taking it easy" is risky. For ...

  11. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... some older people who already have diseases and disabilities. That's why health experts say that older adults ... can help prevent or delay many diseases and disabilities. In some cases, exercise is an effective treatment ...

  12. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or maintain ...

  13. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and help you maintain your independence as you age. Why It's Important for Older Adults to Exercise ... feel better and enjoy life more as you age. Running Keeps Me Feeling Great Video length: 1 ...

  14. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mood Regular, moderate physical activity can help manage stress and improve your mood. And, being active on a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ...

  15. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 56 sec Click to watch this video Be as Active as Possible Regular physical activity and exercise are important ... say that older adults should aim to be as active as possible. Being Inactive Can Be Risky ...

  16. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... specifically planned, structured, and repetitive such as weight training, tai chi, or an aerobics class. Including both ...

  17. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and exercise are important to the physical and mental health of almost everyone, including older adults. Staying ... balance problems, or difficulty walking. Swimming Helps Me Control My Blood Pressure Video length: 1 min 18 ...

  18. Exercise: Benefits of Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a regular basis may help reduce feelings of depression. Studies also suggest that exercise can improve or ... or an aerobics class. Including both in your life will provide you with health benefits that can ...

  19. Effect of breathing on the radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the breathing and his effect on accuracy of treatment dose delivery into treated volume. We focused on a special technique - extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (ESRT), which is characterized by high precision of patient setup and fixation. However, since the respiration causes movements of the tumor in the range of several millimeters to centimeters, the tumor volume have to be extended by safety margins. In our work, we focused on the introduction of noninvasive respiratory control system using ExacTrac. Breathing was represented by a special marker placed on the patient's body. With 35 patients we had together 157 breathing exercises, in which we investigated the range of motion of the markers during a relaxed breathing, in a deep inspiration, and in a deep expiration. We have created a software that allows to display the movement of the markers as well as the reference values of relaxed breathing and inspiration. The patients were able to track the signal on a small screen and base on this feedback to regulate their breathing. The average reproducibility of the inspiration was 93.0 % with the feedback and 74.5 % without the feedback. For 16 patients we used dynamic CT scan to study the correlation between tumor motion and the movements of the markers (0.83 ± 0.17) and as a result we estimated the required internal margins for irradiation at shallow breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) with and without feedback. In DIBH treatment situation the internal margin could be theoretically reduced by 3 mm with the feedback device. The standard deviation was rather large, and therefore the amount of margin reduction varies from patient to patient. We compared different irradiation techniques in terms of DVH and the consequent risk of complications (NTCP). Compared with the standard irradiation technique at shallow breathing, irradiation in DIBH without respiratory control reduced the volume of lung irradiated with 12 , 15 and 18 Gy and

  20. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  1. 瑜伽呼吸锻炼对慢性肺源性心脏病患者心脏功能和生活质量的影响%Effects of Yoga breathing exercise on heart function and quality of life in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小芬; 郑丽霞; 唐泗明

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Yoga breathing exercise on heart function and quality of life of patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease. Methods From January 2012 to May 2014 in Guangyuan Third People′s Hospital, 86 cases with chronic pulmonary heart disease were enrolled for the study and randomly divided into observation group (n=43) and control group (n=43) by adopting the method of random number table. Cases in the control group were given routine treatment and care. Based on it, patients in the observation group were given Yoga breathing exercise. The heart and lung function and the scores of WHOQOL-BREF were compared between two groups before and after 6 months treatment. Results After treatment, the pulmonary function indices included vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), the ratio of FEV1 of forced vital capacity ( FEV1/FVC) , maximal mid-expiratory flow curve ( MMEF) and peak expiratory flow ( PEF) in the observation group were significantly higher than that of the control group after treatment ( t=5. 063, 6. 556, 7. 075, 2. 672, 2. 527; P<0. 05). The heart function indices included walk test in 6 min, blood brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), pulmonary artery systolic pressure ( PASP) in the observation group were significantly better than that of the control group after treatment (t=5. 586, 17. 342, 5. 236, 6. 511; P <0. 05). After intervention, the scores of patients′ physiologic, mental, social and environmental area in the observation group were apparently higher than these of the control group (t=4. 698, 6. 477, 3. 311, 3. 407;P<0. 05). Conclusions Yoga breathing exercise can improve heart function and overall quality of life in patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease by improving alveolar ventilation and ventilation efficiency, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的:探讨瑜伽呼吸锻炼对慢性肺源性心脏病( CCP)患者心脏功能和生活

  2. New insights in paediatric exercise metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Neil; Armstrong; Alan; R.Barker

    2012-01-01

    <正>Research in paediatric exercise metabolism has been constrained by being unable to interrogate muscle in vivo.Conventionally,research has been limited to the estimation of muscle metabolism from observations of blood and respiratory gases during maximal or steady state exercise and the analysis of a few muscle biopsies taken at rest or post-exercise.The purpose of this paper is to review how the introduction of 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and breath-by-breath oxygen uptake kinetics studies has contributed to current understanding of exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.Methodologically robust studies using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and oxygen uptake kinetics with children are sparse and some data are in conflict.However,it can be concluded that children respond to exercise with enhanced oxygen utilization within the myocyte compared with adults and that their responses are consistent with a greater recruitment of type I muscle fibres.Changes in muscle metabolism are age,maturation- and sex-related and dependent on the intensity of the exercise challenge.The introduction of experimental models such as "priming exercise" and "work-to-work" transitions provide intriguing avenues of research into the mechanisms underpinning exercise metabolism during growth and maturation.

  3. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  4. The importance of exercise in lung cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Michaels, Carol

    2016-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that exercise can help in a variety of different ways for people with lung cancer. Exercise can be beneficial at any stage of the patient journey through increasing strength, endurance and decreasing emotional issues. A recovery fitness program is described and provides guidance on breathing, stretching, aerobic exercise and strength training. There are more people surviving lung cancer with services needing to cater for the varying requirements of each patient. Pro...

  5. Managing after-work stress: paced breathing while watching video content (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijs, T.J.W.; Weda, J.; Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Hoogenstraaten, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. After a hard day’s work, we need to recover from work stress. Two frequently reported activities to relieve stress are television (TV) watching and paced breathing exercises. We investigated the potential of combining these techniques. Method. Two explorativeexperiments were conducted.

  6. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T M; Barbosa, P.; M.K. Rodrigues; Oliveira, M. F.; Nery, L E; J.A. Neder

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(VCW) = rib cage (VRC) + abdomen (VAB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinf...

  7. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T M; Barbosa, P.; M.K. Rodrigues; Oliveira, M. F.; Nery, L E; J.A. Neder

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(V CW) = rib cage (V RC) + abdomen (V AB)] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyper...

  8. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... sensing as other systems rely on either measuring the airflow at the mouth and nose through a mask or with a stretchable wire around the chest. In this paper a wireless system that is able to measure the breath rate of a human from a distance is presented. The system is based on a commercially available...

  9. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  10. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to...... compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  11. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  12. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journals about their exercise schedules and obsess about improving themselves. Unfortunately, these behaviors often compound each other, trapping the person in a downward spiral of negative thinking and low self-esteem. continue Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad ...

  13. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercise, especially when it is combined with an eating disorder, can cause serious and permanent health problems, and in extreme cases, death. Because compulsive exercise is closely related to eating disorders, help can be found at community agencies specifically ...

  14. Exercise Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Vardar

    1987-01-01

    Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective i...

  15. Exercise Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Vardar, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective...

  16. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  17. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  18. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  20. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  1. Respiração bucal e anteriorização da cabeça: efeitos na biomecânica respiratória e na capacidade de exercício em crianças Mouth breathing and forward head posture: effects on respiratory biomechanics and exercise capacity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tiemi Okuro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a tolerância ao exercício submáximo e a força muscular respiratória em relação à anteriorização da cabeça (AC e ao tipo respiratório em crianças com respiração bucal (RB ou nasal (RN. MÉTODOS: Estudo analítico transversal com um grupo controle no qual foram incluídas crianças de 8 a 12 anos com diagnóstico clínico otorrinolaringológico de RB, recrutadas do Ambulatório do Respirador Bucal do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (SP, entre outubro de 2010 e janeiro de 2011. Os critérios de exclusão foram obesidade, asma, doenças respiratórias crônicas, cardiopatias e distúrbios neurológicos ou ortopédicos. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a avaliação postural, teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6 e determinação de PImáx e PEmáx. RESULTADOS: Das 92 crianças do estudo, 30 tinham RB e 62 tinham RN. No grupo RB, não houve diferenças nas médias de PImáx, PEmáx e distância percorrida pelo TC6 (DTC6 entre o grupo com AC classificada como grave ou moderada e aquele com AC normal (p = 0,622; p = 0,957; e p = 0,079, respectivamente. No grupo RN, as médias de PImáx e PEmáx foram maiores no grupo com AC moderada do que naquele com AC normal (p = 0,003 e p = 0,004, respectivamente. Os valores de PImáx, PEmáx e DTC6 foram menores no grupo RB do que no grupo RN. A presença de AC moderada determinou maiores valores de PImáx e PEmáx. CONCLUSÕES: A RB afetou negativamente a biomecânica respiratória e a capacidade de exercício. A presença de AC moderada atuou como um mecanismo de compensação para uma melhor função da musculatura respiratória.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate submaximal exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in relation to forward head posture (FHP and respiratory mode in children, comparing mouth-breathing (MB children with nasal-breathing (NB children. METHODS: This was a controlled, analytical cross-sectional study involving

  2. Comparação entre exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio Comparison between deep breathing exercises and incentive spirometry after CABG surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Alencar Renault

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos dos exercícios de respiração profunda (ERP e espirômetro de incentivo a fluxo (EI em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio (CRVM por meio das seguintes variáveis: capacidade vital forçada - CVF, volume expiratório forçado de primeiro segundo - VEF1, pressões respiratórias máximas e saturação de oxigênio. MÉTODOS: Trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos a aplicação de ventilação não-invasiva por dois períodos de 30 minutos durante as primeiras 24 horas pós-extubação e distribuídos randomicamente em dois grupos, a saber: ERP (n=18 e EI (n=18, sendo as variáveis espirométricas avaliadas no pré-operatório e sétimo dia pós-operatório (DPO e a força da musculatura respiratória e saturação de oxigênio no pré-operatório, primeiro, segundo e sétimo DPO. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram considerados homogêneos em relação às variáveis demográficas e cirúrgicas. Observouse queda dos valores referentes à CVF e VEF1 entre o préoperatório e o sétimo DPO, porém sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. Houve queda das pressões respiratórias máximas no primeiro DPO, mas com restabelecimento gradual e parcial até o sétimo DPO, também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. A saturação de oxigênio foi a única variável restabelecida no sétimo DPO, mas também sem diferença estatística entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas pressões respiratórias máximas, variáveis espirométricas e saturação de oxigênio entre pacientes submetidos a exercícios de respiração profunda e espirometria de incentivo no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of deep breathing exercises (DBE and the flow-oriented incentive spirometry (IS in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG through the following variables: forced vital capacity

  3. Suggestion and verification of compensatory exercise for one {--} sidedly oriented sportsman to prevent muscle dysbalance

    OpenAIRE

    AMBROZOVÁ, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    Graduation theses solve the suggestion and verification of compensatory exercise for one {--} sidedly oriented sportsman. Tested group is tennis-players from Teniscentrum Příbram. By the influence of one {--} sidedly oriented movement can form functional and structural fault motoric systém of muscle dysbalance and to form fault motoric stereotype. Periodic compensatory exercise which is made by relaxation, stretching and weight training with breathing exercise and relaxation exercise can help...

  4. Does Prior Training Affect Acute O2 Supply Responses During Exercise in Desaturator COPD Patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Delample, Delphine; Sabate, Meritxell; Préfaut, Christian; Durand, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effects of a prior individualized training program (TP) on the response to acute oxygen supply during exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients showing exercise-induced desaturation. Methods: Twenty-two COPD patients (mean [SD] FEV1 = 52.1 [3]% predicted) who desaturated on exercise participated in a TP. Exercise tolerance while breathing compressed air or oxygen was assessed using a walking test (WT) before and after TP. Oxygen ...

  5. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of...... exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of...

  6. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  7. Small Airway Dysfunction and Abnormal Exercise Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsonk, Edward L.; Stansbury, Robert C.; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann; Long, Joshua L.; Wang, Mei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Coal mine dust exposure can cause symptoms and loss of lung function from multiple mechanisms, but the roles of each disease process are not fully understood. Objectives We investigated the implications of small airway dysfunction for exercise physiology among a group of workers exposed to coal mine dust. Methods Twenty coal miners performed spirometry, first breathing air and then helium-oxygen, single-breath diffusing capacity, and computerized chest tomography, and then completed cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Measurements and Main Results Six participants meeting criteria for small airway dysfunction were compared with 14 coal miners who did not. At submaximal workload, miners with small airway dysfunction used a higher proportion of their maximum voluntary ventilation and had higher ventilatory equivalents for both O2 and CO2. Regression modeling indicated that inefficient ventilation was significantly related to small airway dysfunction but not to FEV1 or diffusing capacity. At the end of exercise, miners with small airway dysfunction had 27% lower O2 consumption. Conclusions Small airway abnormalities may be associated with important inefficiency of exercise ventilation. In dust-exposed individuals with only mild abnormalities on resting lung function tests or chest radiographs, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be important in defining causes of exercise intolerance. PMID:27073987

  8. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  9. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  10. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  11. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  12. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an over...

  13. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  14. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  15. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or months before you notice some of the benefits of exercise, such as weight loss. Forget “no pain, no ... questions or think you have injured yourself seriously. Benefits of regular exercise Reduces your risk of heart disease, high blood ...

  16. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  17. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  18. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L;

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... breathing completely reversed the decrease in maximal heart rate to values not different from those at sea level. In conclusion, dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade with domperidone demonstrates that hypoxic exercise in humans activates D(2)-receptors, resulting in a decrease in circulating levels...... progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen...

