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Sample records for breath trihalomethane levels

  1. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  2. New method for determination of trihalomethanes in exhaled breath: Applications to swimming pool and bath environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourencetti, Carolina; Ballester, Clara; Fernandez, Pilar; Marco, Esther; Prado, Celia; Periago, Juan F.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the estimation of the human intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform, during showering and bathing is reported. The method is based on the determination of these compounds in exhaled breath that is collected by solid adsorption on Tenax using a device specifically designed for this purpose. Instrumental measurements were performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. THMs in exhaled breath samples were determined during showering and swimming pool attendance. The levels of these compounds in indoor air and water were also determined as reference for interpretation of the exhaled breath results. The THM concentrations in exhaled breath of the volunteers measured before the exposure experiments showed a close correspondence with the THMs levels in indoor air where the sampler was located. Limits of detection in exhaled breath were dependent on THM analytes and experimental sites. They ranged between 170 and 710 ng m -3 in the swimming pool studies and between 97 and 460 ng m -3 in the showering studies. Application of this method to THMs determination during showering and swimming pool activities revealed statistically significant increases in THMs concentrations when comparing exhaled breath before and after exposure.

  3. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen QualityLaura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan51California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  4. Blood trihalomethane levels and the risk of total cancer mortality in US adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although animal data have suggested the carcinogenic activity of trihalomethanes (THMs), there is inconsistent evidence supporting the link between THM exposure and cancers in humans. Objectives: We investigated the association between specific and total blood THM levels with the risk of total cancer mortality in adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the 1999–2004 Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Linked Mortality File of the United States. A total of 933 adults (20–59 years of age) with available blood THM levels and no missing data for other variables were included. Four different THM species (chloroform, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform) were included, and the codes associated with cancer (malignant neoplasm) were C00 through C97, based on the underlying causes of death listed in the International Classification of Disease 10the Revision. Results: Compared with adults in the lowest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles, those in the highest DBCM, bromoform, and total brominated THM tertiles exhibited adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of total cancer mortality of 4.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.59–15.50), 4.94 (95% CI = 1.56–15.61), and 3.42 (95% CI = 1.21–15.43) respectively. The risk of total cancer mortality was not associated with increases in blood chloroform and total THM levels. Conclusions: We found that the baseline blood THM species, particularly brominated THMs, were significantly associated with total cancer mortality in adults. Although this study should be confirm by other studies, our findings suggest a possible link between THM exposures and cancer. - Highlights: • Trihalomethanes (THM) are classified as either probable or possible carcinogens. • Limited evidence on the link between THM and the incidence of cancer in humans. • We investigated the association between blood THM levels and the risk of total cancer mortality. • High

  5. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

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    Ab Jalil Mohd Faizal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs. THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  6. Identification of Trihalomethanes (THMs) Levels in Water Supply: A Case Study in Perlis, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Mohd Faizal Ab; Hamidin, Nasrul; Anas Nagoor Gunny, Ahmad; Nihla Kamarudzaman, Ain

    2018-03-01

    In Malaysia, chlorination is used for drinking water disinfection at water treatment plants due to its cost-effectiveness and efficiency. However, the use of chlorine poses potential health risks due to the formation of disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). THMs are formed due to the reaction between chlorine and some natural organic matter. The objective of the study is to analyze the level of THMs in the water supply in Perlis, Malaysia. The water samples were collected from end-user tap water near the water treatment plant (WTP) located in Perlis, including Timah Tasoh WTP, Kampung Sungai Baru WTP, Arau Phase I, II, III, and IV WTPs. The THMs were analyzed using a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the water supply from Timah Tasoh WTP generates the most THMs, whereas Kuala Sungai Baru shows the fewest amounts of total THMs. In conclusion, the presence of THMs in tap water has caused great concern since these components can cause cancer in humans. Therefore, the identification of THM formation is crucial in order to make sure that the tap water quality remains at acceptable safety levels.

  7. Drinking water and pregnancy outcome in central North Carolina: source, amount, and trihalomethane levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Andrews, K W; Pastore, L M

    1995-01-01

    In spite of the recognition of potentially toxic chemicals in chlorinated drinking water, few studies have evaluated reproductive health consequences of such exposure. Using data from a case-control study of miscarriage, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in central North Carolina, we evaluated risk associated with water source, amount, and trihalomethane (THM) concentration. Water source was not related to any of those pregnancy outcomes, but an increasing amount of ingested water was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (odds ratios around 1.5 for 0 glasses per day relative to 1-3 glasses per day, falling to 0.8 for 4+ glasses per day). THM concentration and dose (concentration x amount) were not related to pregnancy outcome, with the possible exception of an increased risk of miscarriage in the highest sextile of THM concentration (adjusted odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-2.7), which was not part of an overall dose-response gradient. These data do not indicate a strong association between chlorination by-products and adverse pregnancy outcome, but given the limited quality of our exposure assessment and the increased miscarriage risk in the highest exposure group, more refined evaluation is warranted. PMID:7556013

  8. Trihalomethanes in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Bajahalan, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    These experiments were conducted to evaluate the quality of potable water in Yanbu AI-Sinaiyah, one of the leading industrial city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The major source of water is Redsea. Desalinated water is distributed in the whole city for domestic uses. At the treatment plant chlorine is being used as disinfectant in pre and post desalination. The present study was conducted to determine the presence of disinfection by-products in potable water. Trihalomethanes are the major disinfection by-products found in the chlorinated water. Trihalomethanes identified in these experiments are chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane. Thichloromethanes are considered to be carcinogenic, hence it is very important to investigate the presence of these compounds in potable water. Samples were collected from consumers tap and preserved at the site for analysis. In the laboratory samples were extracted by Tekmar Velocity XPT purge and trap unit. High purity nitrogen was purged through a sparger in the samples and purged volatiles were trapped in a carbo trap at room temperature. Then trapped components were desorbed with high purity helium and transferred to gas chromatograph injector and analysed by Varian Saturn 2200 GC-MS using 30 m long factor four capillary column. The effect of temperature and seasonal variation (winter and summer) was also monitored. Mean trihalomethane level was higher in summer (8.617 micro g/L) than in winter (5.173 micro g/L). Mean concentration of all the four THMs was 6.9 micro g/L, much less than prescribed EPA limits (80 micro g/L). About 13 brands of bottled water were also analysed for THMs. Only tribromomethane and dibromochloromethane were detected in few brands. Experiments were also conducted to remove THMs from chlorinated water and found that passing through activated charcoal and boiling the water for couple of minutes were sufficient to remove all the THMs from chlorinated water. (author)

  9. Valores de trihalometanos en agua de consumo de la provincia de Granada, España Trihalomethane levels in drinking water in the province of Granada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Freire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: La cloración del agua da lugar a la formación de subproductos potencialmente dañinos para la salud, entre ellos los trihalometanos, que se han hallado elevados en algunas zonas de España. En este estudio se investigan los valores de trihalometanos en el agua de consumo suministrada por varios sistemas de abastecimiento de la provincia de Granada, en el área de actuación de la cohorte madres-hijos de la Red INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente. Métodos: Se analizaron 82 muestras de agua de consumo en dos campañas de muestreo en invierno y verano de 2006. Se determinó la concentración de cloroformo, bromodiclorometano, dibromoclorometano y bromoformo, siguiendo un procedimiento optimizado basado en cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. Resultados: El rango de concentración de trihalometanos totales se situó entre 0,14 y 18,75 μg/l en la campaña de invierno y entre 0,01 y 31,87 μg/l en la de verano. El compuesto mayoritario fue cloroformo. La concentración media de trihalometanos en agua de origen superficial y subterráneo fue de 10,13 y 1,41 μg/l, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Los valores de trihalometanos encontrados son muy inferiores a la concentración máxima admisible (100 μg/l establecida por la Uniσn Europea para estos compuestos. Estos valores varνan significativamente segϊn el origen del agua, con mayores concentraciones en αreas urbana y semiurbana, donde el agua es mayoritariamente de origen superficial. La presencia de trihalometanos en la zona es menor a la descrita en otras regiones espaρolas.Objectives: Drinking water chlorination generates potentially harmful by-products, such as trihalomethanes. Trihalomethane levels are high in some parts of Spain. The aim of the present study was to investigate trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from distinct water supplies in the province of Granada, within the framework of the Childhood and Environment (INMA study. Methods: Eighty

  10. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  11. Desorption of trihalomethanes in gas liquid contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quesada, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Updated studies show that gastric cancer is related with the existence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water. The trihalomethanes are sub products from the degradation of humic acids and your reaction with chlorine and bromine used like decontaminates. The desorption process is used to eliminate the THMs with air in contact with the water. The experimental design was used in three contactors. The contactors selected were: the bubbling's column, the packed column and the shaken tank without screen. There were selected three variable: initial concentration of THMs, the residence time and the turbulence degree (measured with the Reynolds number). The concentrations were made with a gas chromatograph. The objective of this project is to do a comparison with the gas liquid contactors more used in the industrial level to determinate which ones are the best in the desorption process. The conclusion of the experimental design is that the tank is the equipment with the best capacity to eliminate THMs. Too it includes other techniques to eliminate THMs of the water and your treatment [es

  12. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  13. A device for fully automated on-site process monitoring and control of trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Aaron W.; Simone, Paul S.; York, J.C.; Emmert, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial device for on-line monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water. • Method detection limits for individual trihalomethanes range from 0.01–0.04 μg L –1 . • Rugged and robust device operates automatically for on-site process control. • Used for process mapping and process optimization to reduce treatment costs. • Hourly measurements of trihalomethanes made continuously for ten months. - Abstract: An instrument designed for fully automated on-line monitoring of trihalomethane concentrations in chlorinated drinking water is presented. The patented capillary membrane sampling device automatically samples directly from a water tap followed by injection of the sample into a gas chromatograph equipped with a nickel-63 electron capture detector. Detailed studies using individual trihalomethane species exhibited method detection limits ranging from 0.01–0.04 μg L −1 . Mean percent recoveries ranged from 77.1 to 86.5% with percent relative standard deviation values ranging from 1.2 to 4.6%. Out of more than 5200 samples analyzed, 95% of the concentration ranges were detectable, 86.5% were quantifiable. The failure rate was less than 2%. Using the data from the instrument, two different treatment processes were optimized so that total trihalomethane concentrations were maintained at acceptable levels while reducing treatment costs significantly. This ongoing trihalomethane monitoring program has been operating for more than ten months and has produced the longest continuous and most finely time-resolved data on trihalomethane concentrations reported in the literature

  14. A device for fully automated on-site process monitoring and control of trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Aaron W. [The University of Memphis, Department of Chemistry, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Simone, Paul S. [The University of Memphis, Department of Chemistry, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Foundation Instruments, Inc., Collierville, TN 38017 (United States); York, J.C. [City of Lebanon, TN Water Treatment Plant, 7 Gilmore Hill Rd., Lebanon, TN 37087 (United States); Emmert, Gary L., E-mail: gemmert@memphis.edu [The University of Memphis, Department of Chemistry, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Foundation Instruments, Inc., Collierville, TN 38017 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial device for on-line monitoring of trihalomethanes in drinking water. • Method detection limits for individual trihalomethanes range from 0.01–0.04 μg L{sup –1}. • Rugged and robust device operates automatically for on-site process control. • Used for process mapping and process optimization to reduce treatment costs. • Hourly measurements of trihalomethanes made continuously for ten months. - Abstract: An instrument designed for fully automated on-line monitoring of trihalomethane concentrations in chlorinated drinking water is presented. The patented capillary membrane sampling device automatically samples directly from a water tap followed by injection of the sample into a gas chromatograph equipped with a nickel-63 electron capture detector. Detailed studies using individual trihalomethane species exhibited method detection limits ranging from 0.01–0.04 μg L{sup −1}. Mean percent recoveries ranged from 77.1 to 86.5% with percent relative standard deviation values ranging from 1.2 to 4.6%. Out of more than 5200 samples analyzed, 95% of the concentration ranges were detectable, 86.5% were quantifiable. The failure rate was less than 2%. Using the data from the instrument, two different treatment processes were optimized so that total trihalomethane concentrations were maintained at acceptable levels while reducing treatment costs significantly. This ongoing trihalomethane monitoring program has been operating for more than ten months and has produced the longest continuous and most finely time-resolved data on trihalomethane concentrations reported in the literature.

  15. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  16. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p ventilation more than 0-30% and more than 30-60% showed a less consistent pattern of improvement in lung function, inflammation, and damage compared with biphasic positive airway

  17. Beta-adrenergic control of plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels in the air-breathing African catfish Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, JCF; Vianen, GJ; van den Thillart, GEEJM; Zaagsma, J

    In several water-breathing fish species, P-adrenergic receptor stimulation by noradrenaline leads to a decrease in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels, as opposed to an increase in air-breathing mammals. We hypothesised that this change in adrenergic control is related to the mode of breathing.

  18. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kragh Lauridsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at ∼2133 cm−1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb. Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required range. Keywords: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Hydrogen cyanide, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cystic fibrosis, Breath analysis

  19. Evaluation of oxidative status with exhaled breath 8-isoprostane levels in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Emrah; Tasliyurt, Turker; Kutluturk, Faruk; Sahin, Safak; Yilmaz, Ayse; Sivgin, Hakan; Yelken, Berna Murat; Ozturk, Banu; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim; Sahin, Semsettin

    2013-12-01

    Studies conducted so far on the effect of hyperthyroidism on oxidative stress (OS) have employed blood and urine samples. Exhaled Breath Condensate (EBC) is a non-invasive technique used to take sample from lungs to determine many biological indications. The aim of the present study was determine the possibility of using 8- isoprostane levels in EBC as an indicator of OS in hyperthyroid patients. The present study was performed on 42 patients with hyperthyroidism and 42 healthy control subjects. Hyperthyroid patients included patients with newly diagnosed Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter and toxic adenoma. Exhaled breath condensates were collected from patients in each group using a condensing device. 8- isoprostane levels as an indicator of OS in EBC were detected via immunoassay method. Hyperthyroid patients and control groups had 8-isoprostane levels of 6.08±6.31 and 1.56±0.88 pg/ml, respectively. The difference between patient and control groups was statistically significant (phyperthyroid patients, eleven had Graves', 21 multinodular goiter, and 10 toxic adenoma diagnosis. There were no significant differences among patients of different diagnoses for 8-isoprostane levels (p=0.541). No significant correlations were found between 8-isoprostane and free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. In the present study, 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of hyperthyroid patients were found to be significantly higher than that in healthy control group. This study is important in that it is the first to evaluate the effects on respiratory system of elevated OS of hyperthyroidism in EBC.

  20. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN......) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...... substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN) demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb...

  1. The impact of later trading hours for hotels on levels of impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim

    2006-09-01

    To examine the impact of later trading hours for licensed hotels in Perth, Western Australia on levels of associated impaired driver road crashes and driver breath alcohol levels (BALs). Police data on the "last place of drinking" for impaired drivers involved in road crashes and their corresponding BALs were examined to identify those associated with Perth hotels between 1 July 1990 and 30 June 1997. During this period, 43 (23%) of the 186 hotels meeting study criteria were granted an Extended Trading Permit for 1 a.m. closing (ETP hotels), while the rest continued to close at midnight (non-ETP hotels). Time-series analyses employing multiple linear regressions were applied to determine whether an association existed between the introduction of extended trading and (i) monthly levels of impaired driver road crashes associated with ETP hotels and (ii) driver BALs associated with ETP hotels. Trends associated with non-ETP hotels were included as controls and possible confounders were considered. After controlling for the trend in crash rates associated with non-ETP hotels and the introduction of mobile police breath testing stations to Perth freeways, a significant increase in monthly crash rates for ETP hotels was found. This relationship was largely accounted for by higher volumes of high-alcohol content beer, wine and spirits purchased by ETP hotels. No relation was found between driver BALs and the introduction of ETPs. Late trading was associated with increased levels of impaired driver road crashes and alcohol consumption, particularly high-risk alcoholic beverages. Greater numbers of patrons and characteristics specific to clientele of hotels which applied for late trading hours (i.e. younger age, greater propensity to drunk-drive, preference for high-risk beverages) were suggested as having contributed to this increase.

  2. The effects of breathing techniques training on the duration of labor and anxiety levels of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Sevil; Basar, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effects of breathing techniques training on anxiety levels of pregnant women and the duration of labor. The study utilizes a randomized controlled trial design. The pregnant women were divided into control (n = 35) or experimental group (n = 35) randomly. The experimental group received breathing techniques training in the latent phase and these techniques were applied in the following phases accordingly. The anxiety levels of pregnant women were evaluated three times in total. The duration of labor was considered as the duration of the first stage of labor and the duration of the second stage of labor. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and the mean duration of labor. This study concludes that breathing techniques are an effective method in the reduction of anxiety and influence the duration of delivery during labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. LC-MS/MS Estimation of Propranolol level in Exhaled Breath Condensate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Hamidi 1, Maryam Amini 2, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari 3, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki 4,5, Hossein Sate 6, Abolghasem Jouyban 5,7 *

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaled breath condensate (EBC could be used as a non-invasive and alternative specimen to urine and blood for monitoring propranolol levels. A simple, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS method is employed for the determination of propranolol in EBC samples. Methods: Samples directly injected to a C18 analytical column and isocratically separated using a mobile phase composed of methanol + acetic acid (99:1 v/v. Detection was performed by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring and selected ion recording modes. Results: The chromatographic separation was obtained within 6.0 min and was linear over the concentration range of 5.6–224.0 ng/mL (R2 = 0.999. The accuracy and precision of the method were within 15% according to FDA guideline. The found concentrations of propranolol in EBC of two patients receiving 80 mg/day were 30 and 40 ng/mL. Conclusion: Developed method was applied to determine propranolol levels in three patients receiving propranolol in their medication. The obtained propranolol levels in EBC could be used to develop simpler, cheaper and more feasible analytical methods to be used in routine analysis of propranolol in biomedical analytical laboratories.

  4. Study of ethane level in exhaled breath in patients with age-related macular degeneration: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagini, C; Giordanelli, A; Fiore, T; Giardinieri, R; Malici, B; De Medio, G E; Pelli, M A; De Bellis, F; Capodicasa, E

    2011-01-01

    A variety of factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of the disease. Breath ethane is now considered a specific and non-invasive test for determining and monitoring the trend of lipid peroxidation and free radical-induced damage in vivo. This test provides an index of the patients' overall oxidative stress level. We evaluated the breath ethane concentration in exhaled air in patients with advanced ARMD. In this study, we enrolled 13 patients with advanced ARMD and a control group, and a breath analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. The mean ethane level in the ARMD patients was 0.82 ± 0.93 nmol/l (range: 0.01-2.7 nmol/l) and the mean ethane value in the control group was 0.12 ± 0.02 nmol/l (range: 0.08-0.16 nmol/l). The difference between the values of the 2 groups was statistically significant (p ethane levels are higher in most patients with ARMD. The breath ethane test could thus be a useful method for evaluating the level of oxidative stress in patients with ARMD. To our knowledge, there are no data on this type of analysis applied to ARMD. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Volatile metabolites in the exhaled breath of healthy volunteers: their levels and distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Turner, C.; Španěl, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, - (2007), 014004R1-014004R12 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : volatile metabolities * SIFT-MS * breath analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  6. Breath condensate levels of 8-isoprostane and leukotriene B4 after ozone inhalation are greater in sensitive versus nonsensitive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mario F; Walby, William F; Adams, William C; Schelegle, Edward S

    2007-01-01

    Ozone (O3) inhalation induces pulmonary function decrements and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between O3 induced pulmonary function changes and the presence of inflammatory markers as measured in exhaled breath condensates (EBCs) obtained from O3-sensitive and nonsensitive human subjects. Eight healthy adult volunteers (4 males/4 females, age 18 to 30 years) were studied, characterized as to their ozone sensitivity and placed into 2 groups (sensitive and nonsensitive) with each group having 2 males and 2 females. Subjects completed a 20-minute EBC collection and pulmonary function test (PFT) prior to a single 60-minute bout of cycle ergometer exercise (V(E) = 50-55 L/min) while breathing filtered air (FA) or 0.35 ppm O3. Subjective symptom scores (SSSs) were collected at 6, 20, 40, and 60 minutes during exposure. An immediate postexposure PFT was performed followed by an EBC collection. Subjective symptom scores, EBCs, and PFTs were collected at 1, 4 and 8 hours post exposure. EBCs were analyzed for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), 8-isoprostane, and total nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrate + nitrite content). Sensitive subjects, breathing O3, had significantly greater functional decrements in PFTs, increased SSSs, and increased rapid shallow breathing as well as elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and LTB4 in EBCs compared to those breathing FA. In addition, there were significant increases in nitrate + nitrite content in both sensitive and nonsensitive subjects breathing O3 compared to FA. These results indicate that sensitive subjects have elevated arachidonic acid metabolites in EBCs compared to nonsensitive subjects after O3 inhalation.

