WorldWideScience

Sample records for breathing apparatus

  1. 46 CFR 108.703 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.703 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.703 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each unit must be equipped with a self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 108.497(a) to use...

  2. 46 CFR 169.736 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 169.736 Section 169... VESSELS Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.736 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked...

  3. 46 CFR 108.635 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 108.635 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.635 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Each locker or space containing self-contained breathing apparatus must be marked: “SELF...

  4. 42 CFR 84.71 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus; required...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.71 Self-contained breathing apparatus; required components. (a) Each self-contained breathing apparatus described in § 84.70 shall, where its design requires, contain the...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-27 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 78.47-27 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-27 Self-contained breathing apparatus. Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked “SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS.”...

  6. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  7. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-20 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 97.37-20 Section 97... VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-20 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Lockers or spaces containing self-contained breathing apparatus shall be marked...

  9. 46 CFR 28.205 - Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus... the Aleutian Trade § 28.205 Fireman's outfits and self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel... equipped with at least two self-contained breathing apparatuses. (c) A fireman's outfit must consist of...

  10. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  11. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  12. 46 CFR 167.45-60 - Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps... Emergency breathing apparatus and flame safety lamps. Each nautical-school ship must be equipped with the following devices: (a) Two pressure-demand, open circuit, self-contained breathing apparatus, approved...

  13. Characteristics of breathing apparatus used in health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present state of knowledge makes it possible to envisage the calculation of doses absorbed by various parts of the respiration apparatus following inhalation of radio-active dusts contained in aerosols. After recalling some anatomical and histological considerations, the author presents various curves showing the deposition of dusts in the three parts of the breathing apparatus: - the rhino-pharynx - the trachea and wind-pipe - the pulmonary parenchyma. The dusts can be classified in three groups of biological solubility according to which the rates of elimination of the particles from the organs are different. A synthesis of these data is given in elimination diagrams. In order to calculate the doses it is necessary furthermore to know certain anatomical and physiological characteristics of a standard man. (author)

  14. 77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... the Pittsburgh Hyatt Regency, Pittsburgh International Airport (73 FR 65860, November 5, 2008). The... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 84 RIN 0920-AA38 Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining... revision to the current requirement for open-circuit self-contained breathing apparatus (OC-...

  15. Spreadsheet decision support model for MK 16 underwater breathing apparatus repair parts inventory management

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis proposes a spreadsheet-based decision support model for determining the most effective repair parts inventory for the MK 16 Underwater Breathing Apparatus (MK 16). Incorporating U.S. Navy demand information, the model provides the inventory manager the ability to modify repair parts inventories as changes occur to the order and shipping times, tempo of operations, or the number of MK 16 assigned. The thesis explores the current methods of MK 16 repair parts inventory design and re...

  16. Protection of self-contained breathing apparatus during high work rates and low operating pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous investigations of fire fighters' self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) at high work rates had indicated that only one-third of the SCBA tested could maintain the necessary pressure. SCBA must maintain positive facepiece pressure during high work rates at low cylinder pressures. During fire fighting use, the most critical need for SCBA protection may occur at the time the low pressure alarm sounds, and the fire fighter exits or conducts a rescue operation. Follow-up investigations on available SCBA at high work rates and low operating pressures were performed showing that current SCBA can maintain positive facepiece pressure, even though only one SCBA actually did it at the alarm point

  17. 42 CFR 84.70 - Self-contained breathing apparatus; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... oxygen concentration restored from sources composed of: (i) Compressed oxygen; or (ii) Chemical oxygen; or (iii) Liquid-oxygen. (2) Open-circuit apparatus. An apparatus of the following types from which exhalation is vented to the atmosphere and not rebreathed: (i) Demand-type apparatus. An apparatus in...

  18. Comparative analysis of oxygen breathing apparatus decompressor%氧气呼吸器减压器比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔宁

    2012-01-01

      The pressure reducing is an important part of the oxygen breathing apparatus,and is the heart of the oxygen breathing apparatus, The principle is that the oxygen in the oxygen cylinders in accordance with input pressure and output pressure can automatically adjust the device of the size of the outlet channel cross-section to achieve the purpose of decompression, so that the basic stability medium voltage output was ensured.%  减压器是氧气呼吸器的重要组成部分,是氧气呼吸器的心脏,其原理是气瓶中的氧气通过一个根据输入压力和输出压力高低能自动调节出气通道横截面的大小的装置来达到减压目的,以保证基本稳定中压的输出。

  19. Characteristics of breathing apparatus used in health physics; Caracteristiques de l'appareil respiratoire utilisables en radioprotection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perissin-Pirasset, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The present state of knowledge makes it possible to envisage the calculation of doses absorbed by various parts of the respiration apparatus following inhalation of radio-active dusts contained in aerosols. After recalling some anatomical and histological considerations, the author presents various curves showing the deposition of dusts in the three parts of the breathing apparatus: - the rhino-pharynx - the trachea and wind-pipe - the pulmonary parenchyma. The dusts can be classified in three groups of biological solubility according to which the rates of elimination of the particles from the organs are different. A synthesis of these data is given in elimination diagrams. In order to calculate the doses it is necessary furthermore to know certain anatomical and physiological characteristics of a standard man. (author) [French] L'etat actuel des connaissances permet d'envisager le calcul des doses recues par les differentes parties de l'arbre respiratoire, a la suite d'inhalation de poussieres radioactives contenues dans des aerosols. Apres un rappel de notions anatomiques et histologiques, nous presentons differentes courbes de depot des poussieres dans les trois etages respiratoires: - le rhino-pharynx - la trachee et les bronches - le parenchyme pulmonaire. Les poussieres peuvent etre classees en trois groupes de solubilite biologique selon lesquels les vitesses d'elimination des particules a partir des organes sont differentes. Ceci peut etre synthetise dans des schemas d'elimination. Pour permettre le calcul des doses, il faut en outre disposer des caracteristiques d'un homme standard, du point de vue anatomique et physiologique. (auteur)

  20. The use of superoxide mixtures as air-revitalization chemicals in hyperbaric, self-contained, closed-circuit breathing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, P. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    In portable breathing apparatus applications at 1 atm, potassium superoxide (KO2) has exhibited low-utilization efficiency of the available oxygen (O2) and diminished carbon dioxide-(CO2) scrubbing capacity caused by the formation of a fused, hydrated-hydroxide/carbonate product coating on the superoxide granules. In earlier work, it was discovered that granules fabricated from an intimate mixture of KO2 and calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2, did not exhibit formation of a fused product coating and the utilization efficiency with respect to both O2 release and CO2 absorption was superior to KO2 granules when both types of granules were reacted with humidified CO2 under identified conditions. In the work described here, single pellets of KO2, KO2/Ca(O2), mixtures and commercially available KO2 tables and granules were reacted with a flow of humidified CO2 in helium at 1- and 10-atm total pressure and at an initial temperature of 40 C. In the 1-atm flow tests, the reaction rates and utilization efficiency of the KO2/Ca(O2)2 pellets were markedly superior to the KO2 pellets, tablets, and granules when the samples were reacted under identical conditions. However, at 10 atm, the rates of O2 release and CO2 absorption, as well as the utilization efficiencies of all the superoxide samples, were one-third to one-eighth of the values observed at 1 atm. The decrease in reaction performance at 10 atm compared to that at 1 atm has been attributed principally to the lower bulk diffusivity of the CO2 and H2O reactants in helium at the higher pressure and secondarily to the moderation of the reaction temperature caused by the higher heat capacity of the 10-atm helium.

  1. Respirator studies for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Evaluation and performance of escape-type self-contained breathing apparatus. Progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, A.; Trujillo, A.; Carter, K.; Bradley, O.D.

    1980-07-01

    The performance of escape type breathing apparatus was evaluated for weight, comfort, ease of use, and protection factor (calculated from facepiece leakage). All of the devices tested provided a self-contained air supply of 5- to 15-min duration. Five of them have the provision to connect an air line but allow the use of the self-contained supply for safe egress. The air supply was stored in cylinders, tubing, or disposable containers. Respiratory inlet coverings were half masks, full facepieces, hoods, and mouthpieces. An estimate is given for the ease of quick donning. Recommendations for conditions of use of the equipment are given. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  3. Discussion on test and application of Reilly breathing technique for self-contained breathing apparatus%自给正压式空气呼吸器R式呼吸法测试与应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晔

    2014-01-01

    Reilly emergency breathing technique,as one of basic skills of fireground survival for firefighters,can efficiently prolong the consumption time of self-contained breathing apparatus in case of disorientation,trauma or entrapment,and raise the success rate of rapid intervention. The values were tested,compared and analyzed be-tween the consumption time of 5 . 5 MPa air in cylinder with normal breathing model and Reilly emergency breathing technique in the state of running at 6 Km/h in treadmill and prone position in the field,and the proposal was put forward that the Reilly emergency breathing technique should be trained in the fire brigade and the rapid interven-tion system should be completed and implemented in order to improve the skills of breathing protection and the op-portunity of fireground survival.%对遇险消防员迅速实施二次救援是目前减少消防员火场伤亡的重要措施。当遭遇迷失、受伤、被困等意外而依靠自身的力量无法脱险、或空气呼吸器低压报警装置起鸣时,消防员如果能延长空气呼吸器的使用时间,就能够为外部救援力量的二次救援提供宝贵的时间,为成功获救创造条件。测试采用自由呼吸和R式呼吸法两种呼吸方式下、在跑步机上以6km/h的速度快步行走和俯卧状伏于地面两种运动状态下5.5MPa空气的使用时间。结果证明,采用R式呼吸法较之自由呼吸时空气的使用时间更长,采用R式呼吸法俯卧状伏于地面能更有效地延长空气的使用时间。为了提高火场遇险消防员的生存机率,应将R式呼吸法作为消防员基本生存技能纳入灭火救援业务训练大纲,规范消防员火场避险行动程序,并系统化地开展实战化专项训练。

  4. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  5. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  6. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  7. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  8. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  9. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  10. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  11. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  12. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

  13. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  14. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  15. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  16. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  17. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  18. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  19. 42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the...

  20. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  1. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  2. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  3. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  4. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  5. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  6. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  7. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  8. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  9. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  10. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  11. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  12. Decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus for decontaminating radioactive components consists of an attachment mechanism for completely suspending the apparatus from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator, a first drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a first direction, a second drive mechanism for pivoting the apparatus in a second direction, and a third drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a third independent direction. The apparatus also has a dual nozzle arrangement attached to the third drive mechanism for directing a water-grit mixture toward the component to be decontaminated. The apparatus provides a mechanism for remotely decontaminating the channel head of a nuclear steam generator so as to allow working personnel to enter therein. It is likely that less than 0.001 inches of metal surface will be removed from the steam generator using alumina or magnetite grit

  13. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Reducing the treatment margin for organ motion during breathing reduces the volume of irradiated normal tissues. This may allow a higher dose of radiation to be delivered to the target volume for thoracic and abdominal tumors. However, such margin reduction must not increase the risk of marginal misses which may lead to local failure. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of using Active Breathing Control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Planning CT scans and radiation delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions such that a minimal margin for breathing motion can be prescribed safely. Methods and Materials. An active breathing control (ABC) apparatus was constructed consisting of two pairs of flow monitor and scissors valve; one each to control the inhalation and exhalation paths to the patient. The patient breathed through a mouth-piece or face mask connected to the ABC apparatus. A personal computer was used to process the respiratory signal and to display the changing lung volume in real-time. At some time after the patient achieved a stable breathing pattern, the operator activated ABC at a pre-selected point in the breathing cycle. Both valves were then closed to immobilize breathing motion. The period of active breath-hold was that which could be comfortably and repeatedly tolerated by each individual patient, as determined during a training session. The feasibility of the ABC procedure was studied by acquiring volumetric CT scans of a patient during active breath-hold. A helical CT scanner was used. These ABC scans were acquired at one-half to one-third the dose delivered with routine CT scanning. Nine patients with tumors in the thorax and abdomen were studied. Contiguous CT slices were obtained for a region which encompassed the target volume. At least 4 sets of volumetric scans were obtained; one with the patient breathing normally; two ABC scans at the same point near the end of normal inspiration

  14. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  15. Vitrification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A vitrification apparatus was installed on November 1981 in No.2 cell of Waste Safty Testing Facility(WASTEF) in order to prepare samples for safety performance tests of HLW vitrified forms under the simulated conditions of long-term storage and disposal. The apparatus is capable to make a vitrified product of 5 litters in maximum volume and of 50,000 Ci in maximum radioactivity including actual HLW. On November 1982 the hot operation of the apparatus has been started after cold test oparations of 53 runs. The report describes outlines of the design and results of the performance tests. (author)

  16. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  17. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  18. Radioimmunoassay apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for performing a quantitative radioimmunoassay comprising: a substantially spherical bead for carrying an antibody and a gripper for gripping said bead, said gripper comprising an integrally formed unit having a single elongate handle portion and a plurality of resilient fingers arranged at the base of the handle so that when said bead is secured within said fingers, said bead may be freely rotated about any diametric axis of the bead. In particular the invention relates to an apparatus for a two site immunoradiometric assay for serum ferritin in human blood samples. (author)

  19. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  20. [Demand for cleanliness of anesthesia machines and apparatus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuda, Haruyuki; Ozawa, Yoshiko; Miyake, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    (1) Outer surface of anesthesia machines and patient monitors, and breathing bags are exposed to the contaminated anesthetists' hands and fingers. Disinfection by wiping surface of anesthesia machines with alcohol, and disinfecting hands and fingers with rubbing-type, alcohol-based antiseptics are encouraged. (2) Anesthesia equipments' breathing circuit part is contaminated by patients' breath and respiratory secretions. It is necessary to set rules for exchange of breathing circuit tubes and breathing bags, periodical cleansing and disinfection of canisters as well as inhalation and exhalation valves, and usage of bacteria filters. (3) Anesthesia apparatus (laryngoscope, tracheal tube and suction tube) contact with patients' oral cavity and airway, and thus they are categorized as semi-critical items that require high-level disinfection. PMID:20486566

  1. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  2. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  3. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  4. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  5. Drying apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particulate material, eg. fuel pellets for a nuclear reactor, is moved along a spiral path during drying by vibration of the path structure. Preferred apparatus comprises a hollow cone with a conical flight defining a path of travel having an inlet for the material and an outlet. The cone is heated by a radiant heater within the cone which itself is vibrated or oscillated about column. A cone provides an air space in which air can circulate and leave by convection through chimney. The flight may have a pile providing a fibrous surface for engaging the material. (author)

  6. 75 FR 61386 - Emergency Escape Breathing Apparatus Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... example, carbon dioxide, chlorine gas, and anhydrous ammonia. Such commodities should be easily... this section of the RSIA to the Administrator of FRA. 74 FR 26981, 26982, June 5, 2009, 49 CFR 1.49(oo..., which is posted at http://www.fra.dot.gov/downloads/Research/ord0911.pdf and included in the docket...

  7. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  8. New operational technology of intrauterine ventilation the fetus lungs by breathing gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakov, A. L.; Nikityuk, D. B.; Urakova, N. A.; Kasankin, A. A.; Chernova, L. V.; Dementiev, V. B.

    2015-11-01

    New operational technology for elimination intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia of the fetus using endoscopic artificial ventilation lungs by respiratory gas was developed. For intrauterine ventilation of fetal lung it is proposed to enter into the uterus a special breathing mask and wear it on the head of the fetus using the original endoscopic technology. The breathing mask, developed by us is connected with external breathing apparatus with a hose. The device is called "intrauterine aqualung". Intrauterine aqualung includes a ventilator and breathing circuit with a special fold-out breathing mask that is put on inside the uterus on the head of fetus like a mesh hat. Controlled by ultrasound the technology of the introduction of the mask inside of the uterus through the natural opening in the cervix and technology of putting on the respiratory mask on the head of the fetus with its head previa were developed. The technology intrauterine ventilation of the fetus lungs by respiratory gas was developed.

  9. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  10. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  11. Clinical applications of breath testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  13. Introduction of the carbon dioxide absorption method with closed circle breathing into anesthesia practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foregger, R

    2000-07-01

    The circle breathing CO2 absorption system for use during acetylene anesthesia was described by Carl Gauss in 1924/1925. The apparatus was manufactured by Drägerwerk of Lübeck. A considerable number of publications on the apparatus employing the closed circle method of CO2 absorption appeared in the medical press soon thereafter. Later apparatus models, also built by Drägerwerk, were adapted for nitrous oxide-oxygen-ether anesthesia and introduced into practice by Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt. Information about all this was transmitted to America through the German medical press, including the Draeger-Hefte. American anesthesia machine manufacturers began to develop closed circle CO2 absorbers several years later. Claims that the circle breathing CO2 absorption method was introduced into anesthesia practice by Brian Sword are not valid. PMID:10969391

  14. Pore roller filtration apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of filtering, more precisely the present invention concerns an apparatus and a method for the separation of dry matter from a medium and the use of said apparatus. One embodiment discloses an apparatus for the separation of dry matter from a medium, comp...

  15. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  16. To breathe free

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book was organized by the Center's East European program and supported primarily by a grant from the Rockefeller Brothers' Fund. This book reports on the new political forces that swept Communist regimes from power throughout the region in 1989 and are now struggling to set up post-Communist governments and institutions. Nor need they do so. This volume does not attempt to be a current account of the state of environmental policy and official institutions in Eastern Europe. New institutions are only slowly taking shape. In the meantime, much of the old apparatus remains in place. The new leaders and parties have found it difficult to cover the economic cost or accept the political risk of imposing expensive environmental controls on the large industrial enterprises that are the principal polluters. In Poland and Hungary we see the real threat of a political backlash from workers facing unemployment when such enterprises lose even part of their state budget subsidy, let alone face new charges for pollution control or penalties for its absence. The separate environmental movement that played a prominent part in the overthrow of Communist power has not, moreover, survived as a powerful separate political party anywhere in Eastern Europe. Its chances appeared greatest in East Germany and Czechoslovakia but in neither place has the Green political organization expanded or even maintained its pre-1989 leverage

  17. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  18. Morphology of the hyoid apparatus of some species of odontocetes from southern Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Jacobs Pretto; Gabriela de Oliveira; Maurício Eduardo Graipel; Paulo César Simões-Lopes

    2009-01-01

    The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes serves as a major attachment point for the muscles and ligaments that subserve breathing, sound production and swallowing. However, most of the literature on anatomy does not consider the bones of this region, presenting general osteological descriptions without considering the comparative aspects. This study sought to determine the intra and interspecific variations of the ossified hyoid apparatus elements from six species of odontocetus. We studied 96 hyoi...

  19. Portable containment sleever apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Michael J.; Brown, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    A sleever apparatus includes an inner member with a central passage through which an item to be sleeved is passed. An outer member surrounds the inner member and defines a space between the members for holding a supply of containment material, which is preferably plastic sleeving. The apparatus has a handle which allows a user to hold the apparatus and walk the apparatus along the length of the item to be sleeved. As the user passes the item through the sleever apparatus, the containment material exits through a slit at one end of the apparatus in order to contain the item. The sleever apparatus may be formed of disposable materials, such as cardboard, and may be intended for a single use application. Alternatively, the sleever apparatus may be comprised of more permanent materials such as PVC or fiberglass. The sleever apparatus may include a serrated end for cutting the containment material and may include appropriate tubing and valves for either directing an inert gas into the containment material around the item or for withdrawing air from within the containment material in order to create a vacuum. In one embodiment, the sleever apparatus has a cartridge that can be replaced with another cartridge once the supply of the containment material has been depleted.

  20. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... sensing as other systems rely on either measuring the airflow at the mouth and nose through a mask or with a stretchable wire around the chest. In this paper a wireless system that is able to measure the breath rate of a human from a distance is presented. The system is based on a commercially available...

  1. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  2. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to...... compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  3. Radiative Gasification Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This apparatus, developed at EL, determines gasification rate (mass loss rate) of a horizontally oriented specimen exposed in a nitrogen environment to a controlled...

  4. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  5. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  6. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  7. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  8. The effects of exercise on the chemical control of breathing in man

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit, Jaideep Jagdeesh.; Robbins, Peter A.; Dr. Peter Robbins

    1993-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the chemical control of breathing during exercise in humans.Chapter 1 reviews some of the relevant studies in animals and humans.Chapter 2 describes the experimental apparatus and the technique of dynamic end-tidal forcing performed using a computer-controlled gas-mixing system.Chapter 3 describes a study of the effects of sustained hypoxia on ventilation during steady exercise. The acute ventilatory response to hypoxia (AHR) was increased during exercis...

  9. X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  10. Apparatus for Teaching Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Herbert H., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Describes: (1) a variable inductor suitable for an inductance-capacitance bridge consisting of a fixed cylindrical solenoid and a moveable solenoid; (2) long-range apparatus for demonstrating falling bodies; and (3) an apparatus using two lasers to demonstrate ray optics. (SK)

  11. 21 CFR 868.5620 - Breathing mouthpiece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing mouthpiece. 868.5620 Section 868.5620...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5620 Breathing mouthpiece. (a) Identification. A breathing mouthpiece is a rigid device that is inserted into a patient's mouth and...

  12. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  13. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  14. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  15. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  16. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an over...