  19. Effects of acute hypoxia on the oxygen uptake kinetics of older adults during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbini, Livio; Brighenti, Alfredo; Pellegrini, Barbara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Antonetti, Tommaso; Schena, Federico

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) kinetics were studied in a group of older adults exercising in hypoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy older adults (aged 66 ± 6 years) performed 4 exercise sessions that consisted of (i) an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer while breathing normoxic room air (fractional inspired oxygen (FiO(2)) = 20.9% O(2)); (ii) an incremental test to exhaustion on a cycloergometer while breathing hypoxic room air (FiO(2) = 15% O(2)); (iii) 3 repeated square wave cycling exercises at moderate intensity while breathing normoxic room air; and (iv) 3 repeated square wave cycling exercises at moderate intensity while breathing hypoxic room air. During all exercise sessions, pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath; HHb was determined on the vastus lateralis muscle by near-infrared spectroscopy; and HR was collected beat-by-beat. The pulomary oxygen uptake kinetics became slower in hypoxia (31 ± 9 s) than in normoxia (27 ± 7 s) because of an increased mismatching between O(2) delivery to O(2) utilization at the level of the muscle. The HR and HHb kinetics did not change between hypoxia and normoxia. PMID:22680339

  20. Exercise-induced asthma: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummiskey, J

    2001-10-01

    Asthmatic attack in exercise-induced asthma is brought about by hyperventilation (not necessarily to exercise), cold air, and low humidity of the air breathed. The effects are an increase in airway resistance, damage to bronchial mucosa, and an increase in bronchovascular permeability. The mechanism of these changes is the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, nitric oxide, sensory neuropeptides, the inhibition of neuronal activity, and bronchovascular permeability. The cause of asthma and exercise-induced asthma is unknown. It is probably an abnormality of vascular control in the peribronchium and/or an alteration in local adrenergic function. The importance of exercise-induced asthma definition and the use of stimulants in sport and antidoping in sport are discussed. PMID:11678516

  1. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  2. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  3. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A Zope; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefit...

  4. Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectivel...

  5. How to Interpret Hydrogen Breath Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO a...

  6. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pursed-Lip Breathing Education in Copd Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajibagheri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breathing rehabilitation techniques are designed to reduce symptoms, decrease disability, increase participation in physical and social activities, and improve the overall quality of life for individuals with chronic respiratory disease. However, the role of these techniques remains unclear. This study examined the effects of pursed-lip breathing (PLB education on the respiratory function, arterial blood gases and day to day life in patients with COPD. Methods: A before-after quasi-experimental research was conducted on 40 patients with COPD at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan. Spirogram and ABG were tested before and after three-months of PLB exercise and a questionnaire (AQ20 was used to assess day to day activities. Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed-rank and descriptive tests were used for statistical analysis of collected data. Results: The study showed that after three months breathing exercise, O2 saturation was significantly increased (P=0.002. Although there was an increase in PaO2 , it was not significant. In addition, a decrease in PaCO2 (P=0.014 and the respiration rate (P < 0.000 was observed. The level of activities of daily living was also increased (P < 0.000. Forced expired volume second one (FEV1% and forced vital capacity (FVC did not change. Conclusion: We conclude that pursed-lip breathing education can improve lung function, arterial blood gas levels and also the levels of day to day activities. Therefore, breathing exercises education should be a part of physiotherapy programs in COPD patients until improvement in the quality of their life.

  7. Pulmonary artery pressure limits exercise capacity at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Naeije, Robert; Huez, Sandrine; Lamotte, Michel; Retailleau, Kathleen; Neupane, S; Abramowicz, Daniel; Faoro, Vitalie

    2010-01-01

    Altitude exposure is associated with decreased exercise capacity and increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Echocardiographic measurements of pulmonary haemodynamics and a cardiopulmonary exercise test were performed in 13 healthy subjects at sea level, in normoxia and during acute hypoxic breathing (1 h, 12% oxygen in nitrogen), and in 22 healthy subjects after acclimatisation to an altitude of 5,050 m. The measurements were obtained after randomisation, double-blinded to the intake ...

  8. An acetone bio-sniffer (gas phase biosensor) enabling assessment of lipid metabolism from exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-11-15

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from human breath or skin. Like chemical substances in blood or urine, some of these vapors can provide valuable information regarding the state of the human body. A highly sensitive acetone biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) was developed and used to measure exhaled breath acetone concentration, and assess lipid metabolism based on breath acetone analysis. A fiber-optic biochemical gas sensing system was constructed by attaching a flow-cell with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH) immobilized membrane onto a fiber-optic NADH measurement system. The NADH measurement system utilizes an ultraviolet-light emitting diode with peak emission of 335 nm as an excitation light source. NADH is consumed by the enzymatic reaction of S-ADH, and the consumption is proportional to the concentration of acetone vapor. Phosphate buffer which contained NADH was circulated into the flow-cell to rinse products and the excessive substrates from the optode. The change of fluorescent emitted from NADH is analyzed by the PMT. Hence, fluorescence intensity decreased as the acetone concentration increased. The relationship between fluorescence intensity and acetone concentration was identified from 20 ppb to 5300 ppb. This interval included the concentration of acetone vapor in the breath of healthy people and those suffering from disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Finally, the acetone bio-sniffer was used to measure breath acetone during an exercise stress test on an ergometer after a period of fasting. The concentration of acetone in breath was shown to significantly increase after exercise. This biosensor allows rapid, highly sensitive and selective measurement of lipid metabolism. PMID:26079672

  9. Exercise during Pregnancy: What You Can Do for a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to check with your doctor before starting any exercise program. If your doctor approves, you can start exercising at a level that does not cause pain, shortness of breath or excessive tiredness. You may then slowly increase your activity. If you feel uncomfortable, short of ...

  10. Exercise at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Lifestyle > Exercise > Exercise at Home Exercise at Home Exercise and staying active are an important part ... Below are some exercises you can do at home, but be sure to discuss any plans to ...

  11. Exercise After Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my workout? Glossary What are some of the benefits of exercise for postpartum women? Exercise has the following benefits ... moderate-intensity exercise. Remember, even 10 minutes of exercise benefits your body. If you exercised vigorously before pregnancy ...

  12. Exercise and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? ... healthier while ageing with HIV. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? Regular, moderate exercise has many of ...

  13. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  14. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  15. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  16. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  17. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  18. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Abe, Augusto

    gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish...

  19. Managing after-work stress: paced breathing while watching video content (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Tijs, T.J.W.; Weda, J.; Weffers-Albu, M.A.; Hoogenstraaten, W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. After a hard day’s work, we need to recover from work stress. Two frequently reported activities to relieve stress are television (TV) watching and paced breathing exercises. We investigated the potential of combining these techniques. Method. Two explorativeexperiments were conducted. In both experiments, stress was measured through physiological monitoring (heart rate, blood pressure, skinconductance, peripheral temperature, and respiration) and the Stress Arousal Checklist [3]....

  20. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  1. Exercise & Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back to School, the Healthy Way Exercise & Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents At ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  2. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs should take courses in anatomy, physiology, and physics. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations Louisiana is the only state that requires exercise physiologists to be licensed, although many states have ...

  3. Role of parafacial nuclei in control of breathing in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckstepp, Robert T R; Cardoza, Kathryn P; Henderson, Lauren E; Feldman, Jack L

    2015-01-21

    Contiguous brain regions associated with a given behavior are increasingly being divided into subregions associated with distinct aspects of that behavior. Using recently developed neuronal hyperpolarizing technologies, we functionally dissect the parafacial region in the medulla, which contains key elements of the central pattern generator for breathing that are important in central CO2-chemoreception and for gating active expiration. By transfecting different populations of neighboring neurons with allatostatin or HM4D Gi/o-coupled receptors, we analyzed the effect of their hyperpolarization on respiration in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane-anesthetized rats. We identify two functionally separate parafacial nuclei: ventral (pFV) and lateral (pFL). Disinhibition of the pFL with bicuculline and strychnine led to active expiration. Hyperpolarizing pFL neurons had no effect on breathing at rest, or changes in inspiratory activity induced by hypoxia and hypercapnia; however, hyperpolarizing pFL neurons attenuated active expiration when it was induced by hypercapnia, hypoxia, or disinhibition of the pFL. In contrast, hyperpolarizing pFV neurons affected breathing at rest by decreasing inspiratory-related activity, attenuating the hypoxia- and hypercapnia-induced increase in inspiratory activity, and when present, reducing expiratory-related abdominal activity. Together with previous observations, we conclude that the pFV provides a generic excitatory drive to breathe, even at rest, whereas the pFL is a conditional oscillator quiet at rest that, when activated, e.g., during exercise, drives active expiration. PMID:25609622

  4. Completion report : Effect of Comprehensive Yogic Breathing program on type 2 diabetes: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V P Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yoga has been shown to be benefi cial in diabetes in many studies, though randomized control trials are few. The aim of this randomized control trial was to see the effect of Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (comprehensive yogic breathing program on quality of life, glycemic control, and cardiac autonomic functions in diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been implicated in the causation of sudden cardiac death. Therefore, a maneuver to prevent progression of cardiac autonomic neuropathy holds signifi cance. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients of diabetes on oral medication and diet and exercise advice were randomized into two groups: (1 Continued to receive standard treatment for diabetes. (2 Patients administered comprehensive yogic breathing program and monitored to regularly practice yoga in addition to standard treatment of diabetes. At 6 months, quality of life and postprandial plasma glucose signifi cantly improved in the group practicing yoga compared to baseline, but there was no significant improvement in the fasting plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Results: On per protocol analysis, sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions signifi cantly improved from baseline in the group practicing comprehensive yogic breathing. Conclusion: This randomized control trial points towards the beneficial effect of yogic breathing program in preventing progression of cardiac neuropathy. This has important implications as cardiac autonomic neuropathy has been considered as one of the factors for sudden cardiac deaths.Keywords: comprehensive yogic breathing program, diabetes mellitus, cardiac autonomic function

  5. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  6. Healthy Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Oberman, Albert

    1984-01-01

    Persons at any age can substantially improve their fitness for work and play through appropriate exercise training. Considerable evidence indicates that physical activity is valuable for weight control, modifying lipids and improving carbohydrate tolerance. Less rigorous scientific data are available for associated long-term blood pressure and psychological changes with habitual exercise. Strenuous physical activity most likely reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease and the detriment...

  7. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  8. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Printable Version (PDF—498 kb) Coping with Grief Breathing Problems? Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD ... health care provider and ask for a simple breathing test called spirometry. Together, you can come up ...

  9. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  10. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P blood flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. PMID:25632021

  11. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  12. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  13. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept of...... time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  14. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2013-01-01

    The harmony of an orchestra emerges from the individual effort of musicians towards mutual synchronization of their tempi. When the orchestra is split between two concert halls communicating via Internet, a time delay is imposed which might hinder synchronization. We describe this type of system as two interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay and analyze its dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a breathing synchronization regime, namely, for a wide range of parameters, two groups emerge in the orchestra within the same concert hall playing at different tempi. Each group has a mirror in the other hall, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their mirrors. For strong couplings, a phase shift between halls might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed.

  15. Dynamic profiles of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as determined by a coupled PTR-MS/GC-MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this phenomenological study we focus on dynamic measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath under exercise conditions. An experimental setup efficiently combining breath-by-breath analyses using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) with data reflecting the behaviour of major hemodynamic and respiratory parameters is presented. Furthermore, a methodology for complementing continuous VOC profiles obtained by PTR-MS with simultaneous SPME/GC-MS measurements is outlined. These investigations aim at evaluating the impact of breathing patterns, cardiac output or blood pressure on the observed breath concentration and allow for the detection and identification of several VOCs revealing characteristic rest-to-work transitions in response to variations in ventilation or perfusion. Examples of such compounds include isoprene, methyl acetate, butane, DMS and 2-pentanone. In particular, both isoprene and methyl acetate exhibit a drastic rise in concentration shortly after the onset of exercise, usually by a factor of about 3–5 within approximately 1 min of pedalling. These specific VOCs might also be interpreted as potentially sensitive indicators for fluctuations of blood or respiratory flow and can therefore be viewed as candidate compounds for future assessments of hemodynamics, pulmonary function and gas exchange patterns via observed VOC behaviour

  16. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  17. Exercise during pregnancy: maternal and fetal responses. A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, J

    1985-08-01

    Since many physiological, metabolic, and endocrine changes that occur during pregnancy are evident even at rest, the alterations found during exercise may not necessarily be the same as those found in the normal population. Nonetheless, the exercise-induced cardiopulmonary changes are essentially normal or slightly exaggerated during pregnancy. The energy cost of cycle exercise is unchanged during pregnancy; however, the increased weight bearing, especially evident in late pregnancy, adds to the exercise effort during walking, climbing, or jogging. Aerobic work capacity remains unchanged during pregnancy, and typical training adaptations can be found during pregnancy. Hypoglycemia occurs more easily during exercise in pregnant women, even though lipid provision is exaggerated during late pregnancy. The influence of maternal exercise on the fetus is evident in changed heart rhythm and breathing patterns of the fetus. Pregnant patients with utero-placental insufficiency are more likely to have these fetal changes during exercise. Severe hyperthermia should be avoided during pregnancy. Animal studies indicate that some aspects of fetal metabolism are affected by maternal exercise; whether the reduction in uterine blood flow found during heavy exercise exacerbates this response is not known. Birth weight is unaffected when healthy well-nourished mothers participate in mild to moderate exercise programs during pregnancy. However, more intense exercise programs during pregnancy in animals can cause changes in fetal growth and litter size. PMID:3929010

  18. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Training Grants & Awards Program Directors Practice Resources ASTHMA IQ Consultation and Referral Guidelines Practice Financial Survey Practice ... conducting a physical examination and performing a breathing test called spirometry. If your breathing test shows that ...

  19. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  20. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  1. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  2. Eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive...... to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is...

  3. Yoga and physical exercise - a review and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Ramajayam; Karmani, Sneha; Varambally, Shivarama; Gangadhar, B N

    2016-06-01

    Yoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises. PMID:27044898

  4. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our ePublications > Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve ... Have had recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), ...

  5. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  6. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spondylitis Info For Teens Message Boards & Forums Donate Exercise & Posture Learn About Spondylitis / Exercise & Posture Overview For ... Diet Blood Work and Spondylitis Spondylitis Awareness Month Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ...

  7. Diabetes and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000083.htm Diabetes and exercise To use the sharing features on this page, ... not exercising at all. Your Blood Sugar and Exercise Check your blood sugar before you exercise. Also, ...

  8. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth > For Parents > Exercise-Induced Asthma Print A ... previous continue Tips for Kids With Exercise-Induced Asthma For the most part, kids with exercise-induced ...