  7. Changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance with different breath alcohol concentration levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Fu, Shing-Mei

    2007-06-01

    This study examines the changes in driving behavior and cognitive performance of drivers with different breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels. Eight licensed drivers, aged between 20 and 30 years, with BrAC levels of 0.00, 0.25, 0.4 and 0.5 mg/l performed simulated driving tests under high- and low-load conditions. Subjects were asked to assess their subjective psychological load at specified intervals and perform various tasks. The outcome was measured in terms of reaction times for task completion, accuracy rates, and driver's driving behavior. The effects of BrAC vary depending on the task. Performance of tasks involving attention shift, information processing, and short-term memory showed significant deterioration with increasing BrAC, while dangerous external vehicle driving behavior occurred only when the BrAC reached 0.4 mg/l and the deterioration was marked. We can conclude that the cognitive faculty is the first to be impaired by drinking resulting in deteriorated performance in tasks related to divided attention, short-term memory, logical reasoning, followed by visual perception. On the other hand, increasing alcohol dose may not pose an immediate impact on the external vehicle driving behavior but may negatively affect the driver's motor behavior even at low BrAC levels. Experience and will power could compensate for the negative influence of alcohol enabling the drivers to remain in full steering control. This lag between alcohol consumption and impaired driving performance may mislead the drivers in thinking that they are still capable of safe steering and cause them to ignore the potential dangers of drunk driving.

  8. Determining urea levels in exhaled breath condensate with minimal preparation steps and classic LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiranggon, Masha; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Kinney, Patrick L; Xu, Dongqun; Chillrud, Steven N; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-10-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) provides a relatively easy, non-invasive method for measuring biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. However, the levels of these biomarkers in EBC are influenced, not only by their levels in lung lining fluid but also by the volume of water vapor that also condenses during EBC collection. For this reason, the use of a biomarker of dilution has been recommended. Urea has been proposed and utilized as a promising dilution biomarker due to its even distribution throughout the body and relatively low volatility. Current EBC urea analytical methods either are not sensitive enough, necessitating large volumes of EBC, or are labor intensive, requiring a derivatization step or other pretreatment. We report here a straightforward and reliable LC-MS approach that we developed that does not require derivatization or large sample volume (∼36 µL). An Acclaim mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction chromatography column was selected because it can produce good peak symmetry and efficiently separate urea from other polar and nonpolar compounds. To achieve a high recovery rate, a slow and incomplete evaporation method was used followed by a solvent-phase exchange. Among EBC samples collected from 28 children, urea levels were found to be highly variable, with a relative standard deviation of 234%, suggesting high variability in dilution of the lung lining fluid component of EBC. The limit of detection was found to be 0.036 µg/mL. Published by Oxford University Press [2013]. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2016-01-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n = 37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L"−"1, respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L"−"1. The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 – 0.848 μg L"−"1). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L"−"1 and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. - Highlights: • Iodinated trihalomethanes were studied in two water distribution systems. • Low levels of iodinated trihalomethanes in tap water • Large variability of iodinated trihalomethanes within the water distribution system

  10. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S. [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.cy [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n = 37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L{sup −1}. The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 – 0.848 μg L{sup −1}). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L{sup −1} and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. - Highlights: • Iodinated trihalomethanes were studied in two water distribution systems. • Low levels of iodinated trihalomethanes in tap water • Large variability of iodinated trihalomethanes within the water distribution system.

  11. Determination of Bacteria and Trihalomethane Compounds in Sachet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al.

    Portable water is essential to humans and other forms of life. Poor treatment of .... between two principal habitats- intestines of warm blooded animals and water ... contaminant. Trihalomethane is formed when water is disinfected with chlorine,.

  12. Radiolytic removal of trihalomethane in chlorinated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajamohan, R.; Rajesh, Puspalata; Venugopalan, V.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Natesan, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling is one of the major operational problems in seawater cooling systems. It is controlled by application of chlorine based biocides in the range of 0.5-2.0 mg L -1 . The bromide in seawater reacts with the added chlorine and forms hypobromous acid. The brominated residual biocides react with natural organic matter present in the seawater, resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) such as bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibromochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl) bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ). Though THMs represent a small fraction of the added chlorine, they are relatively more persistent than residual chlorine, and hence pose a potential hazard to marine life because of their reported mutagenicity. There have been few reports on removal of THMs from chlorinated seawater. In this work, the efficacy of gamma irradiation technique for the removal of THMs from chlorine-dosed seawater was investigated. Experiments were carried out using seawater collected from Kalpakkam. Irradiation study was conducted in chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg L -1 of Cl 2 ) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation using a 60 Co Gamma Chamber 5000. Bromoform showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons like bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. This shows the change in total THM concentration with variation in the radiation dose and initial Cl 2 dosing. When the percentage degradation of all the three trihalomethane species was compared with applied doses, it was found that the maximum reduction occurred at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The reduction was almost similar for all the three doses (1, 3, 5 ppm of Cl 2 ) used for chlorination. With a further increase in radiation dose to 5.0 kGy, a slight increase in reduction was observed

  13. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing...... at 101.3 kPa (sea level) or at 25 kPa altitude exposures during continued oxygen breathing. In keeping with previous observations and bubble kinetic models, we hypothesize that oxygen breathing may contribute to oxygen bubble growth at altitude. Anesthetized rats were exposed to 3 h of oxygen...... prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently...

  14. Predictors of Blood Trihalomethane Concentrations in NHANES 1999–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C.; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. Objectives: We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. Methods: We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). Results: From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%–76% in blood and 38%–52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002–2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. Conclusions: We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study. Citation: Riederer AM, Dhingra R

  15. Predictors of blood trihalomethane concentrations in NHANES 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Anne M; Dhingra, Radhika; Blount, Benjamin C; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-07-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are water disinfection by-products that have been associated with bladder cancer and adverse birth outcomes. Four THMs (bromoform, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) were measured in blood and tap water of U.S. adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006. THMs are metabolized to potentially toxic/mutagenic intermediates by cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2D6 and CYP2E1 enzymes. We conducted exploratory analyses of blood THMs, including factors affecting CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activity. We used weighted multivariable regressions to evaluate associations between blood THMs and water concentrations, survey year, and other factors potentially affecting THM exposure or metabolism (e.g., prescription medications, cruciferous vegetables, diabetes, fasting, pregnancy, swimming). From 1999 to 2006, geometric mean blood and water THM levels dropped in parallel, with decreases of 32%-76% in blood and 38%-52% in water, likely resulting, in part, from the lowering of the total THM drinking water standard in 2002-2004. The strongest predictors of blood THM levels were survey year and water concentration (n = 4,232 total THM; n = 4,080 bromoform; n = 4,582 chloroform; n = 4,374 bromodichloromethane; n = 4,464 dibromochloromethane). We detected statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes and eating cruciferous vegetables in all but the bromoform model. Medications did not consistently predict blood levels. Afternoon/evening blood samples had lower THM concentrations than morning samples. In a subsample (n = 230), air chloroform better predicted blood chloroform than water chloroform, suggesting showering/bathing was a more important source than drinking. We identified several factors associated with blood THMs that may affect their metabolism. The potential health implications require further study.

  16. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  17. Influence of physical activity in the intake of trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Esther; Lourencetti, Carolina; Grimalt, Joan O; Gari, Mercè; Fernández, Pilar; Font-Ribera, Laia; Villanueva, Cristina M; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the relationship between physical activity and intake of trihalomethanes (THMs), namely chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHCl2Br), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2) and bromoform (CHBr3), in individuals exposed in two indoor swimming pools which used different disinfection agents, chlorine (Cl-SP) and bromine (Br-SP). CHCl3 and CHBr3 were the dominant compounds in air and water of the Cl-SP and Br-SP, respectively. Physical exercise was assessed from distance swum and energy expenditure. The changes in exhaled breath concentrations of these compounds were measured from the differences after and before physical activity. A clear dependence between distance swum or energy expenditure and exhaled breath THM concentrations was observed. The statistically significant relationships involved higher THM concentrations at higher distances swum. However, air concentration was the major factor determining the CHCl3 and CHCl2Br intake in swimmers whereas distance swum was the main factor for CHBr3 intake. These two causes of THM incorporation into swimmers concurrently intensify the concentrations of these compounds into exhaled breath and pointed to inhalation as primary mechanism for THM uptake. Furthermore, the rates of THM incorporation were proportionally higher as higher was the degree of bromination of the THM species. This trend suggested that air-water partition mechanisms in the pulmonary system determined higher retention of the THM compounds with lower Henry's Law volatility constants than those of higher constant values. Inhalation is therefore the primary mechanisms for THM exposure of swimmers in indoor buildings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effectiveness of ground level post-flight 100 percent oxygen breathing as therapy for pain-only altitude Decompression Sickness (DCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demboski, John T.; Pilmanis, Andrew A.

    1994-01-01

    In both the aviation and space environments, decompression sickness (DCS) is an operational limitation. Hyperbaric recompression is the most efficacious treatment for altitude DCS. However, the inherent recompression of descent to ground level while breathing oxygen is in itself therapy for altitude DCS. If pain-only DCS occurs during a hypobaric exposure, and the symptoms resolver during descent, ground level post-flight breathing of 100% O2 for 2 hours (GLO2) is considered sufficient treatment by USAF Regulation 161-21. The effectiveness of the GLO2 treatment protocol is defined.

  19. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  20. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (P a CO 2 ) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. We studied a cohort of 28 older adults (69 ± 7 years) and found that six of them (21%) could not perform the breath-holding protocol, based on an objective comparison with an idealized respiratory waveform. In the subjects that could comply, we found a strong linear correlation between data extracted from spontaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal fluctuations and the blood oxygenation level-dependent percentage signal change during breath-holding challenge ( R 2  = 0.57 and 0.61 for resting-state physiological fluctuation regression and resting-state coefficient of variation methods, respectively). This technique may eliminate the need for subject cooperation, thus allowing the evaluation of vascular reactivity in a wider range of clinical and research conditions in which it may otherwise be impractical.

  1. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  2. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  3. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  4. SATRIA NUSANTARA BREATHING EXERCISE IMPROVES THE SENIOR CITIZENS’ LEVEL OF FITNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnanto Kusnanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a slowly losing process of the ability of tissues to regenerate and keep their normal structure and function in order to stand on from any disturbance, including infection. In older people degeneration of organs like muscles, bones, heart, blood vessels and nerve systems cause decrease in hearty. Satria nusantara gym are an alternative solution to increase hearty. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of satria nusantara gym  on fitness level to old people. Method: The research use the pre eksperimental design by using approach of one group pre test post test design. Sampling technique in this research is non probability sampling by using saturated sampling. Samples taken as much 20 old people which is following satria nusantara gym. Data were analyzed  using paired t- test with significance level α≤0.05. Result: The result showed that satria nusantara gym  give positive effect to old people. Analysis: It can be cocluded that satria nusantara gym cause increase fitness level to old people. Discussion: It’s recommended further research need more variable  for representative result.

  5. CEA, SCC and NSE levels in exhaled breath condensate--possible markers for early detection of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yingchang; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Cong; Hu, Yanjie; Xu, Shan; Ying, Kejing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xing

    2013-12-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death. The sensitive and non-invasive diagnostic tools in the early stage are still poor. We present a pilot study on the early diagnosis of LC by detecting markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). EBC samples were collected from 105 patients with LC and 56 healthy controls. We applied chemiluminescence immunoassay to detect CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) antigen and NSE (neuron specific enolase) in EBC and serum. Concentrations of markers were compared between independent groups and subgroups. A significantly higher concentration level of each marker was found in patients with LC than healthy controls. The areas under curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.800, 0.771, 0.659, 0.679, 0.636 and 0.626 for EBC-CEA, serum-CEA, EBC-SCC, serum-SCC, EBC-NSE and serum-NSE, respectively. Markers in EBC had a higher positive rate (PR) and were more specific to histologic types than markers in serum. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the association of presenting markers with the stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). EBC-CEA showed the best predictive characteristic (p tumor markers in EBC may have a better diagnostic performance for LC than those in serum. With further investigation on the combination of markers in EBC, detection of EBC could probably be a novel and non-invasive method to detect NSCLC earlier.

  6. Measurement of exhaled breath carbon monoxide in clinical practice: A study of levels in Central Pennsylvania community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica M; Veldheer, Susan; Hammett, Erin; Foulds, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Exhaled breath carbon monoxide (eBCO) reading is a useful tool for nurse practitioners to evaluate smoking status and other exposures to carbon monoxide (CO) to identify risk for cancer and chronic disease. This study aimed to measure one community's eBCO and identify potential environmental factors that may affect eBCO among nonsmokers. Data collected by convenience sampling at community health events included self-reported tobacco use and potential CO exposure. Means and frequency calculations describe the sample, two-sided t-tests determine differences in continuous variables, and chi-square tests determine differences in frequencies of CO levels between nontobacco users exposed to additional CO from their environment and nontobacco users who were not. As expected, smokers have significantly higher mean eBCO than nonsmokers (20.1 ppm vs. 4.4 ppm, p 6 ppm), although there were no environmental factors that explained a higher eBCO. Measuring eBCO provides an opportunity for the nurse practitioner to engage in a conversation about the impact of smoking and other environmental factors that contribute to eBCO and health. Keeping record of patients' smoking status and eBCO in their medical record is a valuable measure of the nurse practitioner's delivery of this care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. The impact of later trading hours for hotels (public houses) on breath alcohol levels of apprehended impaired drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikritzhs, Tanya; Stockwell, Tim

    2007-10-01

    To examine the impact of extended trading permits (ETPs) for licensed hotels in Perth, Western Australia on impaired driver breath alcohol levels (BALs) between July 1993 and June 1997. Forty-three hotels obtained ETPs allowing later closing hours and 130 maintained standard closing time (controls). Impaired driver BALs were linked to 'last place of drinking' hotels. Before and after period BALs of drivers who last drank at ETP or non-ETP hotels were compared by time of day of apprehension and sex, controlling for age. Impaired female drivers apprehended between 10.01 p.m. and 12 midnight (before closing time) had significantly lower BALs after drinking at ETP hotels. Male drivers aged 18-25 years and apprehended between 12.01 and 2.00 a.m. after drinking at ETP hotels had significantly higher BALs than drivers who drank at non-ETP hotels. At peak times for alcohol-related offences, late trading is associated with higher BALs among those drinkers most at risk of alcohol-related harm.

  8. Increased breath ethane levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are unrelated to erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acid abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian M; Maxwell, Ross; Glen, Iain

    2011-03-30

    Oxidative stress has been reported to be elevated in mental illness. Preliminary evidence suggests this phenomenon can be assessed non-invasively by determining breath levels of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation product ethane. This study compares alkane levels in chronic, medicated, patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder with those in healthy controls. Both ethane and butane levels were significantly increased in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, although elevated butane levels were likely due to increased ambient gas concentrations. Ethane levels were not correlated with symptom severity or with erythrocyte omega-3 PUFA levels. Our results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is elevated in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder leading to increased breath ethane abundance. This does not appear to be caused by increased abundance of omega-3 PUFA, but rather is likely due to enhanced oxidative damage of these lipids. As such, breath hydrocarbon analysis may represent a simple, non-invasive means to monitor the metabolic processes occurring in these disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ozonation of humic substances: Effects on molecular weight distributions of organic carbon and trihalomethane formation potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy, G.L.; Kuo, C.J.; Sierka, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Four different sources of humic substances were studied to determine the effects of ozonation on molecular weight distributions, based on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Solutions of two soil-derived fulvic acids and a one soil-derived humic acid, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) associated with a natural water source were studied. Both gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and ultrafiltration (UF) were employed to define apparent molecular weight (AMW). Applied ozone doses ranged from 2.0 to 2.5 mg O 3 /mg DOC. Overall samples of untreated and ozonated waters, as well as individual molecular weight fractions, were characterized according to DOC, uv absorbance, and THMFP. Ozonation resulted in a significant disappearance of higher AMW material with a corresponding increase in lower AMW material. Although little overall reduction in DOC concentration was observed, significant overall reductions in UV absorbance and THMFP levels were observed

  10. A comparison of blood alcohol levels as determined by breath and blood tests taken in actual field operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    During its 1972 session, the General Assembly of Virginia enacted Senate Bill 104, which authorizes the breath test, as well as the blood test used previously, as a proper chemical test to determine the alcoholic content of the blood. Any person arre...

  11. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  12. Judgement of Breath Alcohol Concentration Levels Among Pedestrians in the Night-Time Economy-A Street-Intercept Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M P; Roskruge, M J; Droste, N; Miller, P G

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate how well people in the night-time economy can assess their own breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), in the context of a change in breath alcohol limits for driving. We conducted a field study of 242 participants over 5 nights in the central business district of a university town in New Zealand. Participants completed a short survey, which included questions on their self-reported level of intoxication and the self-estimated BrAC. At the conclusion of the interview each participant was breath-tested. We compared actual and self-estimated BrAC using a scatter plot and multiple regression methods. The average BrAC error was 61.7 μg/l, meaning that on average participants overestimate their BrAC. Participants with a BrAC below 487 μg/l tended to overestimate their BrAC on average, and those with a BrAC above 487 μg/l tended to underestimate their BrAC on average. Regression results supported this observation, but also found that men who are not 'out on a typical night' overestimate their BrAC by more. Drinkers in this naturalistic setting have little idea of their level of intoxication, as measured by BrAC. However, this uncertainty may be advantageous to public health outcomes, since if drinkers are uncertain about their level of intoxication relative to the legal limit, this may lead them to avoid drunk driving. A field study of drinkers in the night-time economy of a New Zealand university town was conducted to evaluate how well drinkers can assess their breath alcohol concentration (BrAC). Drinkers in this setting inaccurately estimate their intoxication, and those with higher BrAC tended to underestimate their BrAC on average.

  13. Trihalomethanes formation in marine environment in front of Nuweibaa desalination plant as a result of effluents loaded by chlorine residual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Hamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes have been identified as the most important disinfection byproducts resulted from using chlorine in desalination plants. Nuweibaa desalination plant was chosen to study their effluents impacts on the marine environment in front of the plant in the coastal area of Gulf of Aqaba. Surface and bottom Water Samples were collected from nine locations in the outfall area of this desalination plant during spring and autumn 2014, and analyzed for water temperature, pH value, Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological oxygen demand, Oxidizible organic matter, Total, fixed and volatile suspended matter, residual chlorine (free and combined and trihalomethanes. High total chlorine dosage discharged from the desalination plant achieved high levels of trihalomethanes in the receiving seawater of the outfall area. It has been estimated that about 14524.65671 kg of BOD, 74123.4 kg of OOM, 166896.4375 kg of total suspended solids, 623.634 kg of free chlorine, 469.21 kg of combined chlorine, 206.64 kg of chloroform and 76.48 kg of bromoform are discharged annually from this plant into the Gulf of Aqaba affecting the marine ecosystems. The results of THMs showed that the two main forms of THMs formed in the receiving seawater were chloroform and bromoform and ranged between (5.09–156.59, (2.82–566.06 μg/L respectively. High pH and High combined chlorine concentrations favored the formation of high concentrations of chloroform.