  17. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  18. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  19. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  20. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  1. Laser 3-D measuring system and real-time visual feedback for teaching and correcting breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povšič, Klemen; Fležar, Matjaž; Možina, Janez; Jezeršek, Matija

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel method for real-time 3-D body-shape measurement during breathing based on the laser multiple-line triangulation principle. The laser projector illuminates the measured surface with a pattern of 33 equally inclined light planes. Simultaneously, the camera records the distorted light pattern from a different viewpoint. The acquired images are transferred to a personal computer, where the 3-D surface reconstruction, shape analysis, and display are performed in real time. The measured surface displacements are displayed with a color palette, which enables visual feedback to the patient while breathing is being taught. The measuring range is approximately 400×600×500 mm in width, height, and depth, respectively, and the accuracy of the calibrated apparatus is +/-0.7 mm. The system was evaluated by means of its capability to distinguish between different breathing patterns. The accuracy of the measured volumes of chest-wall deformation during breathing was verified using standard methods of volume measurements. The results show that the presented 3-D measuring system with visual feedback has great potential as a diagnostic and training assistance tool when monitoring and evaluating the breathing pattern, because it offers a simple and effective method of graphical communication with the patient.

  2. Sludge recovery apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of a sludge recovery apparatus used in the fabrication of nuclear fuel is described. This apparatus provides for automatic separation of sludge from the grinder coolant, drying of the sludge into a flowable powder and transfer of the dry powder to a salvage container. It can be constructed to comply with criticality-safe-geometry requirements and to obviate need for operating personnel in its immediate vicinity. (UK)

  3. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  4. BREATHING PROTECTION EQUIPMENT CONSUMPTION: CONTRIBUTION FROM AN EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Corrêa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an experimental protocol for calculatingthe breathable air consumption on Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA used by firefighters during operations in smoke environment, especially in firefighting operations. The actual protocol is based on particularities forvaried Fire Departments. Even though the Fire Departments are similar in their activities and collaborative spirit, each institution has different equipment, works under a specific ambient temperature, and has peculiar training programs, representing a unique organism. Creating a simple protocol makes it possible to be easily repeated, establishing, that way,the air consumption during SCBAuse by any Fire Department. One case study in a significant sample of on Battalion of Recife – PE, Brazil, will be presented, creating a reference of air consumption for firefighters during low, middle and high effort during firefighting.

  5. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  6. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  7. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  8. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  9. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A Zope; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefit...

  10. Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectivel...

  11. How to Interpret Hydrogen Breath Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO a...

  12. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  13. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  14. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  15. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.; Johansen, Jacob; Skov, Peter Vilhelm; Steffensen, John F.; Svendsen, Morten Bo S.; Abe, Augusto

    gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish...

  16. Robot arm apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  17. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  18. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  19. Current measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umans, Stephen D.

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  20. Fluidized bed apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus invented features and envelope with a cooling sleeve containing a treatment chamber with an escape duct, vacuum pump and intake pipes for a coating gas and a conveyor gas; these gases are sent into a special nozzle provided with a central passage for the coating gas and an annular outer passage for the conveyor gas which is heated on its way through, the nozzle being so designed that the gases do not mix until immediately before injection into the chamber. Such an apparatus can be used in particular to form coatings holding back fission products on nuclear fuel nuclei

  1. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  2. Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Breathing Easier Apolo Ohno: Breathing Easier Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... training, I started experiencing decreased exercise endurance, trouble breathing, and coughing. These symptoms affected my ability to ...

  3. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Printable Version (PDF—498 kb) Coping with Grief Breathing Problems? Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD ... health care provider and ask for a simple breathing test called spirometry. Together, you can come up ...

  4. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...

  5. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  6. Floating decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is disclosed for decontaminating a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. It comprises a buoyant annular frame which descends into the vessel as the water level within it is lowered. Spray nozzles move around the frame on trolleys in a reciprocating fashion and spray water under high pressure on the inner surface of the vessel wall, resulting in automatic washdown of the reactor vessel

  7. Apparatus for obstacle traversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Johann

    2004-08-10

    An apparatus for traversing obstacles having an elongated, round, flexible body that includes a plurality of drive track assemblies. The plurality of drive track assemblies cooperate to provide forward propulsion wherever a propulsion member is in contact with any feature of the environment, regardless of how many or which ones of the plurality of drive track assemblies make contact with such environmental feature.

  8. Holographic Animation Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple apparatus for producing strip holograms with a number of slit-shaped exposures displaced along the vertical direction. The hologram maintains full horizontal parallax, but the slit aperture reduces the vertical viewing angle of the animated object. (Author/GA)

  9. A monostrain test apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helf, J. C.; Hill, W. L.; Pontius, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Test apparatus is designed for determining tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation, and thermal coefficient of contraction or expansion of uniformly shaped plastics, adhesives, and foam materials over temperature range of 700 to 90 K (800 to -300). Tests may be used in design quality control, and in evaluation of new adhesives and plastic materials.

  10. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  11. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept of...... time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well...

  12. Breathing synchronization in interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, V H P; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2013-01-01

    The harmony of an orchestra emerges from the individual effort of musicians towards mutual synchronization of their tempi. When the orchestra is split between two concert halls communicating via Internet, a time delay is imposed which might hinder synchronization. We describe this type of system as two interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay and analyze its dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a breathing synchronization regime, namely, for a wide range of parameters, two groups emerge in the orchestra within the same concert hall playing at different tempi. Each group has a mirror in the other hall, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their mirrors. For strong couplings, a phase shift between halls might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed.

  13. Archimedes Force on Casimir Apparatus

    CERN Document Server

    Shevchenko, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    We address a problem of Casimir apparatus in dense medium and weak gravitational field. The falling of the apparatus has to be governed by the equivalence principle, with proper account for contributions to the weight of the apparatus from its material part and from distorted quantum fields. We discuss general expression for the corresponding force in metric with cylindrical symmetry. By way of example we compute explicit expression for Archimedes force, acting on the Casimir apparatus of finite size, immersed into thermal bath of free scalar field. It is shown that besides universal term, proportional to the volume of the apparatus, there are non-universal quantum corrections, depending on the boundary conditions.

  14. Preferred states of the apparatus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anu Venugopalan

    2012-02-01

    A simple one-dimensional model for the system–apparatus interaction is analysed. The system is a spin-1/2 particle, and its position and momentum degrees constitute the apparatus. An analysis involving only unitary Schrödinger dynamics illustrates the nature of the correlations established in the system–apparatus entangled state. It is shown that even in the absence of any environment-induced decoherence, or any other measurement model, certain initial states of the apparatus – like localized Gaussian wavepackets – are preferred over others, in terms of measurementlike one-to-one correlations in the pure system–apparatus entangled state.

  15. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  16. Delayed feedback applied to breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, N. B.; Pototsky, A.; Parkes, C.

    2013-10-01

    We studied the response of healthy volunteers to the delayed feedback generated from the breathing signals. Namely, in the freely-breathing volunteers the breathing signal was recorded, delayed by τ seconds and fed back to the same volunteer in real time in the form of a visual and auditory stimulus of low intensity, i.e. the stimulus was crucially non-intrusive. In each case volunteers were instructed to breathe in the way which was most comfortable for them, and no explanation about the kind of applied stimulus was provided to them. Each volunteer experienced 10 different delay times ranging between 10% and 100% of the average breathing period without external stimulus. It was observed that in a significant proportion of subjects (11 out of 24) breathing was slowed down in the presence of delayed feedback with moderate delay. Also, in 6 objects out of 24 the delayed feedback was able to induce transition from nearly periodic to irregular breathing. These observations are consistent with the phenomena observed in numerical simulation of the models of periodic and chaotic self-oscillations with delays, and also in experiments with simpler self-oscillating systems.

  17. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  18. Gas turbine sealing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, David J; Wessell, Brian J; Ebert, Todd; Beeck, Alexander; Liang, George; Marussich, Walter H

    2013-02-19

    A gas turbine includes forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, a row of stationary vanes between the forward and aft rows of rotatable blades, an annular intermediate disc, and a seal housing apparatus. The forward and aft rows of rotatable blades are coupled to respective first and second portions of a disc/rotor assembly. The annular intermediate disc is coupled to the disc/rotor assembly so as to be rotatable with the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine. The annular intermediate disc includes a forward side coupled to the first portion of the disc/rotor assembly and an aft side coupled to the second portion of the disc/rotor assembly. The seal housing apparatus is coupled to the annular intermediate disc so as to be rotatable with the annular intermediate disc and the disc/rotor assembly during operation of the gas turbine.

  19. Electrowinning apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschmann, Wayne E. (Boulder, CO)

    2012-06-19

    Apparatus and processes are disclosed for electrowinning metal from a fluid stream. A representative apparatus comprises at least one spouted bed reactor wherein each said reactor includes an anolyte chamber comprising an anode and configured for containing an anolyte, a catholyte chamber comprising a current collector and configured for containing a particulate cathode bed and a flowing stream of an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid, and a membrane separating said anolyte chamber and said catholyte chamber, an inlet for an electrically conductive metal-containing fluid stream; and a particle bed churning device configured for spouting particle bed particles in the catholyte chamber independently of the flow of said metal-containing fluid stream. In operation, reduced heavy metals or their oxides are recovered from the cathode particles.

  20. Radiation therapy imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a radiation therapy imaging apparatus for providing images in a patient being treated on a radiation therapy apparatus for verification and monitoring of patient positioning and verification of alignment and shaping of the radiation field of the radiation therapy apparatus. It comprises: a high-energy treatment head for applying a radiation dose to a patient positioned on a treatment table, and a gantry rotatable about an isocentric axis and carrying the treatment head for permitting the radiation dose to be applied to the patient from any of a range of angles about the isocentric axis; the radiation therapy imaging apparatus including a radiation therapy image detector which comprises a video camera mounted on the gantry diametrically opposite the treat head, an elongated light-excluding enclosure enveloping the camera to exclude ambient light from the camera, a fluoroscopic plate positioned on a distal end of the enclosure remote from the camera and aligned with the head to produce a fluoroscopic image in response to radiation applied from the head through the patient, mirror means in the enclosure and oriented for reflecting the image to the camera to permit monitoring on a viewing screen of the position of the radiation field in respect to the patient, and means for retracting at least the distal end of the enclosure from a position in which the fluoroscopic plate is disposed opposite the treatment head without disturbing the position of the camera on the gantry, so that the enclosure can be collapsed and kept from projecting under the treatment table when the patient is being positioned on the treatment table

  1. Tomogram forming apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and, in particular, a tomogram forming apparatus which permits, with great efficiency, the very sensitive quantitative determination and the accurate spatial localization of the radioactivity of a body section of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The scanner is characterized by its chassis carrying highly inwardly focused collimators around a scanning field and by several collimator rigs and translation and rotational drive systems

  2. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  3. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  4. 21 CFR 868.5270 - Breathing system heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing system heater. 868.5270 Section 868.5270...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5270 Breathing system heater. (a) Identification. A breathing system heater is a device that is intended to warm breathing gases before they...

  5. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 25.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) Fixed (stationary, or built in) protective breathing equipment must be installed for the use of the flightcrew, and at least one portable protective breathing equipment shall...

  7. 14 CFR 121.337 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 121.337... Protective breathing equipment. (a) The certificate holder shall furnish approved protective breathing equipment (PBE) meeting the equipment, breathing gas, and communication requirements contained in...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5250 - Breathing circuit circulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit circulator. 868.5250 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5250 Breathing circuit circulator. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit circulator is a turbine device that is attached to a closed breathing...

  9. Water intake fish diversion apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fish diversion apparatus uses a plane screen to divert fish for variety of types of water intakes in order to protect fish from injury and death. The apparatus permits selection of a relatively small screen angle, for example ten degrees, to minimize fish injury. The apparatus permits selection of a high water velocity, for example ten feet per second, to maximize power generation efficiency. The apparatus is especially suitable retrofit to existing water intakes. The apparatus is modular to allow use plural modules in parallel to adjust for water flow conditions. The apparatus has a floor, two opposite side walls, and a roof which define a water flow passage and a plane screen within the passage. The screen is oriented to divert fish into a fish bypass which carries fish to a safe discharge location. The dimensions of the floor, walls, and roof are selected to define the dimensions of the passage and to permit selection of the screen angle. The floor is bi-level with a level upstream of the screen and a level beneath screen selected to provide a uniform flow distribution through the screen. The apparatus may include separation walls to provide a water flow channel between the apparatus and the water intake. Lead walls may be used to adjust water flow conditions into the apparatus. The apparatus features stoplog guides near its upstream and downstream ends to permit the water flow passage to be dewatered. 3 figs

  10. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Breathing exercises for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a common long-term condition that remains poorly controlled in many people despite the availability of pharmacological interventions, evidence-based treatment guidelines and care pathways.(1) There is considerable public interest in the use of non-pharmacological approaches for the treatment of asthma.(2) A survey of people with asthma reported that many have used complementary and alternative medicine, often without the knowledge of their clinical team.(3) Such interventions include breathing techniques, herbal products, homeopathy and acupuncture. The role of breathing exercises within the management of asthma has been controversial, partly because early claims of effectiveness were exaggerated.(4) UK national guidance and international guidelines on the management of asthma have included the option of breathing exercise programmes as an adjuvant to pharmacological treatment.(5,6) Here we discuss the types of breathing exercises used and review the evidence for their effectiveness. PMID:26563876

  12. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  13. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S;

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.6...... as a measure of vagal function a number of factors have to be taken into consideration and to simplify the analysis of heart rate responses to breathing we recommend, instead, the use of the transient changes in heart rate induced by stepwise changes in lung volume.......Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...

  14. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence...

  15. Oropharyngeal origin of markers in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Marteus, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Normal NO formation in the human airways occurs primarily in the nasal airways, where it is catalyzed by inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and in the oropharyngeal tract, via as yet not fully defined pathways. This NO can be detected in exhaled breath and when inflammation is present in the airways, for example in asthma, the concentration of NO is increased. Although most studies on non-invasive measurements of airway inflammation have focused on NO in exhaled breath, there has...

  16. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  17. Breath-based biomarkers for tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolk, Arend H. J.; van Berkel, Joep J. B. N.; Claassens, Mareli M.; Walters, Elisabeth; Kuijper, Sjoukje; Dallinga, Jan W.; van Schooten, Fredrik-Jan

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the potential of breath analysis by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to discriminate between samples collected prospectively from patients with suspected tuberculosis (TB). Samples were obtained in a TB endemic setting in South Africa where 28% of the culture proven TB patients had a Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) negative sputum smear. A training set of breath samples from 50 sputum culture proven TB patients and 50 culture negative non-TB patients was analyzed by GC-MS. A classification model with 7 compounds resulted in a training set with a sensitivity of 72%, specificity of 86% and accuracy of 79% compared with culture. The classification model was validated with an independent set of breath samples from 21 TB and 50 non-TB patients. A sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 84% and accuracy of 77% was found. We conclude that the 7 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that discriminate breath samples from TB and non-TB patients in our study population are probably host-response related VOCs and are not derived from the VOCs secreted by M. tuberculosis. It is concluded that at present GC-MS breath analysis is able to differentiate between TB and non-TB breath samples even among patients with a negative ZN sputum smear but a positive culture for M. tuberculosis. Further research is required to improve the sensitivity and specificity before this method can be used in routine laboratories.

  18. A free-breathing lung motion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianyu

    Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer deaths for decades in the United States. Although radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments, side effects from error in delivery of radiation due to organ motion during breathing remain a significant issue. To compensate the breathing motion during the treatment, a free breathing lung motion model, x= x0+αv+betaf, was developed and discussed, where x is the position of a piece of tissue located at reference position x0. α is a parameter which characterizes the motion due to local air filling (motion as a function of tidal volume) and beta is the parameter that accounts for the motion due to the imbalance of dynamical stress distributions during inspiration and exhalation which cause lung motion hysteresis (motion as a function of airflow). The parameters α and beta together provide a quantitative characterization of breathing motion that inherently includes the complex hysteresis interplay. The theoretical foundation of the model was built by investigating the stress distribution inside of a lung and the biomechanical properties of the lung tissues. Accuracy of the model was investigated by using 49 free-breathing patient data sets. Applications of the model in localizing lung cancer, monitoring radiation damage and suppressing artifacts in free-breathing PET images were also discussed. This work supported in part by NIHR01CA096679 and NIHR01CA116712.

  19. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ching Liao; Han-Hong Lin; He-Lin Ruo; Po-Hsiang Hsu

    2015-01-01

    In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath...

  20. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  1. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning apparatus is disclosed for use in computerized axial tomography systems. The apparatus includes an assembly rotatable about an axis extending along a central opening defined therein, and means for positioning the body portion to be examined within the central opening so that the axis of assembly rotation is perpendicular to a plane passing through the bodily structures to be examined. A source of penetrating radiation is mounted on the assembly toward one side thereof and provides radiation in the form of a fan beam. Detector means for the radiation are positioned on the assembly opposite the source, enabling detection of radiation which traverses laterally and is not absorbed in the thin body section in which the aforementioned plane resides. Means are provided for rotating the assembly so that the fan beam impinges upon said body portion at a plurality of incident directions. Signal processing and conditioning means mounted on the assembly and movable therewith, receive the output signals from the detector means and amplify and convert same to digital form. Slip ring interconnection means rotatable with the assembly, receive the outputs from the signal processors and conditioners and interfeed these signals to a computerized image reconstruction station. Slip rings rotatable with the assembly also provide interconnection enabling power and control inputs to the radiation source and to other portions of the apparatus. The assembly is continuously rotatable through successive 360 degree rotations and the examination sequence may be initiated at any point in the rotation of the assembly. The detector comprises an array of elements and means are provided for adjusting the gains of each channel associated with the individual detector elements as an incident of the examination process, thereby enabling compensation for drift in the channels

  2. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  3. The ATHENA antihydrogen apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATHENA apparatus that recently produced and detected the first cold antihydrogen atoms is described. Its main features, which are described herein, are: an external positron accumulator, making it possible to accumulate large numbers of positrons; a separate antiproton catching trap, optimizing the catching, cooling and handling of antiprotons; a unique high resolution antihydrogen annihilation detector, allowing an clear determination that antihydrogen has been produced; an open, modular design making variations in the experimental approach possible and a ''nested'' Penning trap situated in a cryogenic, 3T magnetic field environment used for the mixing of the antiprotons and positrons

  4. Thermal stir welding apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A welding method and apparatus are provided for forming a weld joint between first and second elements of a workpiece. The method includes heating the first and second elements to form an interface of material in a plasticized or melted state interface between the elements. The interface material is then allowed to cool to a plasticized state if previously in a melted state. The interface material, while in the plasticized state, is then mixed, for example, using a grinding/extruding process, to remove any dendritic-type weld microstructures introduced into the interface material during the heating process.

  5. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: Comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. Patients and methods: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPMTM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three-field mono-isocentric wide tangential photon field treatment plan for each scan. The target included the remaining breast, internal mammary nodes and periclavicular nodes. Results: The mean anteroposterior chest wall excursion during FB was 2.5 mm. For IG and EG, the mean excursions within gating windows were 1.1 and 0.7 mm, respectively, whereas for DIBH and EBH the excursions were 4.1 and 2.6 mm, respectively. For patients with left-sided cancer, the median heart volume receiving more than 50% of the prescription dose was reduced from 19.2% for FB to 2.8% for IG and 1.9% for DIBH, and the median left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery volume was reduced from 88.9% to 22.4% for IG and 3.6% for DIBH. Simultaneously, the median ipsilateral relative lung volume irradiated to >50% of the prescribed target dose for both right- and left-sided cancers was reduced from 45.6% for FB to 29.5% for IG and 27.7% for DIBH. For EBH and EG, both the irradiated heart, LAD and lung volumes increased compared to FB. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate the dosimetric benefits

  6. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  7. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  8. Smokestack emission control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A smokestack emissions control device is mounted to a smokestack, or the like, to clean and cool the emissions from the stack. The apparatus includes a housing shaped to be mounted on top of an emission stack and has a liquid tank formed in the housing for supporting a liquid therein. The tank is mounted directly in the passageway of escaping emissions to force the emissions through the liquid. A tank baffle extends into the liquid tank and into a liquid therein to force the escaping emissions from the smokestack through the liquid. A reduced pressure chamber is located adjacent to the liquid tank to create a negative pressure on one side of the liquid in the tank to draw the smokestack emissions through the liquid. A separator is located near the base of the stack wit pipes connecting the separator to the liquid bath for circulating the liquid in the liquid tank. the liquid in the bath can be specially formulated for the particular emissions from the emission stack. Anti-foaming and bubbling means are included to prevent the liquid from forming out of the tank. The tank is lightweight and allows the entire apparatus to be placed on an existing exhaust stack

  9. Pulsed laser machining apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method for directing a controlled number of laser pulses onto a work piece to be machined. More specifically, the laser machining apparatus includes an excitable laser and an excitation lamp for continuously exciting the laser to emit a sequence of laser pulses. The application of the laser pulses to the work piece is controlled by an inner-cavity shutter that is opened to permit a precise number of pulses to be directed onto the work piece. The frequency (REP RATE) and pulse width of the laser pulses are controlled by the excitation lamp and, in turn, are set to create a progressive weld of significant depth and structural integrity. In particular there is provided control means for counting the number of laser pulses applied to a machining site of the work piece, whereby a known controllable quantity of energy is imparted to each site. To this end, the counting of the laser pulses begins after the completion of a laser pulse, whereby the actuation of the inner-cavity shutter is not synchronized to the computer but rather to the laser emission so that only whole laser pulses will be applied to the site

  10. Downhole pressure attenuation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for preventing damage to tool strings and other downhole equipment in a well caused by pressures produced during detonation of one or more downhole explosive devices. It comprises adding to a tool string at least one pressure attenuating apparatus for attenuating the peak pressure wave and quasi-static pressure pulse produced by the explosive devices, the pressure attenuating apparatus including an initially closed relief vent including tubing means supporting a plurality of charge port assemblies each including an explosive filled shaped charge and a prestressed disc, the shaped charges interconnected by a detonating cord, the amount of explosive in each shaped charge being sufficient to rupture its associated disc without damaging surrounding tubular bodies in the well, and a vent chamber defined by the tubing means and providing a liquid free volume, and opening the relief vent substantially contemporaneously with downhole explosive device detonation by detonating the shaped charges to rupture the discs of the charge port assemblies

  11. [The history of anesthesia apparatus: basic principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawersik, J

    1982-10-01

    The beginnings of modern anesthetic equipment date back to Morton's inhalation flagon in 1846. The numerous devices developed and introduced subsequently can be divided into four groups: 1. Simple ether and chloroform masks for open inhalation anesthesia, from Simpson (1847) to Brown (1928). 2. Vapour inhalators according to the "draw over" principle of Snow (1847) up to the Oxford vaporizer (1941). 3. Closed or half-closed inhalation equipment for ether or chloroform with to and fro breathing, from Clover (1877) to Ombredanne (1908). 4. Equipment for anaesthesia with nitrous oxide. From 1868 onwards this led to the incorporation of gas bottles in anaesthetic equipment and between 1885 and 1890 to the construction of mixing-valves for nitrous oxide and oxygen. In addition, reducing valves, flow meters and vaporizers were developed. The first anaesthetic apparatus with circle system and CO2-absorber was constructed in 1925 by the Dräger factory in Lübeck. Sudeck and Schmidt introduced this technique of anaesthesia in the university hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf between 1920 and 1925. PMID:6758628

  12. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled. PMID:25637249

  13. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zope, Sameer A; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders. PMID:23440614

  14. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  15. Morphology of the hyoid apparatus of some species of odontocetes from southern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jacobs Pretto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The hyoid apparatus of odontocetes serves as a major attachment point for the muscles and ligaments that subserve breathing, sound production and swallowing. However, most of the literature on anatomy does not consider the bones of this region, presenting general osteological descriptions without considering the comparative aspects. This study sought to determine the intra and interspecific variations of the ossified hyoid apparatus elements from six species of odontocetus. We studied 96 hyoid apparatuses from the following species: Phocoena spinipinnis (n = 1, Pontoporia blainvillei (n = 20, Sotalia guianensis (n = 37, Stenella frontalis (n = 13, Steno bredanensis (n = 6 and Tursiops truncatus (n = 19. Among the six species analyzed, P. spinipinnis, P. blainvillei and S. guianenses presented a diagnostic feature of this apparatus, while the others were best described morphometrically when considering all the hyoid apparatus bones. Intraspecific variation was registered with greater amplitude in T. truncatus, while S. guianensis showed sexual dimorphism. The morphology of the hyoid apparatus proved to be important in the differentiation and characterization of all studied species.