  9. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  10. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed. PMID:23888586

  11. Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motivation to conduct this benchmark exercise, a summary of the results, and a discussion of and conclusions from the intercomparison are given in Section 5.2. This section contains further details of the results of the calculations and intercomparisons, illustrated by tables and figures, but avoiding repetition of Section 5.2 as far as possible. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  13. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  15. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  16. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  17. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  19. Right atrial pressure affects the interaction between lung mechanics and right ventricular function in spontaneously breathing COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Boerrigter

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary interactions are influenced by right atrial pressure. METHODS: Twenty-one patients with COPD underwent simultaneous measurements of intrathoracic, right atrial and pulmonary artery pressures during spontaneous breathing at rest and during exercise. Intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure were used to calculate right atrial filling pressure. Dynamic changes in pulmonary artery pulse pressure during expiration were examined to evaluate changes in right ventricular output. RESULTS: Pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreased up to 40% during expiration reflecting a decrease in stroke volume. The decline in pulse pressure was most prominent in patients with a low right atrial filling pressure. During exercise, a similar decline in pulmonary artery pressure was observed. This could be explained by similar increases in intrathoracic pressure and right atrial pressure during exercise, resulting in an unchanged right atrial filling pressure. CONCLUSIONS: We show that in spontaneously breathing COPD patients the pulmonary artery pulse pressure decreases during expiration and that the magnitude of the decline in pulmonary artery pulse pressure is not just a function of intrathoracic pressure, but also depends on right atrial pressure.

  20. A Systematic Review of the Literature on Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma: Considerations for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrell, Kelly; Shaw, Michele R.; Postma, Julie; Katz, Janet R.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is a major cause of illness, missed school days, and hospitalization in children. One type of asthma common in children is exercise-induced asthma (EIA). EIA causes airway narrowing with symptoms of cough and shortness of breath during exercise. The purpose of this article is to review the literature relevant to screening children and…

  1. THE RARE CAUSE OF THE ANAPHYLAXIS: EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami OZTURK

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA is a rare syndrome. We described two patients experienced anaphylaxis after exercise. Case 1: A 24 -year-old male patient, recruited to army as a private 6 months ago. The medical history was suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction which was developed about 30 minute after a vigorous exercise. Case 2: A 42-year old female, was referred to our clinic because of the recurrent episodes of generalized pruritus, nausea, vomiting, swelling on extremities and breathing difficultly. She was experienced with symptoms after moderate exercises which were performed to losing weight. Evaluation: The complete diagnostic procedures including skin tests with foods and inhalant allergens were performed. In Case 2, positive skin test results were detected in food allergens (apricot, tomato, vanilla and inhalant allergens (house-dust mites and cockroach. Management: In Case 1, he was first experienced EIA symptoms with the military training. For this reason, he exempted from vigorous exercises during his remaining compulsory military service and self-injectable epinephrine kit and antihistamine were prescribed him. In Case 2, she advised to avoid from vigorous exercises. Conclusion: EIA should be considered in cases of anaphylaxis with uncertain etiology. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 46-49

  2. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  4. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S;

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.6...... as a measure of vagal function a number of factors have to be taken into consideration and to simplify the analysis of heart rate responses to breathing we recommend, instead, the use of the transient changes in heart rate induced by stepwise changes in lung volume.......Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...

  5. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence...

  6. Oropharyngeal origin of markers in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Marteus, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Normal NO formation in the human airways occurs primarily in the nasal airways, where it is catalyzed by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and in the oropharyngeal tract, via as yet not fully defined pathways. This NO can be detected in exhaled breath and when inflammation is present in the airways, for example in asthma, the concentration of NO is increased. Although most studies on non-invasive measurements of airway inflammation have focused on NO in exhaled breath, there has...

  7. ‘Priming’ exercise and O2 uptake kinetics during treadmill running

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew; DiMenna, Fred; Lothian, Fiona; Taylor, Esme; Garland, Stephen; Hayes, Phil; Thompson, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that priming exercise would speed kinetics during treadmill running. Eight subjects completed a square-wave protocol, involving two bouts of treadmill running at 70% of the difference between the running speeds at lactate threshold (LT) and max, separated by 6-min of walking at 4 km h−1, on two occasions. Oxygen uptake was measured breath-by-breath and subsequently modelled using non-linear regression techniques. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration were signi...

  8. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  9. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  10. A free-breathing lung motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu

    Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+αv+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. α is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters α and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

  11. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Liao; Han-Hong Lin; He-Lin Ruo; Po-Hsiang Hsu

    2015-01-01

    In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath...

  12. Ultrafast response humidity sensor using supramolecular nanofibre and its application in monitoring breath humidity and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogera, Umesha; Sagade, Abhay A.; George, Subi J.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2014-02-01

    Measuring humidity in dynamic situations calls for highly sensitive fast response sensors. Here we report, a humidity sensor fabricated using solution processed supramolecular nanofibres as active resistive sensing material. The nanofibres are built via self- assembly of donor and acceptor molecules (coronene tetracarboxylate and dodecyl methyl viologen respectively) involved in charge transfer interactions. The conductivity of the nanofibre varied sensitively over a wide range of relative humidity (RH) with unprecedented fast response and recovery times. Based on UV-vis, XRD and AFM measurements, it is found that the stacking distance in the nanofibre decreases slightly while the charge transfer band intensity increases, all observations implying enhanced charge transfer interaction and hence the conductivity. It is demonstrated to be as a novel breath sensor which can monitor the respiration rate. Using two humidity sensors, a breath flow sensor was made which could simultaneously measure RH and flow rate of exhaled nasal breath. The integrated device was used for monitoring RH in the exhaled breath from volunteers undergoing exercise and alcohol induced dehydration.

  13. Efficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H J; Kuo, Terry B J; Lee, Guo-She; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2015-03-01

    Fourteen self-reported insomniacs (SRI) and 14 good sleepers (GS) had their cardiac neuronal activity assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) under controlled respiration at a slow frequency rate of 0.1 Hz, and a forced rate of 0.2 Hz during daytime rest. Nighttime sleep was measured by polysomnography. The SRI showed depressed high frequency power of HRV compared to the GS. An increased total power of HRV was observed among the SRI during slow, paced breathing compared with spontaneous breathing and 0.2 Hz. Sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, and awakening time during sleep were decreased and sleep efficiency was increased if SRI practiced slow, paced breathing exercises for 20 min before going to sleep. Our results indicate that there is autonomic dysfunction among insomniacs, especially in relation to vagal activity; however, this decreased vagal activity can be facilitated by practicing slow, paced breathing, thereby improving sleep quality. PMID:25234581

  14. mCOPD: Mobile Phone Based Lung Function Diagnosis and Exercise System for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is a serious lung disease which makes people hard to breathe. The number of people who have COPD is on the rise. COPD patients require lung function examinations and perform breathing exercises on a regular basis in order to be more aware of their lung functions, get diagnosed early, and control the shortness of their breaths. In order to help people with COPD, we developed mCOPD which is a smartphone based Android application made especially for C...

  15. A breath of fresh air!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1 the teams in charge of the cooling and ventilation systems of the CERN accelerators will perform maintenance work on all the equipment for which they are responsible. What with replacing complete systems, making improvements or bringing equipment back up to scratch, their workload looks like being a heavy one over the coming months.   Installing a fan in a cooling tower at Point 6 of the LHC in 2009. A similar exercise will be carried out in a few weeks. CERN's Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the cooling systems, pumping stations, air-conditioning facilities and fluid distribution systems for CERN's Computer Centre, the PS, the SPS, the LHC and their respective experiment areas. All these systems are equally indispensable and their maintenance is far from being a straightforward operation. During operating periods, the technical stops are too short for any major maintenance work. Although the work take...

  16. Severe hypoxia during incremental exercise to exhaustion provokes negative post-exercise affects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Stavrou, Nektarios A M; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2016-03-15

    The post-exercise emotional response is mainly dependent on the intensity of the exercise performed; moderate exercise causes positive feelings, whereas maximal exercise may prompt negative affects. Acute hypoxia impairs peak O2 uptake (V̇O2peak), resulting in a shift to a lower absolute intensity at the point of exhaustion. Hence, the purpose of the study was to examine whether a severe hypoxic stimulus would influence the post-exercise affective state in healthy lowlanders performing an incremental exercise to exhaustion. Thirty-six male lowlanders performed, in a counter-balanced order and separated by a 48-h interval, two incremental exercise trials to exhaustion to determine their V̇O2peak, while they were breathing either room air (AIR; FiO2: 0.21), or a hypoxic gas mixture (HYPO; FiO2: 0.12). Before and immediately after each trial, subjects were requested to complete two questionnaires, based on how they felt at that particular moment: (i) the Profile of Mood States-Short Form, and (ii) the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List. During the post-exercise phase, they also completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. V̇O2peak was significantly lower in the HYPO than the AIR trial (~15%; pmotivation were markedly impaired, whereas tension, confusion, and perception of physical and general fatigue were exaggerated (p≤0.05). Accordingly, present findings suggest that an incremental exercise to exhaustion performed in severe hypoxia provokes negative post-exercise emotions, induces higher levels of perceived fatigue and decreases motivation; the affective responses coincide with the comparatively lower V̇O2peak than that achieved in normoxic conditions. PMID:26802281

  17. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: Comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. Patients and methods: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPMTM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three-field mono-isocentric wide tangential photon field treatment plan for each scan. The target included the remaining breast, internal mammary nodes and periclavicular nodes. Results: The mean anteroposterior chest wall excursion during FB was 2.5 mm. For IG and EG, the mean excursions within gating windows were 1.1 and 0.7 mm, respectively, whereas for DIBH and EBH the excursions were 4.1 and 2.6 mm, respectively. For patients with left-sided cancer, the median heart volume receiving more than 50% of the prescription dose was reduced from 19.2% for FB to 2.8% for IG and 1.9% for DIBH, and the median left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery volume was reduced from 88.9% to 22.4% for IG and 3.6% for DIBH. Simultaneously, the median ipsilateral relative lung volume irradiated to >50% of the prescribed target dose for both right- and left-sided cancers was reduced from 45.6% for FB to 29.5% for IG and 27.7% for DIBH. For EBH and EG, both the irradiated heart, LAD and lung volumes increased compared to FB. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate the dosimetric benefits

  18. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  19. Ventilatory responses to dynamic exercise elicited by intramuscular sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Gallagher, K. M.; Norton, K. H.; Querry, R. G.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Raven, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eight subjects, aged 27.0+/-1.6 yr, performed incremental workload cycling to investigate the contribution of skeletal muscle mechano- and metaboreceptors to ventilatory control during dynamic exercise. METHODS: Each subject performed four bouts of exercise: exercise with no intervention (CON); exercise with bilateral thigh cuffs inflated to 90 mm Hg (CUFF); exercise with application of lower-body positive pressure (LBPP) to 45 torr (PP); and exercise with 90 mm Hg thigh cuff inflation and 45 torr LBPP (CUFF+PP). Ventilatory responses and pulmonary gas exchange variables were collected breath-by-breath with concomitant measurement of leg intramuscular pressure. RESULTS: Ventilation (VE) was significantly elevated from CON during PP and CUFF+PP at workloads corresponding to > or = 60% CON peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and during CUFF at workloads > or = 80% CON VO2peak, P relationship was increased from CON by approximately 22% during CUFF, 40% during PP, and 41% during CUFF+PP. CONCLUSIONS: As intramuscular pressure was significantly elevated immediately upon application of LBPP during PP and CUFF+PP without a concomitant increase in VE, it seems unlikely that LBPP-induced increases in VE can be attributed to activation of the mechanoreflex. These findings suggest that LBPP-induced reductions in perfusion pressure and decreases in venous outflow resulting from inflation of bilateral thigh cuffs may generate a metabolite sensitive intramuscular ventilatory stimulus.

  20. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  1. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Lan, Xiulu; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2013-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not b...

  2. The influence of the technique of breathing on the visualisation of lung matastases in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of CT imaging in maximum inspiratory position for the identification of lung metastases is emphasised. In a woman patient suffering from respiratory insufficiency and hypernephroma and clinically suspected of lung metastases, it became necessary to produce two computed tomographs of the thorax at short intervals to clarify the number and size of the pulmonary foci. Since the first examination could not be conducted in a position of maximum inspiration because the patient was short of breath, the procedure was repeated six days later after intensive breathing exercises and subjective improvement of the patient's feeling tone. It was found that three of the four pulmonary metastases could not be seen on the technically unsatisfactory tomographs of the first examination, or could be detected only retrospectively. (orig.)

  3. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  4. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  5. Larynx during exercise: the unexplored bottleneck of the airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola Drange; Heimdal, John-Helge; Olofsson, Jan; Maat, Robert Christiaan; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Exercise-induced shortness of breath is not uncommon in otherwise healthy young people. Based on the presenting symptoms alone, it is challenging to distinguish exercise-induced asthma (EIA) from exercise-induced obstruction of central airways, sometimes leading to diagnostic errors and inadequate treatment. Central airway obstruction usually presents with exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) during ongoing exercise. EIIS tends to peak towards the end of an exercise session or immediately after its completion, contradicting symptoms of EIA typically peaking 3-15 min after the exercise has stopped. EIIS is usually associated with some form of laryngeal obstruction. Transnasal flexible laryngoscopy performed continuously throughout an incremental exercise test from rest to exhaustion or to intolerable symptoms is usually diagnostic, and also provides information that is important for further handling and treatment. Reflecting the complex anatomy and functional features of the larynx, exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) appears to be a heterogeneous condition. Contradicting previous beliefs, recent literature suggests that laryngeal adduction in a majority of cases starts in supraglottic structures and that vocal cord adduction (VCD) most often occurs as a secondary phenomenon. However, EILO is poorly understood and more and better research is needed to unravel causal mechanisms. The evidence base for treatment of EILO is weak. Speech therapy, psychotherapy, biofeedback, muscle training, anticholinergic aerosols have all been applied, as has laser supraglottoplasty. Randomized controlled trials with well-defined and verifiable inclusion and success criteria are required to establish evidence-based treatment schemes. PMID:25033930

  6. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  7. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  8. Exercise and Compulsive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet; Clendenen, Vanessa

    Although reports on the positive effects of fitness and exercise predominate in the exercise literature, some researchers describe frequent exercise as compulsive or addictive behavior. This paper addresses these "negative addictions" of exercise. As early as 1970, researchers recognized the addictive qualities of exercise. Short-term studies on…

  9. Right Atrial Pressure Affects the Interaction between Lung Mechanics and Right Ventricular Function in Spontaneously Breathing COPD Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Boerrigter, B.G.; Trip, P.; Bogaard, H.J.; Groepenhoff, H.; Oosterveer, F.; Westerhof, N.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction It is generally known that positive pressure ventilation is associated with impaired venous return and decreased right ventricular output, in particular in patients with a low right atrial pressure and relative hypovolaemia. Altered lung mechanics have been suggested to impair right ventricular output in COPD, but this relation has never been firmly established in spontaneously breathing patients at rest or during exercise, nor has it been determined whether these cardiopulmonary...