  14. Method for removing trihalomethanes and/or emerging pollutants using plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Bayona Termens, Josep María; Molina, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán, Enric; Jover Comas, Eric; Reyes Contreras, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for removing trihalomethanes and refractory pollutants from aqueous environments by the direct application ofplasma in order to break down the polluting compounds in the water.

  15. INFLUENCE OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT METHOD IN AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF TRIHALOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethanes are common contaminants of chlorinated drinking water. Studies of their health effects have been hampered by exposure misclassification, due in part to limitations inherent in using utility sampling records. We used two exposure assessment methods, one based on ut...

  16. INDUCTION OF DNA STRAND BREAKS BY TRIHALOMETHANES IN PRIMARY HUMAN LUNG EPITHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Trihalomethanes (TEMs) are disinfection by-products and suspected human carcinogens present in chlorinated drinking water. Previous studies have shown that many THMs induce sister chromatid exchanges and DNA strand breaks in human peripheral blood lymphocyte...

  17. The Impact of Commercially Treated Oil and Gas Produced Water Discharges on Bromide Concentrations and Modeled Brominated Trihalomethane Disinfection Byproducts at two Downstream Municipal Drinking Water Plants in the Upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species were observed in finished water at several Western Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in br...

  18. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  19. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  1. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B.; Huong, Do.T.T.; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T.; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO 2 - ) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO 2max ) and critical swimming speed (U crit ) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC 50 of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO 2max and U crit . The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO 2max and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  3. Determination of trihalomethanes in water samples: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Pavon, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)], E-mail: jlpp@usal.es; Herrero Martin, Sara; Garcia Pinto, Carmelo; Moreno Cordero, Bernardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    This article reviews the most recent literature addressing the analytical methods applied for trihalomethanes (THMs) determination in water samples. This analysis is usually performed with gas chromatography (GC) combined with a preconcentration step. The detectors most widely used in this type of analyses are mass spectrometers (MS) and electron capture detectors (ECD). Here, we review the analytical characteristics, the time required for analysis, and the simplicity of the optimised methods. The main difference between these methods lies in the sample pretreatment step; therefore, special emphasis is placed on this aspect. The techniques covered are direct aqueous injection (DAI), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), headspace (HS), and membrane-based techniques. We also review the main chromatographic columns employed and consider novel aspects of chromatographic analysis, such as the use of fast gas chromatography (FGC). Concerning the detection step, besides the common techniques, the use of uncommon detectors such as fluorescence detector, pulsed discharge photoionization detector (PDPID), dry electrolytic conductivity detector (DELCD), atomic emission detector (AED) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for this type of analysis is described.

  4. Removal of trihalomethane from chlorinated seawater using gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, R; Natesan, Usha; Venugopalan, V P; Rajesh, Puspalata; Rangarajan, S

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine addition as a biocide in seawater results in the formation of chlorination by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Removal of THMs is of importance as they are potential mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. In this context, a study was conducted that used ionizing radiation to remove THMs from chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg/L) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation. Bromoform (BF) showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons such as bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM). In chlorine-dosed seawater, total irradiation dose of 0.4 to 5 kGy caused percentage reduction in the range of 6.9 to 76.7%, 2.3 to 99.6%, and 45.7 to 98.3% for BDCM, DBCM, and BF, respectively. During the irradiation process, pH of the chlorinated seawater decreased with increase in the absorbed dose; however, no change in total organic carbon (TOC) was observed. The results show that gamma dose of 2.5 kGy was adequate for maximum degradation of THM; but for complete mineralization, higher dose would be required.

  5. Formation of trihalomethanes as disinfection byproducts in herbal spa pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakour, Hoda; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2018-04-09

    Herbal spa treatments are favorite recreational activities throughout the world. The water in spas is often disinfected to control pathogenic microorganisms and guarantee hygiene. However, chlorinated water may cause the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Although there have been many studies on DBP formation in swimming pools, the role of organic matter derived from herbal medicines applied in herbal spa water has been largely neglected. Accordingly, the present study investigated the effect of herbal medicines on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in simulated herbal spa water. Water samples were collected from a spa pool, and then, disinfection and herbal addition experiments were performed in a laboratory. The results showed that the organic molecules introduced by the herbal medicines are significant precursors to the formation of THMs in spa pool water. Since at least 50% of THMs were produced within the first six hours of the reaction time, the presence of herbal medicines in spa water could present a parallel route for THM exposure. Therefore, despite the undeniable benefits of herbal spas, the effect of applied herbs on DBP formation in chlorinated water should be considered to improve the water quality and health benefits of spa facilities.

  6. Exposure assessment and the risk associated with trihalomethanes compounds in drinking water - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To measure the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs in marshland of Jacarepaguá drinking water, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil, and their associated risks. Methods: Two hundred houses were visited and samples were collected from consumer taps water. Risks estimates based on exposures were projected by employing deterministic and probabilistic approaches. Results: The THMs (dibromochloromethane, bromoform, chloroform, and bromodichloromethane ranged from 3.08 μg/l to 129.31 μg/l. Non-carcinogenic risks induced by ingestion of THMs were below the tolerable level (10 -6 . Conclusion: Data obtained in this research demonstrate that exposure to drinking water contaminants and associated risks were higher than the acceptable level.

  7. Natural organic matter characterization by HPSEC and its contribution to trihalomethane formation in Athens water supply network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samios, Stelios A; Golfinopoulos, Spyros K; Andrzejewski, Przemyslaw; Świetlik, Joanna

    2017-08-24

    Samples from the two main watersheds that provide Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (AWSSC) with raw water were examined for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and for their molecular weight distribution (MWD). In addition, water samples from water treatment plants (WTPs) and from the water supply network were examined for trihalomethane (THMs) levels. The main purpose of this study was to reveal the molecular composition of natural organic matter (NOM) and identify the individual differences between NOM from the two main Athens watersheds. High-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), a relatively simple technique, was applied to determine different NOM fractions' composition according to molecular weight. Various THM levels in the supply network of Athens are illustrated as a result of the different reservoirs' water qualities, and a suggestion for a limited application of chlorine dioxide is made in order to minimize THM formation.

  8. Trihalomethanes and associated potential cancer risks in the water supply in Ankara, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokmak, Burcu; Capar, Goksen; Dilek, F.B.; Yetis, Ulku

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the water supply in the Ankara, Turkey was investigated. Total THMs and total organic carbon measurements were carried seasonally in the samples collected form 22 different districts along with the samples taken from the Ivedik Water Treatment Plant serving 90% of the city. The average summer nonpurgeable organic carbon (NPOC) concentration in the raw water was 4.2 mg/L, and the NPOC removal achieved in the treatment plant was 31%. The concentration of total THMs ranged from 25 to 74 μg/L, from 28 to 73 μg/L, and from 25 to 110 μg/L in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. In all of the samples chloroform existed at the highest concentrations, while bromoform was almost absent. The total THM concentrations were highest in summer for all districts. However, none of the concentrations detected exceeded the USEPA's Stage I limit of 80 μg/L and the EU's limit of 100 μg/L. However, the total THM level in 64% of the districts exceeded the USEPA's Stage II limit of 40 μg/L. The risk estimations carried out indicated that each year 1 of the 5 million Ankara residents could get cancer from the daily intake of water, mainly because of exposure to chloroform through oral ingestion

  9. Ozone regeneration of granular activated carbon for trihalomethane control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; Elkouz, Mark; Inyang, Mandu; Dickenson, Eric; Wert, Eric C

    2017-03-15

    Spatial and temporal variations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in distribution systems have challenged water treatment facilities to comply with disinfection byproduct rules. In this study, granular activated carbon (GAC) and modified GAC (i.e., Ag-GAC and TiO 2 -GAC) were used to treat chlorinated tap water containing CHCl 3 (15-21μg/L), CHBrCl 2 (13-16μg/L), CHBr 2 Cl (13-14μg/L), and CHBr 3 (3μg/L). Following breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), GAC were regenerated using conventional and novel methods. GAC regeneration efficiency was assessed by measuring adsorptive (DOC, UV absorbance at 254nm, and THMs) and physical (surface area and pore volume) properties. Thermal regeneration resulted in a brief period of additional DOC adsorption (bed volume, BV, ∼6000), while ozone regeneration was ineffective regardless of the GAC type. THM adsorption was restored by either method (e.g., BV for ≥80% breakthrough, CHBr 3  ∼44,000>CHBr 2 Cl ∼35,000>CHBrCl 2  ∼31,000>CHCl 3  ∼7000). Cellular and attached adenosine triphosphate measurements illustrated the antimicrobial effects of Ag-GAC, which may have allowed for the extended THM adsorption compared to the other GAC types. The results illustrate that ozone regeneration may be a viable in-situ alternative for the adsorption of THMs during localized treatment in drinking water distribution systems. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Can We Predict Oral Antibiotic Treatment Failure in Children with Fast-Breathing Pneumonia Managed at the Community Level? A Prospective Cohort Study in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina King

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa.We prospectively followed a cohort of children (2-59 months, diagnosed by community health workers with fast-breathing pneumonia using World Health Organisation (WHO integrated community case management guidelines. Cases were followed at days 5 and 14 by study data collectors, who assessed a range of pre-determined clinical features for treatment outcome. We built the prognostic model using eight pre-defined parameters, using multivariable logistic regression, validated through bootstrapping.We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted. The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47 and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26 were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56.This study suggests that it may be difficult to create a pragmatic community-level prognostic child pneumonia tool based solely on clinical markers and pulse oximetry in an HIV and malaria endemic setting. Further work is needed to identify more accurate and reliable referral algorithms that remain feasible for use by community health workers.

  11. Occurrence and variability of iodinated trihalomethanes concentrations within two drinking-water distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Panagiotis; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2016-02-01

    Non-iodo-containing trihalomethanes (TTHM) are frequently detected in chlorinated tap water and currently regulated against their carcinogenic potential. Iodinated THM (ITHM) may also form in disinfected with chlorine waters that are high in iodine content, but little is known about their magnitude and variability within the drinking-water pipe distribution network of urban areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the magnitude and variability of ITHM and TTHM levels and their corresponding daily intake estimates within the drinking water distribution systems of Limassol and Nicosia cities of Cyprus, using tap samples collected from individual households (n=37). In Limassol, mean household tap water ITHM and TTHM levels was 0.58 and 38 μg L(-1), respectively. Dichloroiodomethane (DCIM) was the dominant species of the two measured ITHM compounds accounting for 77% of total ITHM and in the range of 0.032 and 1.65 μg L(-1). The range of DCIM concentrations in Nicosia tap water samples was narrower (0.032 - 0.848 μg L(-1)). Mean total iodine concentration in tap water samples from the seaside city of Limassol was 15 μg L(-1) and approximately twice to those observed in samples from the mainland Nicosia city. However, iodine concentrations did not correlate with the ITHM levels. The calculated chronic daily intake rates of ITHM were low when compared with those of TTHM, but because of their widespread occurrence in tap water and their enhanced mammalian cell toxicity, additional research is warranted to assess the magnitude and variability of human ITHM exposures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of dissolved organic matter in raw water supply from reservoirs and canals as precursors to trihalomethanes formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musikavong, Charongpun; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2013-01-01

    The characteristic and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) as trihalomethanes precursors in water from the U-Tapao Basin, Songkhla, Thailand was investigated. The sources of water in the basin consisted of two reservoirs and the U-Tapao canal. The canal receives water discharge from reservoirs, treated and untreated wastewater from agricultural processes, communities and industries. Water downstream of the canal is utilized as a raw water supply. Water samples were collected from two reservoirs, upstream and midstream of the canal, and the raw water supply in the rainy season and summer. The DOM level in the canal water was higher than that of the reservoir water. The highest trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) was formed in the raw water supply. Fourier-transform infrared peaks of the humic acid were detected in the reservoir and canal waters. Aliphatic hydrocarbon and organic nitrogen were the major chemical classes in the reservoir and canal water characterized by a pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometer. The optimal condition of the poly aluminum chloride (PACl) coagulation was obtained at a dosage of 40 mg/L at pH 7. This condition could reduce the average UV-254 to 57%, DOC to 64%, and THMFP to 42%. In the coagulated water, peaks of O-H groups or H-bonded NH, C˭O of cyclic and acyclic compounds, ketones and quinines, aromatic C˭C, C-O of alcohols, ethers, and carbohydrates, deformation of COOH, and carboxylic acid salts were detected. The aliphatic hydrocarbon, organic nitrogen and aldehydes and ketones were the major chemical classes. These DOM could be considered as the prominent DOM for the water supply plant that utilized PACl as a coagulant.

  13. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  14. Cardiac dosimetric evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold level variances using computed tomography scans generated from deformable image registration displacement vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Taylor; Rahn, Doug; Semenov, Denis; Gu, Xuejun; Yashar, Catheryn; Einck, John; Jiang, Steve; Cerviño, Laura

    2016-01-01

    There is a reduction in cardiac dose for left-sided breast radiotherapy during treatment with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) when compared with treatment with free breathing (FB). Various levels of DIBH may occur for different treatment fractions. Dosimetric effects due to this and other motions are a major component of uncertainty in radiotherapy in this setting. Recent developments in deformable registration techniques allow displacement vectors between various temporal and spatial patient representations to be digitally quantified. We propose a method to evaluate the dosimetric effect to the heart from variable reproducibility of DIBH by using deformable registration to create new anatomical computed tomography (CT) scans. From deformable registration, 3-dimensional deformation vectors are generated with FB and DIBH. The obtained deformation vectors are scaled to 75%, 90%, and 110% and are applied to the reference image to create new CT scans at these inspirational levels. The scans are then imported into the treatment planning system and dose calculations are performed. The average mean dose to the heart was 2.5 Gy (0.7 to 9.6 Gy) at FB, 1.2 Gy (0.6 to 3.8 Gy, p < 0.001) at 75% inspiration, 1.1 Gy (0.6 to 3.1 Gy, p = 0.004) at 90% inspiration, 1.0 Gy (0.6 to 3.0 Gy) at 100% inspiration or DIBH, and 1.0 Gy (0.6 to 2.8 Gy, p = 0.019) at 110% inspiration. The average mean dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was 19.9 Gy (2.4 to 46.4 Gy), 8.6 Gy (2.0 to 43.8 Gy, p < 0.001), 7.2 Gy (1.9 to 40.1 Gy, p = 0.035), 6.5 Gy (1.8 to 34.7 Gy), and 5.3 Gy (1.5 to 31.5 Gy, p < 0.001), correspondingly. This novel method enables numerous anatomical situations to be mimicked and quantifies the dosimetric effect they have on a treatment plan.

  15. Cardiac dosimetric evaluation of deep inspiration breath-hold level variances using computed tomography scans generated from deformable image registration displacement vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, Taylor [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Rahn, Doug; Semenov, Denis [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Gu, Xuejun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Yashar, Catheryn; Einck, John [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jiang, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Cerviño, Laura, E-mail: lcervino@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    There is a reduction in cardiac dose for left-sided breast radiotherapy during treatment with deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) when compared with treatment with free breathing (FB). Various levels of DIBH may occur for different treatment fractions. Dosimetric effects due to this and other motions are a major component of uncertainty in radiotherapy in this setting. Recent developments in deformable registration techniques allow displacement vectors between various temporal and spatial patient representations to be digitally quantified. We propose a method to evaluate the dosimetric effect to the heart from variable reproducibility of DIBH by using deformable registration to create new anatomical computed tomography (CT) scans. From deformable registration, 3-dimensional deformation vectors are generated with FB and DIBH. The obtained deformation vectors are scaled to 75%, 90%, and 110% and are applied to the reference image to create new CT scans at these inspirational levels. The scans are then imported into the treatment planning system and dose calculations are performed. The average mean dose to the heart was 2.5 Gy (0.7 to 9.6 Gy) at FB, 1.2 Gy (0.6 to 3.8 Gy, p < 0.001) at 75% inspiration, 1.1 Gy (0.6 to 3.1 Gy, p = 0.004) at 90% inspiration, 1.0 Gy (0.6 to 3.0 Gy) at 100% inspiration or DIBH, and 1.0 Gy (0.6 to 2.8 Gy, p = 0.019) at 110% inspiration. The average mean dose to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) was 19.9 Gy (2.4 to 46.4 Gy), 8.6 Gy (2.0 to 43.8 Gy, p < 0.001), 7.2 Gy (1.9 to 40.1 Gy, p = 0.035), 6.5 Gy (1.8 to 34.7 Gy), and 5.3 Gy (1.5 to 31.5 Gy, p < 0.001), correspondingly. This novel method enables numerous anatomical situations to be mimicked and quantifies the dosimetric effect they have on a treatment plan.

  16. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  17. Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma

    2017-08-15

    Disinfection methods like chlorination are increasingly used to sanitize the water, equipment, tools and surfaces in aquaculture facilities. This is to improve water quality, and to maintain a hygienic environment for the well-being of aquatic organisms. However, chlorination can result in formation of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) that can be carcinogenic and toxic. This study aims to evaluate if an optimal balance can be achieved between minimal regulated DBP formation and effective microbial inactivation with either chlorination or monochloramination for application in the Red Sea aquaculture waters. Upon chlorination, the concentration of total trihalomethanes (THMs), primarily bromoform, exceeded the regulatory limit of 80μg/L even at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) by chlorine ranged from 2.3-log to 3.2-log with different contact time. The average log reduction of ARB by monochloramine was comparatively lower at 1.9 to 2.9-log. Although viable Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from monochloraminated samples as opposed to chlorinated samples, the abundance of S. aureus was not high enough to result in any significant microbial risks. Both chlorination and monochloramination did not provide any significant improvement in the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). This study demonstrates that a systematic evaluation is needed to determine the optimal disinfectant required to balance both microbial and chemical risks. Compared to chlorine, monochloramine may be a more appropriate disinfection strategy for the treatment of aquaculture effluents prior to discharge or for recirculatory use in the aquaculture facility.