  16. An elutriation apparatus for macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worswick, Joseph M., Jr.; Barbour, Michael T.

    1974-01-01

    An inexpensive hydropneumatic apparatus screens macroinvertebrates from bottom samples containing silt, mud, or clay. The elutriator, an acrylic cylinder with screened windows, cemented on an upright plastic funnel, retains benthic fauna while the sediment is washed away. The apparatus yields clean samples and has reduced the time required to sort benthos samples by more than 80%.

  17. Apparatus for determining surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razouk, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    System for studying capillary action uses pressure transducer and chart recorder instead of manometer. Apparatus enables measurements to be made under controlled atmospheres. It also may be remotely operated. These features are particularly useful when dealing with noxious liquids and for study of surface tension under high-pressure conditions that require use of all-metal apparatus.

  18. Distillation Apparatuses Using Household Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanizzi, Danielle R. D.; Mason, Brenda; Hermann, Christine K. F.

    1999-08-01

    A simple apparatus to demonstrate distillation principles can be very difficult to build without the specialty glassware found in chemistry laboratories. We have built inexpensive but effective distillation apparatuses from equipment that can be easily purchased at local department, grocery, or hardware stores. In one apparatus, colored water is heated to boiling and the condensed vapors drip into another container. In another apparatus, acetone is heated to boiling with hot water and the acetone vapors condense onto a Styrofoam cup. The Styrofoam cup is softened by the acetone and collapses. Rubbing alcohol can be used instead of acetone, but the cup is not softened and the boiling point is much higher. Both apparatuses can be used in a classroom. Both are simple, cost-effective ways of demonstrating distillation, evaporation, and condensation. They would be ideal to use in elementary and middle school classrooms when explaining these concepts.

  19. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robb M.; Shul, Randy J.; Polosky, Marc A.; Hoke, Darren A.; Vernon, George E.

    2006-12-12

    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  20. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  1. Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Takaoka, Motoko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-08-01

    Turmeric is widely used in Indian cuisine. The main constituents of turmeric are curcumin and its analogues, which are well-known antioxidant compounds. In the present study, we hypothesized that turmeric in curry might increase bowel motility and activate hydrogen-producing bacterial flora in the colon, thereby increasing the concentration of breath hydrogen. Eight healthy subjects fasted for 12 h and ingested curry and rice with or without turmeric (turmeric knockout curry). Breath-hydrogen concentrations were analyzed every 15 min for 6 h by gas chromatography with a semiconductor detector. Curry with turmeric significantly increased the area under the curve of breath hydrogen and shortened small-bowel transit time, compared with curry not containing turmeric. These results suggested that dietary turmeric activated bowel motility and carbohydrate colonic fermentation. PMID:19034660

  2. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  3. Induction melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  4. Fluid pumping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  5. Catalytic cracking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skraba, F.W.

    1987-07-21

    This patent describes an apparatus comprising: (a) a catalyst lift pit having an upper end, a lower end, and a generally cylindrical sidewall having an interior surface defining a first diameter; (b) a riser-reactor connected to the upper end of the lift pot, the riser-reactor having a mouth defining a second diameter where it connects to the lift pot which is smaller than the lift pot first diameter; (c) a plug member extending axially into the lift pot from the lower end of the lift pot, the plug member being generally rotationally symmetric about its longitudinal axis and having an upper end surface which faces the mouth of the riser-reactor, the lift pot, the riser-reactor and the plug.

  6. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James R [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  7. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchnir-Moyses

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part ...

  8. Controlled breathing protocols probe human autonomic cardiovascular rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, W. H.; Cox, J. F.; Diedrich, A. M.; Taylor, J. A.; Beightol, L. A.; Ames, J. E. 4th; Hoag, J. B.; Seidel, H.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how breathing protocols requiring varying degrees of control affect cardiovascular dynamics. We measured inspiratory volume, end-tidal CO2, R-R interval, and arterial pressure spectral power in 10 volunteers who followed the following 5 breathing protocols: 1) uncontrolled breathing for 5 min; 2) stepwise frequency breathing (at 0.3, 0.25, 0.2, 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05 Hz for 2 min each); 3) stepwise frequency breathing as above, but with prescribed tidal volumes; 4) random-frequency breathing (approximately 0.5-0.05 Hz) for 6 min; and 5) fixed-frequency breathing (0.25 Hz) for 5 min. During stepwise breathing, R-R interval and arterial pressure spectral power increased as breathing frequency decreased. Control of inspired volume reduced R-R interval spectral power during 0.1 Hz breathing (P respiration and R-R intervals and systolic pressure and R-R intervals. Random- and fixed-frequency breathing reduced end-tidal CO2 modestly (P tidal volume control attenuates low-frequency R-R interval oscillations and that fixed- and random-rate breathing may decrease CO2 chemoreceptor stimulation. We conclude that autonomic rhythms measured during different breathing protocols have much in common but that a stepwise protocol without stringent control of inspired volume may allow for the most efficient assessment of short-term respiratory-mediated autonomic oscillations.

  9. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  10. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  11. Breath analysis to detect recent exposure to carbon monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cunnington, A; Hormbrey, P

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the normal range for carbon monoxide concentrations in the exhaled breath of subjects in the emergency department and to develop a protocol for the use of a breath analyser to detect abnormal carbon monoxide exposure.

  12. Passive acoustic detection of closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatus in an operational port environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, L.; Hunter, A.J.; Zampolli, M.; Clarijs, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Divers constitute a potential threat to waterside infrastructures. Active diver detection sonars are available commercially but present some shortcomings, particularly in highly reverberant environments. This has led to research on passive sonar for diver detection. Passive detection of open-circuit

  13. 78 FR 2618 - Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... comply with Federal plain language requirements. Comment: Two commenters were fully supportive of the... required to use plain language in documents that explain to the public how to comply with a requirement the Federal Government administers or enforces. HHS has attempted to use plain language in promulgating...

  14. Site survey method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures

  15. Technologies for Clinical Diagnosis Using Expired Human Breath Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalakkotur Lazar Mathew; Prabhahari Pownraj; Sukhananazerin Abdulla; Biji Pullithadathil

    2015-01-01

    This review elucidates the technologies in the field of exhaled breath analysis. Exhaled breath gas analysis offers an inexpensive, noninvasive and rapid method for detecting a large number of compounds under various conditions for health and disease states. There are various techniques to analyze some exhaled breath gases, including spectrometry, gas chromatography and spectroscopy. This review places emphasis on some of the critical biomarkers present in exhaled human breath, and its relate...

  16. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13C and 14C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  17. The NASA firefighter's breathing system program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Carson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.

  18. Continuous Exhaled Breath Analysis on the Icu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-09-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  19. Sleep effects on breathing and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary Sumer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand normal sleep pattern and physiological changes during sleep, sleep and breathing interaction, nomenclature and scales used in sleep study, discuss the effect of rapid eye movements and non-rapid eye movements while sleep and to review the effects of obstructive and restrictive lung disease on gas exchange during sleep and sleep architecture.

  20. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  1. Understanding Lung Problems: Make Each Breath Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people include: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pneumonia Lung cancer Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD is a disease that makes it hard to breathe. There are two main types of COPD: emphysema and chronic ... Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer ...

  2. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  3. The best breathing command for abdominal PETCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate the best breathing command for combined PETCT scanning on a in-line system (Discovery LS, GEMS). Material and Methods: Eight patients underwent FDG PET and CT for attenuation correction and image co-registration on a combined PETCT scanner. CT was acquired during maximum inspiration (MaxInsp) with a starting point at the level of the head. Patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. Then, a CT scan was acquired during normal expiration (NormExp), which corresponded to the respiratory level reached when the patient first inhaled and then exhaled without forcing expiration. Again, CT started at the head and patients kept their breath for approximately 20 seconds. In a third run, patients performed again the NormExp breathing manoeuvre but the breathing command was given after the start of the CT scan. Using this respiration protocol, the hold on time for the patients was between 10 and 15 seconds. All PET images were corrected for attenuation using the CT-based attenuation maps acquired with these three respiration protocols and then were reconstructed using an iterative algorithm. Results: In all patients, attenuation correction of the PET image using the CT scan acquired during MaxInsp caused mis-correction, which mimicked a decrease of FDG concentration in the base of the lungs. During MaxInsp the upper abdominal organs change their position and air filling of the lower lung zone is increased, thus, causing an underestimation of correction values. Subtraction images of the CT scans acquired during MaxInsp and NormExp illustrate the range of organ movements. Subtraction images of the attenuation corrected PET scans illustrate the deterioration of the final PET image. CT acquisition during NormExp provides better PET and co-registered PET/CT images. Using the shorter breath hold time the visual image quality was good in all patients. Conclusion: CT based attenuation correction can severely deteriorate PET image quality, if the CT scan

  4. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to...

  5. A Multimedia System for Breath Regulation and Relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Liao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the hectic life today, detrimental stress has caused numerous illness. To adjust mental states, breath regulation plays a core role in multiple relaxation techniques. In this paper, we introduce a multimedia system supporting breath regulation and relaxation. Features of this system include non-contact respiration detection, bio-signal monitoring, and breath interaction. In addition to illustrating this system, we also propose a novel form of breath interaction. Through this form of breath interaction, the system effectively influenced user breath such that their breathing features turned into patterns that appeared when people were relaxed. An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of three forms of regulation, the free breathing mode, the pure guiding mode, and the local-mapping mode. Experiment results show that multimedia-assisted breath interaction successfully deepened and slowed down user breath, compared with free breathing mode. Besides objective breathing feature changes, subjective feedback also showed that participants were satisfied and became relaxed after using this system.

  6. 21 CFR 868.5280 - Breathing tube support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing tube support. 868.5280 Section 868.5280...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5280 Breathing tube support. (a) Identification. A breathing tube support is a device that is intended to support and anchor a patient's...

  7. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5330 - Breathing gas mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing gas mixer. 868.5330 Section 868.5330...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5330 Breathing gas mixer. (a) Identification. A breathing gas mixer is a device intended for use in conjunction with a respiratory...

  9. 42 CFR 84.195 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.195 Section 84.195 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Cartridge Respirators § 84.195 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used...

  10. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from...

  12. 42 CFR 84.172 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.172... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.172 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with respirators shall be designed and constructed to prevent:...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.1132 Section 84.1132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Gas Masks § 84.1132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. (a) Flexible breathing tubes used...

  14. 42 CFR 84.132 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.132 Section 84.132 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... Respirators § 84.132 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction...

  15. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a) Identification. A breathing (ventilatory) frequency monitor is a device intended to measure or monitor a...

  16. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1439 - Protective breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protective breathing equipment. 29.1439... Protective breathing equipment. (a) If one or more cargo or baggage compartments are to be accessible in flight, protective breathing equipment must be available for an appropriate crewmember. (b)...

  18. 42 CFR 84.115 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.115 Section 84.115 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL... § 84.115 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with...

  19. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  20. Radiographic film cassette unloading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for unloading cassettes, containing exposed radiographic films, has means for unfastening the cassettes, an inclined pathway for gravity feeding and rotating feed members (rollers or belts) to propel the films into the processor. (UK)

  1. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  2. Tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus and method are described for confining a plasma in a center mirror cell by use of two end mirror cells as positively charged end stoppers to minimize leakage of positive particles from the ends of the center mirror cell

  3. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  4. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  5. Apparatus for electrophoresis separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously performing electrophoresis separations on a plurality of slab gels containing samples of protein, protein subunits or nucleic acids. A reservoir of buffer solution is divided into three compartments by two parallel partitions having vertical slots spaced along their length. A sheet of flexible, electrically insulative material is attached to each partition and is provided with vertical slits aligned with the slots. Slab-gel holders are received within the slots with the flexible material folded outwardly as flaps from the slits to overlay portions of the holder surfaces and thereby act as electrical and liquid seals. An elongated, spaghetti-like gel containing a sample of specimen that was previously separated by isoelectric focusing techniques is vertically positioned along a marginal edge portion of the slab gel. On application of an electrical potential between the two outer chambers of buffer solution, a second dimensional electrophoresis separation in accordance with molecular weight occurs as the specimen molecules migrate across the slab gel.

  6. Apparatus for diffusion separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diffuser separator apparatus is described which comprises a plurality of flow channels in a single stage. Each of said channels has an inlet port and an outlet port and a constant cross sectional area between said ports. At least a portion of the defining surface of each of said channels is a diffusion separation membrane, and each of said channels is a different cross sectional area. Means are provided for connecting said channels in series so that each successive channel of said series has a smaller cross sectional area than the previous channel of said series. Also provided are a source of gaseous mixture, individual means for flowing said gaseous mixture to the inlet port of each of said channels, gas receiving and analyzing means, individual means for flowing gas passing from each of said outlet ports and means for flowing gas passing through said membranes to said receiving and analyzing means, and individual means for connecting the outlet port of each channel with the inlet port of the channel having the next smaller cross sectional area

  7. Apparatus for measuring RRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of purity and thermal conductivity at liquid Helium temperatures of the Niobium to be used in the fabrication of superconducting RF cavities is normally done by measuring the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of a sample of the material. The relationship between the thermal and the electrical conductivity (Wiedemann-Franz Law) simplifies the task by leading to the measurement of electrical instead of thermal resistance. The RRR is the ratio between the resistances of the sample at room temperature and at the operating temperature of the cavity. A more precise definition is discussed later. The conductivity at low temperatures depends on lattice defects and impurities. Impurities are also important for cavities in a direct way as affecting the RF properties of its surface when exposed by chemical etching. The following describes the experimental apparatus for RRR measurements developed at Fermilab's Beams Division. Part 2 contains a description of the sample-holder and measurement hardware. Part 3 contains a discussion on definition, measurements and errors. Part 4 gives a step-by-step description of the measurement procedure. Finally, Part 5 gives an example of results obtained recently on a Niobium sample for CKM cavities

  8. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  9. Computed tomography apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fan-beam computed tomography apparatus, timing reference pulses, normally occurring at intervals t, for data transfer and reset of approx. 500 integrators in the signal path from the detector array, are generated from the scan displacement, e.g. using a graticule and optical sensor to relate the measurement paths geometrically to the body section. Sometimes, a slow scan rate is required to provide a time-averaged density image, e.g. for planning irradiation therapy, and then the sensed impulses will occur at extended intervals and can cause integrator overload. An improvement is described which provides a pulse generator which responds to a reduced scan rate by generating a succession of further transfer and reset pulses at intervals approximately equal to t starting a time t after each timing reference pulse. Then, using an adding device and RAM, all the transferred signals integrated in the interval t' between two successive slow scan reference pulses are accumulated in order to form a corresponding measurement signal. (author)

  10. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  11. Metabolite content profiling of bottlenose dolphin exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-11-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We describe the analysis workflow to profile exhaled breath metabolites and provide here a first library of volatile and nonvolatile compounds in cetacean exhaled breath. The described analytical methodology enabled us to document baseline compounds in exhaled breath of healthy animals and to study changes in metabolic content of dolphin breath with regard to a variety of factors. The method of breath analysis may provide a very valuable tool in future wildlife conservation efforts as well as deepen our understanding of marine mammals biology and physiology. PMID:25254551

  12. Monitoring Breathing via Signal Strength in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Patwari, Neal; R., Sai Ananthanarayanan P; Kasera, Sneha K; Westenskow, Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows experimentally that standard wireless networks which measure received signal strength (RSS) can be used to reliably detect human breathing and estimate the breathing rate, an application we call "BreathTaking". We show that although an individual link cannot reliably detect breathing, the collective spectral content of a network of devices reliably indicates the presence and rate of breathing. We present a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of breathing rate, amplitude, and phase, which uses the RSS data from many links simultaneously. We show experimental results which demonstrate that reliable detection and frequency estimation is possible with 30 seconds of data, within 0.3 breaths per minute (bpm) RMS error. Use of directional antennas is shown to improve robustness to motion near the network.

  13. The Qweak experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, T.; Anderson, M.; Androić, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Averill, R.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bessuille, J.; Birchall, J.; Bonnell, E.; Bowman, J. D.; Brindza, P.; Brown, D. B.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cavness, B.; Clark, G.; Cornejo, J. C.; Dusa, S. Covrig; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Dean, D. C.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dow, K.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Echols, J. R.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finelli, K. D.; Finn, J. M.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hansknecht, J.; Harrison, D. J.; Henderson, E.; Hoskins, J. R.; Ihloff, E.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; Kelsey, J.; Khan, N.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Kubera, A.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J. P.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; Liang, Y.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J. W.; McCreary, A.; McDonald, M. H.; McHugh, M. J.; Medeiros, P.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Musson, J.; Mesick, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K. D.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roberts, W. R.; Roche, J.; Rose, P. W.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Sobczynski, S.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Stokes, B.; Storey, D. W.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Urban, E.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Zhamkochyan, S.; Zielinski, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    The Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment determined the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating elastic scattering asymmetry of longitudinally polarized electrons from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target at small momentum transfer. A custom apparatus was designed for this experiment to meet the technical challenges presented by the smallest and most precise e → p asymmetry ever measured. Technical milestones were achieved at Jefferson Lab in target power, beam current, beam helicity reversal rate, polarimetry, detected rates, and control of helicity-correlated beam properties. The experiment employed 180 μA of 89% longitudinally polarized electrons whose helicity was reversed 960 times per second. The electrons were accelerated to 1.16 GeV and directed to a beamline with extensive instrumentation to measure helicity-correlated beam properties that can induce false asymmetries. Møller and Compton polarimetry were used to measure the electron beam polarization to better than 1%. The electron beam was incident on a 34.4 cm liquid hydrogen target. After passing through a triple collimator system, scattered electrons between 5.8° and 11.6° were bent in the toroidal magnetic field of a resistive copper-coil magnet. The electrons inside this acceptance were focused onto eight fused silica Cherenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. A total scattered electron rate of about 7 GHz was incident on the detector array. The detectors were read out in integrating mode by custom-built low-noise pre-amplifiers and 18-bit sampling ADC modules. The momentum transfer Q2=0.025 GeV2 was determined using dedicated low-current (~ 100 pA) measurements with a set of drift chambers before (and a set of drift chambers and trigger scintillation counters after) the toroidal magnet.

  14. Apparatus Development In Maros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Aras Solong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to identify and describe 1 Development of Administrative through education and training training promotion transfer and rotation and the application of demotion system non-title under Law No. 43 of 1999 on the development of career civil servants based merit system and work performance and Government Regulation No. 101 of 2000 on Education and Training Training for Civil Servants. 2 Revealing differences in work motivation based on the intensity of the education or training training using Herzbergs Two Factor Theory of extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factors motivator that influence employees motivation Maros regency government in carrying out its duties and functions as members civil in public service. This study uses a quantitative approach to date collection techniques through a questionnaire Questionnaire. Informant are civil servants who occupied echelon II III. And IV while the analysis of the date used quantitative analysis to uncover the implementation of personnel development and employees motivation difference Maros region based on the intensity of the education or training training to get job satisfaction in the public service. The results of this study will reveal that 1 Development of Apparatus for improving the knowledge ability professionalism competence skills can work as a reformer change attitude eager to work motivated to do the work get satisfaction in work and getting justice in employment. 2 The difference in work motivation Maros local government employees affected by extrinsic factors hygiene and intrinsic factor motivator is the variable gain high salary H occupies the first ranking while serving the community satisfaction variables M occupy the last ranking. That is that the satisfaction of serving the people affected by the high salaries earned by the employees to do the job.