  10. Circulatory effects of expiratory flow-limited exercise, dynamic hyperinflation and expiratory muscle pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Macklem

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research in normal subjects exercising with and without expiratory flow limitation at 1 L·s–1 imposed by a Starling resistor in the expiratory line, and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, using optoelectronic plethysmography to measure respiratory kinematics, combined with mouth, pleural and abdominal pressure measurements, to assess work of breathing and respiratory muscle performance. In normal subjects, flow-limited exercise resulted in the following: 1 Impaired exercise performance due to intolerable dyspnoea; 2 hypercapnia; 3 excessive respiratory muscle recruitment; 4 blood shifts from trunk to extremities; 5 a 10% reduction in cardiac output and a 5% reduction in arterial oxygen saturation, decreasing energy supplies to working respiratory and locomotor muscles. In both normal subjects and in COPD patients, dynamic hyperinflation did not always occur. Those patients that hyperinflated had worse lung function and less work of breathing, but better exercise performance than the others, in whom expiratory muscle recruitment prevented dynamic hyperinflation at the cost of increased work of breathing and excessive oxygen cost of breathing. This established an early competition between respiratory and locomotor muscles for available energy supplies. Dynamic hyperinflation is a better exercise strategy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than expiratory muscle recruitment, but the benefit it confers is small.

  11. Effects of hypoxia on interval moderate exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TASOS ADAMOS, ZISIS PAPANIKOLAOU, VASILIOS VOUTSELAS,DIMITRIOS SOULAS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a controversy in the published scientific data whether extended training at altitude increases performance at sea level. The effect of hypoxia at rest and on the response to interval moderate exercise was determined in six healthy male individuals during an incremental 3×5min exercise cycle test (5min recovery at sea level and in a hypobaric chamber (10000 feet/3100m altitude. Ventilation rate (VE, breathing frequency (BF, heart rate (HR, cardiac output (Q, blood lactate (Labl and % of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured. Blood samples were drawn at rest and at the end of each exercise bout. Hypoxia led to a significant increase in VE during exercise (81.7 vs. 62, 87 vs. 66, 89 vs. 64ml/l, for the three exercise bouts, respectively p<.05. There was also a significant increase in BF (11.3 vs. 10, 29 vs. 25, 32 vs. 24, 33 vs. 25, p<.05, HR (73 vs. 62, 153 vs. 138, 161 vs. 138, 166 vs. 137b/min, p<.05, Q (4.8 vs. 4, 13.1 vs. 12.5, 14.6 vs. 12.2, 15.5 vs. 12.8l/min, p<.05 and Labl (0.41 vs. 0.35, 3.8 vs. 2.6, 4.7 vs 3, 5.9 vs 2.9 mmol/l, p<.05 at rest and during exercise. Hypoxia lowered SaO2 at rest and exercise (99.3 vs 98.6, 98.1 vs 95.1, 98.5 vs 95.3, 98.3 vs 95.5%, p<.05. The results suggest that there is a hypoxic augmentation of the cardiorespiratory variables measured. Also we concluded that exercise potentiated the acute ventilatory response to hypoxia by increasing VE, breathing frequency, heart rate, cardiac output, blood lactate and decreasing SaO2.

  12. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  13. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  14. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  15. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  16. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Reducing the treatment margin for organ motion during breathing reduces the volume of irradiated normal tissues. This may allow a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the target volume for thoracic and abdominal tumors. However, such margin reduction must not increase the risk of marginal misses which may lead to local failure. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using Active Breathing Control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Planning CT scans and radiation delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions such that a minimal margin for breathing motion can be prescribed safely. Methods and Materials. An active breathing control (ABC) apparatus was constructed consisting of two pairs of flow monitor and scissors valve; one each to control the inhalation and exhalation paths to the patient. The patient breathed through a mouth-piece or face mask connected to the ABC apparatus. A personal computer was used to process the respiratory signal and to display the changing lung volume in real-time. At some time after the patient achieved a stable breathing pattern, the operator activated ABC at a pre-selected point in the breathing cycle. Both valves were then closed to immobilize breathing motion. The period of active breath-hold was that which could be comfortably and repeatedly tolerated by each individual patient, as determined during a training session. The feasibility of the ABC procedure was studied by acquiring volumetric CT scans of a patient during active breath-hold. A helical CT scanner was used. These ABC scans were acquired at one-half to one-third the dose delivered with routine CT scanning. Nine patients with tumors in the thorax and abdomen were studied. Contiguous CT slices were obtained for a region which encompassed the target volume. At least 4 sets of volumetric scans were obtained; one with the patient breathing normally; two ABC scans at the same point near the end of normal inspiration

  17. Exercise during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high blood pressure Severe anemia What are the benefits of exercise during pregnancy? Regular exercise during pregnancy benefits you ... weeks after childbirth. In addition to these health benefits, exercise after pregnancy can help you lose the extra ...

  18. Exercise ODIN (BER 5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Nordic exercise named ODIN was held 26. November 1993. This was an exercise of management of the last phase of a nuclear accident. The report gives an evaluation of the Norwegian management of the exercise. 2 refs., 3 figs

  19. Controlled breathing protocols probe human autonomic cardiovascular rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, W. H.; Cox, J. F.; Diedrich, A. M.; Taylor, J. A.; Beightol, L. A.; Ames, J. E. 4th; Hoag, J. B.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how breathing protocols requiring varying degrees of control affect cardiovascular dynamics. We measured inspiratory volume, end-tidal CO2, R-R interval, and arterial pressure spectral power in 10 volunteers who followed the following 5 breathing protocols: 1) uncontrolled breathing for 5 min; 2) stepwise frequency breathing (at 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05 Hz for 2 min each); 3) stepwise frequency breathing as above, but with prescribed tidal volumes; 4) random-frequency breathing (approximately 0.5-0.05 Hz) for 6 min; and 5) fixed-frequency breathing (0.25 Hz) for 5 min. During stepwise breathing, R-R interval and arterial pressure spectral power increased as breathing frequency decreased. Control of inspired volume reduced R-R interval spectral power during 0.1 Hz breathing (P respiration and R-R intervals and systolic pressure and R-R intervals. Random- and fixed-frequency breathing reduced end-tidal CO2 modestly (P tidal volume control attenuates low-frequency R-R interval oscillations and that fixed- and random-rate breathing may decrease CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation. We conclude that autonomic rhythms measured during different breathing protocols have much in common but that a stepwise protocol without stringent control of inspired volume may allow for the most efficient assessment of short-term respiratory-mediated autonomic oscillations.

  20. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  1. 萨克斯呼吸的生理原理探究%Sax physiological principle of breathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许锴

    2015-01-01

    根据西洋乐器的分类方法,萨克斯是一种木管乐器,呼吸是提供其发音的唯一动力,没有气息,萨克斯就无法变成真正的"乐器".同时,气息也是学习萨克斯过程中非常难把握的一个要素,气息的好坏对萨克斯的演奏有着直接的影响.掌握了正确的呼吸方法,气息的练习就会事倍功半.本文笔者在结合萨克斯的基本演奏的基础上,对萨克斯演奏过程中的气息原理、呼吸方法和演奏技巧进行论述,探究如何运用呼吸才可以使萨克斯演奏出好的音色.%According to the classification of Western musical instruments, saxophone is a woodwind instrument, the breath is provide the only motive of the pronunciation, no breath Sachs wil not become real "instruments." At the same time, the breath is also a factor that is very difficult to grasp in the process of learning Sax, the quality of the atmosphere has a direct impact on the performance of Sax. Master the correct breathing, breathing exercises wil be less effective. In this paper, the author on the basis of combination of saxophone playing. Saxophone playing in the process of breath principle, respiration and playing skils are discussed, explore how to use breathing can make saxophone playing the sound.

  2. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  3. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain......, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain....... Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  4. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  5. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  6. Carbon monoxide and exercise tolerance in chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    OpenAIRE

    Calverley, P. M.; Leggett, R J; Flenley, D C

    1981-01-01

    The effects of carbon monoxide on exercise tolerance as assessed by the distance walked in 12 minutes were studied in 15 patients with severe chronic bronchitis and emphysema (mean forced expiratory volume in one second 0.56 1, mean forced vital capacity 1.54 1). Each subject walked breathing air and oxygen before and after exposure to sufficient carbon monoxide to raise their venous carboxyhaemoglobin concentration by 9%. There was a significant reduction in the walking distance when the pat...

  7. Can exercise mimetics substitute for exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Exercise leads to changes in muscle phenotype with important implications for exercise performance and health. A recent paper in Cell by Narkar et al. (2008) shows that many of the adaptations in muscle phenotype elicited by exercise can be mimicked by genetic manipulation and drug treatment in...

  8. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew; Prabhahari Pownraj; Sukhananazerin Abdulla; Biji Pullithadathil

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its relate...

  9. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13C and 14C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  10. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  11. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  12. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  13. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  14. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people include: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pneumonia Lung cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is a disease that makes it hard to breathe. There are two main types of COPD: emphysema and chronic ... Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer ...

  15. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  16. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  17. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  18. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  19. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath interaction, the system effectively influenced user breath such that their breathing features turned into patterns that appeared when people were relaxed. An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three forms of regulation, the free breathing mode, the pure guiding mode, and the local-mapping mode. Experiment results show that multimedia-assisted breath interaction successfully deepened and slowed down user breath, compared with free breathing mode. Besides objective breathing feature changes, subjective feedback also showed that participants were satisfied and became relaxed after using this system.

  20. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to support and anchor a patient's...

  1. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  2. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  4. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section 84.195 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used...

  5. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from...

  7. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent:...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used...

  9. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  10. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction...

  11. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

  12. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a...

  13. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  14. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 29.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) If one or more cargo or baggage compartments are to be accessible in flight, protective breathing equipment must be available for an appropriate crewmember. (b)...

  16. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  17. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  18. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  19. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  20. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, K

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  1. Exercise Is Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Suggests that exercise should be the first-line therapy for preventing and treating many common diseases; however, physicians need more training in how best to use exercise therapy. The paper explains the power of exercise and discusses how to motivate individuals to start safe, enjoyable, and life-saving exercise routines. (SM)

  2. Physiological techniques for detecting expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Koulouris

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often exhale along the same flow–volume curve during quiet breathing as they do during the forced expiratory vital capacity manoeuvre, and this has been taken as an indicator of expiratory flow limitation at rest (EFLT. Therefore, EFLT, namely attainment of maximal expiratory flow during tidal expiration, occurs when an increase in transpulmonary pressure causes no increase in expiratory flow. EFLT leads to small airway injury and promotes dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation, with concurrent dyspnoea and exercise limitation. In fact, EFLT occurs commonly in COPD patients (mainly in Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease III and IV stage, in whom the latter symptoms are common, but is not exclusive to COPD, since it can also be detected in other pulmonary and nonpulmonary diseases like asthma, acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure and obesity, etc. The existing up to date physiological techniques of assessing EFLT are reviewed in the present work. Among the currently available techniques, the negative expiratory pressure has been validated in a wide variety of settings and disorders. Consequently, it should be regarded as a simple, noninvasive, practical and accurate new technique.

  3. Ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class cyclists: A three-year observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Martínez, Eduardo; Terrados, Nicolás; Burtscher, Martin; Santalla, Alfredo; Naranjo Orellana, José

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this three-year observational study was to analyze the ventilatory efficiency and breathing pattern in world-class professional cyclists. Twelve athletes (22.61±3.8years; 177.38±5.5cm; 68.96±5.5kg and VO2max 75.51±3.3mLkg(-1)min(-1)) were analyzed retrospectively. For each subject, respiratory and performance variables were recorded during incremental spiroergometry: oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), pulmonary ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (fR), driving (Vt/Ti), timing (Ti/Ttot), peak power output (PPO) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). Ventilatory efficiency (VE/VCO2 slope) was calculated from the beginning of exercise testing to the second ventilatory threshold (VT2). The VE/VCO2 slope was unaffected during the study period (24.63±3.07; 23.61±2:79; 24:89±2:61) with a low effect size (ES=0.04). The PPO improved significantly in the third year (365±33.74; 386.36±32.33; 415.00±24.15) (pperformance in world-class professional cyclists do not modify breathing variables related to the control of ventilatory efficiency. PMID:27083403

  4. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    OpenAIRE

    Varun; Neeraj; Ushadhar; Yogesh; Rinku

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were ...

  5. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  6. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  7. Monitoring Breathing via Signal Strength in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Patwari, Neal; R., Sai Ananthanarayanan P; Kasera, Sneha K; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows experimentally that standard wireless networks which measure received signal strength (RSS) can be used to reliably detect human breathing and estimate the breathing rate, an application we call "BreathTaking". We show that although an individual link cannot reliably detect breathing, the collective spectral content of a network of devices reliably indicates the presence and rate of breathing. We present a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of breathing rate, amplitude, and phase, which uses the RSS data from many links simultaneously. We show experimental results which demonstrate that reliable detection and frequency estimation is possible with 30 seconds of data, within 0.3 breaths per minute (bpm) RMS error. Use of directional antennas is shown to improve robustness to motion near the network.