  18. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  19. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andra, Syam S. [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Harvard-Cyprus Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Charisiadis, Pantelis [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus); Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A. [Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University Campus, Bldg. D, Rm 318, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001 Thessaloniki-Thermi (Greece); Makris, Konstantinos C., E-mail: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.cy [Water and Health Laboratory, Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol (Cyprus)

    2015-01-15

    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r{sub S}=−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g{sup −1}) of children and matched-mothers (r{sub S}=0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r{sub S}=0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r{sub S}=0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such

  20. Passive exposures of children to volatile trihalomethanes during domestic cleaning activities of their parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andra, Syam S.; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Karakitsios, Spyros; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Makris, Konstantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic cleaning has been proposed as a determinant of trihalomethanes (THMs) exposure in adult females. We hypothesized that parental housekeeping activities could influence children's passive exposures to THMs from their mere physical presence during domestic cleaning. In a recent cross-sectional study (n=382) in Cyprus [41 children (<18y) and 341 adults (≥18y)], we identified 29 children who met the study's inclusion criteria. Linear regression models were applied to understand the association between children sociodemographic variables, their individual practices influencing ingestion and noningestion exposures to ΣTHMs, and their urinary THMs levels. Among the children-specific variables, age alone showed a statistically significant inverse association with their creatinine-adjusted urinary ΣTHMs (r S =−0.59, p<0.001). A positive correlation was observed between urinary ΣTHMs (ng g −1 ) of children and matched-mothers (r S =0.52, p=0.014), but this was not the case for their matched-fathers (r S =0.39, p=0.112). Time spent daily by the matched-mothers for domestic mopping, toilet and other cleaning activities using chlorine-based cleaning products was associated with their children's urinary THMs levels (r S =0.56, p=0.007). This trend was not observed between children and their matched-fathers urinary ΣTHMs levels, because of minimum amount of time spent by the latter in performing domestic cleaning. The proportion of variance of creatinine-unadjusted and adjusted urinary ΣTHMs levels in children that was explained by the matched-mothers covariates was 76% and 74% (p<0.001), respectively. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model adequately predicted urinary chloroform excretion estimates, being consistent with the corresponding measured levels. Our findings highlighted the influence of mothers' domestic cleaning activities towards enhancing passive THMs exposures of their children. The duration of such activities could be

  1. EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ، R. Nabizadeh ، S. Nasseri ، K. Naddafi ، S. Nazmara ، A. H. Mahvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  2. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  3. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  4. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M; Moran, Michael J; Zogorski, John S; Price, Curtis V

    2012-08-07

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  5. Trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas en cuatro zonas de España participantes en el proyecto INMA Trihalomethanes in swimming pool water in four areas of Spain participating in the INMA project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Font-Ribera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La natación es uno de los deportes más practicados en España, por personas de todas las edades y condiciones físicas. También es una vía de exposición a subproductos de la desinfección, compuestos potencialmente tóxicos. Su concentración en el agua de las piscinas no está legislada y es poco conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas de los municipios de cuatro cohortes del estudio INMA. Métodos: En julio de 2009 se analizaron los trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas (n=27 de Asturias, Granada, Valencia y Sabadell. Resultados: La concentración media de trihalometanos totales fue de 42,7µg/l (desviación estándar [DE]=19,1 en las piscinas interiores y de 151,2µg/l (DE=80,7 en las exteriores, predominando siempre el cloroformo. Granada tuvo los valores más bajos. Conclusión: La concentración de trihalometanos en el agua de piscinas presenta una gran variabilidad. Las piscinas exteriores tienen valores más altos, superando mayoritariamente los límites legales establecidos para el agua de consumo.Objective: Swimming is one of the most widely practiced sports in Spain among people of all ages and physical conditions. This activity is also a source of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP, which are potentially toxic. The DBP concentration in swimming pool water is not regulated and is poorly known. The aim of this study was to describe trihalomethane concentrations in swimming pool water in the municipalities of four cohorts of the INMA project. Methods: In July 2009, trihalomethanes were analyzed in water from 27 swimming pools in Asturias, Granada, Valencia and Sabadell. Results: The mean total trihalomethane concentration was 42.7µg/L (standard deviation [SD]=19.1 in indoor pools and 151.2µg/L (SD=80.7 in outdoor pools. In all pools, the most abundant trihalomethane was always chloroform. The lowest levels were found in Granada. Conclusion

  6. Airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in homes with refrigeration-type and evaporative cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Suder, David R; Schmidt, Chuck E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2005-03-26

    This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane compounds (THM) in selected living spaces of homes supplied with chlorinated tap water containing >85 ppb total THM. Three small homes in an arid urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1000 square feet; two homes had standard (refrigeration-type) central air conditioning and the third had a central evaporative cooling system ("swamp cooler"). A high-end water-use pattern was used at each home in this exposure simulation. THM were concurrently measured on 4 separate test days in tap water and air in the bathroom, living room, the bedroom closest to the bathroom, and outside using Summa canisters. Chloroform (trichloromethane, TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) concentrations were quantified using U.S. EPA Method TO-14. The apparent volatilization fraction consistently followed the order: TCM > BDCM > DBCM. Relatively low airborne THM concentrations (similar to outdoors) were found in the living room and bedroom samples for the home with evaporative cooling, while the refrigeration-cooled homes showed significantly higher THM levels (three- to fourfold). This differential remained after normalizing the air concentrations based on estimated THM throughput or water concentrations. These findings indicate that, despite higher throughput of THM-containing water in homes using evaporative coolers, the higher air exchange rates associated with these systems rapidly clears THM to levels similar to ambient outdoor concentrations.

  7. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  8. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  9. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  10. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  11. Presença de trialometanos na água e efeitos adversos na gravidez Trihalomethanes in drinking water and adverse effects on pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria dos Santos

    2011-03-01

    of São Paulo and the occurrence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy. In order to perform the research, 19 municipalities located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo that were supplied by only one water treatment plant, from 1998 to 2002, were selected. The starting point was the verification of trihalomethane levels in public water supplies and the analysis of the prevalence of low birth weight, preterm delivery, congenital anomalies, neural tube and nervous system defects in newborns of the municipalities that were involved in the study, in order to analyze the association between exposure to trihalomethanes and the occurrence of adverse outcomes in pregnancy. The population that was studied consisted of all pregnant women and their newborn children who were living in the selected municipalities during the research period, and had their birth certificates registered in the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. The levels of trihalomethanes were treated as categories. The descriptive analysis was followed by a univariate analysis and then by a multivariate analysis. To express the possible associations of the research outcomes with trihalomethanes, the chi-square test was used followed by the estimation of odds-ratio with a 95% confidence interval. Confounding variables were controlled through the analysis of unconditional multiple logistic regression, following the procedures of Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000. The variables that showed statistical significance (p < 0.2 in univariate analysis were entered into the multivariate mode. The results pointed out an association between possible risk of prematurity and malformation related to trihalomethanes, raising the need for in-depth studies, due to the implications of that fact in public health. The results raise a discussion on the relevant benefits of chlorination in comparison to the reduced risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancy; they also suggest that better monitoring of trihalomethane levels in public water

  12. Investigation of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Abbas Abad Water Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiani R

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most common and successful method for disinfection of drinking water, especially in developing countries. However, due to the probability of formation of disinfection by-products especially Trihalomethanes (THMs that are known as hazardous and usually carcinogenic compounds, this study was conducted to assess the investigation of THMs in drinking water of Abbas Abad water treatment plant in 2015. Methods: In this study, 81 water samples were gathered during autumn season of 2015. Temperature, pH, Ec, turbidity, and residual chlorine were measured on site. After samples preparation in the laboratory, THMs concentrations were determined using gas chromatography. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The results showed that the minimum and maximum mean concentrations (µg/l for bromodichloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.57 and 1.90 ± 0.26, for bromoform were 1.47 ± 0.35 and 2.36 ± 1.10, for dibromochloromethane were 1.47 ± 0.42 and 1.53 ± 0.55, and for chloroform were 3.40 ± 0.70 and 7.53 ± 1.00, and all compounds were determined for stations 1 and 3, respectively. Also comparing the mean concentrations of assessed THMs with ISIRI and World Health Organization (WHO Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL showed significant differences (P < 0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of all Trihalomethanes compounds were significantly lower than the maximum permissible limits. Conclusions: Although the mean concentrations of THMs were lower than MPL, yet due to discharge of restaurants and gardens’ wastewater into the Abbas Abad River, pre-chlorination process of water in Abbas Abad water treatment plant, high retention time and increasing loss of foliage into the water, especially in autumn season, the formation of Trihalomethanes compounds could increase. Therefore, periodic monitoring of THMs in drinking water distribution network is recommended.

  13. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  14. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  15. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  16. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  17. Evaluation of thirteen haloacetic acids and ten trihalomethanes formation by peracetic acid and chlorine drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Runmiao; Shi, Honglan; Ma, Yinfa; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Inniss, Enos C; Adams, Craig D; Eichholz, Todd

    2017-12-01

    Free chlorine is a commonly used disinfectant in drinking water treatment. However, disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed during water disinfection. Haloacetic acids (HAAs) and trihalomethanes (THMs) are two major groups of DBPs. Iodo-HAAs and iodo-THMs (I-HAAs and I-THMs) are formed during the disinfection of the water containing high levels of iodide and are much more toxic than their chlorinated and brominated analogs. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a strong antimicrobial disinfectant that is expected to reduce the formation of HAAs and THMs during disinfection. In this study, the formations of thirteen HAAs and ten THMs, including the iodinated forms, have been investigated during PAA disinfection and chlorination as the comparison. The DBP formations under different iodide concentrations, pHs, and contact times were systematically investigated. Two types of commercial PAAs containing different concentrations of PAA and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) were studied. A solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was upgraded for THM analysis including I-THMs. HAAs were analyzed by following a recently developed high performance ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results show that the ratio of PAA and H 2 O 2 concentration significantly affect the formation of I-THMs and I-HAAs. During PAA disinfection with lower PAA than H 2 O 2 , no detectable levels of THMs and HAAs were observed. During PAA disinfection with higher PAA than H 2 O 2 , low levels of monoiodoacetic acid, diiodoacetic acid, and iodoform were formed, and these levels were enhanced with the increase of iodide concentration. No significant quantities of chloro- or bromo-THMs and HAAs were formed during PAA disinfection treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Z.; Mumtaz, M.; Kamal, T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment study of trihalomethanes (THMs) through different exposure pathways is based on the results of THMs concentration in tap water samples collected from various locations of Karachi city. The lifetime cancer risk and hazard index of each THM species were used to estimate the health risk from THM exposure through oral ingestion and dermal absorption. Exposure to CHCl/sub 3/ either through ingestion or dermal contact was found to be the most important pathway for cancer risks from THMs. It was also found that the residents of Karachi have a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the dermal absorption. The mean hazard index value of Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) through oral ingestion and dermal absorption was calculated to be 8.84 X 10/sup -2/ and 4.39 X 10/sup -3/, respectively. The results of hazard index were found lower than unity, which did not indicate the non-cancer effects of THMs. On the basis of cancer risk analysis, it is expected that approximately 2 of the 18 million population of Karachi could get cancer each year due to exposure to the THMs. (author)

  19. Formation of brominated trihalomethanes in chlorinated drinking-water from Lake Constance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, M.; Stabel, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in raw water and drinking water from Lake Constance containing low amounts of DOC and bromide was studied with special emphasis on brominated trihalomethanes (Br-THMs). If the raw water was ozonated prior to chlorination, the formation of THMs was reduced by 37%, and if a rapid sandfiltration was interposed, the THM-formation was again slightly enhanced. The percentage of Br-THMs on total-THMs increased from 16% to 35% during the treatment process. In the drinking water distribution system of BWV the formation of Br-THMs and CHCl 3 was studied with respect to residence time and post-chlorination. Unless the post-chlorination was performed, the THM-formation in the distribution system resembled that obtained from laboratory studies, except for small amounts of THMs being purged due to transport in the mains and residence in the reservoirs. Post-chlorination increased CHCl 3 - and the CHBrCl 2 -formation, but there was no effect on the formation of CHBr 2 Cl and CHBr 3 . However, the total THM-concentration in the drinking water never exceeded the German drinking water standard of 10 μg/L. (orig.) [de

  20. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  1. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  2. The relationship between body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate, and rate of oxygen consumption, in the tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) at various levels of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piercy, Joanna; Rogers, Kip; Reichert, Michelle; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Tattersall, Glenn J; Milsom, William K

    2015-12-01

    The present study determined whether EEG and/or EMG recordings could be used to reliably define activity states in the Brazilian black and white tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and then examined the interactive effects of temperature and activity states on strategies for matching O2 supply and demand. In a first series of experiments, the rate of oxygen consumption (VO2), breathing frequency (fR), heart rate (fH), and EEG and EMG (neck muscle) activity were measured in different sleep/wake states (sleeping, awake but quiet, alert, or moving). In general, metabolic and cardio-respiratory changes were better indictors of the transition from sleep to wake than were changes in the EEG and EMG. In a second series of experiments, the interactive effects of temperature (17, 27 and 37 °C) and activity states on fR, tidal volume (VT), the fraction of oxygen extracted from the lung per breath (FIO2-FEO2), fH, and the cardiac O2 pulse were quantified to determine the relative roles of each of these variables in accommodating changes in VO2. The increases in oxygen supply to meet temperature- and activity-induced increases in oxygen demand were produced almost exclusively by increases in fH and fR. Regression analysis showed that the effects of temperature and activity state on the relationships between fH, fR and VO2 was to extend a common relationship along a single curve, rather than separate relationships for each metabolic state. For these lizards, the predictive powers of fR and fH were maximized when the effects of changes in temperature, digestive state and activity were pooled. However, the best r(2) values obtained were 0.63 and 0.74 using fR and fH as predictors of metabolic rate, respectively.

  3. Seasonal and spatial evolution of trihalomethanes in a drinking water distribution system according to the treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, A; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, J L

    2015-11-01

    This paper comparatively shows the influence of four water treatment processes on the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in a water distribution system. The study was performed from February 2005 to January 2012 with analytical data of 600 samples taken in Aljaraque water treatment plant (WTP) and 16 locations along the water distribution system (WDS) in the region of Andévalo and the coast of Huelva (southwest Spain), a region with significant seasonal and population changes. The comparison of results in the four different processes studied indicated a clear link of the treatment process with the formation of THM along the WDS. The most effective treatment process is preozonation and activated carbon filtration (P3), which is also the most stable under summer temperatures. Experiments also show low levels of THMs with the conventional process of preoxidation with potassium permanganate (P4), delaying the chlorination to the end of the WTP; however, this simple and economical treatment process is less effective and less stable than P3. In this study, strong seasonal variations were obtained (increase of THM from winter to summer of 1.17 to 1.85 times) and a strong spatial variation (1.1 to 1.7 times from WTP to end points of WDS) which largely depends on the treatment process applied. There was also a strong correlation between THM levels and water temperature, contact time and pH. On the other hand, it was found that THM formation is not proportional to the applied chlorine dose in the treatment process, but there is a direct relationship with the accumulated dose of chlorine. Finally, predictive models based on multiple linear regressions are proposed for each treatment process.

  4. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  5. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  7. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  8. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  9. Pregnancy loss and eye malformations in offspring of F344 rats following gestational exposure to mixtures of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorination of drinking water results in the formation of hundreds of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), the most prevalent are trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). Four THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane, bromoform) and five HAAs (chloroac...

  10. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  12. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  13. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  14. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  15. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  16. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  17. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  18. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  20. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  1. Individual exposures to drinking water trihalomethanes, low birth weight and small for gestational age risk: a prospective Kaunas cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence for an association between exposure during pregnancy to trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water and impaired fetal growth is still inconsistent and inconclusive, in particular, for various exposure routes. We examined the relationship of individual exposures to THMs in drinking water on low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA), and birth weight (BW) in singleton births. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 4,161 pregnant women in Kaunas (Lithuania), using individual information on drinking water, ingestion, showering and bathing, and uptake factors of THMs in blood, to estimate an internal dose of THM. We used regression analysis to evaluate the relationship between internal THM dose and birth outcomes, adjusting for family status, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, ethnic group, previous preterm, infant gender, and birth year. Results The estimated internal dose of THMs ranged from 0.0025 to 2.40 mg/d. We found dose-response relationships for the entire pregnancy and trimester-specific THM and chloroform internal dose and risk for LBW and a reduction in BW. The adjusted odds ratio for third tertile vs. first tertile chloroform internal dose of entire pregnancy was 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.98 for LBW; the OR per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose was 1.10, 95% CI 1.01-1.19. Chloroform internal dose was associated with a slightly increased risk of SGA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87-1.63 and OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.89-1.68, respectively, for second and third tertile of third trimester); the risk increased by 4% per every 0.1 μg/d increase in chloroform internal dose (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.09). Conclusions THM internal dose in pregnancy varies substantially across individuals, and depends on both water THM levels and water use habits. Increased internal dose may affect fetal growth. PMID:21501533

  2. Presence of Trihalomethanes in ready-to-eat vegetables disinfected with chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneo, Valentina; Carraro, Valentina; Marras, Barbara; Marrucci, Alessandro; Succa, Sara; Meloni, Barbara; Pinna, Antonella; Angioni, Alberto; Sanna, Adriana; Schintu, Marco

    2017-12-01

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) - CHCl 3 , CHCl 2 Br, CHClBr 2 and CHBr 3 - are drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). These compounds can also be absorbed by different types of foods, including ready-to-eat (RTE) fresh vegetables. The potential absorption of THMs during washing of RTE vegetables could pose a potential risk to consumers' health. The concentration of THMs in the water used in the manufacturing process of these products shall not exceed the limit of 100 or 80 µgL -1 according to European Union (EU) and United States legislation, respectively. By contrast, there is little information about the presence of such compounds in the final product. This study evaluated the concentration of THMs in different types of RTE vegetables (carrots, iceberg lettuce, lettuce, mixed salad, parsley, parsley and garlic, rocket salad, valerian) after washing with chlorinated water. In the 115 samples analysed, the average value of total THMs was equal to 76.7 ng g -1 . Chloroform was the THM present in the largest percentage in all the RTE vegetables. These results show that the process of washing RTE vegetables should be optimised in order to reduce the risk for consumers associated with the presence of DBPs.

  3. Micro versus macro solid phase extraction for monitoring water contaminants: a preliminary study using trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, Lydon D; Spencer, Michelle J S; Morrison, Paul D; Meehan, Barry J; Jones, Oliver A H

    2015-04-15

    Solid phase extraction is one of the most commonly used pre-concentration and cleanup steps in environmental science. However, traditional methods need electrically powered pumps, can use large volumes of solvent (if multiple samples are run), and require several hours to filter a sample. Additionally, if the cartridge is open to the air volatile compounds may be lost and sample integrity compromised. In contrast, micro cartridge based solid phase extraction can be completed in less than 2 min by hand, uses only microlitres of solvent and provides comparable concentration factors to established methods. It is also an enclosed system so volatile components are not lost. The sample can also be eluted directly into a detector (e.g. a mass spectrometer) if required. However, the technology is new and has not been much used for environmental analysis. In this study we compare traditional (macro) and the new micro solid phase extraction for the analysis of four common volatile trihalomethanes (trichloromethane, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and tribromomethane). The results demonstrate that micro solid phase extraction is faster and cheaper than traditional methods with similar recovery rates for the target compounds. This method shows potential for further development in a range of applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Factorial analysis of the trihalomethanes formation in water disinfection using chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Pedro M.S.M.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.; Antunes, Maria Cristina G.