  15. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  16. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  17. Microstructured optical fiber interferometric breathing sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Fernando C.; Villatoro, Joel; Pruneri, Valerio

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a simple photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometric breathing sensor is introduced. The interferometer consists of a section of PCF fusion spliced at the distal end of a standard telecommunications optical fiber. Two collapsed regions in the PCF caused by the splicing process allow the excitation and recombination of a core and a cladding PCF mode. As a result, the reflection spectrum of the device exhibits a sinusoidal interference pattern that instantly shifts when water molecules, present in exhaled air, are adsorbed on or desorbed from the PCF surface. The device can be used to monitor a person's breathing whatever the respiration rate. The device here proposed could be particularly important in applications where electronic sensors fail or are not recommended. It may also be useful in the evaluation of a person's health and even in the diagnosis and study of the progression of serious illnesses such as sleep apnea syndrome.

  18. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99Tcm-Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  19. Retrotrapezoid nucleus, respiratory chemosensitivity and breathing automaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Fortuna, Michal G.; Abbott, Stephen B.; Depuy, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Breathing automaticity and CO2 regulation are inseparable neural processes. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a group of glutamatergic neurons that express the transcription factor Phox2b, may be a crucial nodal point through which breathing automaticity is regulated to maintain CO2 constant. This review updates the analysis presented in prior publications. Additional evidence that RTN neurons have central respiratory chemoreceptor properties is presented but this is only one of many factors that determine their activity. The RTN is also regulated by powerful inputs from the carotid bodies and, at least in the adult, by many other synaptic inputs. We also analyze how RTN neurons may control the activity of the downstream central respiratory pattern generator. Specifically, we review the evidence which suggests that RTN neurons a) innervate the entire ventral respiratory column, and b) control both inspiration and expiration. Finally, we argue that the RTN neurons are the adult form of the parafacial respiratory group in neonate rats. PMID:19712903

  20. Positive pressure breathing during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, E A; Heus, R

    2003-03-01

    The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without. PMID:12628576

  1. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  2. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Azab, Seham F. A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig U...

  3. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  4. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  5. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  6. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  7. Breath sampling control for medical application

    OpenAIRE

    Vautz, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Jörg I.; Westhoff, Michael; Züchner, Klaus; Carstens, Eike T. H.; Perl, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    Sampling of breath under human control or automated control with sensors was combined with chemical determination of a synthetic sample using multi-capillary column ion mobility spectrometry to measure quantitative variability. Variation was 19% with an automated inlet and 33% with human control. Sensors to operate an automated inlet were also evaluated with human subjects and included carbon dioxide (CO2), flow (direction and velocity), volume (integrated from the flow rate) and humidity, al...

  8. Monolith filter apparatus and membrane apparatus, and method using same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Robert L. (Wayland, MA)

    2012-04-03

    A filtration apparatus that separates a liquid feedstock mixed with a gas into filtrate and retentate, the apparatus including at least one filtration device comprised of at least one monolith segment of porous material that defines a plurality of passageways extending longitudinally from a feed face of the structure to a retentate end face. The filtration device contains at least one filtrate conduit within it for carrying filtrate toward a filtrate collection zone, the filtrate conduit providing a path of lower flow resistance than that of alternative flow paths through the porous material of the device. The filtration device can also be utilized as a membrane support for a device for microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, or pervaporation. Also disclosed is a method for using such a filtration apparatus.

  9. Ultrasensitive laser spectroscopy for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtas, J.; Bielecki, Z.; Stacewicz, T.; Mikołajczyk, J.; Nowakowski, M.

    2012-03-01

    At present there are many reasons for seeking new methods and technologies that aim to develop new and more perfect sensors for different chemical compounds. However, the main reasons are safety ensuring and health care. In the paper, recent advances in the human breath analysis by the use of different techniques are presented. We have selected non-invasive ones ensuring detection of pathogenic changes at a molecular level. The presence of certain molecules in the human breath is used as an indicator of a specific disease. Thus, the analysis of the human breath is very useful for health monitoring. We have shown some examples of diseases' biomarkers and various methods capable of detecting them. Described methods have been divided into non-optical and optical methods. The former ones are the following: gas chromatography, flame ionization detection, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In recent twenty years, the optical methods have become more popular, especially the laser techniques. They have a great potential for detection and monitoring of the components in the gas phase. These methods are characterized by high sensitivity and good selectivity. The spectroscopic sensors provide the opportunity to detect specific gases and to measure their concentration either in a sampling place or a remote one. Multipass spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and photo-acoustic spectroscopy were characterised in the paper as well.

  10. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  11. Sleep-disordered Breathing in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yu Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB can manifesta continuum from simple snoring and upper airway resistancesyndrome to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA with secondarygrowth impairment, neurocognitive deficits, and lessoften cardiovascular sequelae. Most children who present withSDB are four to eight years old with variable clinical symptomsat different ages. In general, infants often present withnoisy breathing and disturbed nocturnal sleep, toddlers andpreschool-aged children with snoring and mouth breathing,and school-aged children with behavioral and dental problems.The pathogenesis of SDB in children remains incompletelyunderstood. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the leading cause ofOSA. Other risk factors include allergic rhinitis, craniofacialanomalies, cleft palate following pharyngeal flap surgery, neuromusculardiseases, laryngomalacia, and obesity.Polysomnography (PSG is the gold standard diagnostic tool. However, great variationexists in the interpretation of PSG and criteria for the definition of pediatric OSA, eventhough consensus statements have been used to standardize the scoring of summary indicesfor the disorders. Adenotonsillectomy is the cardinal treatment for pediatric SDB. Rapidmaxillary expansion is a useful approach in upper jaw contraction. Distraction osteogenesishas become an acceptable procedure in the treatment of severe maxillomandibular deficiency.Continuous positive airway pressure has been successful in treating intractable or severeOSA in children with other underlying medical disorders and has modified the indicationsfor tracheotomy in pediatric patients with craniofacial anomalies and OSA. Follow-up inchildren treated for OSA reveals that underlying structural or neuromuscular abnormalitiescan decrease the response to treatment and obesity may lead to recurrence of OSA later duringadolescence.

  12. Volume, flow, and timing of each breath during positive-pressure breathing in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B; Hirsch, J; Thursby, M

    1978-10-01

    This study is a breath-by-breath analysis of the effects of 5, 10, and 15 cmH2O positive-pressure breathing (PPB) on man's steady-state breathing pattern. Inspiratory (TI), expiratory (TE), and cycle (TT) durations, tidal volumes (VT), minute ventilation (VE), mean inspiratory flow rate (VT/TI), and mean expiratory flow rate (VT/TE) were determined from pneumotachograph and Wedge spirometer recordings before and during steady states on PPB. End-tidal CO2 was continuously recorded. Seventeen adults, seated in a full body-box, breathed quietly for 8 min through a mouthpiece on a bag-in-box. Pressure in the body-box was lowered to the desired level prior to 4 min of stress. On all pressure levels, end-expiratory volume, VT, VE, VT/TI, and VT/TE increased; end-tidal CO2, TE, and TT decreased with no consistent change in TI. Calculated alveolar ventilations indicated that the increases in VE were true hyperventilations. Each individual increased VE by using a unique combination of VT, TI, and TE. End-expiratory volume increased less and expiratory flow increased more than would occur passively. Hence, it is concluded that active reflexes account for the resistance of the systems to the passive distention, the facilitation of expiratory flow, and the shortening of TE. PMID:361664

  13. Air-breathing membraneless laminar flow-based fuel cells: Do they breathe enough oxygen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Limiting factors of air-breathing laminar-flow based fuel cell (LFFC) is analyzed. ► A numerical model for LFFC is developed. ► Air breathing process is not a limiting factor at the present stage. ► Oxygen starvation is significant when the cell current density exceeds 200 mA cm−2. - Abstract: Laminar flow-based fuel cell (LFFC) is a relatively new type of fuel cell that does not require the use of proton exchange membrane. While the first-generation LFFC uses dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the second-generation LFFC (2G-LFFC) adopts a more advanced air-breathing design for achieving high power density. The architecture and operational mechanisms of a 2G-LFFC are more complex. In order to gain detailed understanding of the 2G-LFFC, an integrated CFD/electrochemical kinetics modeling study has been conducted to analyze the cell limiting factors and sufficiency of the oxidant supply from air. It is found that under most typical operating conditions, the 2G-LFFC free-breathing mode can supply sufficient oxygen to the electrode reactive surface for cathode half-cell reaction, indicating that the air breathing process is not a limiting factor to the cell performance. However, oxygen starvation will become a major performance limiting factor when the anode is enhanced for higher current density. The results presented in this paper provide useful design guidance for future development of LFFC

  14. A simple Cavendish experimental apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossler, W. J.; Klein, Susann; Morrow, Dominick; Juliao, Andre

    2016-03-01

    A simple Cavendish apparatus is described that allows measurement of the gravitational constant G and makes observable the gravitational attraction between commonplace objects. The apparatus consists of a torsion balance constructed from readily available materials, including lead bricks and fishing weights ("sinkers"). A computer program is used to determine the gravitational field at the location of the small mass due to a nearby lead brick, which allows students to gain experience with numerical methods. Experimental results obtained are compatible with the accepted value of G.

  15. Initial experience with active breathing control of liver motion during ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Recent evidence has shown that some patients with hepatic tumors can be safely irradiated to a dose well over twice the whole liver tolerance dose if portions of normal liver are spared. Correction during treatment planning for the ventilatory motion of the liver can add a large volume of normal liver to the planning target volume. Any reduction in ventilatory motion has the potential to allow a higher dose of radiation to be given safely. Active Breathing Control (ABC) can be used to temporarily stop the airflow to a patient, thus immobilizing the liver, at any part of a patient's ventilatory cycle. ABC during helical CT scanning can be used to study the full three dimensional motion of the liver and other abdominal organs during ventilation. Ultimately, if the use of ABC is found to be clinically feasible, tolerable for patients, and, most importantly, reproducible over time, then ABC may be used during radiation treatment. Materials and Methods: An ABC apparatus was constructed using a flow monitor and scissor valves on both the inhalation and exhalation paths to the patient. The patient breathed through either a mouthpiece or facemask during the procedure. The ventilatory cycle was displayed in real time. When a stable breathing pattern was observed, the ABC was activated at a specific lung volume, closing both scissors valves, and preventing ventilation. The length of time for comfortable activation of the ABC machine for the individual patient was determined during a teaching and practice period prior to CT scanning. Helical CT scans (slice thickness 0.5 cm) to assess the potential benefit of immobilizing breathing were obtained for normal breathing, end-inspiration and end-expiration. The reproducibility of ABC over time was assessed by repeating the end-inspiration scan both immediately and one week later. The contours of the liver and kidneys were entered for each study. Results: Five patients have undergone ABC study of the abdomen. End

  16. Poetry as Breath: Teaching Student Teachers to Breathe-Out Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Lesley Pasquin

    2010-01-01

    Poetry is a form of creative expression that exists to share a truth, an insight, or a feeling that enriches our humanity. “Teaching” poetry requires us to be readers and writers of poetry ourselves. It requires that we are saying, “Poetry matters.” I work with second-year student teachers in my Language Arts Methods class at McGill University to develop a passion for the poetic; to learn what Muriel Rukeyser refers to as breathing-in experience and breathing-out poetry. Using my own writ...

  17. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  18. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  19. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  20. Wearable sensors and feedback system to improve breathing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, Shirley; Mitchell, Edmond; Ward, Tomas; O'Connor, Noel E.; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Breathing is an important factor in our well-being as it oxygenates the body, revitalizes organs, cells and tissues. It is a unique physiological system in that it is both voluntary and involuntary. By breathing in a slow, deep and regular manner, the heartbeat become smooth and regular, blood pressure normalizes, stress hormones drop, and muscles relax. Breathing techniques are important for athletes to improve performance and reduce anxiety during competitions. Patients with respiratory ...

  1. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  2. The effect of acetazolamide on breath holding at high altitude.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrissey, S. C.; Keohane, K.; Coote, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of altitude and acetazolamide on breath holding was studied in 20 individuals. Breath holding time was reduced progressively during ascent. There was an additional reduction in the acetazolamide group at low but not at high altitude. The initial difference between the two groups may have been related to a lower CSF pH when on acetazolamide. At high altitude the finding of similar breath holding times in the two groups may have been due to acclimatization in the placebo group.

  3. Spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds in normal subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriely, N; Nissan, M.; Rubin, A. H.; Cugell, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--This study was carried out to establish a reliable bank of information on the spectral characteristics of chest wall breath sounds from healthy men and women, both non-smokers and smokers. METHODS--Chest wall breath sounds from 272 men and 81 women were measured using contact acoustic sensors, amplifiers, and fast Fourier transform (FFT) based spectral analysis software. Inspiratory and expiratory sounds were picked up at three standard locations on the chest wall during breathing...

  4. Optimization of an adaptive neural network to predict breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Martin J; Pokhrel, Damodar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal configuration and performance of an adaptive feed forward neural network filter to predict breathing in respiratory motion compensation systems for external beam radiation therapy. Method and Materials: A two-layer feed forward neural network was trained to predict future breathing amplitudes for 27 recorded breathing histories. The prediction intervals ranged from 100 to 500 ms. The optimal sampling frequency, number of input samples, training rate, and numb...

  5. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method and an apparatus for separating dry matter from liquid, comprising providing an enclosed separation environment capable of being pressure regulated, and in said enclosed separation environment contacting at least one filter with a suspension accumulating dr...

  6. Hazardous Fluids Compatibility Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Frank; Daniel, James

    1995-01-01

    Document describes test apparatus designed to hold test tubes containing hazardous fluids such as hydrazine, nitrogen tetroxide, or ammonia. Test tube suspended over water bath or other solution or mixture. Control of test sample performed by one-hand operation within fume hood or glove box. System adaptable for automated control of lowering and raising of test samples.

  7. Measuring Apparatus for Coal Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The measuring apparatus for coal powder, equipped with radioactive source, is a set of device andcan be used to measure the density in the pipes and cumulative consumed amount of coal powder in apower plant, and to examine and display the status of the coal powder input system. It is sketched asFig. 1.

  8. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  9. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  10. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min–1. A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min–1, and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  11. Electronic response to nuclear breathing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Hendrik; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); ICRANet, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 Av. de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Xue, She-Sheng [ICRANet, P.zza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara, Italy Dipartimento di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Università di Roma P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Based on our previous work on stationary oscillation modes of electrons around giant nuclei, we show how to treat a general driving force on the electron gas, such as the one generated by the breathing mode of the nucleus, by means of the spectral method. As an example we demonstrate this method for a system with Z = 10{sup 4} in β-equilibrium with the electrons compressed up to the nuclear radius. In this case the stationary modes can be obtained analytically, which allows for a very speedy numerical calculation of the final result.

  12. Extensive Epidermoid Cyst and Breathing Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Dantas Soares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are common cystic lesions in the skin, ovaries, and testicles, but their occurrence in the oral cavity is uncommon. They consist of cysts delimited by a fibrous capsule without cutaneous annexes and are lined by stratified squamous epithelium. The differential diagnosis includes ranula, dermoid cysts, and lingual thyroid. Despite their benign presentation, these cysts can cause functional limitations, requiring special clinical attention for extensive lesions located in regions that preserve vital structures. This paper aims to report a case of epidermoid cyst in patient with swallowing and breathing difficulty, highlighting the clinical and surgical planning.

  13. Volatile Biomarkers in Breath Associated With Liver Cirrhosis — Comparisons of Pre- and Post-liver Transplant Breath Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Río, R.; M.E. O'Hara; Holt, A.; Pemberton, P; Shah, T; T. Whitehouse; Mayhew, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The burden of liver disease in the UK has risen dramatically and there is a need for improved diagnostics. Aims: To determine which breath volatiles are associated with the cirrhotic liver and hence diagnostically useful. Methods: A two-stage biomarker discovery procedure was used. Alveolar breath samples of 31 patients with cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls were mass spectrometrically analysed and compared (stage 1). 12 of these patients had their breath analysed after live...

  14. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  15. Evaluation of protection factors of a breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is essential to wear an air-purifying respirator in the radiation works in a contaminated atmosphere. A breath-responsive-powered air-purifying respirator (BR-PAPR) has been recently developed. However, no research has yet been conducted to determine the protection factor (PF) of the BR-PAPR in actual workplaces. In this study, the PFs of the BR-PAPR were measured by a man-test apparatus and compared with those of a non-powered full face mask. The PFs were measured under three different situations; normal wearing condition, clogging the filter and leaving a gap between the face and the mask. Under these situations, it was found that the PFs of the BR-PAPR are higher than those of the non-powered full face mask. PFs greater than 4,000 were obtained for 95% of the subjects who wear the BR-PAPR, and PFs over 6,667, the upper limit of the man-test apparatus, were obtained for 49% of them. The questionnaire survey was conducted for workers. The results showed that the workers feel a reduced burden when they wear the BR-PAPR. The results of this study showed high protection performance and operation efficiency of the BR-PAPR. (author)

  16. Patient-specific simulation of tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, M.; Wells, A. K.; Jones, I. P.; Hamill, I. S.; Veeckmans, B.; Vos, W.; Lefevre, C.; Fetitia, C.

    2016-03-01

    Patient-specific simulation of air flows in lungs is now straightforward using segmented airways trees from CT scans as the basis for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. These models generally use static geometries, which do not account for the motion of the lungs and its influence on important clinical indicators, such as airway resistance. This paper is concerned with the simulation of tidal breathing, including the dynamic motion of the lungs, and the required analysis workflow. Geometries are based on CT scans obtained at the extremes of the breathing cycle, Total Lung Capacity (TLC) and Functional Residual Capacity (FRC). It describes how topologically consistent geometries are obtained at TLC and FRC, using a `skeleton' of the network of airway branches. From this a 3D computational mesh which morphs between TLC and FRC is generated. CFD results for a number of patient-specific cases, healthy and asthmatic, are presented. Finally their potential use in evaluation of the progress of the disease is discussed, focusing on an important clinical indicator, the airway resistance.

  17. Construction of shallow land simulation apparatuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallow land simulation apparatuses in which natural soil can be used as testing soil have been constructed to investigate the migration characteristics of radionuclides in a disposal site. These apparatuses consist of aerated zone apparatus and aquifer zone one. In the aerated zone apparatus, aerated soil upon ground water level is contained in the soil column (d: 30cm x h: 120cm). In the aquifer zone apparatus, aquifer soil laying ground water level is contained in the soil vessel (b: 90cm x l: 270cm x h: 45cm). This report describes the outline of shallow land simulation apparatuses : function of apparatuses and specification of devices, analysis of obstructions, safety rules, analysis of accidents and operation manual. (author)

  18. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock... Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). The Model Specifications are guidelines for...

  19. Measurement of Personal Exposure Using a Breathing Thermal Manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik

    In this paper personal exposure measurements are performed by means of the Breathing Thermal Manikin. Contaminant concentration is measured in a number of locations in the breathing zone and in the inhaled air. Two cases are investigated: exposure to different contaminant sources in a displacement...

  20. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  1. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...); and (4) Be grade A, B, or C. (h) Helium used for breathing mixtures must be grades A, B, or C produced...,000 parts per million of carbon dioxide; (ii) 20 parts per million carbon monoxide; (iii) 5 milligrams.... (f) Oxygen used for breathing mixtures must— (1) Meet the requirements of Federal Specification...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to...

  3. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  4. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  5. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect the...

  6. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  7. 46 CFR 154.1852 - Air breathing equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air breathing equipment. 154.1852 Section 154.1852... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1852 Air breathing equipment. (a) The master shall ensure that a licensed officer inspects the compressed air...

  8. A nomogram for assessment of breathing patterns during treadmill exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo, J.; Centeno, R; Galiano, D; Beaus, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the breathing patterns of trained athletes under different conditions. The hypothesis is that the breathing pattern during a progressive treadmill exercise is independent of the protocol, at least in healthy people, and can be assessed using a nomogram.

  9. In-situ sputtering apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, Mark R.; Poole, Henry J.; Custer, III, Arthur W.; Hershcovitch, Ady

    2015-06-09

    A sputtering apparatus that includes at least a target presented as an inner surface of a confinement structure, the inner surface of the confinement structure is preferably an internal wall of a circular tube. A cathode is disposed adjacent the internal wall of the circular tube. The cathode preferably provides a hollow core, within which a magnetron is disposed. Preferably, an actuator is attached to the magnetron, wherein a position of the magnetron within the hollow core is altered upon activation of the actuator. Additionally, a carriage supporting the cathode and communicating with the target is preferably provided, and a cable bundle interacting with the cathode and linked to a cable bundle take up mechanism provided power and coolant to the cathode, magnetron, actuator and an anode of the sputtering apparatus.

  10. Synthesis gas method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Kromer, Brian R.; Litwin, Michael M.; Rosen, Lee J.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R.; Kosowski, Lawrence W.; Robinson, Charles

    2013-01-08

    A method and apparatus for producing a synthesis gas product having one or more oxygen transport membrane elements thermally coupled to one or more catalytic reactors such that heat generated from the oxygen transport membrane element supplies endothermic heating requirements for steam methane reforming reactions occurring within the catalytic reactor through radiation and convention heat transfer. A hydrogen containing stream containing no more than 20 percent methane is combusted within the oxygen transport membrane element to produce the heat and a heated combustion product stream. The heated combustion product stream is combined with a reactant stream to form a combined stream that is subjected to the reforming within the catalytic reactor. The apparatus may include modules in which tubular membrane elements surround a central reactor tube.