  8. Nitric oxide production during exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, H; Nguyen, P H; Belardinelli, R; Hunter, D; Jung, T; Wasserman, K

    1997-08-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), the ventilatory response is increased compared with normal. This response is, in part, caused by reduced perfusion to ventilated lung. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator and may have an important role in pulmonary vasodilatation during exercise. NO is present in exhaled air. The amount of NO in exhaled air, when breathing NO-free compressed air, is known to increase in normal subjects during exercise. In this study, we quantified NO output in exhaled air in patients with CHF during exercise. Six patients with CHF (New York Heart Association Class II and III; two with dilated cardiomyopathy, three with ischemic heart disease, and one with hypertensive heart disease) and six normal subjects were studied with a symptom-limited incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Oxygen uptake (VO2), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), and minute ventilation (VE) were measured breath by breath with a mass spectrometer, flow meter, and computer. The NO concentration was continuously measured in mixed expired air by chemiluminescence. Peak exercise work rate was lower in patients with CHF than in normal subjects (71.3 +/- 41.6 W vs 257.0 +/- 49.7 W; p air at rest was lower in CHF patients than in normal subjects (4.0 +/- 2.2 ppb vs 10.5 +/- 6.2 ppb, respectively; p < 0.05). NO output from the respiratory tract (VNO) was significantly lower in patients with CHF compared with normal subjects at rest (45.3 +/- 24.3 nl/min, 117.5 +/- 60.1 nl/min, respectively, p < 0.05), and although it increased during exercise, it did not increase in patients with CHF as much as in normal subjects (75.3 +/- 43.4 nl/min vs 512.9 +/- 253.6 nl/min, respectively; p < 0.01). The increase above rest (exercise/rest) was smaller in patients with CHF than in normal subjects (2.10 +/- 1.92 vs 4.81 +/- 2.67, p < 0.05). These data support the concept that the smaller increase in NO production (VNO) during exercise may be responsible for a blunted vasodilation in patients

  9. Effect of ozone on breathing in dogs: vagal and nonvagal mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nadel, J.A.; Hahn, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    We exposed two awake dogs with a chronic tracheostomy and the cervical vagus nerves exteriorized in skin loops to 1.0 ppm of ozone (O/sub 3/) for 2 h at intervals of 4 wk. We measured ventilatory variables before and after O/sub 3/ exposure during rest and exercise before and after vagal block. We compared the effects of vagal blockade, exercise, and O/sub 3/ on the primary determinants of breathing pattern (VT/TI, VT/TE, TI, and TE) in each of three conditions: base line (steady state), during hypercapnia, and after inhalation of 1% histamine. Under base-line conditions, O/sub 3/ increased respiratory rate and decreased tidal volume (VT) by shortening time of expiration (TE) and time of inspiration (TI) without affecting VT/TI, an indicator of the neural drive to breathing. During progressive hypercapnia, O/sub 3/ shortened TE and TI by effects both on tonic (nonvolume-related) and on phasic (volume-related) vagal inputs, and only the latter were prevented completely by cooling of the vagus nerves. Histamine-induced tachypnea was increased by O/sub 3/ and was totally blocked by cooling the vagus nerves. It was concluded that O/sub 3/ shortens the timing of respiration without increasing ventilatory drive, shortens TI and TE through vagal and nonvagal pathways, increases tonic nonvagal and phasic vagal inputs, and stimulates more than one vagal fiber type.

  10. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  11. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  12. The Effect of Chinese Traditional Exercise-Baduanjin on Physical and Psychological Well-Being of College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Moyi; Fang, Qianying; Li, Junzhe; Zheng, Xin; Tao, Jing; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Lan, Xiulu; Chen, Bai; Zheng, Guohua; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world, therefore, it is important to improve their health during college period. Baduanjin, a traditional Chinese exercise which combines movements with breath and mind, may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, the effect of Baduanjin exercise on college students has not been established. In this study, we systematically assessed the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin ex...

  13. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  14. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  15. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  16. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Seham F. A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig U...

  17. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  18. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  19. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  20. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  1. Breath sampling control for medical application

    OpenAIRE

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Jörg I.; Westhoff, Michael; Züchner, Klaus; Carstens, Eike T. H.; Perl, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Sampling of breath under human control or automated control with sensors was combined with chemical determination of a synthetic sample using multi-capillary column ion mobility spectrometry to measure quantitative variability. Variation was 19% with an automated inlet and 33% with human control. Sensors to operate an automated inlet were also evaluated with human subjects and included carbon dioxide (CO2), flow (direction and velocity), volume (integrated from the flow rate) and humidity, al...

  2. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  3. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  4. Sleep-disordered Breathing in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yu Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB can manifesta continuum from simple snoring and upper airway resistancesyndrome to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with secondarygrowth impairment, neurocognitive deficits, and lessoften cardiovascular sequelae. Most children who present withSDB are four to eight years old with variable clinical symptomsat different ages. In general, infants often present withnoisy breathing and disturbed nocturnal sleep, toddlers andpreschool-aged children with snoring and mouth breathing,and school-aged children with behavioral and dental problems.The pathogenesis of SDB in children remains incompletelyunderstood. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the leading cause ofOSA. Other risk factors include allergic rhinitis, craniofacialanomalies, cleft palate following pharyngeal flap surgery, neuromusculardiseases, laryngomalacia, and obesity.Polysomnography (PSG is the gold standard diagnostic tool. However, great variationexists in the interpretation of PSG and criteria for the definition of pediatric OSA, eventhough consensus statements have been used to standardize the scoring of summary indicesfor the disorders. Adenotonsillectomy is the cardinal treatment for pediatric SDB. Rapidmaxillary expansion is a useful approach in upper jaw contraction. Distraction osteogenesishas become an acceptable procedure in the treatment of severe maxillomandibular deficiency.Continuous positive airway pressure has been successful in treating intractable or severeOSA in children with other underlying medical disorders and has modified the indicationsfor tracheotomy in pediatric patients with craniofacial anomalies and OSA. Follow-up inchildren treated for OSA reveals that underlying structural or neuromuscular abnormalitiescan decrease the response to treatment and obesity may lead to recurrence of OSA later duringadolescence.

  5. Volume, flow, and timing of each breath during positive-pressure breathing in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B; Hirsch, J; Thursby, M

    1978-10-01

    This study is a breath-by-breath analysis of the effects of 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O positive-pressure breathing (PPB) on man's steady-state breathing pattern. Inspiratory (TI), expiratory (TE), and cycle (TT) durations, tidal volumes (VT), minute ventilation (VE), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/TI), and mean expiratory flow rate (VT/TE) were determined from pneumotachograph and Wedge spirometer recordings before and during steady states on PPB. End-tidal CO2 was continuously recorded. Seventeen adults, seated in a full body-box, breathed quietly for 8 min through a mouthpiece on a bag-in-box. Pressure in the body-box was lowered to the desired level prior to 4 min of stress. On all pressure levels, end-expiratory volume, VT, VE, VT/TI, and VT/TE increased; end-tidal CO2, TE, and TT decreased with no consistent change in TI. Calculated alveolar ventilations indicated that the increases in VE were true hyperventilations. Each individual increased VE by using a unique combination of VT, TI, and TE. End-expiratory volume increased less and expiratory flow increased more than would occur passively. Hence, it is concluded that active reflexes account for the resistance of the systems to the passive distention, the facilitation of expiratory flow, and the shortening of TE. PMID:361664

  6. Air-breathing membraneless laminar flow-based fuel cells: Do they breathe enough oxygen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Limiting factors of air-breathing laminar-flow based fuel cell (LFFC) is analyzed. ► A numerical model for LFFC is developed. ► Air breathing process is not a limiting factor at the present stage. ► Oxygen starvation is significant when the cell current density exceeds 200 mA cm−2. - Abstract: Laminar flow-based fuel cell (LFFC) is a relatively new type of fuel cell that does not require the use of proton exchange membrane. While the first-generation LFFC uses dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the second-generation LFFC (2G-LFFC) adopts a more advanced air-breathing design for achieving high power density. The architecture and operational mechanisms of a 2G-LFFC are more complex. In order to gain detailed understanding of the 2G-LFFC, an integrated CFD/electrochemical kinetics modeling study has been conducted to analyze the cell limiting factors and sufficiency of the oxidant supply from air. It is found that under most typical operating conditions, the 2G-LFFC free-breathing mode can supply sufficient oxygen to the electrode reactive surface for cathode half-cell reaction, indicating that the air breathing process is not a limiting factor to the cell performance. However, oxygen starvation will become a major performance limiting factor when the anode is enhanced for higher current density. The results presented in this paper provide useful design guidance for future development of LFFC

  7. Exercise training in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, A

    2000-12-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that is often limiting the exercise capacity. Rehabilitation programs are recommended and widely applied in asthmatic patients, and exercise prescription is a keystone of these programs. The impairment of exercise performance in asthmatics, the role of exercise training in such patients, the mechanisms of its beneficial effects and the suggested programs are discussed in a review, accordingly to the current evidence and available data in scientific literature. Exercise performance is impaired in most asthmatics. There is no conclusive evidence that asthma may involve a ventilatory limitation to exercise. The lesser fitness in asthmatics seems mainly due to inactivity and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise induced asthma (EIA) is a significant problem, and the best approach to minimise its effects on exercise capacity is prevention. Exercise training has been proved to have health-related benefits and to improve the quality of life. There is substantial evidence that exercise training increases exercise performance and fitness in asthmatics. It is still unclear whether physical training improves pulmonary function and bronchial responsiveness. Since asthma ranges widely, exercise prescription varies for each patient. The proper selection of the patients and the choice of exercise programs are the steps required. Accordingly with the severity of the disease, exercise strategies may range from sports activities to, when the disease is severe, inpatient hospital programs that overlap with COPD rehabilitation. Further research to clarify some aspects (effects on pulmonary function and EIA, outcomes, cost-benefit relationship) is necessary. PMID:11296996

  8. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NOx, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCPAS), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NOx signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOCPAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  9. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NO{sub x} in exhaled human breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe [Hannover Medical School, Sports Physiology and Sports Medicine, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga, E-mail: tunga.salthammer@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO{sub x}, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC{sub PAS}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO{sub x} signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC{sub PAS} are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  10. Improvement of myocardial perfusion status in response to indian vedic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Yoga is the buzz word all over the world today. Amidst their busy schedule, people tend to ignore their personal health. Management of various disorders, especially those involving interventions, surgical or radiological, is very expensive. The Indian Vedic Exercises, of which Pranaayaama is one, emphasize on prevention of the diseases in order to keep the individual in good health. It is equally applicable to those who have already suffered from various disorders and in whom both improvement and/or avoidance of further deterioration are required. However, no Objective assessment of the disease status in response to these exercises has been reported so far. Objectives: This pilot study has been undertaken on patients with reversible myocardial perfusion defects to Objectively monitor the improvements in the myocardial perfusion in response to a breathing exercise, Pranayama, a breathing technique prescribed in the Indian Vedic Sciences. Methods: Two patients who were found to have reversible myocardial perfusion defects were taken up in this study. These defects were diagnosed from the myocardial perfusion SPECT done in stressed (on Tread Mill) and resting states with 99m Technetium labeled MIBI.These patients were taught the pranayama technique which is done for about 30 minutes every day. At the end of four months from the commencement of this technique, the myocardial perfusion SPECT studies were repeated. Details of the exercise in the form of a CD are available on request. Results: Overall good improvements were observed in all the quantitative parameters in the TMT and SPECT studies in the studies done after the pranayama procedures in both the patients. Perfusion defects seen in the stress images of the initial studies have almost completely reversed in the stress images of the later study. Patients are asymptomatic and are leading a comfortable life. Conclusion: This is only a study of two cases to Objectively evaluate the effects of pranayama

  11. A size-based emphysema severity index: robust to the breath-hold-level variations and correlated with clinical parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jeongeun; Lee, Minho; Lee, Sang Min; Oh, Sang Young; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the power-law exponents (D) of emphysema hole-size distributions as a competent emphysema index. Robustness to extreme breath-hold-level variations and correlations with clinical parameters for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were investigated and compared to a conventional emphysema index (EI%). Patients and methods A total of 100 patients with COPD (97 males and three females of mean age 67±7.9 years) underwent multidetector row computed tomography scanning at full inspiration and full expiration. The diameters of the emphysematous holes were estimated and quantified with a fully automated algorithm. Power-law exponents (D) of emphysematous hole-size distribution were evaluated. Results The diameters followed a power-law distribution in all cases, suggesting the scale-free nature of emphysema. D of inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography of patients showed intraclass correlation coefficients >0.8, indicating statistically absolute agreement of different breath-hold levels. By contrast, the EI% failed to agree. Bland–Altman analysis also revealed the superior robustness of D to EI%. D also significantly correlated with clinical parameters such as airflow limitation, diffusion capacity, exercise capacity, and quality of life. Conclusion The D of emphysematous hole-size distribution is robust to breath-hold-level variations and sensitive to the severity of emphysema. This measurement may help rule out the confounding effects of variations in breath-hold levels. PMID:27536095

  12. Poetry as Breath: Teaching Student Teachers to Breathe-Out Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Pasquin

    2010-01-01

    Poetry is a form of creative expression that exists to share a truth, an insight, or a feeling that enriches our humanity. “Teaching” poetry requires us to be readers and writers of poetry ourselves. It requires that we are saying, “Poetry matters.” I work with second-year student teachers in my Language Arts Methods class at McGill University to develop a passion for the poetic; to learn what Muriel Rukeyser refers to as breathing-in experience and breathing-out poetry. Using my own writ...

  13. Exercise intensity modulates capillary perfusion in correspondence with ACE I/D modulated serum angiotensin II levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander van Ginkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the renin–angiotensin system is stimulated. We hypothesized that the increase in serum angiotensin II (AngII levels after exercise is dependent on exercise intensity and duration and secondly that people with the ACE-II genotype will show a higher increase in AngII serum levels. We also assumed that perfusion of upper limbs is transiently reduced with maximal cycling exercise and that subjects with the ACE-II compared to the ACE-ID/DD genotype will have a higher capillary perfusion due to lower AngII levels. Ten healthy subjects completed a maximal exercise test, a 12-min exercise test at ventilatory threshold and a 3-min test at the respiratory compensation point. AngII serum levels and capillary recruitment of the skin in the third finger were measured before and after exercise and breath-by-breath gas exchange during exercise was assessed. Baseline levels of AngII levels were lower prior to the 3-min test which took place on average 5 days after the last exercise. A two-fold increase compared to baseline levels was found for AngII only immediately after the 3-min test and not after the maximal exercise test and 12-min of exercise. Subjects without the I allele showed a decrease in AngII values after the maximal test in contrast to subjects with the ACE-II/ID genotype. Subjects with the ACE-II genotype had a 1.8 times significant higher capillary perfusion in the finger after exercise. A trend was observed for a 34.3% decreased capillary recruitment in the ACE-ID/DD genotype after exercise. We conclude that the rise in AngII after exercise is intensity dependent and that variability in serum AngII and capillary perfusion is related to the ACE I/D polymorphism.

  14. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and disability. Marian Minor, PT, Ph.D.: And we know that people who have OA of the ... you exercise for 30 minutes all at once. We used to think that isometric exercise, or the ...

  15. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the joint by strengthening the muscles and actually will lead to less pain and disability. Marian Minor, ... swimming or bicycling -- other forms of exercise that will let them maintain the exercise habit. Dr. Moskowitz: ...

  16. Learn to love exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mix it up. For example, you might play golf on a Saturdays, take tango classes on Mondays, ... American Council on Exercise. 5 Tips for Learning to Love Exercise (or at Least Develop a Crush on It). ... ...

  17. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most ... the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen ...

  18. Exercise and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term exercise (such as marathon running and intense gym training) could actually decrease the amount of white ... daily 20 - 30 minute walks Going to the gym every other day Playing golf regularly Exercise can ...

  19. Learn to love exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... still struggle to get regular exercise. Improve your perception of exercise -- don't see it as just ... about your adventures. Sign up for a charity event. Charity events offer you the chance to walk, ...