    2007-01-01

    The factors that affect trihalomethane (THM) (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform) formation from the chlorination of aqueous solutions of hydrophobic fulvic acids (FA) were investigated in a prototype laboratorial simulation using factorial analysis. This strategy involved a fractional factorial design (16 plus 5 center experiments) of five factors (fulvic acids concentration, chlorine dose, temperature, pH and bromide concentration) and a Box Behnken design (12 plus 3 center experiments) for the detailed analysis of three factors (FA concentration, chlorine dose and temperature). The concentration of THM was determined by headspace analysis by GC-ECD. The most significant factors that affect the four THM productions were the following: chloroform-FA concentration and temperature; bromodichloromethane-FA concentration and chlorine dose; chlorodibromomethane-chlorine dose; and, bromoform-chlorine dose and bromide concentration. Moreover, linear models were obtained for the four THM concentrations in the disinfection solution as function of the FA concentration, chlorine dose and temperature, and it was observed that the complexity of the models (number of significant factors and interactions) increased with increasing bromine atoms in the THM. Also, this study shows that reducing the FA concentration the relative amount of bromated THM increases

  5. Field assessment of bacterial communities and total trihalomethanes: Implications for drinking water networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Pachongo, Carolina; Douterelo, Isabel; Noakes, Catherine; Camargo-Valero, Miller Alonso; Sleigh, Andrew; Escobar-Rivera, Juan-Carlos; Torres-Lozada, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of drinking water distribution networks (DWDNs) in tropical countries simultaneously face the control of acute and chronic risks due to the presence of microorganisms and disinfection by-products, respectively. In this study, results from a detailed field characterization of microbiological, chemical and infrastructural parameters of a tropical-climate DWDN are presented. Water physicochemical parameters and the characteristics of the network were assessed to evaluate the relationship between abiotic and microbiological factors and their association with the presence of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene revealed significant differences in the composition of biofilm and planktonic communities. The highly diverse biofilm communities showed the presence of methylotrophic bacteria, which suggest the presence of methyl radicals such as THMs within this habitat. Microbiological parameters correlated with water age, pH, temperature and free residual chlorine. The results from this study are necessary to increase the awareness of O&M practices in DWDNs required to reduce biofilm formation and maintain appropriate microbiological and chemical water quality, in relation to biofilm detachment and DBP formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  7. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  8. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  9. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  11. Analytical characterization and optimization in the determination of trihalomethanes on drinking water by purge and trap coupled to a gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Junior, Nelson Vicente da

    2010-01-01

    This work shows an analytical methodology developed and optimized to determine trihalomethanes level THMs, in drinking water samples, using purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography (GC-PT). THMs are byproducts water chlorination, these compounds must have a maximum of 100 μg.L -1 under Brazilian law, due these compounds be suspected human carcinogens base on studies in laboratory animals. The technique of purge and trap efficiently extracts these compounds from water, and the gas chromatograph separates the THMs. The GC uses a light polarity column and electron capture detector. This detector is selective and more sensitive in the detection of these compounds. The methodology was validated in terms of: linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, quantification limit, detection limit and robustness. The detection limit was less than 0,5 μg.L -1 . The accuracy and precision were adequate for testing the trace compounds. The drinking water samples were collected in the city of Suzano-SP, which belongs to 'Alto do Tiete', in this region lay 'Tiete' river with predominant vegetation. The THMs compound found in drinking water at higher concentrations was chloroform where the spread of values found between 15,9 to 111,0 μg.L -1 in drinking water. (author)

  12. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  13. TH-CD-207A-02: Implementation of Live EPID-Based Inspiration Level Assessment (LEILA) for Deepinspiration Breath-Hold (DIBH) Monitoring Using MV Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, J [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); The University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Sun, J; Fuangrod, T; Bhatia, S [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Doebrich, M; Greer, P [Calvary Mater Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); The University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Zwan, B [The University of Newcastle, Newcastle (Australia); Central Coast Cancer Centre, Gosford (Australia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: As prior work has shown that current DIBH monitoring approaches using surrogate measures (marker block on chest) do not always correspond with the clinical quantity of interest (lung depth, LD), a software tool and workflow are introduced to use MV fluoroscopy during treatment for real-time / Live EPID-based Inspiration Level Assessment (LEILA). Methods: A prototype software tool calculates and displays the LD during the treatment of left sided breast cancer. Calculations are based on MV cine images which are acquired with the treatment beam thereby not incurring any additional imaging dose. Image capture and processing are implemented using a dedicated frame grabber computer. The calculation engine automatically detects image orientation and includes provisions for large treatment fields that exceed the size of the EPID panel. LD is measured along a line profile in the middle of the field. LEILA’s interface displays the current MV image, a reference image (DRR), the current LD, as well as a trace of LD over treatment time. The display includes patient specific LD tolerances. Tolerances are specified for each field and loaded before the treatment. A visual warning is generated when the tolerance is exceeded. LEILA is initially run in parallel with current DIBH techniques. When later run by itself DIBH setup will be done using skin marks and room laser. Results: Offline tests of LEILA confirmed accurate automatic LD measurement for a variety of patient geometries. Deployment of the EPID during all left sided breast treatments was well tolerated by patients and staff during a multi-month pilot. The frame grabber provides 11 frames-per-second; the MATLAB based LEILA prototype software can analyze five frames-per-second standalone on standard desktop hardware. Conclusion: LEILA provides an automated approach to quantitatively monitor LD on MV images during DIBH treatment. Future improvements include a database and further speed optimization.

  14. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of trihalomethanes by a Dehalobacter-containing co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siyan; Rogers, Matthew J; He, Jianzhong

    2017-07-01

    Trihalomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, although well-known as a prominent class of disinfection by-products, are ubiquitously distributed in the environment due to widespread industrial usage in the past decades. Chloroform and bromoform are particularly concerning, of high concentrations detected and with long half-lives up to several hundred days in soils and groundwater. In this study, we report a Dehalobacter- and Desulfovibrio-containing co-culture that exhibits dehalogenation of chloroform (~0.61 mM) to dichloromethane and bromoform (~0.67 mM) to dibromomethane within 10-15 days. This co-culture was further found to dechlorinate 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) (~0.65 mM) to 1,1-dichloroethane within 12 days. The Dehalobacter species present in this co-culture, designated Dehalobacter sp. THM1, was found to couple growth with dehalogenation of chloroform, bromoform, and 1,1,1-TCA. Strain THM1 harbors a newly identified reductive dehalogenase (RDase), ThmA, which catalyzes chloroform, bromoform, and 1,1,1-TCA dehalogenation. Additionally, based on the sequences of thmA and other identified chloroform RDase genes, ctrA, cfrA, and tmrA, a pair of chloroform RDase gene-specific primers were designed and successfully applied to investigate the chloroform dechlorinating potential of microbial communities. The comparative analysis of chloroform RDases with tetrachloroethene RDases suggests a possible approach in predicting the substrate specificity of uncharacterized RDases in the future.

  15. Trihalomethanes in public drinking water and stillbirth and low birth weight rates: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Bennett, James E; Toledano, Mireille B

    2014-12-01

    During 2003-2004, United Utilities water company in North West England introduced enhanced coagulation (EC) to four treatment works to mitigate disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. This enabled examination of the relation between DBPs and birth outcomes whilst reducing socioeconomic confounding. We compared stillbirth, and low and very low birth weight rates three years before (2000-2002) with three years after (2005-2007) the intervention, and in relation to categories of THM change. We created exposure metrics for EC and trihalomethane (THM) concentration change (n=258 water zones). We linked 429,599 live births and 2279 stillbirths from national birth registers to the water zone at birth. We used Poisson regression to model the differences in birth outcome rates with an interaction between before/after the intervention and EC or THM change. EC treatment reduced chloroform concentrations more than non-treatment (mean -29.7 µg/l vs. -14.5 µg/l), but not brominated THM concentrations. Only 6% of EC water zones received 100% EC water, creating exposure misclassification concerns. EC intervention was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in birth outcome rates. Areas with the highest chloroform decrease (30 - 65 μg/l) had the greatest percentage decrease in low -9 % (-12, -5) and very low birth weight -16% (-24, -8) rates. The interaction between before/after intervention and chloroform change was statistically significant only for very low birth weight, p=0.02. There were no significant decreases in stillbirth rates. In a novel approach for studying DBPs and adverse reproductive outcomes, the EC intervention to reduce DBPs did not affect birth outcome rates. However, a measured large decrease in chloroform concentrations was associated with statistically significant reductions in very low birth weight rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Iodate and iodo-trihalomethane formation during chlorination of iodide-containing waters: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Allard, Sebastien; Salhi, Elisabeth; Joll, Cynthia A; Heitz, Anna; von Gunten, Urs

    2012-07-03

    The kinetics of iodate formation is a critical factor in mitigation of the formation of potentially toxic and off flavor causing iodoorganic compounds during chlorination. This study demonstrates that the formation of bromine through the oxidation of bromide by chlorine significantly enhances the oxidation of iodide to iodate in a bromide-catalyzed process. The pH-dependent kinetics revealed species specific rate constants of k(HOBr + IO(-)) = 1.9 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), k(BrO(-) + IO(-)) = 1.8 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), and k(HOBr + HOI) < 1 M(-1) s(-1). The kinetics and the yield of iodate formation in natural waters depend mainly on the naturally occurring bromide and the type and concentration of dissolved organic matter (DOM). The process of free chlorine exposure followed by ammonia addition revealed that the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes (I-THMs), especially iodoform, was greatly reduced by an increase of free chlorine exposure and an increase of the Br(-)/I(-) ratio. In water from the Great Southern River (with a bromide concentration of 200 μg/L), the relative I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 18 to 2% when the free chlorine contact time was increased from 2 to 20 min (chlorine dose of 1 mg Cl(2)/L). This observation is inversely correlated with the conversion of iodide to iodate, which increased from 10 to nearly 90%. Increasing bromide concentration also increased the conversion of iodide to iodate: from 45 to nearly 90% with a bromide concentration of 40 and 200 μg/L, respectively, and a prechlorination time of 20 min, while the I-incorporation in I-THMs decreased from 10 to 2%.

  17. Investigating the role of biofilms in trihalomethane formation in water distribution systems with a multicomponent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Yang, Y Jeffrey; Lo, Cynthia S; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in the pipes of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), and recent experimental studies revealed that the chlorination of the microbial carbon associated with the biofilm contributes to the total disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation with distinct mechanisms from those formed from precursors derived from natural organic matter (NOM). A multiple species reactive-transport model was developed to explain the role of biofilms in DBPs formation by accounting for the simultaneous transport and interactions of disinfectants, organic compounds, and biomass. Using parameter values from experimental studies in the literature, the model equations were solved to predict chlorine decay and microbial regrowth dynamics in an actual DWDS, and trihalomethanes (THMs) formation in a pilot-scale distribution system simulator. The model's capability of reproducing the measured concentrations of free chlorine, suspended biomass, and THMs under different hydrodynamic and temperature conditions was demonstrated. The contribution of bacteria-derived precursors to the total THMs production was found to have a significant dependence on the system's hydraulics, seasonal variables, and the quality of the treated drinking water. Under system conditions that promoted fast bacterial re-growth, the transformation of non-microbial into microbial carbon DBP precursors by the biofilms showed a noticeable effect on the kinetics of THMs formation, especially when a high initial chlorine dose was applied. These conditions included elevated water temperature and high concentrations of nutrients in the influent water. The fraction of THMs formed from microbial sources was found to reach a peak of 12% of the total produced THMs under the investigated scenarios. The results demonstrated the importance of integrating bacterial regrowth dynamics in predictive DBPs formation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors affecting the formation of iodo-trihalomethanes during oxidation with chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wanhong; Shan, Yingchun; Yang, Xin

    2014-01-15

    Effects of water characteristics, reaction time, temperature, bromide and iodide ion concentrations, oxidant doses, and pH on formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THM) during oxidation of iodide-containing water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were investigated. Among the water samples collected from ten water sources, iodoform (CHI3) was the predominant I-THM and trace amount of chlorodiiodomethane (CHClI2) was occasionally found. CHI3 yields correlated moderately with specific UV absorbance (SUVA) (R(2)=0.79), indicating that hydrophobic aromatic content were important precursors. Longer reaction time led to continued formation of CHI3. I-THM containing bromide was also found in waters containing both bromide and iodide, but CHI3 was dominant. The formation of CHI3 was higher at 25°C than 5°C and 35°C. CHI3 formation showed an increase followed by a decrease trend with increasing ClO2 doses and iodide concentrations and the highest yields occurred at iodide to ClO2 molar ratios of 1-2. pH 8 resulted in the highest CHI3 formation. It should be noted that a high iodide concentration was spiked to waters before adding ClO2 and the results may not reflect the formation yields of iodinated THMs in real conditions, but they provide information about formation trend of I-THM during oxidation of ClO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbial degradation of plant leachate alters lignin phenols and trihalomethane precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Saraceno, John Franco; Spencer, Robert G.M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of vascular plant-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in freshwater systems has been studied, the role of leached DOC as precursors of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment is not well known. Here we measured the propensity of leachates from four crops and four aquatic macrophytes to form trihalomethanes (THMs)—a regulated class of DBPs—before and after 21 d of microbial degradation. We also measured lignin phenol content and specific UV absorbance (SUVA254) to test the assumption that aromatic compounds from vascular plants are resistant to microbial degradation and readily form DBPs. Leaching solubilized 9 to 26% of total plant carbon, which formed 1.93 to 6.72 mmol THM mol C-1 However, leachate DOC concentrations decreased by 85 to 92% over the 21-d incubation, with a concomitant decrease of 67 to 92% in total THM formation potential. Carbon-normalized THM yields in the residual DOC pool increased by 2.5 times on average, consistent with the preferential uptake of nonprecursor material. Lignin phenol concentrations decreased by 64 to 96% over 21 d, but a lack of correlation between lignin content and THM yields or SUVA254 suggested that lignin-derived compounds are not the source of increased THM precursor yields in the residual DOC pool. Our results indicate that microbial carbon utilization alters THM precursors in ecosystems with direct plant leaching, but more work is needed to identify the specific dissolved organic matter components with a greater propensity to form DBPs and affect watershed management, drinking water quality, and human health.

  20. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  1. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  2. Availability, quality and relevance of toxicogenomics data for human health risk assessment: A scoping review of the literature on trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, Julien; Pagé-Larivière, Florence; Sirard, Marc-André; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Levallois, Patrick; Campagna, Céline

    2018-03-05

    Human health risk assessment (HHRA) must be adapted to the challenges of the 21st century, and the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is among the changes that regulatory agencies worldwide are trying to implement. However, the use of toxicogenomics data in HHRA is still limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications as potential barriers to their use in HHRA. We conducted a scoping review of available toxicogenomics literature, using trihalomethanes as a case study. Four bibliographic databases (including the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) were assessed. An evaluation table was developed to characterise quality and relevance of studies included on the basis of criteria proposed in the literature. Studies were selected and analysed by two independent reviewers. Only nine studies, published between 1997 and 2015, were included in the analysis. Based on the selected criteria, critical methodological details were often missing; in fact, only three out of nine studies were considered to be of adequate quality for HHRA. No studies met more than three (out of seven) criteria of relevance to HHRA (e.g. adequate number of doses and sample size, etc.). This first scoping review of toxicogenomics publications on trihalomethanes shows that low availability, quality and relevance to HHRA of toxicogenomics publications presents potential barriers to their use in HHRA. Improved reporting of methodological details and study design is needed in the future so that toxicogenomics studies can be appropriately assessed regarding their quality and value for HHRA.

  3. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factorial analysis of the trihalomethane formation in the reaction of colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions of DOM with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Tauler, Roma; Rodrigues, Pedro M S M; Antunes, Maria Cristina G; Pereira, Dilson; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C G

    2010-09-01

    This study focuses on the factors that affect trihalomethane (THMs) formation when dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions (colloidal, hydrophobic, and transphilic fractions) in aqueous solutions were disinfected with chlorine. DOM fractions were isolated and fractionated from filtered lake water and were characterized by elemental analysis. The investigation involved a screening Placket-Burman factorial analysis design of five factors (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, temperature, pH, and bromide concentration) and a Box-Behnken design for a detailed assessment of the three most important factor effects (DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature). The results showed that colloidal fraction has a relatively low contribution to THM formation; transphilic fraction was responsible for about 50% of the chloroform generation, and the hydrophobic fraction was the most important to the brominated THM formation. When colloidal and hydrophobic fraction solutions were disinfected, the most significant factors were the following: higher DOM fraction concentration led to higher THM concentration, an increase of pH corresponded to higher concentration levels of chloroform and reduced bromoform, higher levels of chlorine dose and temperature produced a rise in the total THM formation, especially of the chlorinated THMs; higher bromide concentration generates higher concentrations of brominated THMs. Moreover, linear models were implemented and response surface plots were obtained for the four THM concentrations and their total sum in the disinfection solution as a function of the DOM concentration, chlorine dose, and temperature. Overall, results indicated that THM formation models were very complex due to individual factor effects and significant interactions among the factors. In order to reduce the concentration of THMs in drinking water, DOM concentrations must be reduced in the water prior to the disinfection. Fractionation of DOM, together with an elemental

  5. Analysis of in vivo and in vitro DNA strand breaks from trihalomethane exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAngelo Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of chlorinated surface waters to an increased risk of two major causes of human mortality, colorectal and bladder cancer. Trihalomethanes (THMs are by-products formed when chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water. The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the THMs, trichloromethane (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM, to induce DNA strand breaks (SB in (1 CCRF-CEM human lymphoblastic leukemia cells, (2 primary rat hepatocytes (PRH exposed in vitro, and (3 rats exposed by gavage or drinking water. Methods DNA SB were measured by the DNA alkaline unwinding assay (DAUA. CCRF-CEM cells were exposed to individual THMs for 2 hr. Half of the cells were immediately analyzed for DNA SB and half were transferred into fresh culture medium and incubated for an additional 22 hr before testing for DNA SB. PRH were exposed to individual THMs for 4 hr then assayed for DNA SB. F344/N rats were exposed to individual THMs for 4 hr, 2 weeks, and to BDCM for 5 wk then tested for DNA SB. Results CCRF-CEM cells exposed to 5- or 10-mM brominated THMs for 2 hr produced DNA SB. The order of activity was TBM>DBCM>BDCM; TCM was inactive. Following a 22-hr recovery period, all groups had fewer SB except 10-mM DBCM and 1-mM TBM. CCRF-CEM cells were found to be positive for the GSTT1-1 gene, however no activity was detected. No DNA SB, unassociated with cytotoxicity, were observed in PRH or F344/N rats exposed to individual THMs. Conclusion CCRF-CEM cells exposed to the brominated THMs at 5 or 10 mM for 2 hr showed a significant increase in DNA SB when compared to control cells. Additionally, CCRF-CEM cells exposed to DBCM and TBM appeared to have compromised DNA repair capacity as demonstrated by an increased amount of DNA SB at 22 hr following exposure. CCRF-CEM cells were found to be positive for the GSTT1-1 gene, however no activity

  6. Improving Student Understanding of Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis via GC/MS Using a Rapid SPME-Based Method for Determination of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu Rong; Palmer, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) GC/MS as a means to develop and improve student understanding of the use of GC/MS for qualitative and quantitative analysis. In the classroom, students are introduced to SPME, GC/MS instrumentation, and the use of MS…

  7. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  8. Combined sensing platform for advanced diagnostics in exhaled mouse breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paula R.; Wilk, Andreas; Seichter, Felicia; Cajlakovic, Merima; Koestler, Stefan; Ribitsch, Volker; Wachter, Ulrich; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Carter, Chance; Raimundo, Ivo M.; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Breath analysis is an attractive non-invasive strategy for early disease recognition or diagnosis, and for therapeutic progression monitoring, as quantitative compositional analysis of breath can be related to biomarker panels provided by a specific physiological condition invoked by e.g., pulmonary diseases, lung cancer, breast cancer, and others. As exhaled breath contains comprehensive information on e.g., the metabolic state, and since in particular volatile organic constituents (VOCs) in exhaled breath may be indicative of certain disease states, analytical techniques for advanced breath diagnostics should be capable of sufficient molecular discrimination and quantification of constituents at ppm-ppb - or even lower - concentration levels. While individual analytical techniques such as e.g., mid-infrared spectroscopy may provide access to a range of relevant molecules, some IR-inactive constituents require the combination of IR sensing schemes with orthogonal analytical tools for extended molecular coverage. Combining mid-infrared hollow waveguides (HWGs) with luminescence sensors (LS) appears particularly attractive, as these complementary analytical techniques allow to simultaneously analyze total CO2 (via luminescence), the 12CO2/13CO2 tracer-to-tracee (TTR) ratio (via IR), selected VOCs (via IR) and O2 (via luminescence) in exhaled breath, yet, establishing a single diagnostic platform as both sensors simultaneously interact with the same breath sample volume. In the present study, we take advantage of a particularly compact (shoebox-size) FTIR spectrometer combined with novel substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) recently developed by our research team, and miniaturized fiberoptic luminescence sensors for establishing a multi-constituent breath analysis tool that is ideally compatible with mouse intensive care stations (MICU). Given the low tidal volume and flow of exhaled mouse breath, the TTR is usually determined after sample collection via gas

  9. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  10. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Compromise Between Air-Breathing and Nutrient Uptake of Posterior Intestine in Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), an Air-Breathing Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang

    2016-08-01

    Dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) is an air-breathing fish species by using its posterior intestine to breathe on water surface. So far, the molecular mechanism about accessory air-breathing in fish is seldom addressed. Five cDNA libraries were constructed here for loach posterior intestines form T01 (the initial stage group), T02 (mid-stage of normal group), T03 (end stage of normal group), T04 (mid-stage of air-breathing inhibited group), and T05 (the end stage of air-breathing inhibited group) and subjected to perform RNA-seq to compare their transcriptomic profilings. A total of 92,962 unigenes were assembled, while 37,905 (40.77 %) unigenes were successfully annotated. 2298, 1091, and 3275 differentially expressed genes (fn1, ACE, EGFR, Pxdn, SDF, HIF, VEGF, SLC2A1, SLC5A8 etc.) were observed in T04/T02, T05/T03, and T05/T04, respectively. Expression levels of many genes associated with air-breathing and nutrient uptake varied significantly between normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group. Intraepithelial capillaries in posterior intestines of loaches from T05 were broken, while red blood cells were enriched at the surface of intestinal epithelial lining with 241 ± 39 cells per millimeter. There were periodic acid-schiff (PAS)-positive epithelial mucous cells in posterior intestines from both normal and air-breathing inhibited groups. Results obtained here suggested an overlap of air-breathing and nutrient uptake function of posterior intestine in loach. Intestinal air-breathing inhibition in loach would influence the posterior intestine's nutrient uptake ability and endothelial capillary structure stability. This study will contribute to our understanding on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of intestinal air-breathing in loach.