  11. Apparatus for detecting iodine isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for detecting iodine isotopes in the exhaust gas of a nuclear installation includes a duct for a partial exhaust gas stream, which duct includes an absorption chamber which is disposed in a radiation shielding structure and through which the exhaust gas flows and which has associated therewith means for admitting absorption material and for removing it therefrom. Radiation detectors are supported in the radiation shielding structure at opposite sides of the absorption chamber for monitoring radiation of iodine isotopes collected therein, the cavity in the shielding structure in which the absorption chamber is disposed being larger than the absorption chamber and the absorption chamber being supported so as to be movable in the cavity relative to said detectors to permit calibrating the apparatus. (orig./HP)

  12. Spinning angle optical calibration apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Stephen K.; Pratt, II, Harold R.

    1991-01-01

    An optical calibration apparatus is provided for calibrating and reproducing spinning angles in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An illuminated magnifying apparatus enables optical setting an accurate reproducing of spinning "magic angles" in cross-polarization, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. A reference mark scribed on an edge of a spinning angle test sample holder is illuminated by a light source and viewed through a magnifying scope. When the "magic angle" of a sample material used as a standard is attained by varying the angular position of the sample holder, the coordinate position of the reference mark relative to a graduation or graduations on a reticle in the magnifying scope is noted. Thereafter, the spinning "magic angle" of a test material having similar nuclear properties to the standard is attained by returning the sample holder back to the originally noted coordinate position.

  13. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research. PMID:23619467

  14. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  15. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  16. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  17. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  18. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  19. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  20. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....1-1965 is incorporated by reference and has been approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards... from apparatus for refilling shall be equipped with a dial indicating gage which shows the pressure...

  1. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  2. Thinking about breathing: Effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Marghescu, Domnica; Siegrist-Johnstone, Rosemarie

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), the increase and decrease in instantaneous heart rate (HR) with inspiration and expiration, is commonly evaluated as function of breathing frequency f. However, to the extent that RSA plays a role in the efficiency of gas exchange, it may be expected to correlate better with HR/f ('breathing specific heart rate') than with f, because the former is a better reflection of the cardio-respiratory coupling. We measured RSA breath-by-breath in 209 young men and women during spontaneous breathing and during volitional breathing under auditory cues at vastly different f. In either case, and for both genders, RSA correlated better with HR/f than with f. As HR/f increased so did RSA, in a linear manner. When compared on the basis of HR/f, RSA did not differ significantly between spontaneous and volitional breathing. It is proposed that RSA is a central mechanism that ameliorates the matching between the quasi-continuous pulmonary blood flow and the intermittent airflow, irrespective of the type of ventilatory drive (cortical or autonomic). PMID:26724603

  3. Prospective respiratory-gated micro-CT of free breathing rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microcomputed tomography (Micro-CT) has the potential to noninvasively image the structure of organs in rodent models with high spatial resolution and relatively short image acquisition times. However, motion artifacts associated with the normal respiratory motion of the animal may arise when imaging the abdomen or thorax. To reduce these artifacts and the accompanying loss of spatial resolution, we propose a prospective respiratory gating technique for use with anaesthetized, free-breathing rodents. A custom-made bed with an embedded pressure chamber was connected to a pressure transducer. Anaesthetized animals were placed in the prone position on the bed with their abdomens located over the chamber. During inspiration, the motion of the diaphragm caused an increase in the chamber pressure, which was converted into a voltage signal by the transducer. An output voltage was used to trigger image acquisition at any desired time point in the respiratory cycle. Digital radiographic images were acquired of anaesthetized, free-breathing rats with a digital radiographic system to correlate the respiratory wave form with respiration-induced organ motion. The respiratory wave form was monitored and recorded simultaneously with the x-ray radiation pulses, and an imaging window was defined, beginning at end expiration. Phantom experiments were performed to verify that the respiratory gating apparatus was triggering the micro-CT system. Attached to the distensible phantom were 100 μm diameter copper wires and the measured full width at half maximum was used to assess differences in image quality between respiratory-gated and ungated imaging protocols. This experiment allowed us to quantify the improvement in the spatial resolution, and the reduction of motion artifacts caused by moving structures, in the images resulting from respiratory-gated image acquisitions. The measured wire diameters were 0.135 mm for the stationary phantom image, 0.137 mm for the image gated at end

  4. Feasibility of Free-breathing CCTA using 256-MDCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuo; Sun, Ye; Zhang, Zhuolu; Chen, Lei; Hong, Nan

    2016-07-01

    Usually, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is performed during breath-holding to reduce artifact caused by respiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of free-breathing CCTA compared to breath-holding using CT scanner with wide detector. To evaluate the feasibility of CCTA during free-breathing using a 256-MDCT. In 80 patients who underwent CCTA, 40 were performed during breath-holding (group A), and the remaining 40 during free-breathing (group B). The quality scores for coronary arteries were analyzed and defined as: 3 (excellent), 2 (good), and 1 (poor). The image noise, signal-to-noise ratio and effective radiation dose as well as the heart rate variation were compared. The noise, signal-to-noise ratio, and effective radiation dose were not significantly different between the 2 groups. The mean heart rate variation between planning and scanning for group A was 7 ± 7.6 bpm, and larger than 3 ± 2.6 bpm for group B (P = 0.012). Quality scores of the free-breathing group were better than those of the breath-holding group (group A: 2.55 ± 0.64, group B: 2.85 ± 0.36, P = 0.018). Free-breathing CCTA is feasible on wide detector CT scanner to provide acceptable image quality with reduced heart rate variation and better images for certain patients. PMID:27399104

  5. Lateral Ignition and Flame Spread Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This apparatus, developed at EL, determines material properties related to piloted ignition of a vertically oriented sample under constant and uniform...

  6. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  7. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  8. Exhaled breath analysis: physical methods, instruments, and medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the analysis of exhaled breath, a rapidly growing field in noninvasive medical diagnostics that lies at the intersection of physics, chemistry, and medicine. Current data are presented on gas markers in human breath and their relation to human diseases. Various physical methods for breath analysis are described. It is shown how measurement precision and data volume requirements have stimulated technological developments and identified the problems that have to be solved to put this method into clinical practice. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  9. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  10. Sleep disordered breathing at the extremes of age: infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don S. Urquhart

    2016-03-01

    Appreciate disorders of respiratory control; Normal sleep in infancy is a time of change with alterations in sleep architecture, sleep duration, sleep patterns and respiratory control as an infant grows older. Interactions between sleep and respiration are key to the mechanisms by which infants are vulnerable to sleep disordered breathing. This review discusses normal sleep in infancy, as well as normal sleep breathing in infancy. Sleep disordered breathing (obstructive and central as well as disorders of ventilatory control and infant causes of hypoventilation are all reviewed in detail.

  11. Scintillation camera brightness calibration apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Circuitry is described for calibrating the brightness of a cathode ray tube display and recording apparatus comprising: 1) intensity control means for adjusting the intensity of the cathode ray tube beam; 2) light sensitive means disposed to receive light emitted from the cathode ray tube and generating a first electrical signal having a magnitude dependent upon the intensity of the emitted light; 3) reference signal generating means for generating a second electrical signal of predetermined magnitude; and 4) electrical signal comparison means coupled to the light sensitive means and the reference signal generating means for comparing the magnitude of the first and second electrical signals. (author)

  12. Light ion irradiation creep apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental technique developed to measure the irradiation creep of metallic specimens subjected to light ion bombardment is described. The experimental apparatus has the capability to remotely set and control ion flux, stress and temperature. Specimen strain is measured continuously with a noncontracting laser extensometer developed for this application. A typical result obtained for the 17 MeV deuteron irradiation of a 0.15 mm (0.006 in.) thick nickel specimen is presented with an analysis of the source and magnitude of both systematic and random errors. (Auth.)

  13. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  14. Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material comprises at least one radiation detector in a housing serving as a first radiation shield and in which at least one groove is formed to expose at least a portion of a receptor surface of the detector. The groove extends transverse to the direction of movement of the material over the detector. A second radiation shield may be located between at least a portion of the first shield and the detector. The material of the second shield is inherently less contaminated and emits secondary excitation radiation of lower energy than the first material. (author)

  15. Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Popok, Vladimir

    In the current report, a design and capabilities of a cluster implantation and deposition apparatus (CIDA) involving two different cluster sources are described. The clusters produced from gas precursors (Ar, N etc.) by PuCluS-2 can be used to study cluster ion implantation in order to develop...... contributions to the theory of cluster stopping in matter as well as for practical applications requiring ultra-shallow implantation and modification of surfaces on the nanoscale. Metal clusters from the magnetron cluster source are of interest for the production of optical sensors to detect specific biological...

  16. Conveyor with rotary airlock apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronbert, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus for transferring objects from a first region to a second region, the first and second regions having differing atmospheric environments. The apparatus includes a shell having an entrance and an exit, a conveyer belt running through the shell from the entrance to the exit, and a horizontally mounted `revolving door` with at least four vanes revolving about its axis. The inner surface of the shell and the top surface of the conveyer belt act as opposing walls of the `revolving door`. The conveyer belt dips as it passes under but against the revolving vanes so as not to interfere with them but to engage at least two of the vanes and define thereby a moving chamber. Preferably, the conveyer belt has ridges or grooves on its surface that engage the edges of the vanes and act to rotate the vane assembly. Conduits are provided that communicate with the interior of the shell and allow the adjustment of the atmosphere of the moving chamber or recovery of constituents of the atmosphere of the first region from the moving chamber before they escape to the second region.

  17. Flagellar apparatus structure of choanoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    Phylum choanoflagellata is the nearest unicellular neighbor of metazoa at the phylogenetic tree. They are single celled or form the colonies, can be presented by naked cells or live in theca or lorica, but in all cases they have a flagellum surrounded by microvilli of the collar. They have rather uniform and peculiar flagellar apparatus structure with flagellar basal body (FB) producing a flagellum, and non-flagellar basal body (NFB) lying orthogonal to the FB. Long flagellar transition zone contains a unique structure among eukaryotes, the central filament, which connects central microtubules to the transversal plate. Both basal bodies are composed of triplets and interconnected with fibrillar bridge. They also contain the internal arc-shaped connectives between the triplets. The FB has prominent transitional fibers similar to those of chytrid zoospores and choanocytes of sponges, and a radial microtubular root system. The ring-shaped microtubule organizing center (MTOC) produces radial root microtubules, but in some species a MTOC is represented by separate foci. The NFB has a narrow fibrillar root directed towards the Golgi apparatus in association with membrane-bounded sac. Prior to cell division, the basal bodies replicate and migrate to poles of elongated nucleus. The basal bodies serve as MTOCs for the spindle microtubules during nuclear division by semiopen orthomitosis. PMID:27148446

  18. Syllable-Related Breathing in Infants in the Second Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Douglas F.; Buder, Eugene H.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Boliek, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether breathing behaviors of infants within the 2nd year of life differ between tidal breathing and breathing supporting single unarticulated syllables and canonical/articulated syllables. Method: Vocalizations and breathing kinematics of 9 infants between 53 and 90 weeks of age were recorded. A strict selection…

  19. Bounded Gain of Energy on the Breathing Circle Billiard

    OpenAIRE

    Kamphorst, Sylvie Oliffson; de Carvalho, Sonia Pinto

    1998-01-01

    The Breathing Circle is a 2-dimensional generalization of the Fermi Accelerator. It is shown that the billiard map associated to this model has invariant curves in phase space, implying that any particle will have bounded gain of energy.

  20. Breakdown in Breathing: The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe A Breakdown in Breathing The Complexities of Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited illness that ravages the ... B. Guggino, a researcher with the Johns Hopkins Cystic Fibrosis Center. But in CF, “the mucus gets sticky, ...

  1. Atmospheric Breathing Electric Thruster for Planetary Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will investigate the development of an atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion solar-powered vehicle to explore planets such as Mars. The vehicle would...

  2. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  3. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  4. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to...... participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  5. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The intent of this particular project was to perform the following:Provide a breathing capability to be integrated into existing EC5 Ventilation Lab Suited...

  6. Bathroom watching using a breath detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Tomofumi; Nakajima, Masato

    2004-10-01

    Recently, domestic accidents have been increasing in Japan. These kinds of accidents occur in private areas such as bedrooms, toilets and bathrooms, and tend to be found too late. Accidents, particularly those occurring in the bathroom, can often result in death. Many systems which have been proposed or which are in use are designed to detect body motion in the bathroom, and determine that a bather has suddenly taken ill when movement ceases. However, the relaxed posture of a person bathing is actually very similar to that of a person who has passed out. It is therefore very difficult to differentiate between the two postures. We have developed a watching system for bathrooms. The new feature of this system lies in its ability to detect a person"s breathing by using an FG vision sensor. From the experiment, it was found that the false alarm rate is expected to reach less than 0.0001% when waiting time is set to 36.8 seconds.

  7. Fetal breathing movements and changes at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Brian J; Rajaee, Arezoo

    2014-01-01

    The fetus, which develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac, relies on the placenta for respiratory gas exchange rather than the lungs. While not involved in fetal oxygenation, fetal breathing movements (FBM) nevertheless have an important role in lung growth and in development of respiratory muscles and neural regulation. FBM are regulated differently in many respects than postnatal respiration, which results from the unique intrauterine environment. Prominent distinctions of FBM include its episodic nature and apnea-sensitivity to hypoxia. The latter characteristic is the basis for using FBM in the assessment of fetuses at risk for hypoxic injury. At birth, the transition to continuous postnatal respiration involves a fall in temperature, gaseous distention of the lungs, activation of the Hering-Breuer reflexes, and functional connectivity of afferent O2 chemoreceptor activity with respiratory motoneurons and arousal centers. Importantly, exposure to drugs or adverse conditions in utero not only can change patterns of FBM but also can lead to epigenetic dysregulation in postnatal respiration. Such changes, can blunt respiratory and arousal defenses against hypoxic challenges in sleep. Thus, fetal hypoxia and/or drug exposure may in later life dispose sleeping infants, children, and adults to hypertension, diabetes mellitus, brain injury, and sudden death. PMID:25015803

  8. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater. PMID:23487567

  9. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley Telles; Nilkamal Singh; Acharya Balkrishna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management...

  10. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts’ Breathing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Baldi; Graziano Cerri; Franco Chiaraluce; Lorenzo Eusebi; Paola Russo

    2014-01-01

    The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing fre...

  11. Pattern of lung volumes in patients with sighing breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljadeff, G.; Molho, M; I. Katz; Benzaray, S.; Yemini, Z.; Shiner, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Sighing breathing is observed in subjects suffering from anxiety with no apparent organic disease. METHODS--Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates were measured in 12 patients with a sighing pattern of breathing and in 10 normal subjects matched for age, gender, and anthropometric data. In both groups the measurements were made by spirographic and plethysmographic techniques. In normal subjects functional residual capacity (FRC) and residual volume (RV) were measured during normal...

  12. Effects of Deep Breathing Exercises after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Deep breathing exercises are widely used in the postoperative care to prevent or reduce pulmonary complications, but no scientific evidence for the efficacy has been found after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. The aim of the thesis was to describe postoperative pulmonary function and to evaluate the efficacy of deep breathing exercises performed with or without a blow bottle device for positive expiratory pressure (PEP) 10 cmH2O or an inspiratory resistance-positive expirator...

  13. Breathing Rate Prediction Using Finger-tip Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmanian, Holakou

    2015-01-01

    Personalized health-care is trending and individuals tend to wear sensors in order to record their own health data. As a part of this trend, any redundancy in the data captured by wearable sensors must be exploited to reduce the number of devices one may wear. In this thesis, we work with a device which senses breathing and pulse through pressure tube and pulse oximetry, respectively. Extracting the dependency between these two measurements, we approximately predict the breathing rate by firs...

  14. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  15. Resistance breathing with PEP and CPAP : effects on respiratory parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Sehlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are two forms of resistance breathing used in spontaneously breathing patients. With a threshold resistor or a flow resistor, both PEP and CPAP provide a positive (elevated) pressure level during the expiratory phase. With PEP, inspiratory pressure is negative, i.e. lower than ambient air pressure, as during a normal inspiration, but with CPAP, the inspiratory pressure is positive, i.e. higher than a...

  16. Physiological modeling of isoprene dynamics in exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    King, Julian; Koc, Helin; Unterkofler, Karl; Mochalski, Paweł; Kupferthaler, Alexander; Teschl, Gerald; Teschl, Susanne; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Human breath contains a myriad of endogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are reflective of ongoing metabolic or physiological processes. While research into the diagnostic potential and general medical relevance of these trace gases is conducted on a considerable scale, little focus has been given so far to a sound analysis of the quantitative relationships between breath levels and the underlying systemic concentrations. This paper is devoted to a thorough mod...

  17. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  18. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  19. Metabolite Content Profiling of Bottlenose Dolphin Exhaled Breath

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander A Aksenov; Yeates, Laura; Pasamontes, Alberto; Siebe, Craig; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Simmons, Jason; McCartney, Mitchell M.; Deplanque, Jean-Pierre; Wells, Randall S; Davis, Cristina E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing ocean health and the potential impact on marine mammal health are gaining global attention. Direct health assessments of wild marine mammals, however, is inherently difficult. Breath analysis metabolomics is a very attractive assessment tool due to its noninvasive nature, but it is analytically challenging. It has never been attempted in cetaceans for comprehensive metabolite profiling. We have developed a method to reproducibly sample breath from small cetaceans, specifically Atlant...

  20. Breath-hold CT attenuation correction for quantitative cardiac SPECT

    OpenAIRE

    Koshino, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Kazuhito; Fukumoto, Masaji; Sasaki, Kazunari; Moriguchi, Tetsuaki; Hori, Yuki; Zeniya, Tsutomu; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Kiso, Keisuke; Iida, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    Background Attenuation correction of a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image is possible using computed tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps with hybrid SPECT/CT. CT attenuation maps acquired during breath holding can be misaligned with SPECT, generating artifacts in the reconstructed images. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of respiratory phase during breath-hold CT acquisition on attenuation correction of cardiac SPECT imaging. Methods A series o...

  1. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  2. Method and apparatus for recovering unstable cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick L.; Barraclough, Bruce L.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus suitable for stabilizing hydrocarbon cores are given. Such stabilized cores have not previously been obtainable for laboratory study, and such study is believed to be required before the hydrate reserves can become a utilizable resource. The apparatus can be built using commercially available parts and is very simple and safe to operate.

  3. A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gravity fiber pulling apparatus (FPA) was constructed in order to study the effects of gravity on glass fiber formation. The apparatus was specifically designed and built for use on NASA's KC-135 aircraft. To date, four flights have been completed during which E-glass fiber was successfully produced in simulated lunar gravity.

  4. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  5. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  6. Simple high-temperature thermal diffusivity apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.; Zoltan, A.

    1984-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive thermal diffusivity apparatus is described for measurement up to 1600 K. The novel features of apparatus include a light pipe, a long furnace, and a differential thermocouple. A low heat-load sample holder for clamping the sample in a vertical position is also described. The results of measurements on AXM-5Q graphite are reported.

  7. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  8. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  9. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  10. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  11. Classification of Asthma Based on Nonlinear Analysis of Breathing Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Raoufy

    Full Text Available Normal human breathing exhibits complex variability in both respiratory rhythm and volume. Analyzing such nonlinear fluctuations may provide clinically relevant information in patients with complex illnesses such as asthma. We compared the cycle-by-cycle fluctuations of inter-breath interval (IBI and lung volume (LV among healthy volunteers and patients with various types of asthma. Continuous respiratory datasets were collected from forty age-matched men including 10 healthy volunteers, 10 patients with controlled atopic asthma, 10 patients with uncontrolled atopic asthma, and 10 patients with uncontrolled non-atopic asthma during 60 min spontaneous breathing. Complexity of breathing pattern was quantified by calculating detrended fluctuation analysis, largest Lyapunov exponents, sample entropy, and cross-sample entropy. The IBI as well as LV fluctuations showed decreased long-range correlation, increased regularity and reduced sensitivity to initial conditions in patients with asthma, particularly in uncontrolled state. Our results also showed a strong synchronization between the IBI and LV in patients with uncontrolled asthma. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that nonlinear analysis of breathing pattern has a diagnostic value in asthma and can be used in differentiating uncontrolled from controlled and non-atopic from atopic asthma. We suggest that complexity analysis of breathing dynamics may represent a novel physiologic marker to facilitate diagnosis and management of patients with asthma. However, future studies are needed to increase the validity of the study and to improve these novel methods for better patient management.

  12. Autonomic control of the heart during circular breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J F; Sollers, J J

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular method for probing the autonomic nervous system (ANS). A number of specific periodicities have been identified in the spectra of cardiac time series. One major mechanism involved in a number of these periodicities is respiratory modulation of neural traffic to the heart. One respiratory maneuver that has never been investigated is circular breathing. This technique is employed by wind musicians to produce an uninterrupted stream of sound without pauses for breathing. The current study examined the effects of circular breathing on ANS control of the heart in a highly proficient professional musician. Results indicated that circular breathing both with and without producing a sound was associated with altered autonomic control of the heart. Specifically, circular breathing was associated with increases in heart rate and decreases in high frequency HRV. This high frequency HRV has been most closely linked with respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiratory modulation of vagal neural traffic. We conclude that the examination of novel breathing maneuvers may help to illuminate the role of respiratory modulation of HRV. PMID:10834249

  13. Diaphragmatic breathing reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martarelli, Daniele; Cocchioni, Mario; Scuri, Stefania; Pompei, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals. PMID:19875429

  14. Microelectromechanical reciprocating-tooth indexing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James J.

    1999-01-01

    An indexing apparatus is disclosed that can be used to rotate a gear or move a rack in a precise, controllable manner. The indexing apparatus, based on a reciprocating shuttle driven by one or more actuators, can be formed either as a micromachine, or as a millimachine. The reciprocating shuttle of the indexing apparatus can be driven by a thermal, electrostatic or electromagnetic actuator, with one or more wedge-shaped drive teeth of the shuttle being moveable to engage and slide against indexing teeth on the gear or rack, thereby moving the gear or rack. The indexing apparatus can be formed by either surface micromachining processes or LIGA processes, depending on the size of the apparatus that is to be formed.