  20. Diet and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financing Living Donation Home / After The Transplant / Staying Healthy / Diet And Exercise Medications Post-Transplant Medications Types of ... be aware of the important role of a healthy diet and exercise plan in healing. Prior to your ...

  1. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ph.D.: You can break your exercise session up into 10 minutes, three times a day and ... that's a powerful tool to helping people stay up with an exercise program. And then the final ...

  2. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  3. Exercise and Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Exercise and Asthma Page Content Article Body Almost every ... children more likely to develop asthma. How does exercise cause asthma symptoms? The symptoms of asthma are ...

  4. How Exercise Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most ... the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen ...

  5. Exercise for Seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise and physical activity are good for just about everyone, including older adults. There are four main ... jogging, dancing, swimming, and biking are examples. Strength exercises make your muscles stronger. Lifting weights or using ...

  6. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the ... who have OA of the hip and the knee can successfully use walking as an exercise to ...

  7. Diet and Exercise Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health News & Publications Annual Meeting Calendar Diet and Exercise Tips Diet and Exercise Tips News media interested ... caffeine content (tea, sodas, chocolate drinks) and caffeinated coffee to two cups per day. Minimize alcohol to ...

  8. Experience in exercise evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary outline presents environmental ingestion exposure pathways exercise evaluations that should be followed by state and local governments. It includes environmental monitoring, food, feeds and monitoring of organisms as well as emergency planning and execution exercises

  9. Kids and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Kids and Exercise KidsHealth > For Parents > Kids and Exercise ... longer than 2 hours. previous continue Raising Fit Kids Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet ...

  10. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... walking as an exercise to improve their general health and to lessen the effects of arthritis, but ... We know that if a physician or a health care provider encourages someone to exercise, that's very ...

  11. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... they also might try getting some experience with swimming or bicycling -- other forms of exercise that will ... don't jog because that's an impact loading. Swimming -- an excellent exercise for knee or hip disease. ...

  12. Aerobic exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerobic exercise gets the heart working to pump blood through the heart more quickly and with more force than ... must be oxygenated more quickly, which quickens respiration. Aerobic exercise strengthens the heart and boosts healthy cholesterol ...

  13. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  14. Chemosensitivity, Cardiovascular Risk, and the Ventilatory Response to Exercise in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K Stickland

    Full Text Available COPD is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and a potentiated ventilatory response to exercise. Enhanced carotid chemoreceptor (CC activity/sensitivity is present in other clinical conditions, has been shown to contribute to sympathetic vasoconstrictor outflow, and is predictive of mortality. CC activity/sensitivity, and the resulting functional significance, has not been well examined in COPD. We hypothesized that CC activity/sensitivity would be elevated in COPD, and related to increased pulse wave velocity (a marker of CV risk and the ventilatory response to exercise.30 COPD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls were examined. Participants performed baseline cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function testing. CC activity was later evaluated by the drop in ventilation with breathing 100% O2, and CC sensitivity was then assessed by the ventilatory response to hypoxia (ΔVE/ΔSpO2. Peripheral arterial stiffness was subsequently evaluated by measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV using applanation tonometry while the subjects were breathing room air, and then following chemoreceptor inhibition by breathing 100% O2 for 2 minutes.CC activity, CC sensitivity, PWV and the ventilatory response to exercise were all increased in COPD relative to controls. CC sensitivity was related to PWV; however, neither CC activity nor CC sensitivity was related to the ventilatory response to exercise in COPD. CC inhibition by breathing 100% O2 normalized PWV in COPD, while no effect was observed in controls.CC activity and sensitivity are elevated in COPD, and appear related to cardiovascular risk; however, CC activity/sensitivity does not contribute to the potentiated ventilatory response to exercise.

  15. THE ECONOMICS OF INTENSE EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    Meltzer, David O.; Jena, Anupam B.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of exercise, the time required for exercise is widely understood as a major reason for low levels of exercise in the US. Intensity of exercise can change the time required for a given amount of total exercise but has never been studied from an economic perspective. We present a simple model of exercise behavior which suggests that the intensity of exercise should increase relative to time spent exercising as wages increase, holding other determinants of exercis...

  16. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  17. Wearable sensors and feedback system to improve breathing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Mitchell, Edmond; Ward, Tomas; O'Connor, Noel E.; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Breathing is an important factor in our well-being as it oxygenates the body, revitalizes organs, cells and tissues. It is a unique physiological system in that it is both voluntary and involuntary. By breathing in a slow, deep and regular manner, the heartbeat become smooth and regular, blood pressure normalizes, stress hormones drop, and muscles relax. Breathing techniques are important for athletes to improve performance and reduce anxiety during competitions. Patients with respiratory ...

  18. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  19. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  20. Spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriely, N; Nissan, M.; Rubin, A. H.; Cugell, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to establish a reliable bank of information on the spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds from healthy men and women, both non-smokers and smokers. METHODS--Chest wall breath sounds from 272 men and 81 women were measured using contact acoustic sensors, amplifiers, and fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral analysis software. Inspiratory and expiratory sounds were picked up at three standard locations on the chest wall during breathing...

  1. Optimization of an adaptive neural network to predict breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J; Pokhrel, Damodar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal configuration and performance of an adaptive feed forward neural network filter to predict breathing in respiratory motion compensation systems for external beam radiation therapy. Method and Materials: A two-layer feed forward neural network was trained to predict future breathing amplitudes for 27 recorded breathing histories. The prediction intervals ranged from 100 to 500 ms. The optimal sampling frequency, number of input samples, training rate, and numb...

  2. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  3. Prenatal exercise research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2012-06-01

    In this review of recent research on prenatal exercise, studies from several different countries suggest that only approximately 40% of pregnant women exercise, even though about 92% are encouraged by their physicians to exercise, albeit with some 69% of the women being advised to limit their exercise. A moderate exercise regime reputedly increases infant birthweight to within the normal range, but only if exercise is decreased in late pregnancy. Lower intensity exercise such as water aerobics has decreased low back pain more than land-based physical exercise. Heart rate and blood pressure have been lower following yoga than walking, and complications like pregnancy-induced hypertension with associated intrauterine growth retardation and prematurity have been less frequent following yoga. No studies could be found on tai chi with pregnant women even though balance and the risk of falling are great concerns during pregnancy, and tai chi is one of the most effective forms of exercise for balance. Potential underlying mechanisms for exercise effects are that stimulating pressure receptors during exercise increases vagal activity which, in turn, decreases cortisol, increases serotonin and decreases substance P, leading to decreased pain. Decreased cortisol is particularly important inasmuch as cortisol negatively affects immune function and is a significant predictor of prematurity. Larger, more controlled trials are needed before recommendations can be made about the type and amount of pregnancy exercise. PMID:22721740

  4. Exercise and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Make sure he or she drinks water or juice after exercise. For more information about exercise and physical activity for older adults, visit www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life . National Institute on Aging National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery into Health Gentle Exercise Some ...

  5. Exercising in Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  6. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow. PMID:25760149

  7. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  8. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  9. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min–1. A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min–1, and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  10. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  11. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  12. Effect of yogic exercise on superoxide dismutase levels in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapure Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reactive oxygen species are known to aggravate disease progression. To counteract their harmful effects, the body produces various antioxidant enzymes, viz , superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase etc. Literature reviews revealed that exercises help to enhance antioxidant enzyme systems; hence, yogic exercises may be useful to combat various diseases. Aims: This study aims to record the efficacy of yoga on superoxide dismutase, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb and fasting blood glucose levels in diabetics. Settings and Design: Forty diabetics aged 40-55 years were assigned to experimental (30 and control (10 groups. The experimental subjects underwent a Yoga program comprising of various Asanas (isometric type exercises and Pranayamas (breathing exercises along with regular anti-diabetic therapy whereas the control group received anti-diabetic therapy only. Methods and Material: Heparinized blood samples were used to determine erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and glycosylated Hb levels and fasting blood specimens collected in fluoride Vacutainers were used for assessing blood glucose. Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed by using 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial ANOVA followed by Scheffe′s posthoc test. Results: The results revealed that Yogic exercise enhanced the levels of Superoxide dismutase and reduced glycosylated Hb and glucose levels in the experimental group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The findings conclude that Yogic exercises have enhanced the antioxidant defence mechanism in diabetics by reducing oxidative stress.

  13. Exercise intensity modulates brachial artery retrograde blood flow and shear rate during leg cycling in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Erika; Katayama, Keisho; Ishida, Koji

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of exercise intensity on retrograde blood flow and shear rate (SR) in an inactive limb during exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The subjects performed two maximal exercise tests on a semi-recumbent cycle ergometer to estimate peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) while breathing normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2 = 0.21]) and hypoxic (FIO2 = 0.12 or 0.13) gas mixtures. Subjects then performed four exercise bouts at the same relative intensities (30 and 60% V˙O2peak) for 30 min under normoxic or hypoxic conditions. Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were simultaneously recorded, using Doppler ultrasonography. Retrograde SR was enhanced with increasing exercise intensity under both conditions at 10 min of exercise. Thereafter, retrograde blood flow and SR in normoxia returned to pre-exercise levels, with no significant differences between the two exercise intensities. In contrast, retrograde blood flow and SR in hypoxia remained significantly elevated above baseline and was significantly greater at 60% than at 30% V˙O2peak. We conclude that differences in exercise intensity affect brachial artery retrograde blood flow and SR during prolonged exercise under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26038470

  14. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, R.; M.E. O'Hara; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P; Shah, T; T. Whitehouse; Mayhew, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims: To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods: A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after live...

  15. Effects of a Period of Selected Activity on Lung Capacities in Children 5-10 Years with Asthma Caused by Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aasthma due to causing disruption in the work of breathing and obstruction of the pulmonary tract creates the physical restrictions in the social, emotional and psychological, aspects and performing daily life activities, hence the present study is conducted to determine the impact of a period of selected activity on some spirometry parameters of children from 5 to 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise.Materials and Methods: In this half experimental respiratory research, respiratory indexes of 11 children including 5 boys under the age of 10 years old suffering from asthma caused by exercise were measured before and after eight weeks of selected exercises and pranayama by spirometry were measured.Results: The results showed that the selected exercise routine improves on the status of activities and being short of breath (Z=0/003. Also the average of spirometry indexes prior to a ten minutes exercise, before and after the intervention, compared with the average of spirometry indexes after a ten minute exercise, before and after intervention in the parameters: (fev1 the volume of the expiratory force in the first second, and (PEF the maximum expiratory flow, the results are statistically significant (p 0.05.Conclusions: The present study shows the impact of the selected exercises in improving mobility status and being short of breath and reducing asthma symptoms caused by exercise (EIA as well as strengthening the respiratory muscles significantly.

  16. Decompression Sickness During Simulated Low Pressure Exposure is Increased with Mild Ambulation Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, N. W.; Natoli, M. J.; Martina, S. D.; Conkin, J.; Wessel, J. H., III; Gernhardt, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal activity accelerates inert gas elimination during oxygen breathing prior to decompression (prebreathe), but may also promote bubble formation (nucleation) and increase the risk of decompression sickness (DCS). The timing, pattern and intensity of musculoskeletal activity are likely critical to the net effect. The NASA Prebreathe Reduction Program (PRP) combined oxygen prebreathe and exercise preceding a 4.3 psia exposure in non-ambulatory subjects (a microgravity analog) to produce two protocols now used by astronauts preparing for extravehicular activity - one employing cycling and non-cycling exercise (CEVIS: 'cycle ergometer vibration isolation system') and one relying on non-cycling exercise only (ISLE: 'in-suit light exercise'). Current efforts investigate whether light exercise normal to 1 G environments increases the risk of DCS over microgravity simulation.

  17. Can a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise acutely reduce blood pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Romeu; Sousa, Nelson; Garrido, Nuno; Cavaco, Braulio; Quaresma, Luís; Reis, Victor Machado

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twenty-three healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years) participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control) in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1) a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics); 2) aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics); 3) resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min); and 4) a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises); totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009), 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009) and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004). A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion. PMID:25713644

  18. Can a Single Session of a Community-Based Group Exercise Program Combining Step Aerobics and Bodyweight Resistance Exercise Acutely Reduce Blood Pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Romeu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the acute effects of a single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise on blood pressure in healthy young adult women. Twentythree healthy young adult women (aged 31.57 ± 7.87 years participated in two experimental sessions (exercise and control in a crossover study design. Blood pressure was monitored before, immediately after and at 10, 20 and 30 min of recovery. The exercise session consisted of four phases: 1 a warm-up (5 min of dance aerobics; 2 aerobic exercise training (30 min of step aerobics; 3 resistance exercise training (six sets of 12 repetitions of three bodyweight exercises in a circuit mode, 10 min; and 4 a cool-down (5 min of breathing and flexibility exercises; totaling 50 min of duration. Systolic blood pressure after exercise was significantly lower compared to control at the 10th min (-10.83 ± 2.13 vs. -2.6 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009, 20th min (-11.26 ± 2.13 vs. -3.04 ± 2.13 mmHg; p = 0.009 and 30th min of recovery (-10.87 ± 2.39 vs. -0.48 ± 2.39 mmHg; p = 0.004. A single session of a community-based group exercise program combining step aerobics and bodyweight resistance exercise was effective in inducing significant post-exercise hypotension in healthy young adult women. This type of low-cost exercise interventions may have an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and in community health promotion.

  19. Effects of Combined Training with Breathing Resistance and Sustained Physical Exertion to Improve Endurance Capacity and Respiratory Muscle Function in Healthy Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kido, Satoshi; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Miyasaka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Yu, Wenwei; Maruoka, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Kiyomi

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, combined training with breathing resistance and sustained physical exertion was carried out to evaluate its physiological effects and its effect on improve endurance capacity. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults (mean age 20.4, SD ± 1.7 years). The combined training group (n = 5) carried out 6 weeks of combined training using a cycle ergometer, with exercise load tests and respiratory function tests performed before and after the training. The...