  12. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  13. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  14. Effects of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation-aid treatment on the reduction of trihalomethanes precursors from high DOC and hardness water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrnourmohamadi, Mehrnaz; Gorczyca, Beata

    2015-04-15

    This study investigates the effect of ozone as a stand-alone and coagulation aid on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the water with a high level of DOC (13.8 mgL(-1)) and calcium hardness (270 mgL(-1)) CaCO3. Natural water collected from the Assiniboine River (Manitoba, Canada) was used in this study. Effectiveness of ozone treatment was evaluated by measurement of DOC, DOC fractions, UV254, and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additionally, zeta potential and dissolved calcium concentration were measured to discern the mechanism of ozone reactions. Results indicated that 0.8 mg O3/mg DOC ozone stand-alone can cause up to 86% UV254 reduction and up to 27% DOC reduction. DOC fractionation results showed that ozone can change the composition of DOC in the water samples, converting the hydrophobic fractions into hydrophilic ones and resulting in the reduction of THMFP. Also, ozone caused a decrease in particle stability and dissolved calcium concentration. These simultaneous ozonation effects caused improved water flocculation and enhanced removal of DOC. This resulted in reduction of the coagulant dosage when ozone doses higher than 0.2 mg O3/mg DOC were applied prior to coagulation with ferric sulfate. Also, pre-ozonation-coagulation process achieved preferential THMFP removal for all of the ozone doses tested (0-0.8 mg O3/mg DOC), leading to a lower specific THMFP in pre-ozonated-coagulated waters than in the corresponding ozonated waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  16. Afternoon serum-melatonin in sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfberg, J; Micic, S; Strøm, J

    1998-08-01

    To study afternoon serum-melatonin values in patients with sleep disordered breathing. Melatonin has a strong circadian rhythm with high values during the night-time and low values in the afternoon. Sleep disordered breathing may change the circadian rhythm of melatonin which may have diagnostic implications. The Sleep Laboratory, The Department of Internal Medicine, Avesta Hospital, Sweden, and the Department of Anaesthesiology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. We examined 60 consecutive patients admitted for sleep disordered breathing and 10 healthy non snoring controls. The patients underwent a sleep apnoea screening test having a specificity of 100% for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) using a combination of static charge sensitive bed and oximetry. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was found in 49 patients, eight patients had borderline sleep disordered breathing (BSDB) and three patients were excluded due to interfering disease. Patients and controls had an afternoon determination of serum-melatonin. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used to score day-time sleepiness. In comparison with normal controls patients suffering from OSAS had significantly higher serum-melatonin levels in the afternoon. However, as a diagnostic test for OSAS in patients with sleep disordered breathing serum-melatonin showed a low sensitivity but a high specificity. The results indicate that breathing disorders during sleep in general affect pineal function. Sleep disordered breathing seems to disturb pineal function. Determination of afternoon serum-melatonin alone or together with a scoring of daytime sleepiness does not identify OSAS-patients in a heterogeneous population of patients complaining of heavy snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness.

  17. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  18. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  19. Exposure to brominated trihalomethanes in water during pregnancy and micronuclei frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stayner, Leslie Thomas; Pedersen, Marie; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Water disinfection by-products have been associated with an increased cancer risk. Micronuclei (MN) frequency in lymphocytes is a marker of genomic damage and can predict adult cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated maternal exposure to drinking water brominated trihalomethanes (BTHM......) in relation to MN frequency in maternal and cord blood lymphocytes. METHODS: MN frequency was examined in 214 mothers and 223 newborns from the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece, in 2007-2008. Residential BTHM water concentrations were estimated during pregnancy using tap water analyses and modeling....... Questionnaires on water related habits were used to estimate BTHM exposure from all routes. Associations between BTHM and MN frequency were estimated using negative binomial regression. RESULTS: BTHM concentrations in residential tap water during pregnancy ranged from 0.06 to 7.1 μg/L. MN frequency in maternal...

  20. [Formation and changes of regulated trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in raw water of Yangtze River, Huangpu River and different treatment processes and pipelines network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Dong; Lu, Yin-hao; Zheng, Wei-wei; Wu, Yu-xin; Wei, Xiao; Tian, Da-jun; Wang, Xia; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Shuai; Jiang, Song-hui; Qu, Wei-dong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the pollutant levels of regulated disinfection by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in raw water from the Huangpu River, the Yangtze River and different treatment processes and finished water, and to explore the changes tendency in transmission and distribution pipeline network. A total of 65 ml water samples with two replicates were collected from different raw water, corresponding treatment processes, finished water and six national surveillance points in main network of transmission and distribution, water source for A water plant and B, C water plant was the Huangpu River and the Yangtze River, respectively. Regulated THMs and HAAs above water samples were detected by gas chromatography. The total trihalomethanes (THM(4)) concentration in different treatment processes of A water plant was ND-9.64 µg/L, dichlorobromomethane was the highest (6.43 µg/L). The THM(4) concentration in B and C water plant was ND to 38.06 µg/L, dibromochloromethane (12.24 µg/L) and bromoform (14.07 µg/L) were the highest in the B and the C water plant respectively. In addition to trichloroacetic acid in A water plant from the raw water, the other HAAs came from different treatment processes. The total haloacetic acids (HAA(6)) concentration of different treated processes in A water plant was 3.21 - 22.97 µg/L, mobromoacetic acid (10.40 µg/L) was the highest. Dibromoacetic acid was the highest both in B (8.25 µg/L) and C (8.84 µg/L) water plant, HAA(6) concentration was ND to 27.18 µg/L. The highest and the lowest concentration of THM(4) were found from the main distribution network of C and A water plant respectively, but the concentration of HAA(6) in the main water pipes network of A water plant was the highest, and the lowest in C water plant. The THMs concentration was 21.11 - 31.18 µg/L in C water plant and 6.72 - 8.51 µg/L in A water plant. The concentration of HAA(6) was 25.02 - 37.31 µg/L in A water plant and 18.69 - 23

  1. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeller, P.

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  2. RISK ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMs IN THE WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNELIA DIANA ROMAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trihalomethanes (THMs, as disinfection by-products resulted from water chlorination, can get into the body through ingestion of beverages, food or drinking water. This paper discusses the relationship between the use of drinking water from the public distribution network of Cluj-Napoca and exposure to trihalomethanes. To better characterize individual water consumption, at home and at work, we applied a questionnaire to a group of 211 subjects from Cluj-Napoca, while assessing their current exposure to THMs by collecting and analyzing water from different points of the distribution network. The data obtained were statistically processed and then used to calculate the exposure dose and cancer risk for both adults and children. The results showed that subjects consumed for drinking both bottled water and water from the distribution network, but for preparing food and beverages (tea, coffee they used only water from the public distribution network. The average daily consumption of drinking water from the distribution network, is 1.4 l/day for adults, including beverages prepared with treated water. The surveyed subjects declared that they consume coffee or tea, in percentage of 88%, 94.4% respectively. The calculation of the exposure dose, daily intake and risk of cancer was achieved by using a model developed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR from the USA to calculate the dose and assess the risk of cancer. Our study shows that the cancer risk to THMs is increasing related to the higher daily intake of the drinking water, being higher for chloroform compared to dibromochloroform. For the measured concentrations of chloroform and dibromochloroform in drinking water and the average daily consumption of 1.4 l water/day, the probability of new cancers occurrence is at least 2.4 additional cases for 25 years of exposure and maximum 4.61 cases for 35 years of exposure in the existing background of a 1 million people.

  3. [New theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine. I: New insight of mechanism of control and regulation of breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    The modern systemic physiology, based on limit-understand functional classification, has significant limitation and one-sidedness. Human being is organic; we should approach the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing integrating all the systems. We use new theory of holistic integrative physiology and medicine to explain the mechanism of control and regulation of breathing. Except the mean level information, the up-down "W" waveform information of arterial blood gas (ABG) is core signal to control and regulate breathing. In order to do so, we must integrate all systems together. New theory will help to explain some unanswered questions in physiology and medicine, for example: fetal does not breathing; how first breath generate; how respiratory rhythm and frequency generate, etc. Breathing is the sign of life. Mechanism of control and regulation of breathing has to integrate respiration, circulation, nerves, metabolism, exercise, sleep and digestion, absorption and elimination and etc altogether.

  4. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  5. Effects of integral breath consciousness workshops on spirituality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although not quite reaching quantitative significant levels, qualitatively improved health was reported. The results are discussed in relation to previous and future research with regard to the influence of breath consciousness on perceptions of spirituality, health, psychological skills, stress and related phenomena.

  6. Breathing, spiking and chaos in a laser with injected signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugiato, L A; Narducci, L M

    1983-06-01

    The behavior of a laser driven by an injected cw field detuned from the operating laser frequency is considered. The analysis covers the entire range of incident power levels from zero to the injection locking threshold. In this domain, the output intensity exhibits regular and chaotic oscillations, a period doubling cascade in reverse order, envelope breathing and spiking.

  7. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  9. Breathe the air!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Feeling a bit cooped up in your office? Want to share your interest in science and technology with others but your computer's heard it all before and your colleagues won't even listen anymore? Then here's the answer - come and get some fresh air with the Education and Communication Group. The Visits Service and the Press Office offer you the opportunity to come into contact with CERN visitors. - Be a guide! In becoming a guide you get the opportunity to introduce the Laboratory to vast array of visitors of all nationalities and ages and communicate to them your passion for science and technology. You can get involved as a CERN guide on various levels - giving presentations and tours of the Laboratory, but also leading a «Drôle de Physique» workshop and giving tours of Microcosm. Guides receive training. If you're interested, take a look at the Guides Homepage where all the relevant information and formalities are explained: http://www.cern.ch/guides See also the article in the Bulletin n°25/2002. - Fa...

  10. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Gómez Acebo, Inés; Altzibar, Jone M.; Jiménez Zabala, Ana; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case?control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008?2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) cont...

  11. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  12. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  13. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  14. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. © 2013.

  15. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  16. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  17. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  18. Factors that influence the volatile organic compound content in human breath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanchet, L.; Smolinska, Agnieszka; Baranska, Agnieszka; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E.; Swertz, M.; Zhernakova, A.; Dallinga, J. W.; Wijmenga, C.; van Schooten, Frederik J.

    Background. Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues

  19. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  20. The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of empirical studies have revealed that diaphragmatic breathing may trigger body relaxation responses and benefit both physical and mental health. However, the specific benefits of diaphragmatic breathing on mental health remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diaphragmatic breathing on cognition, affect, and cortisol responses to stress. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either a breathing intervention group (BIG or a control group (CG. The BIG received intensive training for 20 sessions, implemented over 8 weeks, employing a real-time feedback device, and an average respiratory rate of 4 breaths/min, while the CG did not receive this treatment. All participants completed pre- and post-tests of sustained attention and affect. Additionally, pre-test and post-test salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in both groups. The findings suggested that the BIG showed a significant decrease in negative affect after intervention, compared to baseline. In the diaphragmatic breathing condition, there was a significant interaction effect of group by time on sustained attention, whereby the BIG showed significantly increased sustained attention after training, compared to baseline. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time in the diaphragmatic breathing condition on cortisol levels, whereby the BIG had a significantly lower cortisol level after training, while the CG showed no significant change in cortisol levels. In conclusion, diaphragmatic breathing could improve sustained attention, affect, and cortisol levels. This study provided evidence demonstrating the effect of diaphragmatic breathing, a mind-body practice, on mental function, from a health psychology approach, which has important implications for health promotion in healthy individuals.

  1. The Effect of Diaphragmatic Breathing on Attention, Negative Affect and Stress in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao; Yue, Zi-Qi; Gong, Zhu-Qing; Zhang, Hong; Duan, Nai-Yue; Shi, Yu-Tong; Wei, Gao-Xia; Li, You-Fa

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of empirical studies have revealed that diaphragmatic breathing may trigger body relaxation responses and benefit both physical and mental health. However, the specific benefits of diaphragmatic breathing on mental health remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diaphragmatic breathing on cognition, affect, and cortisol responses to stress. Forty participants were randomly assigned to either a breathing intervention group (BIG) or a control group (CG). The BIG received intensive training for 20 sessions, implemented over 8 weeks, employing a real-time feedback device, and an average respiratory rate of 4 breaths/min, while the CG did not receive this treatment. All participants completed pre- and post-tests of sustained attention and affect. Additionally, pre-test and post-test salivary cortisol concentrations were determined in both groups. The findings suggested that the BIG showed a significant decrease in negative affect after intervention, compared to baseline. In the diaphragmatic breathing condition, there was a significant interaction effect of group by time on sustained attention, whereby the BIG showed significantly increased sustained attention after training, compared to baseline. There was a significant interaction effect of group and time in the diaphragmatic breathing condition on cortisol levels, whereby the BIG had a significantly lower cortisol level after training, while the CG showed no significant change in cortisol levels. In conclusion, diaphragmatic breathing could improve sustained attention, affect, and cortisol levels. This study provided evidence demonstrating the effect of diaphragmatic breathing, a mind-body practice, on mental function, from a health psychology approach, which has important implications for health promotion in healthy individuals.

  2. A green strategy for desorption of trihalomethanes adsorbed by humin and reuse of the fixed bed column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, G C; Romão, L P C; Santos, M C; Costa, A S; Alexandre, M R

    2012-03-30

    The objective of the present work was to develop a thermal desorption method for the removal of trihalomethanes (THM) adsorbed by humin, followed by multiple recycling of the fixed bed column in order to avoid excessive consumption of materials and reduce operating costs. The results obtained for adsorption on a fixed bed column confirmed the effectiveness of humin as an adsorbent, extracting between 45.9% and 90.1% of the total THM (TTHM). In none of the tests was the column fully saturated after 10h. Experiments involving thermal desorption were used to evaluate the potential of the technique for column regeneration. The adsorptive capacity of the humin bed increased significantly (p<0.05) between the first and fifth desorption cycle, by 18.9%, 18.1%, 24.2%, 20.2% and 24.2% for CHBr(3), CHBr(2)Cl, CHBrCl(2), CHCl(3) and TTHM, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence and simulation of trihalomethanes in swimming pool water: A simple prediction method based on DOC and mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Di; Saravia, Florencia; Abbt-Braun, Gudrun; Horn, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Trihalomethanes (THM) are the most typical disinfection by-products (DBPs) found in public swimming pool water. DBPs are produced when organic and inorganic matter in water reacts with chemical disinfectants. The irregular contribution of substances from pool visitors and long contact time with disinfectant make the forecast of THM in pool water a challenge. In this work occurrence of THM in a public indoor swimming pool was investigated and correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Daily sampling of pool water for 26 days showed a positive correlation between DOC and THM with a time delay of about two days, while THM and DOC didn't directly correlate with the number of visitors. Based on the results and mass-balance in the pool water, a simple simulation model for estimating THM concentration in indoor swimming pool water was proposed. Formation of THM from DOC, volatilization into air and elimination by pool water treatment were included in the simulation. Formation ratio of THM gained from laboratory analysis using native pool water and information from field study in an indoor swimming pool reduced the uncertainty of the simulation. The simulation was validated by measurements in the swimming pool for 50 days. The simulated results were in good compliance with measured results. This work provides a useful and simple method for predicting THM concentration and its accumulation trend for long term in indoor swimming pool water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Risk Assessment for Trace Metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water of Cankiri, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Caylak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lifetime exposure to trace metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, trihalomethanes (THMs, and the other chemicals in drinking water through ingestion, and dermal contact may pose risks to human health. In this study, drinking water samples were collected from 50 sampling sites from Cankiri and its towns during 2010. The concentrations of all pollutants were analyzed, and then compared with permissible limits set by Turkish and WHO. For health risk assessment of trace metals, chronic daily intakes (CDIs via ingestion and dermal contact, hazard quotient (HQ, and hazard index (HI were calculated by using statistical formulas. For ingestion pathway, the maximum HQ values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were higher than one. Considering dermal adsorption pathway, the mean and maximum HQ values were below one. HI values of As-non cancer in central Cankiri and Kursunlu town were also higher than one. Each trace metal (As-non cancer, B, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Sb of the mean HI values were slightly below unity. Risks of As, PAHs, THMs, and benzene on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR. It is indicated that CRs of As and THMs were also found >10−5 in drinking water of Cankiri might exert potential carcinogenic risk for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers.

  5. The impact of changes in source water quality on trihalomethane and haloacetonitrile formation in chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chonghua; Wang, Qi; Chu, Wenhai; Templeton, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), including nitrogenous DBPs, haloacetonitriles (HANs), and carbonaceous DBPs, trihalomethanes (THMs), upon chlorination of water samples collected from a conventional Chinese surface water treatment plant (i.e. applying coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration). Reductions in the average concentrations (and range, shown in brackets) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from 4.8 (3.0-7.3) μg/L and 0.52 (0.20-0.81) μg/L in 2010 to 2.4 (1.4-3.7) μg/L and 0.17 (0.11-0.31) μg/L in 2012, respectively, led to a decrease in HANs and THMs from 5.3 and 28.5 μg/L initially to 0.85 and 8.2 μg/L, as average concentrations, respectively. The bromide concentration in the source water also decreased from 2010 to 2012, but the bromine incorporation factor (BIF) for the THMs did not change significantly; however, for HAN the BIFs increased because the reduction in DON was higher than that of bromide. There was good linear relationship between DOC and THM concentrations, but not between DON and HANs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of trihalomethanes in waters by ionic liquid-based single drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-10-31

    A simple, rapid, solventless method for the determination of trihalomethanes (THMs) (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) in water samples is presented. The analytes are extracted from the headspace of the aqueous matrix into a 2 microL drop of the ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate working at 30 degrees C for 30 min. The separation and detection of the target compounds is accomplished by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry owing to the use of an interface that efficiently transfers the analytes extracted in the ionic liquid drop to the gas chromatograph while preventing the ionic liquid from entering the column. The detection limits obtained are below the values compelled by the legislation, ranging from 0.5 microg L(-1) for chloroform and bromodichloromethane to 0.9 microg L(-1) for dibromochloromethane. The use of ionic liquid in the extraction procedure avoids the use of organic solvents and leads to relative standard deviations that range from 3.1% to 4.8%.

  7. Salivary Markers and Microbial Flora in Mouth Breathing Late Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mummolo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is a 6-month observational case-control study that aims to estimate plaque index (PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and specific Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans and Lactobacillus rates in a mouth breathing late adolescents sample, after a professional oral hygiene procedure and home oral hygiene instructions. Subjects and Methods. A sample of 20 mouth breathing late adolescents/young adults (average: 19.2±2.5; range: 18–23 years and a matched control group of nose breathing subjects (average: 18.3±3.2; range 18–23 years were included in the study. All the participants were subjected to a professional oral hygiene procedure and appropriate home oral hygiene instructions (t0. After three months (t1 and six months (t2, the PI, salivary flow, buffering capacity of saliva, and S. mutans and Lactobacilli rates were recorded. Results. The mean buffering capacity of saliva and the salivary flow rate showed no significant difference between the two groups, all over the observational period. For PI, a significantly higher mode (score 1 of PI was observed in the study group at t1 (score 0 = 35% of subjects; score 1 = 60%; score 2 = 5% and t2 (score 1 = 65% of subjects, score 2 = 35%, with respect to control group. Furthermore, mouth breathing subjects show a significant 4 times higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 (CI lower limit: 0.95; CI upper limit: 9.48; chi-square: 4.28; p=0.03, with respect to the control subjects. Conclusions. Mouth breathing late adolescents show a significantly higher risk to develop S. mutans CFU > 105 and an increased level of PI. Interceptive orthodontic treatments in growing subjects, like palatal expansion, are encouraged to improve the nasal air flow. In older subjects, orthodontic treatments should be performed with removable appliances like clear aligners, in order to allow a better oral hygiene level.