  15. Variability of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) volume and pH using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a valuable biological medium for non-invasively measuring biomarkers with the potential to reflect organ systems responses to environmental and dietary exposures and disease processes. Collection of EBC has typically been with spontaneous breat...

  16. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  17. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  18. Automatic gamma spectrometry analytical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention falls within the area of quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis by gamma spectrometry and particularly refers to a device for bringing the samples into the counting position. The purpose of this invention is precisely to provide an automatic apparatus specifically adapted to the analysis of hard gamma radiations. To this effect, the invention relates to a gamma spectrometry analytical device comprising a lead containment, a detector of which the sensitive part is located inside the containment and additionally comprising a transfer system for bringing the analyzed samples in succession to a counting position inside the containment above the detector. A feed compartment enables the samples to be brought in turn one by one on to the transfer system through a duct connecting the compartment to the transfer system. Sequential systems for the coordinated forward feed of the samples in the compartment and the transfer system complete this device

  19. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  20. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  1. Dental X-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  2. Drill pipe downhole unthreading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes an apparatus for unthreading a threaded connection in a drill string. It comprises: an elongate shaft; fluid powered means for moving the shaft in repeated movement between first and second positions; upper and lower mandrels supporting the shaft and exposed to joints making up the drill string, the mandrels joining together to permit rotation therebetween; upper and lower pipe gripping means cooperatively engaging pipe joints in the drill string wherein the upper pipe gripping means engages a pipe joint above a threaded connection in the pipe string and the lower pipe gripping means engages a pipe joint below the threaded connection in the pipe string; and means coupling the shaft to impart repeated movement through the upper and lower mandrels and pipe gripping means to the pipe joints so that the threaded connection in the pipe string is rotated to unthread

  3. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  4. Thermal synthesis apparatus and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James R.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  5. Apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas(es) is (are) stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forming at a significantly lower temperature)

  6. Emergency cooling apparatus for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor is described which has the core surrounded by coolant and an inert cover gas all sealed within a container, an emergency cooling apparatus employing a detector that will detect cover gas or coolant, particularly liquid sodium, leaking from the container of the reactor, to release a heat exchange material that is inert to the coolant, which heat exchange material is cooled during operation of the reactor. The heat exchange material may be liquid niitrogen or a combination of spheres and liquid nitrogen, for example, and is introduced so as to contact the coolant that has leaked from the container quickly so as to rapidly cool the coolant to prevent or extinguish combustion. (Official Gazette)

  7. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  8. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  9. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  10. Novel Findings in Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Seham F.A.; Siam, Ahmed G.; Saleh, Safaa H.; Elshafei, Mona M.; Elsaeed, Wafaa F.; Arafa, Mohamed A.; Bendary, Eman A.; Farag, Elsayed M.; Basset, Maha A.A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Elazouni, Osama M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanism of breath-holding spells (BHS) is not fully understood and most probably multifactorial; so, this study was designed to clarify the pathophysiology of BHS through assessing some laboratory parameters and electrocardiographic (ECG) changes which might be contributing to the occurrence of the attacks. Another aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in the pathophysiology between pallid and cyanotic types of BHS. This was a prospective study performed in Zagazig University Hospitals. Seventy-six children diagnosed with BHS were included as follows: 32 children with cyanotic BHS, 14 children with pallid BHS, and 30 healthy children as a control group. All children were subjected to the following: full history taking, clinical examination, and laboratory work up in the form of CBC, serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels. Twenty-four hours ambulatory ECG (Holter) recording was also performed. No significant statistical difference was found between cyanotic and pallid groups regarding family history of BHS, severity, and precipitating factors of the attacks. Frequent runs of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during 24 hours ECG were significantly higher in children with BHS; the frequency of RSA was significantly correlated with the frequency (severity) of the attacks. Low serum ferritin was significantly associated with BHS groups but not correlated with the severity of the attacks. Autonomic dysregulation evidenced by frequent RSA is considered to be an important cause of BHS in children and is correlated with the frequency of the attacks. Low serum ferritin is additional factor in the pathophysiology. Both pallid and cyanotic BHS are suggested to be types of the same disease sharing the same pathophysiology. PMID:26181556

  11. Radial Breathing Modes in Cosmochemistry and Meteoritics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T.L.; Wilson, K.B.

    2009-01-01

    One area of continuing interest in cosmochemistry and meteoritics (C&M) is the identification of the nature of Q-phase, although some researchers in C&M are not reporting relevant portions of Raman spectral data. Q is the unidentified carrier of noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites (CCs). Being carbonaceous, the focus has been on any number of Q-candidates arising from the sp2 hybridization of carbon (C). These all derive from various forms of graphene, a monolayer of C atoms packed into a two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal honeycomb lattice that is the basic building block for graphitic materials of all other dimensions for sp2 allotropes of C. As a basic lattice, 2D graphene can be curled into fullerenes (0D), wrapped into carbon nanotubes or CNTs (1D), and stacked into graphite (3D). These take such additional forms as scroll-like carbon whiskers, carbon fibers, carbon onions, GPCs (graphite polyhedral crystals) [6], and GICs (graphite intercalation compounds). Although all of these have been observed in meteoritics, the issue is which can explain the Q-abundances. In brief, one or more of the 0D-3D sp2 hybridization forms of C is Q. For some Q-candidates, the radial breathing modes (RBMs) are the most important Raman active vibrational modes that exist, and bear a direct relevance to solving this puzzle. Typically in C&M they are ignored when present. Their importance is addressed here as smoking-gun signatures for certain Q-candidates and are very relevant to the ultimate identification of Q.

  12. Apparatus and method for measuring viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the viscosity of a fluid. This apparatus and method is particularly useful for the measurement of the viscosity of a liquid in a harsh environment characterized by high temperature and the presence of corrosive or deleterious gases and vapors which adversely affect conventional ball or roller bearings. The apparatus and method of the present invention employ one or more flexural or torsional bearings to suspend a bob capable of limited angular motion within a rotatable sleeve suspended from a stationary frame.

  13. Tissue culture apparatus for flight experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of an apparatus for in-flight treatment of cells, tissues, or small organisms for microscopic and chemical analyses is discussed. The hardware for the apparatus is to have: (1) automated functions, (2) the capability to interface with ground-based facilities, (3) independently controlled chambers, (4) variable chamber configurations and volumes, and (4) the capabilities for processing the materials. The components of the equipment used on Skylab 3 for the study of animal cells are described. The design of an apparatus which incorporates all the required capabilities is proposed.

  14. Redesigned Air-Column Resonance Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurbax; Graf, Erlend H.

    2003-02-01

    This paper describes a redesigned air-column resonance apparatus that offers several advantages over the traditional one.2 It does away with water or the long rod to vary the length of the air column. Instead a specially designed piston is moved inside a plastic or glass tube by external magnets to vary the length of the air column. Plastic tubes of various sizes are commercially available,3 but we salvaged one from an old commercial resonance apparatus. The tube has 2.85-cm inner and 3.15-cm outer diameter, respectively. The redesigned resonance apparatus can be operated in either the horizontal or the vertical position.

  15. Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsham, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but requires a substantial amount of time to inflict damage. The fire control computer apparatus utilizes the weapon's status, dwell time, slow time and fuel limits to yield a weapon pointing sequence and weapon on-off times.

  16. Effect of breathing on the radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the breathing and his effect on accuracy of treatment dose delivery into treated volume. We focused on a special technique - extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (ESRT), which is characterized by high precision of patient setup and fixation. However, since the respiration causes movements of the tumor in the range of several millimeters to centimeters, the tumor volume have to be extended by safety margins. In our work, we focused on the introduction of noninvasive respiratory control system using ExacTrac. Breathing was represented by a special marker placed on the patient's body. With 35 patients we had together 157 breathing exercises, in which we investigated the range of motion of the markers during a relaxed breathing, in a deep inspiration, and in a deep expiration. We have created a software that allows to display the movement of the markers as well as the reference values of relaxed breathing and inspiration. The patients were able to track the signal on a small screen and base on this feedback to regulate their breathing. The average reproducibility of the inspiration was 93.0 % with the feedback and 74.5 % without the feedback. For 16 patients we used dynamic CT scan to study the correlation between tumor motion and the movements of the markers (0.83 ± 0.17) and as a result we estimated the required internal margins for irradiation at shallow breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) with and without feedback. In DIBH treatment situation the internal margin could be theoretically reduced by 3 mm with the feedback device. The standard deviation was rather large, and therefore the amount of margin reduction varies from patient to patient. We compared different irradiation techniques in terms of DVH and the consequent risk of complications (NTCP). Compared with the standard irradiation technique at shallow breathing, irradiation in DIBH without respiratory control reduced the volume of lung irradiated with 12 , 15 and 18 Gy and

  17. Clinical implementation of target tracking by breathing synchronized delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target-tracking techniques can be categorized based on the mechanism of the feedback loop. In real time tracking, breathing-delivery phase correlation is provided to the treatment delivery hardware. Clinical implementation of target tracking in real time requires major hardware modifications. In breathing synchronized delivery (BSD), the patient is guided to breathe in accordance with target motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Violations of mechanical limitations of hardware are to be avoided at the treatment planning stage. Hardware modifications are not required. In this article, using sliding window IMRT delivery as an example, we have described step-by-step the implementation of target tracking by the BSD technique: (1) A breathing guide is developed from patient's normal breathing pattern. The patient tries to reproduce this guiding cycle by following the display in the goggles; (2) 4D-CT scans are acquired at all the phases of the breathing cycle; (3) The average tumor trajectory is obtained by deformable image registration of 4D-CT datasets and is smoothed by Fourier filtering; (4) Conventional IMRT planning is performed using the images at reference phase (full exhalation phase) and a leaf sequence based on optimized fluence map is generated; (5) Assuming the patient breathes with a reproducible breathing pattern and the machine maintains a constant dose rate, the treatment process is correlated with the breathing phase; (6) The instantaneous average tumor displacement is overlaid on the dMLC position at corresponding phase; and (7) DMLC leaf speed and acceleration are evaluated to ensure treatment delivery. A custom-built mobile phantom driven by a computer-controlled stepper motor was used in the dosimetry verification. A stepper motor was programmed such that the phantom moved according to the linear component of tumor motion used in BSD treatment planning. A conventional plan was delivered on the phantom with and without

  18. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  19. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients. PMID:26802697

  20. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. PMID:26159687

  1. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    2015-01-01

    . Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing...... that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn...

  2. 16 CFR 1610.5 - Test apparatus and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test apparatus and materials. 1610.5 Section... STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES The Standard § 1610.5 Test apparatus and materials. (a) Flammability apparatus. The flammability test apparatus consists of a draft-proof ventilated chamber...

  3. Modular Sampling and Analysis Techniques for the Real-Time Analysis of Human Breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M; Farquar, G; Adams, K; Bogan, M; Martin, A; Benner, H; Spadaccini, C; Steele, P; Davis, C; Loyola, B; Morgan, J; Sankaran, S

    2007-07-09

    At LLNL and UC Davis, we are developing several techniques for the real-time sampling and analysis of trace gases, aerosols and exhaled breath that could be useful for a modular, integrated system for breath analysis. Those techniques include single-particle bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) for the analysis of exhaled aerosol particles or droplets as well as breath samplers integrated with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or MEMS-based differential mobility spectrometry (DMS). We describe these techniques and present recent data obtained from human breath or breath condensate, in particular, addressing the question of how environmental exposure influences the composition of breath.

  4. Modeling of column apparatuses: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doichinova, M., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com; Popova-Krumova, P., E-mail: mar-doych@mail.bg, E-mail: petyabs@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. St.Angelov str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper presents a review of the modeling method on the base of the physical approximations of the mechanics of continua, which have been developed for processes in column apparatuses. This method includes diffusion type of model for modeling of mass transfer with chemical reaction in column apparatuses with and without circulation zones. The diffusion type of model is used for modeling of scale effect in column apparatuses too. The study concluded that the proposal method is possibility for investigation the influence of radial non uniformity of the velocity distribution on the process efficiency, influence of zones breadths on the mass transfer efficiency in the column. The method of the column apparatuses modeling can be used for modeling of physical and chemical absorption, chemical adsorption, homogeneous and heterogeneous (catalytic) chemical reactions, airlift reactors for chemical and photochemical reactions.

  5. A simple apparatus for electrostatic force measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic attraction can explain as a first approximation the binding of ionic solids. One of the two reasons for constructing the apparatus described was to demonstrate that electrostatic forces can be large, thus giving at least some plausibility to the theory of ionic solids. Secondly, it is an attempt to create a cheap and simple apparatus for measuring these forces and relating them to other physical quantities. An apparatus giving similar results of some precision has already been described (Hale 1978a). That was constructed by skilled instrument makers for undergraduate teaching, cost several hundred pounds and needed a considerable amount of time to iron out the problems encountered. The present apparatus was made in a few hours largely from scrap and using only ordinary hand tools. Although it is somewhat crude, quite acceptable results can be obtained from it. It could be used to advantage in courses dealing with fields and potential for example Nuffield advanced physics, unit 3.

  6. Method and apparatus for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases and allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus are described for uniformly coating the airways of the lung of a patient with a mist formed by aspirating a liquid. The maximum size of the particles of the mist is restricted to about 1.2 microns with the major portion of the particles being in the range of 0.056 microns to 1 micron causing the mist to behave as a gas. Conduits are used for feeding the mist together with a gas containing oxygen to a patient to be inhaled during the normal breathing process, and valves are connected to the conduits for diverting the exhaled mist and gas through a discharge path. By radioactively tagging the liquid prior to production of the mist, the uniform deposition of the mist throughout the entire lung without encountering heavy accumulations in the large airways and at branch points, enables the production of high definition image scans of the lung. (author)

  7. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... Due to the large interindividual variations of hydrogen excretion, unabsorbable standards should be used. The intraindividual variations of H2 production/excretion and differences in fermentability of different carbohydrate substrates only allow for semiquantitative estimates of malabsorbed amounts of...... some carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under...

  8. Liquid intake monitoring through breathing signal using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design, system structure and performance for a wireless and wearable diet monitoring system. Food and drink intake can be detected by the way of detecting a person's swallow events. The system works based on the key observation that a person's otherwise continuous breathing process is interrupted by a short apnea when she or he swallows as a part of solid or liquid intake process. We detect the swallows through the difference between normal breathing cycle and breathing cycle with swallows using a wearable chest-belt. Three popular machine learning algorithms have been applied on both time and frequency domain features. Discrimination power of features is then analyzed for applications where only small number of features is allowed. It is shown that high detection performance can be achieved with only few features.

  9. Non-Invasive UWB Sensing of Astronauts’ Breathing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Baldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of a UWB system for sensing breathing activity of astronauts must account for many critical issues specific to the space environment. The aim of this paper is twofold. The first concerns the definition of design constraints about the pulse amplitude and waveform to transmit, as well as the immunity requirements of the receiver. The second issue concerns the assessment of the procedures and the characteristics of the algorithms to use for signal processing to retrieve the breathing frequency and respiration waveform. The algorithm has to work correctly in the presence of surrounding electromagnetic noise due to other sources in the environment. The highly reflecting walls increase the difficulty of the problem and the hostile scenario has to be accurately characterized. Examples of signal processing techniques able to recover breathing frequency in significant and realistic situations are shown and discussed.

  10. Reliability and Determinants of Self-Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) Score: A Symptoms-Based Measure of Dysfunctional Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A J; Bacon, C J; Moran, R W

    2016-03-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is characterised by an abnormal breathing pattern leading to respiratory symptoms. The 25-item Self Evaluation of Breathing Questionnaire (SEBQ) has been developed to measure breathing-related symptoms and their severity but lacks thorough evaluation. To determine reproducibility, internal consistency and predictors of SEBQ score, 180 participants completed an online SEBQ with additional demographic and lifestyle questions. Two weeks later, 155 of those repeated SEBQ. Test-retest correlation of the SEBQ was high [intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1) = 0.89; 95 % CI 0.85-0.92]. There was no difference in SEBQ score between test and retest (15.1 (11.6) [mean (SD)] versus 14.7 (12.4); P = 0.4) and the score showed a typical error (standard error of measurement) of 4.0. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α = 0.93), and a single factor structure for items was shown. Smoking status, reported respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender were positively-associated predictors of SEBQ score, and together explained 25.6 % of score variance (P ≤ 0.001). The SEBQ has high test-retest reproducibility and its score may be predicted by current smoking, chronic respiratory disease, recent respiratory illness and female gender, thus may be a useful clinical screening tool for dysfunctional breathing. PMID:26400252

  11. Apparatus for remotely handling components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkrybalo, Gregory A.; Griffin, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The inventive apparatus for remotely handling bar-like components which define a longitudinal direction includes a gripper mechanism for gripping the component including first and second gripper members longitudinally fixedly spaced from each other and oriented parallel to each other in planes transverse to the longitudinal direction. Each gripper member includes a jaw having at least one V-groove with opposing surfaces intersecting at a base and extending radially relative to the longitudinal direction for receiving the component in an open end between the opposing surfaces. The V-grooves on the jaw plate of the first and second gripper members are aligned in the longitudinal direction to support the component in the first and second gripper members. A jaw is rotatably mounted on and a part of each of the first and second gripper members for selectively assuming a retracted mode in which the open end of the V-groove is unobstructed and active mode in which the jaw spans the open end of the V-groove in the first and second gripper members. The jaw has a locking surface for contacting the component in the active mode to secure the component between the locking surface of the jaw and the opposing surfaces of the V-groove. The locking surface has a plurality of stepped portions, each defining a progressively decreasing radial distance between the base of the V-groove and the stepped portion opposing the base to accommodate varying sizes of components.

  12. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  13. X-ray diagnostic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A falling load type X-ray diagnostic apparatus comprises a low voltage power source, AC-DC converting means connected to the low voltage power source so as to apply a rectified low DC voltage, chopping means connected to the AC-DC converting means and chopping said DC voltage into a low AC voltage, high voltage applying means for transforming said low AC voltage into a high AC voltage, said high AC voltage being applied as a tube voltage to an X-ray tube from which X-rays are irradiated toward an object to be examined, means for controlling a filament heating power of the X-ray tube, programming means for supplying a control signal to said filament heating control means so as to reduce the emission current of said X-ray tube during the irradiation, and chopper control means for controlling the chopping ratio of said chopping means by evaluating said rectified DC voltage with a preset tube voltage generated in said programming means, said programming means compensating said tube voltage by receiving said control signal in such a manner that said tube voltage is maintained substantially constant during the irradiation by varying said preset tube voltage so as to control the chopping ratio based upon the reduction of the filament heating power for the X-ray tube

  14. Proton imaging apparatus for proton therapy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy with protons, due to the physical properties of these particles, offers several advantages for cancer therapy as compared to the traditional radiotherapy and photons. In the clinical use of proton beams, a p CT (Proton Computer Tomography) apparatus can contribute to improve the accuracy of the patient positioning and dose distribution calculation. In this paper a p CT apparatus built by the Prima (Proton Imaging) Italian Collaboration will be presented and the preliminary results will be discussed.

  15. Report upon inquiry into radiation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the committee has provided its assessment of the need and justification for the law to provide for the control of the provision of radiation apparatus, the planning needs for the provision of diagnostic and therapeutic facilities, the location of such facilities, the appropriateness or otherwise of existing legislation, the necessity for any further legislative needs and the criteria governing the provision of such radiation apparatus

  16. Apparatus, System, And Method For Roadway Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2015-06-02

    An apparatus, system, and method for monitoring traffic and roadway water conditions. Traffic flow and roadway flooding is monitored concurrently through a wireless sensor network. The apparatus and system comprises ultrasound rangefinders monitoring traffic flow, flood water conditions, or both. Routing information may be calculated from the traffic conditions, such that routes are calculated to avoid roadways that are impassable or are slow due to traffic conditions.

  17. CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K I; Ayappa, I; Sorkin, I B; Norman, R G; Rapoport, D M; Goldring, R M

    2000-01-01

    The contribution of apnea to chronic hypercapnia in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has not been clarified. Using a model (D. M. Rapoport, R. G. Norman, and R. M. Goldring. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2302-2309, 1993), we previously illustrated failure of CO(2) homeostasis during periodic breathing resulting from temporal dissociation between ventilation and perfusion ("temporal V/Q mismatch"). This study measures acute kinetics of CO(2) during periodic breathing and addresses interapnea ventilatory compensation for maintenance of CO(2) homeostasis in 11 patients with OSA during daytime sleep (37-171 min). Ventilation and expiratory CO(2) and O(2) fractions were measured on a breath-by-breath basis by means of a tight-fitting full facemask. Calculations included CO(2) excretion, metabolic CO(2) production, and CO(2) balance (metabolic CO(2) production - exhaled CO(2)). CO(2) balance was tabulated for each apnea/hypopnea event-interevent cycle and as a cumulative value during sleep. Cumulative CO(2) balance varied (-3,570 to +1,388 ml). Positive cumulative CO(2) balance occurred in the absence of overall hypoventilation during sleep. For each cycle, positive CO(2) balance occurred despite increased interevent ventilation to rates as high as 45 l/min. This failure of CO(2) homeostasis was dependent on the event-to-interevent duration ratio. The results demonstrate that 1) periodic breathing provides a mechanism for acute hypercapnia in OSA, 2) acute hypercapnia during periodic breathing may occur without a decrease in average minute ventilation, supporting the presence of temporal V/Q mismatch, as predicted from our model, and 3) compensation for CO(2) accumulation during apnea/hypopnea may be limited by the duration of the interevent interval. The relationship of this acute hypercapnia to sustained chronic hypercapnia in OSA remains to be further explored. PMID:10642388

  18. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Bayley, Mark;

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems that...... bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending on...