  20. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  1. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  2. Clamping end-tidal carbon dioxide during graded exercise with control of inspired oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farra, Saro D; Kessler, Cathie; Duffin, James; Wells, Greg D; Jacobs, Ira

    2016-09-01

    Exercise- and hypoxia-induced hyperventilation decreases the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), which in turn exerts many physiological effects. Several breathing circuits that control PETCO2 have been previously described, but their designs are not satisfactory for exercise studies where changes in inspired oxygen (FIO2) may be desired. This study is the first report of a breathing system that can maintain PETCO2 constant within a single session of graded submaximal exercise and graded hypoxia. Thirteen fit and healthy subjects completed two bouts of exercise consisting of three 3min stages on a cycle ergometer with increasing exercise intensity in normoxia (Part A; 142±14, 167±14, 192±14W) or with decreasing FIO2 at a constant exercise intensity (Part B; 21, 18, and 14%). One bout was a control (CON) where PETCO2 was not manipulated, while during the other bout the investigator clamped PETCO2 within 2mmHg (CO2Clamp) using sequential gas delivery (SGD). During the final 30s of each exercise stage during CO2Clamp, PETCO2 was successfully maintained in Part A (43±4, 44±4, 44±3mmHg; P=0.44) and Part B (45±3, 46±3, 45±3mmHg; P=0.68) despite the increases in ventilation due to exercise. These findings demonstrate that this SGD circuit can be used to maintain isocapania in exercising humans during progressively increasing exercise intensities and changing FIO2. PMID:27236039

  3. The Effect of Tongue Exercise on Serotonergic Input to the Hypoglossal Nucleus in Young and Old Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, Mary; Moeser, Adam E.; Thomas, Cathy F.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Leverson, Glen E.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Breathing and swallowing problems affect elderly people and may be related to age-associated tongue dysfunction. Hypoglossal motoneurons that innervate the tongue receive a robust, excitatory serotonergic (5HT) input and may be affected by aging. We used a rat model of aging and progressive resistance tongue exercise to determine whether…

  4. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock... Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). The Model Specifications are guidelines for...

  5. Exercise oscillatory ventilation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrà, Ugo

    2016-03-01

    Ventilation inefficiency has become a matter of interest for heart failure (HF) specialists, the most remarkable being exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV). EOV is an abnormal ventilatory phenomenon, originally described as anecdotal, but now considered a marker of disease severity and worst prognosis in HF. EOV is a cyclic fluctuation of minute ventilation (VE) and expired gas kinetics occurring during exercise: it is a slow, prominent, consistent rather than random, fluctuation in VE that may be evanescent or transient and can follow several distinct patterns. In contrast to the periodic breathing observed in Cheyne-Stokes respiration and central sleep apnea, the gradual increase and decrease in minute ventilation (VE) are not spaced by periods of apnea. This review will discuss EOV in HF and the overlap with Cheyne-Stokes respiration. PMID:26935880

  6. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  7. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  8. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...); and (4) Be grade A, B, or C. (h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades A, B, or C produced...,000 parts per million of carbon dioxide; (ii) 20 parts per million carbon monoxide; (iii) 5 milligrams.... (f) Oxygen used for breathing mixtures must— (1) Meet the requirements of Federal Specification...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to...

  10. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  11. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  12. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect the...

  13. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  15. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  16. [Practical advice for exercise-induced asthma in children: experience of the exercise training centre of Necker-Enfants malades hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, C; Fuchs-Climent, D; Clairicia, M; Leborgne, P; Salort, M; De Blic, J; Scheinmann, P

    2005-01-01

    Now, to care exercise-induced asthma is not only to prescribe drugs. It is a global and interdisciplinary approach: the pulmonary rehabilitation, matching a therapeutic education and a physical training, with the goal of promoting a regular physical activity in the asthmatic child, achieving physiological benefits and improvement of quality of life. Getting from the experience of Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital's Training Centre, a few advises encourage the physical practice of the asthmatic child, and decrease risks of exercise-induced asthma: optimisation of treatments;progressive beginning and end of exercises; use of the diaphragmatic breathing, keeping up with the exercise; use of the ventilatory threshold (or dysponea threshold) as intensity of the aerobic training; practice of different activities promoting play and conviviality in sports and allowing the integration of sports in the daily life of the asthmatic child. PMID:15653067

  17. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  18. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so...... not be recommended as a means of improving metabolic control in insulin-dependent diabetes. However, our present knowledge and technology allows the well-informed and cooperative patient to exercise and even to reach the elite level. To achieve this, pre-exercise metabolic control should be optimal and knowledge...

  19. Aging, exercise, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, H L; Kramer, A F; Capaldi, D

    1992-12-01

    The authors investigated the relationship among aging, attentional processes, and exercise in 2 experiments. First they examined age differences on 2 attentional tasks, a time-sharing task and an attentional flexibility task. Young adults alternated attention between 2 sequenced tasks more rapidly and time-shared the processing of 2 tasks more efficiently than older adults. They then investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on the same 2 attentional tasks in older adults. Following the 10-week exercise program, older exercisers showed substantially more improvement in alternation speed and time-sharing efficiency than older controls. Interestingly, this exercise effect was specific to dual-task processing. Both groups of subjects showed equivalent effects on single-task performance. These results indicate that aerobic exercise can exert a beneficial influence on the efficiency of at least 2 different attentional processes in older adults. PMID:1466833

  20. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  1. The change in body stressed to relaxed body through breathing, visualization and a protective environment together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn I. Rodríguez Morrill

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows several ways to meet and relax the body through personal knowledge and techniques encounter with nature. Modern life and fast, the constant pressure from childhood to adulthood, in the modes of interaction between individuals and groups, they lead to construction of bodies that reflect emotional anatomy visible loss of balance, contractures, inflammation, multiple imbalances by lack of knowledge and awareness especially being in the world fully, the person has moved away from its ecological relationship with itself and the environment. Methods are shown to positively change a condition of constant stress and chronic discomfort, a learned condition of physical and psychological wellbeing, with a series of movements, recovering the body through exercise, to tend to personal balance, obtaining a positive relationship with the environment and the people attended. The proposal starts promoting new habits that can be saved in consciousness. Partly, mainly of breath, alignment with the music and the environment and personal and group work

  2. Breathing pattern--gas exchange relation and acute effect of almitrine in severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, S; Bellone, A; Castelli, T; Mendoza, M; Daniele, R

    1988-01-01

    Using a double-blind cross-over design, a single oral dose of 100 mg almitrine bismethylate and placebo were administered to 7 patients with chronic airflow limitation. In all patients, arterial blood gases at rest, ventilation and breathing pattern at rest and on exercise were measured before and 3 h after administration. Ventilation increased and PaCO2 decreased after almitrine; the mean PaO2 increase was statistically significant after active drug but the value increased more when tidal volume increased. It is concluded that in man the well-documented improvement in the V/Q relationship after almitrine is in part related to a pure ventilatory effect though the possibility of increasing ventilation by mainly increasing tidal volume. PMID:2907669

  3. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  4. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  5. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  6. Effect of slow rhythmic voluntary breathing pattern on isometric handgrip among health care students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajajeyakumar M, Janitha A, Madanmohan, Balachander J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hand grip strength is a widely used test in experimental and epidemiologicalstudies. The measure of hand grip strength is influenced by several factors, including age; gender; different angle of the shoulder, elbow, forearm, and wrist; and posture.So we planned to study theeffect of slow voluntary breathing exercise (Savitri Pranayam onthe various strengths of isometric hand grip (IHG amongyoung health care students.Methods: The present study was conducted on 60 volunteers 17-20 yrs.The subjects were randomly assigned to Pranayam and control groups. They were divided into two groups: control (n=30, Savitri (n=30 Savitri group were practiced slow yogic breathing for three months, Paired’ test was done to compare the values within group and unpaired’ test was done to compare the values between male and female subjects.Results: In Savitri Pranayam group, the blood pressure responses to IHG were higher in males, as compared to females.The rate pressure product (RPP also decreased during IHG 60%. A decrease in SBP and DBP was observed at the end of the study period. Briefly, a gender difference in various parameters such as MAP, QTc existed in the control group at the beginning of the study and the differences persisted at the end of three months.Conclusion: Our study reported that slow Pranayam are known to enhance parasympathetic tone, produce a highly significant decrease in oxygen consumption and psychosomatic relaxation.

  7. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm

    OpenAIRE

    Molis, Marc A.; Molis, Whitney E.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) is a phenomenon of airway narrowing that occurs during or after exercise or physical exertion. This condition has been reported in a range of sporting activities but is most common in participants of cold-weather sports (eg, Nordic skiing) and indoor sports (eg, ice-skating and swimming). Traditionally, the terms exercise induced-asthma (EIA) and EIB have been used interchangeably; however, more recent evidence suggests that these entities are sepa...

  8. Wellness through a comprehensive Yogic breathing program – A controlled pilot trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norlander Torsten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of psychosocial disturbances give rise to increased risks and vulnerability for a wide variety of stress-related chronic pain and other illnesses. Relaxation exercises aim at reducing stress and thereby help prevent these unwanted outcomes. One of the widely used relaxation practices is yoga and yogic breathing exercises. One specific form of these exercises is Sudarshan Kriya and related practices (SK&P which are understood to have favourable effects on the mind-body system. The goal of this pilot study was to design a protocol that can investigate whether SK&P can lead to increased feeling of wellness in healthy volunteers. Methods Participants were recruited in a small university city in Sweden and were instructed in a 6-day intensive program of SK&P which they practiced daily for six weeks. The control group was instructed to relax in an armchair each day during the same period. Subjects included a total of 103 adults, 55 in the intervention (SK&P group and 48 in the control group. Various instruments were administered before and after the intervention. Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale measured the degree of anxiety and depression, Life Orientation Test measured dispositional optimism, Stress and Energy Test measured individual's energy and stress experiences. Experienced Deviation from Normal State measured the experience of altered state of consciousness. Results There were no safety issues. Compliance was high (only 1 dropout in the SK&P group, and 5 in the control group. Outcome measures appeared to be appropriate for assessing the differences between the groups. Subjective reports generally correlated with the findings from the instruments. The data suggest that participants in the SK&P group, but not the control group, lowered their degree of anxiety, depression and stress, and also increased their degree of optimism (ANOVA; p Conclusion These data indicate that the experimental protocol that is

  9. Exercise in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajarajeswaran P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise has attracted increased interest in rehabilitation of oncological patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature and summarize the evidence of physical exercise in preventing cancer, its ability in attenuating the effect of cancer and its treatments and to provide guidelines for exercise prescription Review of recent literature by electronic search of MEDline (Pub Med, Cancer lit, Cochrane libraries, CINAHL were done using Keywords and the variables were identified and systematically evaluated. There is strong evidence for reduced risk of colorectal and breast cancer with possible association for prostate, endometrial and lung cancer with increasing physical activity. Exercise helps cancer survivors cope with and recover from treatment; exercise may improve the health of long term cancer survivors and extend survival. Physical exercise will benefit throughout the spectrum of cancer. However, an understanding of the amount, type and intensity of exercise needed has not been fully elucidated. There is sufficient evidence to promote exercise in cancer survivors following careful assessment and tailoring on exercise prescription.

  10. Exercise and activity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...

  11. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early......A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...

  12. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early......A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...

  13. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  14. Thinking about breathing: Effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Marghescu, Domnica; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosemarie

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), the increase and decrease in instantaneous heart rate (HR) with inspiration and expiration, is commonly evaluated as function of breathing frequency f. However, to the extent that RSA plays a role in the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be expected to correlate better with HR/f ('breathing specific heart rate') than with f, because the former is a better reflection of the cardio-respiratory coupling. We measured RSA breath-by-breath in 209 young men and women during spontaneous breathing and during volitional breathing under auditory cues at vastly different f. In either case, and for both genders, RSA correlated better with HR/f than with f. As HR/f increased so did RSA, in a linear manner. When compared on the basis of HR/f, RSA did not differ significantly between spontaneous and volitional breathing. It is proposed that RSA is a central mechanism that ameliorates the matching between the quasi-continuous pulmonary blood flow and the intermittent airflow, irrespective of the type of ventilatory drive (cortical or autonomic). PMID:26724603

  15. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  16. Breath isoprene: Muscle dystrophy patients support the concept of a pool of isoprene in the periphery of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J.; Mochalski, P.; Unterkofler, K.; Teschl, G.; Klieber, M.; Stein, M.; Amann, A.; Baumann, M.

    2016-01-01

    Breath isoprene accounts for most of the hydrocarbon removal via exhalation and is thought to serve as a non-invasive indicator for assaying several metabolic effects in the human body. The primary objective of this paper is to introduce a novel working hypothesis with respect to the endogenous source of this compound in humans: the idea that muscle tissue acts as an extrahepatic production site of substantial amounts of isoprene. This new perspective has its roots in quantitative modeling studies of breath isoprene dynamics under exercise conditions and is further investigated here by presenting pilot data from a small cohort of late stage Duchenne muscle dystrophy patients (median age 21, 4 male, 1 female). For these prototypic test subjects isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath and peripheral venous blood range between 0.09–0.47 and 0.11–0.72 nmol/l, respectively, amounting to a reduction by a factor of 8 and more as compared to established nominal levels in normal healthy adults. While it remains unclear whether isoprene can be ascribed a direct physiological mechanism of action, some indications are given as to why isoprene production might have evolved in muscle. PMID:22683640

  17. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  18. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  19. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  20. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  1. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  2. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of sort of assistive motion, help of the water, and you're not putting weight on the joint that's involved. Marion Minor, PT, Ph.D.: You can break your exercise session up into 10 minutes, three times a day and you get the same benefit as if you exercise for 30 minutes all ...

  3. Exercise through Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  4. Adenosine in exercise adaptation.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, R E; Phillis, J. W.

    1992-01-01

    By influencing the regulation of the mechanisms of angiogenesis, erythropoietin production, blood flow, myocardial glucose uptake, glycogenolysis, systolic blood pressure, respiration, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine levels, adenosine may exert a significant effect on the body's adaptation response to exercise. However, adenosine's possible influence over the vasodilatory response to exercise in skeletal muscle is controversial and more research is required to resolve this issue. Variou...

  5. Exercises in Computational Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16).......A selection of HyperChem© PC-exercises in computational chemistry. Answers to most questions are appended (Roskilde University 2014-16)....

  6. Cutting Edge Exercises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FENG'AN

    2010-01-01

    @@ On August 24, a fleet of three guided missile destroyers and several missile-carrying speedboats darted into the South China Sea. They were on the way to a military exercise in "attack and anti-attack maritime maneuvering formations and surface ship formations." The exercise was a component in a military campaign coded "Sword-2010."

  7. EXERCISE AND REACTION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise provides multiple benefits to an individual. It is known that exercising regularly can prevent coronary heart disease, hypertension and obesity and improve flexibility. The effect of exercise on visual reaction time needs to be studied, a s the existing data on the benefit of aerobic exercise on psychomotor functions is insufficient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online Visual reaction time is measured before and after exercise. Subjects were instructed to run on the spot with a springy step in ex aggerated motion for 50 to 60 counts at 2 counts per second, maintaining a constant rhythm. RESULTS: We observed that reaction time was significantly lower after performance of exercise. Individuals reported improved mental alertness, feel good factor, bet ter mood and increase circulation. CONCLUSION: Improving reaction times in sports can help the athlete to optimize his performance in making decisions and increasing attention span for example getting off the starting blocks sooner or successfully making c ontact with the ball. In addition this study shows that use of physical exercise helps improve cognitive function. Exercise proves to be a cheap non pharmacological alternative to improve cognitive performance.