  8. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  9. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  10. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  11. Awareness of breathing: the structure of language descriptors of respiratory sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sibylle; Orth, Bernhard; Ritz, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that dyspnea is not a single sensation but a multidimensional construct reflected in different verbal descriptors that can provide useful diagnostic information. In this study superordinated clusters of dyspnea were investigated in combination with a dimensional approach. We examined the use of 20 respiratory symptom descriptors by healthy volunteers who completed a protocol of seven experimental conditions: Quiet breathing, breath holding, paced breathing, climbing stairs, resistive load breathing, voluntary hyperinflation, and voluntary hyperventilation. We analyzed the ratings of these descriptors with multidimensional scaling (MDS) and cluster analysis. While similarities with prior studies were found on a lower fusion level, we were able to demonstrate the usefulness of interpreting higher fusion levels with four clusters related to work of breathing, coordination, suffocation, and struggling for air, merging into two superordinated clusters, effort and air hunger that are compatible with widely accepted primary components of dyspnea. MDS results also suggested that future studies should consider further breathing sensations related to cognitive control of breathing.

  12. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  13. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  14. A Portable Real-Time Ringdown Breath Acetone Analyzer: Toward Potential Diabetic Screening and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenyu; Sun, Meixiu; Wang, Zhennan; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-07-30

    Breath analysis has been considered a suitable tool to evaluate diseases of the respiratory system and those that involve metabolic changes, such as diabetes. Breath acetone has long been known as a biomarker for diabetes. However, the results from published data by far have been inconclusive regarding whether breath acetone is a reliable index of diabetic screening. Large variations exist among the results of different studies because there has been no "best-practice method" for breath-acetone measurements as a result of technical problems of sampling and analysis. In this mini-review, we update the current status of our development of a laser-based breath acetone analyzer toward real-time, one-line diabetic screening and a point-of-care instrument for diabetic management. An integrated standalone breath acetone analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique has been developed. The instrument was validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The linear fittings suggest that the obtained acetone concentrations via both methods are consistent. Breath samples from each individual subject under various conditions in total, 1257 breath samples were taken from 22 Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 Type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, which is one of the largest numbers of T2D subjects ever used in a single study, and 52 non-diabetic healthy subjects. Simultaneous blood glucose (BG) levels were also tested using a standard diabetic management BG meter. The mean breath acetone concentrations were determined to be 4.9 ± 16 ppm (22 T1D), and 1.5 ± 1.3 ppm (312 T2D), which are about 4.5 and 1.4 times of the one in the 42 non-diabetic healthy subjects, 1.1 ± 0.5 ppm, respectively. A preliminary quantitative correlation (R = 0.56, p acetone concentration and the mean individual BG levels does exist in 20 T1D subjects with no ketoacidosis. No direct correlation is observed in T1D subjects, T2D subjects, and healthy subjects. The results

  15. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  16. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  17. Changes in inferior vena cava blood flow velocity and diameter during breathing movements in the human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Huisman (T.); S. van den Eijnde (Stefan); P.A. Stewart (Patricia); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBreathing movements in the human fetus cause distinct changes in Doppler flow velocity measurements at arterial, venous and cardiac levels. In adults, breathing movements result in a momentary inspiratory collapse of the inferior vena cava vessel wall. The study objective was to quantify

  18. eAMI: A Qualitative Quantification of Periodic Breathing Based on Amplitude of Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mairesse, Olivier; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Migeotte, P. F.; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Meeusen, Romain; Neyt, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Periodic breathing is sleep disordered breathing characterized by instability in the respiratory pattern that exhibits an oscillatory behavior. Periodic breathing is associated with increased mortality, and it is observed in a variety of situations, such as acute hypoxia, chronic heart failure, and damage to respiratory centers. The standard quantification for the diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders is the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), which measures the proportion of apneic/hypopneic events during polysomnography. Determining the AHI is labor-intensive and requires the simultaneous recording of airflow and oxygen saturation. In this paper, we propose an automated, simple, and novel methodology for the detection and qualification of periodic breathing: the estimated amplitude modulation index (eAMI). Patients or Participants: Antarctic cohort (3,800 meters): 13 normal individuals. Clinical cohort: 39 different patients suffering from diverse sleep-related pathologies. Measurements and Results: When tested in a population with high levels of periodic breathing (Antarctic cohort), eAMI was closely correlated with AHI (r = 0.95, P Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Migeotte PF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Meeusen R, Neyt X. eAMI: a qualitative quantification of periodic breathing based on amplitude of oscillations. SLEEP 2015;38(3):381–389. PMID:25581914

  19. The Use of Breathing Exercises in the Treatment of Chronic, Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton E; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel

    2017-09-01

    Clinical Scenario: Research has shown a link between poor core stability and chronic, nonspecific low back pain, with data to suggest that alterations in core muscle activation patterns, breathing patterns, lung function, and diaphragm mechanics may occur. Traditional treatment approaches for chronic, nonspecific low back pain focus on exercise and manual therapy interventions, however it is not clear whether breathing exercises are effective in treating back pain. Focused Clinical Question: In adults with chronic, nonspecific low back pain, are breathing exercises effective in reducing pain, improving respiratory function, and/or health related quality of life? Summary of Key Findings: Following a literature search, 3 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. All reviewed studies were critically appraised at level 2 evidence and reported improvements in either low back pain or quality of life following breathing program intervention. Clinical Bottom Line: Exercise programs were shown to be effective in improving lung function, reducing back pain, and improving quality of life. Breathing program frequencies ranged from daily to 2-3 times per week, with durations ranging from 4 to 8 weeks. Based on these results, athletic trainers and physical therapists caring for patients with chronic, nonspecific low back pain should consider the inclusion of breathing exercises for the treatment of back pain when such treatments align with the clinician's own judgment and clinical expertise and the patient's preferences and values. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists to support the use of breathing exercises in the treatment of chronic, nonspecific low back pain.

  20. Improved ROS defense in the swimbladder of a facultative air-breathing erythrinid fish, jeju, compared to a non-air-breathing close relative, traira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Bernd; Giacomin, Marina; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2016-07-01

    The jeju Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and the traira Hoplias malabaricus are two closely related erythrinid fish, both possessing a two-chambered physostomous swimbladder. In the jeju the anterior section of the posterior bladder is highly vascularized and the swimbladder is used for aerial respiration; the traira, in turn, is a water-breather that uses the swimbladder as a buoyancy organ and not for aerial oxygen uptake. Observation of the breathing behavior under different levels of water oxygenation revealed that the traira started aquatic surface respiration only under severe hypoxic conditions and did not breathe air. In the jeju air-breathing behavior was observed under normoxic conditions, and the frequency of air-breathing was significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. Unexpectedly, even under hyperoxic conditions (30 mg O2 L(-1)) the jeju continued to take air breaths, and compared with normoxic conditions the frequency was not reduced. Because the frequently air-exposed swimbladder tissue faces higher oxygen partial pressures than normally experienced by other fish tissues, it was hypothesized that in the facultative air-breathing jeju, swimbladder tissue would have a higher antioxidative capacity than the swimbladder tissue of the water breathing traira. Measurement of total glutathione (GSSG/GSH) concentration in anterior and posterior swimbladder tissue revealed a higher concentration of this antioxidant in swimbladder tissue as compared to muscle tissue in the jeju. Furthermore, the GSSG/GSH concentration in jeju tissues was significantly higher than in traira tissues. Similarly, activities of enzymes involved in the breakdown of reactive oxygen species were significantly higher in the jeju swimbladder as compared to the traira swimbladder. The results show that the jeju, using the swimbladder as an additional breathing organ, has an enhanced antioxidative capacity in the swimbladder as compared to the traira, using the swimbladder only as a

  1. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Huupponen, E; Virkkala, J; Saastamoinen, A; Rauhala, E; Tenhunen, M; Himanen, S-L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  2. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  3. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  4. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  5. Removal of both N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethanes precursors in a single treatment using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-11-01

    Drinking water utilities are relying more than ever on water sources impacted by wastewater effluents. Disinfection/oxidation of these waters during water treatment may lead to the formation of several disinfection by-products, including the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and the regulated trihalomethanes (THMs). In this study, the potential of ion exchange resins to control both NDMA and THMs precursors in a single treatment is presented. Two ion exchange resins were examined, a cation exchange resin (Plus) to target NDMA precursors and an anion exchange resin (MIEX) for THMs precursors control. We applied the resins, individually and combined, in the treatment of surface and wastewater effluent samples. The treatment with both resins removed simultaneously NDMA (43-85%) and THMs (39-65%) precursors. However, no removal of NDMA precursors was observed in the surface water with low initial NDMA FP (14 ng/L). The removals of NDMA FP and THMs FP with Plus and MIEX resins applied alone were (49-90%) and (41-69%), respectively. These results suggest no interaction between the resins, and thus the feasibility of effectively controlling NDMA and THMs precursors concomitantly. Additionally, the effects of the wastewater impact and the natural attenuation of precursors were studied. The results showed that neither the wastewater content nor the attenuation of the precursor affected the removals of NDMA and THMs precursors. Finally, experiments using a wastewater effluent sample showed that an increase in the calcium concentration resulted in a reduction in the removal of NDMA precursors of about 50%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Spot and Time Weighted Averaging (TWA Sampling with SPME-GC/MS Methods for Trihalomethane (THM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don-Roger Parkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected and analyzed for conductivity, pH, temperature and trihalomethanes (THMs during the fall of 2014 at two monitored municipal drinking water source ponds. Both spot (or grab and time weighted average (TWA sampling methods were assessed over the same two day sampling time period. For spot sampling, replicate samples were taken at each site and analyzed within 12 h of sampling by both Headspace (HS- and direct (DI- solid phase microextraction (SPME sampling/extraction methods followed by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. For TWA, a two day passive on-site TWA sampling was carried out at the same sampling points in the ponds. All SPME sampling methods undertaken used a 65-µm PDMS/DVB SPME fiber, which was found optimal for THM sampling. Sampling conditions were optimized in the laboratory using calibration standards of chloroform, bromoform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1,2-dichloroethane, prepared in aqueous solutions from analytical grade samples. Calibration curves for all methods with R2 values ranging from 0.985–0.998 (N = 5 over the quantitation linear range of 3–800 ppb were achieved. The different sampling methods were compared for quantification of the water samples, and results showed that DI- and TWA- sampling methods gave better data and analytical metrics. Addition of 10% wt./vol. of (NH42SO4 salt to the sampling vial was found to aid extraction of THMs by increasing GC peaks areas by about 10%, which resulted in lower detection limits for all techniques studied. However, for on-site TWA analysis of THMs in natural waters, the calibration standard(s ionic strength conditions, must be carefully matched to natural water conditions to properly quantitate THM concentrations. The data obtained from the TWA method may better reflect actual natural water conditions.

  7. Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media and iodinated trihalomethanes in an aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifa; Li, Xia; Hu, Xialin; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-10-01

    Distribution and relevance of iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) in a real aquatic environment have been rarely documented. In this paper, some ICM were proven to be strongly correlated with I-DBPs through investigation of five ICM and five iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) in surface water and two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) of the Yangtze River Delta, China. The total ICM concentrations in Taihu Lake and the Huangpu River ranged from 88.7 to 131 ng L -1 and 102-252 ng L -1 , respectively. While the total I-THM concentrations ranged from 128 to 967 ng L -1 in Taihu Lake and 267-680 ng L -1 in the Huangpu River. Iohexol, the dominant ICM, showed significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) with CHClI 2 in Taihu Lake. Iopamidol and iomeprol correlated positively (p < 0.01) with some I-THMs in the Huangpu River. The observed pronounced correlations between ICM and I-THMs indicated that ICM play an important role in the formation of I-THMs in a real aquatic environment. Characteristics of the I-THM species distributions indicated that I-THMs may be transformed by natural conditions. Both DWTPs showed negligible removal efficiencies for total ICM (<20%). Strikingly high concentrations of total I-THMs were observed in the finished water (2848 ng L -1 in conventional DWTP and 356 ng L -1 in advanced DWTP). Obvious transformation of ICM to I-THMs was observed during the chlorination and ozonization processes in DWTPs. We suggest that ICM is an important source for I-DBP formation in the real aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The formation of trihalomethanes in the potabilization of natural and synthetic waters; Formacion de trihalometanos en la potabilizacion de aguas naturales y sinteticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Vidal, F.J.; Perez Serrano, A.; Orozco Barrenetxea, C.; Sanllorente, M.C.; Garcia Valverde, M. [Universidad de Burgos. Burgos (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    One of the main aspects in the control drinking water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-pro-ducts (DBPs), some of the most important are the trihalomethanes (THMs). In order to predict and control the THMs formation is necessary to know the influence of the different parameters involved in their formation and the influence of the different techniques used in drinking water treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate these effects on natural waters (Uzquiza reservoir-Burgos) and synthetic waters (fulvic and humic acids extracted from the mentioned reservoir). (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Introduction of audio gating to further reduce organ motion in breathing synchronized radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, H. Dale; Wang Lili

    2002-01-01

    With breathing synchronized radiotherapy (BSRT), a voltage signal derived from an organ displacement detector is usually displayed on the vertical axis whereas the elapsed time is shown on the horizontal axis. The voltage gate window is set on the breathing voltage signal. Whenever the breathing signal falls between the two gate levels, a gate pulse is produced to enable the treatment machine. In this paper a new gating mechanism, audio (or time-sequence) gating, is introduced and is integrated into the existing voltage gating system. The audio gating takes advantage of the repetitive nature of the breathing signal when repetitive audio instruction is given to the patient. The audio gating is aimed at removing the regions of sharp rises and falls in the breathing signal that cannot be removed by the voltage gating. When the breathing signal falls between voltage gate levels as well as between audio-gate levels, the voltage- and audio-gated radiotherapy (ART) system will generate an AND gate pulse. When this gate pulse is received by a linear accelerator, the linear accelerator becomes 'enabled' for beam delivery and will deliver the beam when all other interlocks are removed. This paper describes a new gating mechanism and a method of recording beam-on signal, both of which are, configured into a laptop computer. The paper also presents evidence of some clinical advantages achieved with the ART system

  10. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  12. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  13. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  14. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  15. Deep Learning versus Professional Healthcare Equipment: A Fine-Grained Breathing Rate Monitoring Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In mHealth field, accurate breathing rate monitoring technique has benefited a broad array of healthcare-related applications. Many approaches try to use smartphone or wearable device with fine-grained monitoring algorithm to accomplish the task, which can only be done by professional medical equipment before. However, such schemes usually result in bad performance in comparison to professional medical equipment. In this paper, we propose DeepFilter, a deep learning-based fine-grained breathing rate monitoring algorithm that works on smartphone and achieves professional-level accuracy. DeepFilter is a bidirectional recurrent neural network (RNN stacked with convolutional layers and speeded up by batch normalization. Moreover, we collect 16.17 GB breathing sound recording data of 248 hours from 109 and another 10 volunteers to train and test our model, respectively. The results show a reasonably good accuracy of breathing rate monitoring.

  16. Work of breathing as a tool to diagnose severe fixed upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khirani, S; Pierrot, S; Leboulanger, N; Ramirez, A; Breton, D; Couloigner, V; Fauroux, B

    2014-03-01

    A 4-year-old girl with bilateral vocal fold palsy was successfully decannulated from tracheotomy after seven laryngeal procedures. But an important stridor and dyspnea recurred 13 months after decannulation. Nocturnal gas exchange was normal but her daytime work of breathing was increased by fourfold, without any beneficial effect of nasal noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation (CPAP), reflecting a severe fixed airway obstruction. Endoscopic examination confirmed the work of breathing findings showing glottic and supraglottic stenosis. This upper airway obstruction was successfully treated with a recannulation. In conclusion, the major message of this case report is that measurement of the work of breathing was able to document the "fixed" nature of the airway obstruction, by showing no improvement even with highest tolerated levels of nasal CPAP. As such, the work of breathing may be proposed as a screening tool to quantify and assess the reversibility of severe upper airway obstruction in children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  18. Technical aspects of the deep inspiration breath-hold technique in the treatment of thoracic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Dennis; Hanley, Joseph; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Yorke, Ellen; Braban, Louise; Ling, C. Clifton; Leibel, Stephen A.; Mageras, Gikas

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this paper is to describe our initial experience with the deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique in conformal treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer with particular emphasis on the technical aspects required for implementation. Methods and Materials: In the DIBH technique, the patient is verbally coached through a modified slow vital capacity maneuver and brought to a reproducible deep inspiration breath-hold level. The goal is to immobilize the tumor and to expand normal lung out of the high-dose region. A physicist or therapist monitors and records patient breathing during simulation, verification, and treatment using a spirometer with a custom computer interface. Examination of internal anatomy during fluoroscopy over multiple breath holds establishes the reproducibility of the DIBH maneuver for each patient. A reference free-breathing CT scan and DIBH planning scan are obtained. To provide an estimate of tumor motion during normal tidal breathing, additional scan sets are obtained at end inspiration and end expiration. These are also used to set the spirometer action levels for treatment. Patient lung inflation is independently verified over the course of treatment by comparing the distance from the isocenter to the diaphragm measured from the DIBH digitally reconstructed radiographs to the distance measured on the portal films. Patient breathing traces obtained during treatment were examined retrospectively to assess the reproducibility of the technique. Results: Data from the first 7 patients, encompassing over 250 treatments, were analyzed. The inferred displacement of the centroid of gross tumor volume from its position in the planning scan, as calculated from the spirometer records in over 350 breath holds was 0.02 ± 0.14 cm (mean and standard deviation). These data are consistent with the displacements of the diaphragm (-0.1 ± 0.4 cm; range, from -1.2 to 1.1 cm) relative to the isocenter, as measured on the (92) portal films

  19. The effect of deep and slow breathing on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood processing--an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Volker; Magerl, Walter; Kern, Uwe; Haas, Joachim; Hajak, Göran; Eichhammer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Deep and slow breathing (DSB) techniques, as a component of various relaxation techniques, have been reported as complementary approaches in the treatment of chronic pain syndromes, but the relevance of relaxation for alleviating pain during a breathing intervention was not evaluated so far. In order to disentangle the effects of relaxation and respiration, we investigated two different DSB techniques at the same respiration rates and depths on pain perception, autonomic activity, and mood in 16 healthy subjects. In the attentive DSB intervention, subjects were asked to breathe guided by a respiratory feedback task requiring a high degree of concentration and constant attention. In the relaxing DSB intervention, the subjects relaxed during the breathing training. The skin conductance levels, indicating sympathetic tone, were measured during the breathing maneuvers. Thermal detection and pain thresholds for cold and hot stimuli and profile of mood states were examined before and after the breathing sessions. The mean detection and pain thresholds showed a significant increase resulting from the relaxing DSB, whereas no significant changes of these thresholds were found associated with the attentive DSB. The mean skin conductance levels indicating sympathetic activity decreased significantly during the relaxing DSB intervention but not during the attentive DSB. Both breathing interventions showed similar reductions in negative feelings (tension, anger, and depression). Our results suggest that the way of breathing decisively influences autonomic and pain processing, thereby identifying DSB in concert with relaxation as the essential feature in the modulation of sympathetic arousal and pain perception. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Chlorination or monochloramination: Balancing the regulated trihalomethane formation and microbial inactivation in marine aquaculture waters

    KAUST Repository

    Sanawar, Huma; Xiong, Yanghui; Alam, Aftab; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    at the lowest tested concentration of chlorine (1mg/L) and contact time (1h). Comparatively, regulated THMs concentration was only detectable at 30μg/L level in one of the three sets of monochloraminated marine aquaculture waters. The average log reduction

  1. Radiotherapy of lung cancer: the inspiration breath hold with a spirometric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.; Oozeer, R.; Le Thanh, H.; Chastel, D.; Doyen, J.C.; Chauvet, B.; Reboul, F.