  19. Non-Contact Detection of Breathing Using a Microwave Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marsili

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the use of a continuous-wave microwave sensor as a non-contact tool for quantitative measurement of respiratory tidal volume has been evaluated by experimentation in seventeen healthy volunteers. The sensor working principle is reported and several causes that can affect its response are analyzed. A suitable data processing has been devised able to reject the majority of breath measurements taken under non suitable conditions. Furthermore, a relationship between microwave sensor measurements and volume inspired and expired at quiet breathing (tidal volume has been found.

  20. Cell Breathing Technology in Wi Fi/Lans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Singh,

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In future we can introduce this Cell Breathing Techniques for Load Balancing in Wireless LANs in network for the usage of internet especially in WIFI connectivity. As per in this project we explained that by utilizing by this technique we can prevent the network traffic crisis and also data overload on APs. By adding this technology in WIFI network results the properties like increase the speed of the internet and uninterruptable connectivity. This cell breathing method is going to be the major concern in upcoming days for communication purpose.

  1. Breathing zone concentrations of methylmethacrylate monomer during joint replacement operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darre, E; Jørgensen, L G; Vedel, P; Jensen, J S

    By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during cementat......By use of a methylmethacrylate (MMA) Dräger tube and bellow bump, the breathing zone concentrations of MMA monomer were measured for the operating surgeon during cementation of the components of hip and knee joint prostheses. The highest recordings (50-100 p.p.m.) were encountered during...

  2. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic pathway of 14C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14CO2. This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14CO2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites

  3. Atrial Electrical Remodeling and Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Baranchuk; Diego Conde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To the Editor: We read with interest the article from Bitter et al. (1 published in the last volume of JAFIB. This non-systematic review covers some of the most important physiopathological aspects of the link between sleep disordered breathing (SDB and atrial fibrillation (AFib. We do agree with the authors on the role of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. These topics were, to our understanding and perspective, very well covered by the authors on this review. However, despite that the authors mentioned atrial remodeling a couple of times during their review, we are not sure that this topic and specifically atrial electrical remodeling, was properly discussed and referenced. The pathophysiology linking SDB to AF is multifactorial and may involve repetitive hypoxemia, increased sympathetic drive, fluctuations in intrathoracic pressure and systemic inflammation (2. These physiologic changes may induce structural and electrical remodeling serving as a substrate to the development of AFib. An indirect marker for such electrical remodeling is the prolongation of atrial conduction time, represented by increased maximum P-wave duration in the surface ECG. In a prior study, we showed that an increased P-wave duration has been associated with SDB (3. Interatrial block (IAB, defined as a surface P-wave duration > 120 ms, was more prevalent in patients with moderate-severe SDB (34.7% SDB vs. 0% controls, p 25 were independent predictors of maximum P-wave duration (p=0.001 and p<0.001 respectively (3. Another non-invasive method to determine atrial electrical remodeling is the Signal-averaged P-wave (SAPW duration. The SAPW duration represents the average of all P-wave durations in a given number of consecutive heartbeats. We recently postulated that SAPW would be useful to identify atrial electrical remodeling in patients with severe SDB and that treatment with C-PAP for 4-6 weeks may induce reverse atrial electrical remodeling (4

  4. Hydraulic Apparatus for Mechanical Testing of Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Todd J.; Dean, Richard J.; Hacker, Scott C.; Harrington, Douglas W.; Salazar, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus for mechanical testing of nuts. In the original application for which the apparatus was developed, the nuts are of a frangible type designed for use with pyrotechnic devices in spacecraft applications in which there are requirements for rapid, one-time separations of structures that are bolted together. The apparatus can also be used to test nonfrangible nuts engaged without pyrotechnic devices. This apparatus was developed to replace prior testing systems that were extremely heavy and immobile and characterized by long setup times (of the order of an hour for each nut to be tested). This apparatus is mobile, and the setup for each test can now be completed in about five minutes. The apparatus can load a nut under test with a static axial force of as much as 6.8 x 10(exp 5) lb (3.0 MN) and a static moment of as much as 8.5 x 10(exp 4) lb in. (9.6 x 10(exp 3) N(raised dot)m) for a predetermined amount of time. In the case of a test of a frangible nut, the pyrotechnic devices can be exploded to break the nut while the load is applied, in which case the breakage of the nut relieves the load. The apparatus can be operated remotely for safety during an explosive test. The load-generating portion of the apparatus is driven by low-pressure compressed air; the remainder of the apparatus is driven by 110-Vac electricity. From its source, the compressed air is fed to the apparatus through a regulator and a manually operated valve. The regulated compressed air is fed to a pneumatically driven hydraulic pump, which pressurizes oil in a hydraulic cylinder, thereby causing a load to be applied via a hydraulic nut (not to be confused with the nut under test). During operation, the hydraulic pressure is correlated with the applied axial load, which is verified by use of a load cell. Prior to operation, one end of a test stud (which could be an ordinary threaded rod or bolt) is installed in the hydraulic nut. The other end of the test stud passes

  5. Sampling and mass spectrometry approaches for the detection of drugs and foreign contaminants in breath for homeland security applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Audrey Noreen [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Homeland security relies heavily on analytical chemistry to identify suspicious materials and persons. Traditionally this role has focused on attribution, determining the type and origin of an explosive, for example. But as technology advances, analytical chemistry can and will play an important role in the prevention and preemption of terrorist attacks. More sensitive and selective detection techniques can allow suspicious materials and persons to be identified even before a final destructive product is made. The work presented herein focuses on the use of commercial and novel detection techniques for application to the prevention of terrorist activities. Although drugs are not commonly thought of when discussing terrorism, narcoterrorism has become a significant threat in the 21st century. The role of the drug trade in the funding of terrorist groups is prevalent; thus, reducing the trafficking of illegal drugs can play a role in the prevention of terrorism by cutting off much needed funding. To do so, sensitive, specific, and robust analytical equipment is needed to quickly identify a suspected drug sample no matter what matrix it is in. Single Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (SPAMS) is a novel technique that has previously been applied to biological and chemical detection. The current work applies SPAMS to drug analysis, identifying the active ingredients in single component, multi-component, and multi-tablet drug samples in a relatively non-destructive manner. In order to do so, a sampling apparatus was created to allow particle generation from drug tablets with on-line introduction to the SPAMS instrument. Rules trees were developed to automate the identification of drug samples on a single particle basis. A novel analytical scheme was also developed to identify suspect individuals based on chemical signatures in human breath. Human breath was sampled using an RTube{trademark} and the trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were preconcentrated using solid

  6. Quantum behaviour of measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores the quantum behavior of measurement apparatus with illustrations in quantum optics. This is the first study of quantum properties of measurements performed by any kind of devices. We show that the quantum properties of a measurement, such as its projective or non-classical character, are revealed only by the quantum states of an unusual approach of quantum physics: the retrodictive approach. This approach involves retro-predictions about state preparations leading to a given measurement result, contrary to the predictive approach with which we usually make predictions about the results of an experiment. By clarifying the mathematical foundations of the retrodictive approach, we propose a general procedure for reconstructing the quantum states of this approach: the retrodicted states. We have realized these reconstructions for single-photon detectors, widely used in quantum cryptography for instance. This is the first tomography of quantum states totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices, contrary to usual reconstructions based on measurement results. These tomographies enabled us to study experimentally the noise influence on the quantum properties of measurements performed by these detectors, in particular their transition from a strongly quantum behavior into a more classical behavior. Finally, we propose a detector of Schroedinger's Cat states of light, which are superpositions of incompatible quasi-classical states of light. In a modern version of a thought experiment proposed by Eugene Wigner in 1961, such a device could allow the Wigner's Friend to detect a Schroedinger's Cat, contrary to human eyes for which we specify some quantum properties. We generalize the use of such a non-classical detector to an estimation protocol, totally based on the retrodictive approach and preparation choices. Such a procedure could enable optimal estimations, by reaching the quantum Cramer-Rao bound, which is a very topical issue

  7. Improvements to the APEX apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A number of technical issues led us to rework extensively the APEX apparatus in summer 1994. During the earlier runs, a significant fraction of the 432 silicon detector elements showed degraded resolution such that they had to be excluded from the final analysis in software. The effect of this is to reduce the efficiency of APEX and possibly also to introduce holes in the acceptance which, for some perhaps exotic scenarios, might reduce the acceptance to an unacceptably low level. Also, the energy thresholds below which it is not possible to generate timing information from the silicon detectors, were high enough that the low-energy acceptance of APEX was compromised to a significant extent. The origins of these difficulties were in part due to degraded performance of the silicon detectors themselves, problems with the silicon cooling systems and electronics problems. Both silicon arrays were disassembled and sub-standard detectors replaced, all detectors were also cleaned with the result that all detectors now performed at the specified values of leakage current. The silicon cooling systems were disassembled and rebuilt with the result that many small leaks were fixed. Defective electronics channels were repaired or replaced. The rotating target wheel was also improved with the installation of new bearings and a computer-controlled rotation and readout system. The rebuilt wheel can now run at speeds up to 900 rpm for weeks on end without breakdown. The target wheel and associated beam sweeping now work extremely well so that low-melting-point targets such as Pb and In can be used in quite intense beams without melting.

  8. The Lack, Magill and Bain anaesthetic breathing systems: a direct comparison in spontaneously-breathing anaesthetized adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, D.

    1982-01-01

    The performances of the Lack (Mapleson A), Magill (Mapleson A) and Bain (Mapleson D) anaesthetic breathing systems were compared in each of 20 anaesthetized adult patients breathing spontaneously with fresh gas flows of 70 ml kg-1 min-1. In every patient the Lack system caused the least rebreathing, as seen by the lowest inspired and end-expired CO2 tensions using capnography. The Magill caused more rebreathing than the Lack though less than the Bain. Comparative fresh gas flows for each syst...

  9. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Pedersen, Anders N; Specht, Lena; Korreman, Stine

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable...... breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated...

  10. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2

  11. Trichloroethene levels in human blood and exhaled breath from controlled inhalation exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Pleil, J D; Fisher, J W; Lindstrom, A B

    1998-01-01

    The organic constituents of exhaled human breath are representative of bloodborne concentrations through gas exchange in the blood/breath interface in the lungs. The presence of specific compounds can be an indicator of recent exposure or represent a biological response of the subject. For volatile organic compounds, sampling and analysis of breath is preferred to direct measurement from blood samples because breath collection is noninvasive, potentially infectious waste is avoided, the sampl...

  12. Dosimetric and clinical advantages of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) during radiotherapy of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Abate, Armando; Pinnarò, Paola; D’Andrea, Marco; Infusino, Erminia; Landoni, Valeria; Soriani, Antonella; Giordano, Carolina; Ferraro, Anna Maria; Strigari, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the potential dosimetric and clinical benefits of Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) technique during radiotherapy of breast cancer compared with Free Breathing (FB). Methods Eight left-sided breast cancer patients underwent a supervised breath hold during treatment. For each patient, two CT scans were acquired with and without breath hold, and virtual simulation was performed for conventional tangential fields, utilizing 6 or 15 MV photon fields. The resulting dose...

  13. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults. Methods Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured. Results Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decreased t...

  14. Prediction values regarding Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)from Sybil's forwarded email

    OpenAIRE

    ALS-NSCORT,

    2003-01-01

    3 worksheets Provider Notes:Kim, I have attached an excel file that has predictions (very rough) regarding Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)effluent quality. There are 3 sheets included in the file, Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)I (B1) liquid composition, Bio-Regenerative Environmental Treatment for Health (BREATHe)1 gas composition, and BreatheII (B2) liquid composition.

  15. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  16. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  17. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-26

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  18. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  19. Ask Your Dental Hygienist about Understanding and Eliminating Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overall health, dental hygienists educate patients about proper oral hygiene and treat and in turn help prevent can cause more harm than good. periodontal disease bad breath. Carefully Use ... to clear away istered dental hygienist (RDH) or visit the ADHA website, at ...

  20. Modeling of the expiratory flow pattern of spontaneously breathing cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, D; van der Grinten, CPM; Bogaard, JM; van der Ent, CK; Luijendijk, SCM

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed describing the entire expiratory flow pattern during spontaneous, tidal breathing in the absence of expiratory muscle activity. It provides estimates for the time constants of the respiratory System (tauRS(model)) and of the decay of continuing inspiratory muscle a

  1. Deadspace breathing as a screening test for early lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breathing through added external deadspace (V/sub Dext/) was found to increase the tidal volume of normal dogs in order to achieve alveolar ventilation adequate for gas exchange. Addition of V/sub Dext/ did not alter alveolar-arterial gas gradients or cardiovascular function. Respiratory patterns during V/sub Dext/ breathing were compared with variables measured during treadmill exercise to investigate deadspace breathing as an indicator of early lung dysfunction caused by radiation pneumonitis in dogs. Dogs were evaluated clinically, radiographically and by pulmonary function tests at rest before and after inhaling 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles. By 4 mo after inhalation of 32 to 50 μCi/kg 144Ce, there were increases in respiratory frequency and minute volume during V/sub Dext/ breathing and in minute volume and the ventilatory equivalent for O2 while running. No other significant functional, radiographic or clinical changes were noted. The dogs were sacrificed and scattered foci of inflammation were found in their lungs. Deadspace testing detected early, subclinical lung alterations with a sensitivity and at a time identical to treadmill testing and did not require whole-body exercise or training

  2. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  3. Identification of breathing cracks in a beam structure with entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimarshana, Buddhi; Wu, Nan; Wu, Christine

    2016-04-01

    A cantilever beam with a breathing crack is studied to detect and evaluate the crack using entropy measures. Closed cracks in engineering structures lead to proportional complexities to their vibration responses due to weak bi-linearity imposed by the crack breathing phenomenon. Entropy is a measure of system complexity and has the potential in quantifying the complexity. The weak bi-linearity in vibration signals can be amplified using wavelet transformation to increase the sensitivity of the measurements. A mathematical model of harmonically excited unit length steel cantilever beam with a breathing crack located near the fixed end is established, and an iterative numerical method is applied to generate accurate time domain dynamic responses. The bi-linearity in time domain signals due to the crack breathing are amplified by wavelet transformation first, and then the complexities due to bi-linearity is quantified using sample entropy to detect the possible crack and estimate the crack depth. It is observed that the method is capable of identifying crack depths even at very early stages of 3% with the increase in the entropy values more than 10% compared with the healthy beam. The current study extends the entropy based damage detection of rotary machines to structural analysis and takes a step further in high-sensitivity structural health monitoring by combining wavelet transformation with entropy calculations. The proposed technique can also be applied to other types of structures, such as plates and shells.

  4. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. PMID:22835436

  5. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools.RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction.CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  6. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31. ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  7. Vertebro-basilar Ischemia and Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (Abstract)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Guoxiong; Yang Hongjun; Zhu Shixiu; Zhang Kejing

    2000-01-01

    @@Introduction The relationship between cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) has attracted people's attention more and more in the past years. However,the subtentorial ischemic attacks - vertibrobasilar ischemia (VBI) has not been reported yet. This study is to show the interaction between VBI and SRBD.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  9. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American National Standards Institute... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79...

  10. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  11. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  12. The breathing of webs under repeated partial edge loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2012), s. 463-468. ISSN 1877-7058. [Steel structures and bridges. Podbanske, 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * breathing * fatigue limit state * design * repeated partial edge loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Nasal and Oral Inspiration during Natural Speech Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the typical pattern for inspiration during speech breathing in healthy adults, as well as the factors that might influence it. Method: Ten healthy adults, 18-45 years of age, performed a variety of speaking tasks while nasal ram pressure, audio, and video recordings were obtained. Inspirations…

  14. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101. ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  15. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  16. CFD Simulations of Contaminant Transport between two Breathing Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Experiments have shown that exhalation from one person is able to penetrate the breathing zone of another person at a distance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate the dependency of the personal exposure on some physical parameters, namely: Pulmonary ventilation rate...

  17. Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, in which natural condition soil can be used as testing materials, were carried out to study the migration behavior of radionuclides in a natural barrier. The apparatuses consist of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones, the air control apparatus, the measurement apparatuses of water and radionuclide moving velocities, etc. As performance tests, characteristics tests were done for these apparatuses and overall test of the simulation apparatuses for aerated and aquifer zones was also done under the actual test condition. It was confirmed that the all of apparatuses have achieved the designated performance requirements. This report describes the results of performance tests on simulation apparatuses of shallow land, which is categorized into three parts, that is, objective, method and result. (author)

  18. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  19. Effects of afferent input on the breathing pattern continuum in the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stephen G; Sundin, Lena; Florindo, Luis Henrique; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Milsom, William K

    2003-06-12

    This study used a decerebrate and artificially-ventilated preparation to examine the roles of various afferent inputs in breathing pattern formation in the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Three general breathing patterns were observed: (1) regular breathing; (2) frequency cycling and (3) episodic breathing. Under normoxic, normocapnic conditions, 50% of control fish exhibited regular continuous breathing and 50% exhibited frequency cycling. Denervation of the gills and oro-branchial cavity promoted frequency cycling. Central denervation of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves produced episodic breathing. Regardless of the denervation state, hyperoxia produced either frequency cycling or episodic breathing while hypoxia and hypercarbia shifted the pattern to frequency cycling and continuous breathing. We suggest that these breathing patterns represent a continuum from continuous to episodic breathing with waxing and waning occupying an intermediate stage. The data further suggest that breathing pattern is influenced by both specific afferent input from chemoreceptors and generalised afferent input while chemoreceptors specific for producing changes in breathing pattern may exist in fish. PMID:12809797

  20. Refinement of Speech Breathing in Healthy 4- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliek, Carol A.; Hixon, Thomas J.; Watson, Peter J.; Jones, Patricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to offer a better understanding of the development of neuromotor control for speech breathing and provide a normative data set that can serve as a useful standard for clinical evaluation and management of young children with speech disorders involving the breathing subsystem. Method: Speech breathing was…

  1. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  2. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing... after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5965 - Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positive end expiratory pressure breathing... Positive end expiratory pressure breathing attachment. (a) Identification. A positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) breathing attachment is a device attached to a ventilator that is used to elevate...

  4. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Peter; Lundgren, Claes E G

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief overview of physiological reactions, limitations, and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with human breath-hold diving. Breath-hold duration and ability to withstand compression at depth are the two main challenges that have been overcome to an amazing degree as evidenced by the current world records in breath-hold duration at 10:12 min and depth of 214 m. The quest for even further performance enhancements continues among competitive breath-hold divers, even if absolute physiological limits are being approached as indicated by findings of pulmonary edema and alveolar hemorrhage postdive. However, a remarkable, and so far poorly understood, variation in individual disposition for such problems exists. Mortality connected with breath-hold diving is primarily concentrated to less well-trained recreational divers and competitive spearfishermen who fall victim to hypoxia. Particularly vulnerable are probably also individuals with preexisting cardiac problems and possibly, essentially healthy divers who may have suffered severe alternobaric vertigo as a complication to inadequate pressure equilibration of the middle ears. The specific topics discussed include the diving response and its expression by the cardiovascular system, which exhibits hypertension, bradycardia, oxygen conservation, arrhythmias, and contraction of the spleen. The respiratory system is challenged by compression of the lungs with barotrauma of descent, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and the effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Various mechanisms associated with hypoxia and loss of consciousness are discussed, including hyperventilation, ascent blackout, fasting, and excessive postexercise O(2) consumption. The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated. PMID:18974367

  5. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  6. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT

  7. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.bischoff@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  8. Development of pellet melting temperature measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the extended fuel burn-up project of the light water reactor (LWR), the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels should be clarified. Data accumulation of thermal properties such as melting point of LWR fuel pellets is quite urgent from the view point of safety evaluation in the normal operation and accident conditions. In the department of Hot Laboratories, several apparatuses have been developed for investigating the irradiation behavior of high burn-up fuels under the consignment of the Science and Technology Agency since 1990. A pellet Melting Temperature measurement apparatus was developed as one of them. This paper describes outline and characteristic test of the apparatus, and measurements of melting point of unirradiated and irradiated UO2 pellets. (author)

  9. Apparatus for Ultra-Cold Fermion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Garcia, Aiyana; Desalvo, Brian

    2008-05-01

    We present progress on the construction of an apparatus for ultra-cold fermion interferometry experiments. The apparatus consists of two connected glass vacuum cells: Fermionic potassium (^40K) and bosonic rubidium (^87Rb) atoms are cooled and collected in a dual-species magneto-optical trap (MOT) in the first cell and are then transported magnetically to the second cell, where they are loaded into a micro-magnetic chip trap. We use radio-frequency (RF) evaporation to cool the rubidium atoms, which in turn sympathetically cool the potassium atoms. The apparatus takes advantage of the rapid cooling inherent to micro-magnetic traps, while also benefiting from the ultra high vacuum achievable with a two chamber vacuum system. In describing our experimental approach, we address the experimental challenges and possible force-sensing applications of fermion interferometers on chips.

  10. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with ...

  11. Measurement and prediction of indoor air quality using a breathing thermal manikin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2007-01-01

    The analyses performed in this paper reveal that a breathing thermal manikin with realistic simulation of respiration including breathing cycle, pulmonary ventilation rate, frequency and breathing mode, gas concentration, humidity and temperature of exhaled air and human body shape and surface...... temperature is sensitive enough to perform reliable measurement of characteristics of air as inhaled by occupants. The temperature, humidity, and pollution concentration in the inhaled air can be measured accurately with a thermal manikin without breathing simulation if they are measured at the upper lip...... at a distance of breathing, especially of exhalation, is needed for studying the transport of exhaled air between occupants. A method...