  8. Turtle Graphics: Exercises in Haskell

    OpenAIRE

    Boiten, Eerke Albert

    2004-01-01

    This document contains a collection of programming exercises in the functional programming language Haskell. The exercises are all concerned with Turtle Graphics - interpreting and generating programs for ''turtles''.

  9. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral...

  10. Outcome of Breathing Exercise (Pranayam) on Spirometric Parameters in Type 2 Diabetic Individuals: a Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari S.; Tiwari S.K; Gehlot S.; Singh G.

    2012-01-01

    Pranayama aims by carrying the involuntary functions of the respiratory mechanism within human control. The term pranayama has comprised by two words: Prana + Ayama. Prana is the vital force and energy which permeates the whole universe. Prana is novel subtle than air and can be defined as the energy essence that is within everything in the universe. In present time emphasis is on the beneficial effects of Pranayam in various diseases i.e. diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity and depressi...

  11. Central modulators of human pain: Effects of oxytocin, exam stress, breathing exercises and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Zunhammer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The available means to control human pain are insufficient, novel mechanisms of pain modulation must be explored and understood. This cumulative dissertation comprises four studies, which explored potential means to modulate pain in the central nervous system. An overview on the current understanding of pain, its basic mechanisms, and its known modulators is provided. Study 1 tested if a high intranasal dose of the neuro-hypophyseal hormone oxytocin affected perception and processing of therm...

  12. The Effect of a Self-Monitored Relaxation Breathing Exercise on Male Adolescent Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Trudi; Barry, Leasha M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to contribute to the identification of effective interventions in the area of male adolescent aggressive behavior. Existing research includes both group- and single-case studies implementing treatments which typically include an anger-management component and its attendant relaxation and stress-reduction techniques. The design of…

  13. The usage of Strelnikova's breathing exercises a chronic disease of the sinus paranasalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikiy B.V.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is analysed that using in treatment of the chronic diseases sinus paranasalis of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity on system Yoga brings about defogging from viscous, thick, rack slime, liquidations of the stagnant phenomena's in nose cavity. Using the respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy does simple not traumatic drainage of the sinus paranasalis that brings about natural defogging nose cavity to account of the evacuations secret of the sinus paranasalis. Thereby, using in physical rehabilitation and recovery of the procedure of the washing to nose cavity for system Yoga with respiratory athletics Strelinikovoy enables significantly improves the condition of children in a dispensary condition.

  14. Mechanisms to dyspnoea and dynamic hyperinflation related exercise intolerance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Janos

    2015-06-01

    Expiratory flow limitation can develop in parallel with the progression of COPD, and as a consequence, dynamic hyperinflation and lung mechanical abnormalities can develop. Dynamic hyperinflation can cause increased breathlessness and reduction in exercise tolerance. Achievement of critical inspiratory reserve volume is one of the main factors in exercise intolerance. Obesity has specific lung mechanical effects. There is also a difference concerning gender and dyspnoea. Increased nerve activity is characteristic in hyperinflation. Bronchodilator therapy, lung volume reduction surgery, endurance training at submaximal intensity, and heliox or oxygen breathing can decrease the degree of dynamic hyperinflation. PMID:26100306

  15. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. (a) Each self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 84.70 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  16. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  17. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  18. Effects of diaphragm respiration exercise on pulmonary function of male smokers in their twenties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul; Park, Seung Hwan; Park, KwangYong

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] We investigated how diaphragm respiration exercises can affect pulmonary function in long-term male smokers in their twenties. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy males between 20 and 29 years of age were randomly divided into an experimental and a control group (14 members each). The experiment was conducted during 30 min sessions, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group performed diaphragm respiration exercises and the control group performed exercises using MOTOmed. Pulmonary function (tidal volume, breathing capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and expiratory reserve volume) was evaluated and analyzed before and after the experiment. [Results] Our results revealed significant increases in tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, inspiratory capacity, and breathing capacity in the experimental group. These increases were greater in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] In our study, the experimental group which performed diaphragm respiration exercises showed a greater improvement in pulmonary function compared with the control group. It is hypothesized that greater improvement in pulmonary function is expected if diaphragm respiration exercises are implemented taking into account the age of the smokers. PMID:26311972

  19. Pulmonary function and exercise-associated changes with chronic low-level paraquat exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, M B; Stoecklin, Maria T; Lee, Kiyoung; Lupercio, Rafael; Zeballos, R. Jorge; Enright, Paul; Hennessy, Tamara E.; Laurel A. Beckett

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that chronic, low-level paraquat exposure causes restrictive lung function with gas transfer impairment. Three hundred thirty-eight Costa Rican farm workers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms completed a questionnaire, spirometry and single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity. Subjects 40 years of age or older, without other medical risk factors, completed maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Most (66.6%) were paraquat hand...

  20. The relationship between respiratory exchange ratio, plasma lactate and muscle lactate concentrations in exercising horses using a valved gas collection system.

    OpenAIRE

    Gauvreau, G M; Young, S S; Staempfli, H; McCutcheon, L J; Wilson, B A; McDonell, W N

    1996-01-01

    A valved gas collection system for horses was validated, then used to examine the relationship between the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and plasma and muscle lactate in exercising horses. Four healthy Standardbred horses were trained to breathe through the apparatus while exercising on a treadmill. Comparisons of arterial blood gas tensions were made at 3 work levels for each horse, without (control), and with the gas collection system present. At the highest work level, the arterial oxy...

  1. Bounded Gain of Energy on the Breathing Circle Billiard

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphorst, Sylvie Oliffson; de Carvalho, Sonia Pinto

    1998-01-01

    The Breathing Circle is a 2-dimensional generalization of the Fermi Accelerator. It is shown that the billiard map associated to this model has invariant curves in phase space, implying that any particle will have bounded gain of energy.

  2. Breakdown in Breathing: The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe A Breakdown in Breathing The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited illness that ravages the ... B. Guggino, a researcher with the Johns Hopkins Cystic Fibrosis Center. But in CF, “the mucus gets sticky, ...

  3. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  4. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  5. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  6. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to...... participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  7. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  8. Acute Effect on Arterial Stiffness after Performing Resistance Exercise by Using the Valsalva Manoeuvre during Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yip Vincent Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Performing resistance exercise could lead to an increase in arterial stiffness. Objective. We investigate the acute effect on arterial stiffness by performing Valsalva manoeuvre during resistance exercise. Materials and Methods. Eighteen healthy young men were assigned to perform bicep curls by using two breathing techniques (exhalation and Valsalva manoeuvre during muscle contraction on two separate study days. Carotid pulsed wave velocity (cPWV was measured as an indicator to reflect the body central arterial stiffness using a high-resolution ultrasound system, and its value was monitored repeatedly at three predefined time intervals: before resistance exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise. Results. At the 0th minute after resistance exercise was performed using the Valsalva manoeuvre during exertion, a significant increase in cPWV (4.91 m/s ± 0.52 compared with the baseline value (4.67 m/s ± 0.32, P=0.008 was observed, and then it nearly returned to its baseline value at the 15th minute after exercise (4.66 m/s ± 0.44, P=0.010. These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion. Our result suggests short duration of resistance exercise may provoke a transient increase in central arterial stiffness in healthy young men.

  9. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  10. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  11. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Acharya Balkrishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management...

  12. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts’ Breathing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Baldi; Graziano Cerri; Franco Chiaraluce; Lorenzo Eusebi; Paola Russo

    2014-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing fre...

  13. Pattern of lung volumes in patients with sighing breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljadeff, G.; Molho, M; I. Katz; Benzaray, S.; Yemini, Z.; Shiner, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Sighing breathing is observed in subjects suffering from anxiety with no apparent organic disease. METHODS--Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates were measured in 12 patients with a sighing pattern of breathing and in 10 normal subjects matched for age, gender, and anthropometric data. In both groups the measurements were made by spirographic and plethysmographic techniques. In normal subjects functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) were measured during normal...

  14. Breathing Rate Prediction Using Finger-tip Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmanian, Holakou

    2015-01-01

    Personalized health-care is trending and individuals tend to wear sensors in order to record their own health data. As a part of this trend, any redundancy in the data captured by wearable sensors must be exploited to reduce the number of devices one may wear. In this thesis, we work with a device which senses breathing and pulse through pressure tube and pulse oximetry, respectively. Extracting the dependency between these two measurements, we approximately predict the breathing rate by firs...

  15. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  16. Resistance breathing with PEP and CPAP : effects on respiratory parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sehlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are two forms of resistance breathing used in spontaneously breathing patients. With a threshold resistor or a flow resistor, both PEP and CPAP provide a positive (elevated) pressure level during the expiratory phase. With PEP, inspiratory pressure is negative, i.e. lower than ambient air pressure, as during a normal inspiration, but with CPAP, the inspiratory pressure is positive, i.e. higher than a...

  17. Physiological modeling of isoprene dynamics in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    King, Julian; Koc, Helin; Unterkofler, Karl; Mochalski, Paweł; Kupferthaler, Alexander; Teschl, Gerald; Teschl, Susanne; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human breath contains a myriad of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are reflective of ongoing metabolic or physiological processes. While research into the diagnostic potential and general medical relevance of these trace gases is conducted on a considerable scale, little focus has been given so far to a sound analysis of the quantitative relationships between breath levels and the underlying systemic concentrations. This paper is devoted to a thorough mod...

  18. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  19. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  20. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A Aksenov; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M.; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlant...

  1. Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Keisuke; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging. Methods A series o...

  2. Alterations in Salivary Proteome following Single Twenty-Minute Session of Yogic Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yogic breathing (YB has been suggested to reduce stress and blood pressure and increase cognitive processes. However, alterations after YB at the molecular level are not well established. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized into two groups (N=10 per group: YB or attention controls (AC. The YB group performed two YB exercises, each for ten minutes, for a total of twenty minutes in a single session. AC group read a text of their choice for 20 minutes. Saliva was collected at baseline and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Using Mass Spectrometry (MS, we initially found that 22 proteins were differentially expressed and then validated deleted in malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1 and Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2 using Western Blotting. DMBT1 was elevated in 7 of YB group by 10-fold and 11-fold at 10 and 15 minutes, respectively, whereas it was undetectable in the time-matched AC group (P<0.05. There was a significant interaction between groups and time assessed by two-way ANOVA (P<0.001. IGLC2 also showed a significant increase in YB group as measured by Western Blotting. These data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating and detecting salivary protein biomarkers in response to an acute Yoga exercise. This trial is registered with ClincalTrials.gov NCT02108769.

  3. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  5. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Raoufy

    Full Text Available Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI and lung volume (LV among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management.

  6. Autonomic control of the heart during circular breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J F; Sollers, J J

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular method for probing the autonomic nervous system (ANS). A number of specific periodicities have been identified in the spectra of cardiac time series. One major mechanism involved in a number of these periodicities is respiratory modulation of neural traffic to the heart. One respiratory maneuver that has never been investigated is circular breathing. This technique is employed by wind musicians to produce an uninterrupted stream of sound without pauses for breathing. The current study examined the effects of circular breathing on ANS control of the heart in a highly proficient professional musician. Results indicated that circular breathing both with and without producing a sound was associated with altered autonomic control of the heart. Specifically, circular breathing was associated with increases in heart rate and decreases in high frequency HRV. This high frequency HRV has been most closely linked with respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiratory modulation of vagal neural traffic. We conclude that the examination of novel breathing maneuvers may help to illuminate the role of respiratory modulation of HRV. PMID:10834249

  7. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  8. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  9. Radioanalytical emergency response exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST Radiochemistry Intercomparison Program [NRIP]) and the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML Performance Testing [PT] 0904) recently conducted two separate radiological emergency preparedness exercises to evaluate participating radioanalytical laboratories' capability of making measurements under a short time constraint. Results of the exercises demonstrated that radioanalytical laboratories can respond within eight hours to better than a factor of two, laboratories need to do a better job of estimating uncertainties of their measurements, the quality of the laboratory capabilities must be appropriate and demonstrated prior to real emergencies, and exercises will help laboratories and consequence managers be prepared for the real event. (author)

  10. The Relationship Between Exercise Motivation, Exercise Adherence and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Kahaerjiang Abula; Zhongkai He

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship among college students` exercise motivation, exercise adherence and the level of their mental health. 217 undergraduate college students participated in this research. College Students` Mental Health Scale (CSMHS) and a scale created by authors were applied to investigate college students` mental health condition on six dimensions as well as exercise adherence, exercise motivation and exercise barriers .The results show that: (1) individu...

  11. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  12. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  13. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  14. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24 hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  15. Radial Breathing Modes in Cosmochemistry and Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wilson, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    One area of continuing interest in cosmochemistry and meteoritics (C&M) is the identification of the nature of Q-phase, although some researchers in C&M are not reporting relevant portions of Raman spectral data. Q is the unidentified carrier of noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Being carbonaceous, the focus has been on any number of Q-candidates arising from the sp2 hybridization of carbon (C). These all derive from various forms of graphene, a monolayer of C atoms packed into a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal honeycomb lattice that is the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensions for sp2 allotropes of C. As a basic lattice, 2D graphene can be curled into fullerenes (0D), wrapped into carbon nanotubes or CNTs (1D), and stacked into graphite (3D). These take such additional forms as scroll-like carbon whiskers, carbon fibers, carbon onions, GPCs (graphite polyhedral crystals) [6], and GICs (graphite intercalation compounds). Although all of these have been observed in meteoritics, the issue is which can explain the Q-abundances. In brief, one or more of the 0D-3D sp2 hybridization forms of C is Q. For some Q-candidates, the radial breathing modes (RBMs) are the most important Raman active vibrational modes that exist, and bear a direct relevance to solving this puzzle. Typically in C&M they are ignored when present. Their importance is addressed here as smoking-gun signatures for certain Q-candidates and are very relevant to the ultimate identification of Q.

  16. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  17. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... physical modalities for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that ... know that people who have OA of the hip and the knee can successfully use walking as ...

  18. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most effective at managing and ... joint, that you just held the joint in one position and tightened the muscles around it, was ...

  19. Diabetes and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behalf of the American Heart Association Exercise, Cardiac Rehabilitation, and Prevention Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; ...

  20. How Exercise Can Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Minor, Physical Therapist, Ph.D.: In all of the physical modalities for treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee, exercise really is the one that is the most effective at managing ...