  12. Realtime radiation exposure monitor and control apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent application relates to an apparatus and methods used to obtain image information from modulation of a uniform flux. An exposure measuring apparatus is disclosed which comprises a multilayered detector structure having an external circuit connected to a transparent insulating layer and to a conductive plate a radiation source adapted to irradiate the detector structure with radiation capable of producing electron-hole pairs in a photoconductive layer of the detector wherein the flow of current within the external circuit is measured when the detector is irradiated by the radiation source. (author)

  13. Apparatus For Tests Of Embrittlement By Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Rollin C.; Lycou, Peter P.

    1992-01-01

    Test apparatus exposes disk specimens to hydrogen in controlled, repeatable way simulating conditions in use. Disk specimen constitutes thin wall between pressure and vacuum chambers. Test proceeds until hydrogen weakens disk enough that it ruptures. Aluminum impact plate absorbs debris from ruptured disk. Apparatus replicates aspects of service environments relevant to embrittlement by hydrogen in such equipment as storage tanks, valves, and fluid-handling components containing hydrogen at high absolute or gauge pressure. Hydrogen inside permeates stressed material and produces gradient of concentration as hydrogen diffuses through material to low-pressure side.

  14. Programmers for diagnostic x-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel apparatus is described for providing a pre-programmed selection of various parameters in X-ray radiography. The equipment consists of push-buttons which prompt the radiographer to make decisions such as thickness of patient, part of the anatomy to be X-rayed etc. From these data the apparatus selects the appropriate parameters such as H.T. voltage, current, product of current and irradiation time etc. The values of these parameters are displayed to the radiographer and facilities are provided to override the programmed parameters at the radiographer's discretion. (U.K.)

  15. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2012-06-05

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  16. Method and apparatus for combinatorial chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Robert S.

    2007-02-20

    A method and apparatus are provided for performing light-directed reactions in spatially addressable channels within a plurality of channels. One aspect of the invention employs photoactivatable reagents in solutions disposed into spatially addressable flow streams to control the parallel synthesis of molecules immobilized within the channels. The reagents may be photoactivated within a subset of channels at the site of immobilized substrate molecules or at a light-addressable site upstream from the substrate molecules. The method and apparatus of the invention find particularly utility in the synthesis of biopolymer arrays, e.g., oligonucleotides, peptides and carbohydrates, and in the combinatorial synthesis of small molecule arrays for drug discovery.

  17. Airborne Laboratory Apparatus Draws Glass Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Smith, Guy A.

    1993-01-01

    Glass-fiber-drawing apparatus designed for studies of effect of gravitation on drawing process. Clear plastic housing surrounds fiber-drawing equipment and some of associated electronic instrumentation. External rack holds video monitor, personal computer, keyboard, videotape recorder, and power switch panel. Mounted in research aircraft, apparatus makes continuous video recordings of formation of fiber at effective gravitational accelerations ranging from 0.001 to 2 times normal Earth gravitational acceleration as aircraft dives, then pulls out of dives. Also records pertinent process data on video image.

  18. Apparatus for handling control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for handling control rod drives (CRD's) attached by detachable fixing means to housings mounted in a reactor pressure vessel and each coupled to one of control rods inserted in the reactor pressure vessel is described. The apparatus for handling the CRD's comprise cylindrical housing means, uncoupling means mounted in the housing means for uncoupling each of the control rods from the respective CRD, means mounted on the housing means for effecting attaching and detaching of the fixing means, means for supporting the housing means, and means for moving the support means longitudinally of the CRD

  19. Apparatus for controlling molten core debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is an apparatus for containing, cooling, diluting, dispersing and maintaining subcritical the molten core debris assumed to melt through the bottom of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel in the unlikely event of a core meltdown. The apparatus is basically a sacrificial bed system which includes an inverted conical funnel, a core debris receptacle including a spherical dome, a spherically layered bed of primarily magnesia bricks, a cooling system of zig-zag piping in graphite blocks about and below the bed and a cylindrical liner surrounding the graphite blocks including a steel shell surrounded by firebrick. Tantalum absorber rods are used in the receptacle and bed. 9 claims, 22 figures

  20. Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Laboratory of Astrophysical Apparatus (LAA) was established in 2007. The aim of this decision was: 1. To intensify the activity of the institute in the field of astrophysical observations, 2. To increase the technical contribution of the institute to the national astrophysical network. The activity of LAA in 2008 was concentrated on three main projects: 1. The '' π of the Sky '' experiment (http://grb.fuw.edu.pl) has being carried out by our institute for many years in collaboration with several national and foreign institutes with the aim of detecting short optical counterparts (so called afterglows) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) and other short time scale (a few seconds) optical astrophysical phenomena. The continual observations are controlled over the Internet by robotized equipment installed in Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The instrumentation used in the project is systematically developed. In 2008, new versions of the electronics for the CCD cameras together with three containers for cameras were prepared. In collaboration with external firms, new cameras and robots were also manufactured. 2. The LAA is involved in a series of international observational projects aiming to understand the evolution of the Large Scale Structure of the Universe and its relation to the evolution of galaxies. The VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS, http://www.oamp.fr/virmos/) is an extensive imaging and redshift survey of the deep universe at redshift between 0 and 5, containing presently more than 50,000 redshifts in four 4-sq.-degree deep and wide fields. In 2008, ESO accepted the new large redshift survey - the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey, which will cover 24 sq.-degrees in the sky and measure a few hundreds of thousands of redshifts of galaxies at z ∼ 1. The first observations are on-going now. Yet another important collaboration is with the AKARI project (http://www.ir.isas.jaxa.jp/ASTRO-F/Outreach/index_e.html), a satellite performing a sky survey

  1. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  2. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  3. Methods and apparatus for handling or treating particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  4. The NASA Firefighter's Breathing System Program: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, Pat B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through its Technology Utilization Program, has been making its advanced technology developments available to the public. This has coincided in recent years with a growing demand within the fire service for improved protective equipment. A better breathing system for firefighters was one of the more immediate needs identified by the firefighting organizations. The Johnson Space Center (JSC), based upon their experience in providing life support systems for space flight, was subsequently requested to determine the feasibility of providing an improved breathing system for firefighters. Such a system was determined to be well within the current state of the art, and the Center is well into a development program to provide design verification of this improved protective' equipment. This report - outlines the overall objectives of this program, progress to date, and future planned activities.

  5. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide during sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpilä, Ville; Hosokawa, Keisuke; Huhtala, Heini; Saaresranta, Tarja; Salminen, Aaro V; Polo, Olli

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory drive is tightly controlled by the carbon dioxide levels. We tested the hypothesis that sequences of sleep apnoea (obstructive, central or mixed), hypopnoea and flow limitation are characterized by different levels of transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2). Polygraphic recordings (n=555) from patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) were retrospectively screened to find sequences (5 min or 10 events) of both SDB and steady breathing. Eighty-eight SDB sequences from 44 patients were included and PtcCO2 and SpO2 values were collected. PtcCO2 values during sequences were normalized by setting wakefulness level as 100%. In terms of PtcCO2, apnoea sequences with central component (central (n=7) and mixed (n=3) apnoea) did not differ from wakefulness (102.0% vs 100%, p=0.122) whereas obstructive apnoea (105.8%, pmonitoring during sleep adds to the understanding of different SDB phenotypes. PMID:26474829

  6. Examination of dialysis patients with the aminophenazone breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 endstage kidney disease patients (8 without and 4 with liver diseases) the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent mixed functional oxidases system (MFO) of the liver were studied by using the 14C-aminophenazone breath test before and after dialysis. The results showed that uremia seems to have a pressing influence on MFO activity. The activity was only significantly increased after dialysis in the group of patients without liver diseases. The MFO activity was reduced in patients with liver diseases. This is a restriction of the hepatic metabolic demethylation capacity. It is unclear if the 14C-aminophenazone breath test in dialysis patients is qualified to estimate metabolic capacity of the liver. Differentiation between the influence of uremia and of the liver disease on the alteration of MFO activity cannot be made. (author)

  7. Resonant breathing biofeedback training for stress reduction among manufacturing operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarto, Auditya Purwandini; Wahab, Muhammad Nubli Abdul; Zin, Nora Mat

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of resonant breathing biofeedback training for reducing stress among manufacturing operators. Resonant breathing biofeedback works by teaching people to recognize their involuntary heart rate variability and to control patterns of this physiological response. Thirty-six female operators from an electronic manufacturing factory were randomly assigned as the experimental group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 17). The participants of the intervention received 5 weekly sessions of biofeedback training. Physiological stress profiles and self-perceived depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS) were assessed at pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that depression, anxiety, and stress significantly decreased after the training in the experimental group; they were supported by a significant increase in physiological measures. Overall, these results support the potential application of resonant biofeedback training to reduce negative emotional symptoms among industrial workers. PMID:23294659

  8. Sleep physiology and sleep-disordered breathing: the essentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primhak, Robert; Kingshott, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is essential, but poses a risk to breathing in some children. We have outlined the developmental changes in sleep patterns and physiology, and the evidence of deleterious effects of sleep deprivation and of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD). Some factors increase the risk of adenotonsillar surgery and should be excluded before contemplating surgery in a secondary care setting. Screening for SRBD is indicated in some conditions, which are discussed. Although simple studies may suffice for many patients, there are a few who need more detailed assessment with polysomnography. A managed clinical network would be the most appropriate model to ensure appropriate organisation and utilisation of scarce resources in this area. PMID:21357242

  9. Clinical 13CO2 breath tests: methodology and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed to perform 13CO2 breath tests and the limitations and sources of error in these tests were explored. The random error introduced during each step of the analysis was determined and it was found that the precision was limited by the fluctuations in the isotope ratio of the patient's endogenous CO2. The detection limit was a 1.4 percent increase in the isotope ratio. This corresponds to an oxidation rate of 140 nmoles/kg-hr of singly labeled substrate to CO2. The use of stable isotope 13C provides a safe and sensitive alternative to the use of the radionuclide 14C and extends the utility of CO2 breath tests to the previously exempted populations of children and pregnant women

  10. Optimization of imaging before pulmonary vein isolation by radiofrequency ablation: breath-held ungated versus ECG/breath-gated MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgayer, C.; Haller, S.; Bremerich, J. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Zellweger, M.J.; Sticherling, C.; Buser, P.T. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Cardiology, Basel (Switzerland); Weber, O. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    Isolation of the pulmonary veins has emerged as a new therapy for atrial fibrillation. Pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhances safety and efficacy; moreover, it reduces radiation exposure of the patients and interventional team. The purpose of this study was to optimize the MR protocol with respect to image quality and acquisition time. In 31 patients (23-73 years), the anatomy of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus was assessed on a 1.5-Tesla scanner with four different sequences: (1) ungated two-dimensional true fast imaging with steady precession (2D-TrueFISP), (2) ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP, (3) ungated breath-held contrast-enhanced three-dimensional turbo fast low-angle shot (CE-3D-tFLASH), and (4) ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP. Image quality was scored from 1 (structure not visible) to 5 (excellent visibility), and the acquisition time was monitored. The pulmonary veins and left atrium were best visualized with CE-3D-tFLASH (scores 4.50 {+-} 0.52 and 4.59 {+-} 0.43) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (4.47 {+-} 0.49 and 4.63 {+-} 0.39). Conspicuity of the oesophagus was optimal with CE-3D-TrueFISP and 2D-TrueFISP (4.59 {+-} 0.35 and 4.19 {+-} 0.46) but poor with CE-3D-tFLASH (1.03 {+-} 0.13) (p < 0.05). Acquisition times were shorter for 2D-TrueFISP (44 {+-} 1 s) and CE-3D-tFLASH (345 {+-} 113 s) compared with ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP (634 {+-} 197 s) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (636 {+-} 230 s) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an MR imaging protocol comprising CE-3D-tFLASH and 2D-TrueFISP allows assessment of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus in less than 7 min and can be recommended for pre-procedural imaging before electric isolation of pulmonary veins. (orig.)

  11. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  12. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  13. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anton

    1976-11-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  14. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into ferm

  15. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the inventi

  16. Process and apparatus for controlling control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This process and apparatus is characterized by 2 methods, for examination of cluster of nuclear control rods. Foucault current analyzer which examines fraction by fraction all the control rods. This examination is made by rotation of the cluster. Doubtful rods are then analysed by ultrasonic probe

  17. Apparatus and method for reconstructing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus is described for constructing a two-dimensional picture of an object slice from linear projections of radiation not absorbed or scattered by the object, using convolution methods of data reconstruction, useful in the fields of medical radiology, microscopy, and non-destructive testing. (U.K.)

  18. Great Experiments and Old Apparatus in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Laszlo

    1996-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching atomic, nuclear, and particle physics using the history of the most important discoveries in that field. Uses the manuscripts, first publications, measurements and data of initial discoveries, and the photos of apparatus and of famous physicists to arouse student interest. Presents examples from the life and work…

  19. Method and apparatus for synthesizing filamentary structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Height, Murray J.; Howard, Jack B.; Vandersande, John B.

    2008-02-26

    Method and apparatus for producing filamentary structures. The structures include single-walled nanotubes. The method includes combusting hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen to establish a non-sooting flame and providing an unsupported catalyst to synthesize the filamentary structure in a post-flame region of the flame. Residence time is selected to favor filamentary structure growth.

  20. Apparatus and method for aerodynamic levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John W. (Inventor); al-Darwish, Mohamad M. (Inventor); Cashen, Grant E. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for the levitation of a liquid drop by a fluid flow comprising a profile generator, a fluid flow supply means operatively connected to the profile generator. The profile generator includes an elongate cylindrical shell in which is contained a profiling means for configuring the velocity profile of the fluid flow exiting the profile generator.

  1. Casimir apparatuses in a weak gravitational field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero;

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess a part of the recent work on Casimir apparatuses in the weak gravitational field of the Earth. For a free, real massless scalar field subject to Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions on the parallel plates, the resulting regularized and renormalized energy-momentum tensor is...

  2. Apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Sessions, Henry T; Xiao, Xin

    2013-06-25

    The apparatus and process for separating hydrogen isotopes is provided using dual columns, each column having an opposite hydrogen isotopic effect such that when a hydrogen isotope mixture feedstock is cycled between the two respective columns, two different hydrogen isotopes are separated from the feedstock.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing increases the risk of arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Padeletti, Margherita; Zacà, Valerio; Mondillo, Sergio; Jelic, Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been consistently associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases, including arrhythmias. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the several pathophysiologic pathways such as repetitive hypoxia and reoxygenation, increased oxidative stress, inflammation and sympathetic activation that may underlie the increased incidence of arrhythmias in SDB patients. We discuss in particular the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation and...

  4. Quantum Spin Liquid in a Breathing Kagome Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Robert; Huh, Yejin; Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the vanadium oxyfluoride material DQVOF, we examine possible spin liquid phases on a breathing kagome lattice of S=1/2 spins. By performing a projective symmetry group analysis, we determine the possible phases for both fermionic and bosonic $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin liquids on this lattice, and establish the correspondence between the two. The nature of the ground state of the Heisenberg model on the isotropic kagome lattice is a hotly debated topic, with both $\\...

  5. Localized breathing modes in granular crystals with defects

    OpenAIRE

    Theocharis, G.; Kavousanakis, M; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Daraio, Chiara; Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, I. G.

    2009-01-01

    We study localized modes in uniform one-dimensional chains of tightly packed and uniaxially compressed elastic beads in the presence of one or two light-mass impurities. For chains composed of beads of the same type, the intrinsic nonlinearity, which is caused by the Hertzian interaction of the beads, appears not to support localized, breathing modes. Consequently, the inclusion of light-mass impurities is crucial for their appearance. By analyzing the problem’s linear limit, we identify the ...

  6. Otorhinolaryngological aspects of sleep-related breathing disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Virk, Jagdeep S.; Kotecha, Bhik

    2016-01-01

    Snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) are disorders within a wide spectrum of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD). Given the obesity epidemic, these conditions will become increasingly prevalent and continue to serve as a large economic burden. A thorough clinical evaluation and appropriate investigations will allow stratification of patients into appropriate treatment groups. A multidisciplinary team is required to manage these patients. Patient selection is critical in ensuring su...

  7. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özdemir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electrocardiography, if necessary echocardiography and event recorder and neurological investigations (electroencephalography were done during the admission. Patients with iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency were treated with ferrous sulphate orally. In patients with normal hematological values, no medication was used. After a two-month treatment period patients underwent control hematological evaluation. Frequency of the spells, age of disappearance of spells (defined as 6 months without spells, disappearance ratios between the three groups were compared. Results: The percentage of cyanotic, palloric and mixt type of breath holding spells of 70 patients included in the study were 67.1, 14.3 and 18.6, respectively. It was determined that psychogenic factors played a role in 77.1% of our patients. There were iron deficiency anemia in 39 (55.7%, iron deficiency in 12 (17.2% and normal hematological parameters in 19 (27.1% of 70 patients. The QTc values were normal in all of them. EEG’s were normal in 56 (80%, dysrhythmic in 11 (15.7% and pathologic in (4.3%. There was a positive family history of breath holding spells in 44.3% of those with breath holding spells. Conclusion: We determined that there was a correlation between the iron levels and the frequency of spells. The lower the iron levels the higher the frequency of spells. There was a dramatic decrease of 92% in spells with low doses of iron supplementation especially in the anemic group. (Journal of

  8. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Leon P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement co...

  9. Breath figures of two immiscible substances on a repellent surface

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the competition between different substances while condensing on a cold surface is of high interest in situations in which it is desirable to control their condensation rates and the formed morphologies. We do the experiments for mixtures of water and hexamethyldisiloxane vapors at several concentrations. The dropwise condensation of the vapors forms breath figures on a substrate that is repellant to both substances. We report the average radius of the drops for each spec...

  10. Radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes subjected to axial pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Xiao-Wen; Ni, Qing-Qing; Shi, Jin-Xing; Natsuki, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of the radial breathing mode (RBM) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to axial pressure is presented based on an elastic continuum model. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are described as an individual elastic shell and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are considered to be two shells coupled through the van der Waals force. The effects of axial pressure, wave numbers and nanotube diameter on the RBM frequency are investigated in detail. Th...

  11. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recently, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been reported to be associated with the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Accordingly, as this is emergent area of research that has significant clinical relevance, the objective of this meta-analysis is to examine the relationship between SDB with GDM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched several electronic databases for all of the studies published before January 2013 and reviewed references of published articles....

  12. Fatigue Assessment of Slender Webs Breathing under Repeat Loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Maquoi, R.

    Praha : ČVUT, 1999 - (Studnička, W.), s. 79-82 ISBN 80-010196-3-2. [European Conference on Steel Structures Eurosteel /2./. Praha (CZ), 26.05.1999-29.05.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/99/0003; GA AV ČR IAA2071701 Keywords : fatigue assessment * web breathing * cumulative damage * design Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  13. Stabilisation of the emergency patient Part I: Airway and breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    Patients with respiratory distress are, regardless of the underlying cause, emergency patients and the initial approach to these patients determines prognosis and survival. Animals with respiratory distress are stressed which makes most diagnostic procedures impossible or counter-productive. By localising the respiratory problem using the initial clinical exam of the animal, the clinician can narrow down the causes of respiratory distress. Looking at the type of breathing, type of dyspnoea an...

  14. ASTHMA SEVERITY IN CHILDHOOD AND METABOLOMIC PROFILING OF BREATH CONDENSATE

    OpenAIRE

    Carraro, Silvia; Giordano, Giuseppe; RENIERO Fabiano; CARPI DONATELLA; Stocchero, Matteo; Sterk, Peter; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Background. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease and its different phenotypes need to be better characterized from a biochemical-inflammatory standpoint. The present study aimed to apply the metabolomic approach to exhaled breath condensate (breathomics) to discriminate different asthma phenotypes, with a particular focus on severe asthma in children. Methods. In this cross sectional study we recruited 42 asthmatic children (age 8-17 years): 31 with non-severe asthma (treated with inhaled ste...

  15. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Özdemir; Serpil Çalışkan Can; Evren Semizel; Mehmet S. Okan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electro...

  16. Breathing-induced fatigue in thin-walled construction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    Vol. 66. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2013 - (Afzali, M.; Lefebvre, F.), s. 383-392 ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatique Design 2013. International conference on fatique design. Senlis (FR), 27.11.2013-28.11.2013] Grant ostatní: Evropská komise(XE) RFSR-CT-2008-00033 BRIFAG Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * fatigue limit states * buckling * breathing Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S1877705813019255

  17. 42 CFR 84.141 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from American... the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.141...

  18. Advantage of spontaneous breathing in patients with respiratory failure

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The fact that different modalities of mechanical ventilation are associated with a number of serious side effects and risks and can influence the clinical outcome of patients, the various modes of mechanical ventilation have, over the past ten years, been the subject of a wide variety of scientific studies. Many of these modalities are designed for partial ventilatory support, which might reflect the complexity of the issue of patient's ventilator interactions when spontaneous breathing activ...

  19. Benefits of Spontaneous Breathing : Compared with Mechanical Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Vimláti, László

    2012-01-01

    When spontaneous breathing (SB) is allowed during mechanical ventilation (MV), atelectatic lung areas are recruited and oxygenation improves thereby. Whether unsupported SB at its natural pattern (without PEEP and at low pressure/small tidal volume) equally recruits and improves oxygenation, and if so by which mechanism, has not been studied. A porcine lung collapse model was designed to study this question. The cardiac output dependency of the pulmonary shunt was investigated with healthy lu...

  20. PROGRESS IN SIFT-MS: BREATH ANALYSIS AND OTHER APPLICATIONS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2 (2011), s. 236-267. ISSN 0277-7037 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA4/124; GA ČR GA202/09/0800; GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * breath analysis * ion flow tube Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 10.461, year: 2011