    2002-01-01

    A CT acquisition during a free breathing examination generates images of poor quality. It creates an uncertainty on the reconstructed gross tumour volume and dose distribution. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of a breath hold method applied in all preparation and treatment days. Five patients received a thoracic radiotherapy with the benefit of this procedure. The breathing of the patient was measured with a spirometer. The patient was coached to reproduce a constant level of breath-hold in a deep inspiration. Video glasses helped the patients to fix the breath-hold at the reference level. The patients followed the coaching during preparation and treatment, without any difficulty. The better quality of the CT reconstructed images resulted in an easier contouring. No movements of the gross tumour volume lead to a better coverage. The deep breath hold decreased the volume of irradiated lung. This method improves the reproducibility of the thoracic irradiation. The decrease of irradiated lung volume offers prospects in dose escalation and intensity modulation radiotherapy. (authors)

  2. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  4. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  5. Phototransformation of iodate by UV irradiation: Kinetics and iodinated trihalomethane formation during subsequent chlor(am)ination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Fu-Xiang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Hu, Xiao-Jun, E-mail: hu-xj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Xu, Bin; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Gao, Yu-Qiong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • IO{sub 3}{sup −} can be photodegraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics. • Solution pH has no remarkable influence on the photodegradation rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. • The I{sup −} and HOI derived from the photoreduction of IO{sub 3}{sup −} were determined. • The presence of NOM greatly enhanced the photolysis rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. • NOM sources can affect the formation of I-THMs in UV-chlor(am)ination of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. - Abstract: The photodegradation of IO{sub 3}{sup −} at 254 nm and the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during subsequent chlorination or chloramination in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) were investigated in this study. The thermodynamically stable IO{sub 3}{sup −} can be degraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics and the quantum yield was calculated as 0.0591 mol einstein{sup −1}. Solution pH posed no remarkable influence on the photolysis rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −}. The UV phototransformation of IO{sub 3}{sup −} was evidenced by the determination of iodide (I{sup −}) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) in solution. NOM sources not only enhanced the photodegradation rate of IO{sub 3}{sup −} by photoejecting solvated electrons, but also greatly influenced the production I-THMs in subsequent chlor(am)ination processes. In UV irradiation and sequential oxidation processes by chlorine or chloramine, the I-THMs formation was susceptible to NOM sources, especially the two major fractions of aqueous humic substances (humic acid and fulvic acid). The toxicity of disinfected waters greatly increased in chloramination over chlorination of the UV photodecomposed IO{sub 3}{sup −}, as far more I-THMs especially CHI{sub 3}, were formed. As “the fourth iodine source” of iodinated disinfection by-products, the occurrence, transportation and fate of IO{sub 3}{sup −} in aquatic environment should be of concern instead of being considered a desired

  6. Breath acetone as a potential marker in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsányi, Veronika; Péter Kalapos, Miklós

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, two facts have changed the opinion of researchers about the function of acetone in humans. Firstly, it has turned out that acetone cannot be regarded as simply a waste product of metabolism, because there are several pathways in which acetone is produced or broken down. Secondly, methods have emerged making possible its detection in exhaled breath, thereby offering an attractive alternative to investigation of blood and urine samples. From a clinical point of view the measurement of breath acetone levels is important, but there are limitations to its wide application. These limitations can be divided into two classes, technical and biological limits. The technical limits include the storage of samples, detection threshold, standardization of clinical settings, and the price of instruments. When considering the biological ranges of acetone, personal factors such as race, age, gender, weight, food consumption, medication, illicit drugs, and even profession/class have to be taken into account to use concentration information for disorders. In some diseases such as diabetes mellitus and lung cancer, as well as in nutrition-related behavior such as starvation and ketogenic diet, breath acetone has been extensively examined. At the same time, there is a lack of investigations in other cases in which ketosis is also evident, such as in alcoholism or an inborn error of metabolism. In summary, the detection of acetone in exhaled breath is a useful and promising tool for diagnosis and it can be used as a marker to follow the effectiveness of treatments in some disorders. However, further endeavors are needed for clarification of the exact distribution of acetone in different body compartments and evaluation of its complex role in humans, especially in those cases in which a ketotic state also occurs.

  7. SU-F-T-415: Differences in Lung Sparing in Deep Inspiration Breath-Hold and Free Breathing Breast Plans Calculated in Pinnacle and Monaco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz, D; Stathakis, S [University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) is used for left-sided breast radiotherapy to spare the heart and lung. The magnitude of sparing has been shown to be significant. Monte Carlo, furthermore, has the potential to calculate most accurately the dose in the heterogeneous lung medium at the interface with the lung wall. The lung dose was investigated in Monaco to determine the level of sparing relative to that calculated in Pinnacle{sup 3}. Methods: Five patients undergoing DIBH radiotherapy on an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator in conjunction with the Catalyst C-RAD surface imaging system were planned using Phillips Pinnacle{sup 3}. Free breathing plans were also created to clinically assure a benefit. Both plans were re-calculated in Monaco to determine if there were any significant differences. The mean heart dose, mean left lung, and mean total lung dose were compared in addition to the V20 for left and both lungs. Dose was calculated as dose to medium as well as dose to water with a statistical precision of 0.7%. Results: Mean lung dose was significantly different (p < 0.003) between the two calculations for both DIBH (11.6% higher in Monaco) and free breathing (14.2% higher in Monaco). V20 was also higher in Monaco (p < 0.05) for DIBH (5.7% higher) and free breathing (4.9% higher). The mean heart dose was not significantly different between the dose calculations for either DIBH or free breathing. Results were no more than 0.1% different when calculated as dose to water. Conclusion: The use of Monte Carlo can provide insight on the lung dose for both free breathing and DIBH techniques for whole breast irradiation. While the sparing (dose reductions with DIBH as compared to free breathing) is equivalent for either planning system, the lung doses themselves are higher when calculated with Monaco.

  8. Cheyne-Stokes respiration: hypoxia plus a deep breath that interrupts hypoxic drive, initiating cyclic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntheroth, Warren G

    2011-11-01

    In the 19th Century, Cheyne and Stokes independently reported cycles of respiration in patients with heart failure, beginning with apnea, followed by a few breaths. However Cheyne-Stokes respiration (C-SR) can also occur in healthy individuals with sleep, and was demonstrated in 1908 with voluntary hyperventilation, followed by apnea that Haldane blamed on hypoxia, subsequently called post-hyperventilation apnea. Additional theories explaining C-SR did not appear until 1954, based on control theory, specifically a feed-back regulator controlling CO(2). This certainly describes control of normal respiration, but to produce an unstable state such as C-SR requires either a very long transit time (3½ min) or an increase of the controller gain (13 times), physiologically improbable. There is general agreement that apnea initiates C-SR but that has not been well explained except for post-hyperventilation apnea, and that explanation is not compatible with a study by Nielsen and Smith in 1951. They plotted the effects of diminished oxygen on ventilation (V) in relation to CO(2) (Fig. 1). They found that the slope of V/CO(2) (gain) increased with hypoxia, but it flattened at a moderate CO(2) level and had nointercept with zero (apnea). It is also incompatible with our published findings in 1975 that showed that apnea did not occur until an extreme level of hypoxia occurred (the PO(2) fell below 10 mmHg), followed shortly by gasping. Much milder hypoxia underlies most cases of C-SR, when hypoxic drive replaces the normal CO(2)-based respiratory drive, in a failsafe role. I hypothesize that the cause of apnea is a brief interruption of hypoxic drive caused by a pulse of oxygen from a stronger than average breath, such as a sigh. The rapidity of onset of apnea in response to a pulse of oxygen, reflects the large pressure gradient for oxygen from air to lung with each breath, in contrast to CO(2). With apnea, there is a gradual fall in oxygen, resulting in a resumption of

  9. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  10. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  11. Investigación de trihalometanos en agua potable del Estado Carabobo, Venezuela Trihalomethanes in the drinking water of Carabobo State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarmiento

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La desinfección del agua con cloro en las plantas de potabilización da lugar a la formación de trihalometanos (THM. Estos compuestos están asociados a efectos adversos para la salud. En este estudio se determinó la concentración de THM en el agua para consumo humano suministrada por las redes de distribución de los dos principales sistemas de potabilización de agua del Estado Carabobo, la planta Alejo Zuloaga y el embalse Pao-Cachinche que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro I (SRC-I y la planta Lucio Baldo Soules y el embalse Pao-La Balsa que forman el Sistema Regional del Centro II (SRC-II. Métodos: Se analizaron un total de 144 muestras recolectadas durante 6 muestreos que se realizaron durante los años 2000 y 2001. La concentración de THM se determinó por cromatografía de gases, mediante la técnica de headspace. Se determinaron las concentraciones para los siguientes THM: cloroformo (CHCl3, bromoformo (CHBr3, dibromoclorometano (CHBr2Cl y diclorobromometano (CHCl2Br. Resultados: La concentración de THM totales estuvo entre 47,84 y 93,23 μg/l. El CHCl3 fue el compuesto predominante, representando el 83% de total de THM para el SRC-I y el 82% en el SRC-II. Se encontró que las concentraciones de THM totales en el SRC-I (Red Baja y Red San Diego son significativamente superiores (p Objective: Disinfection of water with chlorine in water treatment plants leads to the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs. These compounds are associated with adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to analyze THM concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the two main water treatment systems of Carabobo State: the Alejo Zuloaga plant and the Pao-Cachinche reservoir, which form the Central Regional System I (CRS I, and the Lucio Baldo Soules plant and the Pao-La Balsa reservoir, which form the Central Regional System II (CRS II. Methods: We analyzed 144 water samples collected in 6 samplings carried out in 2000

  12. Does air-breathing meet metabolic demands of the juvenile snakehead, Channa argus, in multiple conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine how the respiratory metabolism of the snakehead Channa argus changed when it shifted from breathing water to breathing air, and how increased metabolic demands caused by temperature, feeding, and exhaustive exercise affect its survival in air. The results demonstrated that the oxygen consumption rate (MO2 of the snakehead was lower for aerial respiration than aquatic respiration by 12.1, 24.5 and 20.4% at 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. Survival time was significantly shortened with increasing temperature and was negatively correlated with the resting MO2 in air (MO2Air. No obvious feeding metabolic response was observed in the snakeheads fed at 1% and 3% body mass levels while breathing air. The maximum MO2Air of the snakehead after exhaustive exercise was significantly higher than the resting MO2Air of the control group. The results suggest that the snakehead could survive out of water by breathing air for varying lengths of time, depending on ambient temperature and metabolic demand. Additionally, some degree of metabolic depression occurs in the snakehead when breathing air. The metabolic demand associated with exercise in the snakehead, but not that associated with feeding, can be supported by its capacity for breathing air to some extent.

  13. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  14. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  15. Ventilatory muscle endurance training in quadriplegia: effects on breathing pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveridge, B; Badour, M; Dubo, H

    1989-10-01

    We examined the effects of ventilatory muscle endurance training on resting breathing pattern in 12 C6-C7 traumatic quadriplegics at least 1 year post-injury. All subjects had complete motor loss below the lesion level. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training (N = 6), or a control group (N = 6). Baseline tests included measurement of resting ventilation and breathing pattern using mercury in rubber strain gauges for 20 minutes in a seated position; maximum inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) at FRC, and sustainable inspiratory mouth pressure for 10 minutes (SIP); lung volumes, and arterial blood gases (ABG's). The training protocol consisted of breathing through an inspiratory resistor equivalent to 85% SIP for 15 minutes twice daily, 5 days a week for 8 weeks. Both trainers and controls attended the lab every 2 weeks for reassessment of MIP and SIP and the inspiratory resistance was increased in the training group as SIP increased. At the end of 8 weeks, baseline tests were repeated. All subjects had normal ABG's. There was a significant increase in mean MIP and SIP in both the control group (30% +/- 19% and 31% +/- 18% respectively), and in the training group (42% +/- 24% and 78% +/- 49% respectively). Although the absolute values for both MIP and SIP were greater in the training group than in the control group, the differences were not significant. The alterations in resting breathing pattern were also the same in both groups. Mean frequency decreased significantly in the control group (20.2/minute to 16.9/minute) and, while insignificant, the change in frequency in the training group was the same, 19.4/minute to 16.4/minute. Mean tidal volume (Vt) increased 18.2% of baseline Vt in the control group and 17.0% baseline in the trainers, resulting in no change in minute ventilation. As MIP and SIP increased similarly in both groups, the data from the control and trainers was pooled and timing changes re-evaluated pre- and post-study. A significant decrease in

  16. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Excretory nitrogen metabolism and defence against ammonia toxicity in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S F; Ip, Y K

    2014-03-01

    With the development of air-breathing capabilities, some fishes can emerge from water, make excursions onto land or even burrow into mud during droughts. Air-breathing fishes have modified gill morphology and morphometry and accessory breathing organs, which would tend to reduce branchial ammonia excretion. As ammonia is toxic, air-breathing fishes, especially amphibious ones, are equipped with various strategies to ameliorate ammonia toxicity during emersion or ammonia exposure. These strategies can be categorized into (1) enhancement of ammonia excretion and reduction of ammonia entry, (2) conversion of ammonia to a less toxic product for accumulation and subsequent excretion, (3) reduction of ammonia production and avoidance of ammonia accumulation and (4) tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels. Active ammonia excretion, operating in conjunction with lowering of ambient pH and reduction in branchial and cutaneous NH₃ permeability, is theoretically the most effective strategy to maintain low internal ammonia concentrations. NH₃ volatilization involves the alkalization of certain epithelial surfaces and requires mechanisms to prevent NH₃ back flux. Urea synthesis is an energy-intensive process and hence uncommon among air-breathing teleosts. Aestivating African lungfishes detoxify ammonia to urea and the accumulated urea is excreted following arousal. Reduction in ammonia production is achieved in some air-breathing fishes through suppression of amino acid catabolism and proteolysis, or through partial amino acid catabolism leading to alanine formation. Others can slow down ammonia accumulation through increased glutamine synthesis in the liver and muscle. Yet, some others develop high tolerance of ammonia at cellular and tissue levels, including tissues in the brain. In summary, the responses of air-breathing fishes to ameliorate ammonia toxicity are many and varied, determined by the behaviour of the species and the nature of the environment in

  18. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  19. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  20. Quantum Chemical Examination of the Sequential Halogen Incorporation Scheme for the Modeling of Speciation of I/Br/Cl-Containing Trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenyang; Li, Maodong; Han, Xuze; Yan, Mingquan

    2018-02-20

    The recently developed three-step ternary halogenation model interprets the incorporation of chlorine, bromine, and iodine ions into natural organic matter (NOM) and formation of iodine-, bromine-, and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes (THMs) based on the competition of iodine, bromine, and chlorine species at each node of the halogenation sequence. This competition is accounted for using the dimensionless ratios (denoted as γ) of kinetic rates of reactions of the initial attack sites or halogenated intermediates with chlorine, bromine, and iodine ions. However, correlations between the model predictions made and mechanistic aspects of the incorporation of halogen species need to be ascertained in more detail. In this study, quantum chemistry calculations were first used to probe the formation mechanism of 10 species of Cl-/Br-/I- THMs. The HOMO energy (E HOMO ) of each mono-, bi-, or trihalomethanes were calculated by B3LYP method in Gaussian 09 software. Linear correlations were found to exist between the logarithms of experimentally determined kinetic preference coefficients γ reported in prior research and, on the other hand, differences of E HOMO values between brominated/iodinated and chlorinated halomethanes. One notable exception from this trend was that observed for the incorporation of iodine into mono- and di-iodinated intermediates. These observations confirm the three-step halogen incorporation sequence and the factor γ in the statistical model. The combined use of quantum chemistry calculations and the ternary sequential halogenation model provides a new insight into the microscopic nature of NOM-halogen interactions and the trends seen in the behavior of γ factors incorporated in the THM speciation models.

  1. Exposição humana a trialometanos presentes em água tratada Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Y Tominaga

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se uma revisão bibliográfica do período de 1974-1998, no MEDLINE, sobre compostos orgânicos halogenados derivados de hidrocarbonetos denominados de trialometanos. Muitos deles, reconhecidamente carcinogênicos para diferentes espécies animais, podem ser encontrados freqüentemente, inclusive entre nós, em águas tratadas e enviadas à população urbana. É o caso de compostos como o clorofórmio, bromodiclorometano, clorodibromometano e bromofórmio, resultantes da halogenação de precursores, principalmente substâncias húmicas e fúlvicas presentes na água que será tratada (clorada. Assim, descreve-se sua formação, fontes de exposição humana bem como os aspectos toxicológicos de maior importância: disposição cinética e espectro dos efeitos tóxicos (carcinogênicos, mutagênicos e teratogênicos decorrentes de exposições a longo prazo e baixas concentrações. Níveis seguros de exposição propostos são também fornecidos.Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic.

  2. Highly Selective Volatile Organic Compounds Breath Analysis Using a Broadly-Tunable Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzson, Béla; Jágerská, Jana; Looser, Herbert; Graf, Manuel; Felder, Ferdinand; Fill, Matthias; Tappy, Luc; Emmenegger, Lukas

    2017-06-20

    A broadly tunable mid-infrared vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) is employed in a direct absorption laser spectroscopic setup to measure breath acetone. The large wavelength coverage of more than 30 cm -1 at 3.38 μm allows, in addition to acetone, the simultaneous measurement of isoprene, ethanol, methanol, methane, and water. Despite the severe spectral interferences from water and alcohols, an unambiguous determination of acetone is demonstrated with a precision of 13 ppbv that is achieved after 5 min averaging at typical breath mean acetone levels in synthetic gas samples mimicking human breath.

  3. High capacity for extracellular acid-base regulation in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Christian; Gam, Le Thi Hong; Tuong, Dang Diem; Thinh, Phan Vinh; Huong Thanh, Do Thi; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of accessory air-breathing structures is typically associated with reduction of the gills, although branchial ion transport remains pivotal for acid-base and ion regulation. Therefore, air-breathing fishes are believed to have a low capacity for extracellular pH regulation during a respiratory acidosis. In the present study, we investigated acid-base regulation during hypercapnia in the air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus in normoxic and hypoxic water at 28-30°C. Contrary to previous studies, we show that this air-breathing fish has a pronounced ability to regulate extracellular pH (pHe) during hypercapnia, with complete metabolic compensation of pHe within 72 h of exposure to hypoxic hypercapnia with CO2 levels above 34 mmHg. The high capacity for pHe regulation relies on a pronounced ability to increase levels of HCO3(-) in the plasma. Our study illustrates the diversity in the physiology of air-breathing fishes, such that generalizations across phylogenies may be difficult. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Comparison of breath gases, including acetone, with blood glucose and blood ketones in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaikie, Tom P J; Edge, Julie A; Hancock, Gus; Lunn, Daniel; Megson, Clare; Peverall, Rob; Richmond, Graham; Ritchie, Grant A D; Taylor, David

    2014-11-25

    Previous studies have suggested that breath gases may be related to simultaneous blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with type 2 and type 1 diabetes. The aims of this study were to investigate these relationships in children and young people with type 1 diabetes in order to assess the efficacy of a simple breath test as a non-invasive means of diabetes management. Gases were collected in breath bags and measurements were compared with capillary blood glucose and ketone levels taken at the same time on a single visit to a routine hospital clinic in 113 subjects (59 male, age 7 years 11 months-18 years 3 months) with type 1 diabetes. The patients were well-controlled with relatively low concentrations of the blood ketone measured (β hydroxybutyrate, 0-0.4 mmol l(-1)). Breath acetone levels were found to increase with blood β hydroxybutyrate levels and a significant relationship was found between the two (Spearman's rank correlation ρ = 0.364, p acetone (ρ = 0.16, p = 0.1), but led to the conclusion that single breath measurements of acetone do not provide a good measure of blood glucose levels in this cohort. This result suggests a potential to develop breath gas analysis to provide an alternative to blood testing for ketone measurement, for example to assist with the management of type 1 diabetes.

  5. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  6. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  7. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  8. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  9. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  10. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  11. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  12. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  13. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gruenig, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84±1.28 in the right and 2.1±0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54±1.18 and 2.8±1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53±4.06 and 3.46±2.21 at inspiration and 4.45±4.23 and 4.76±3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Gruenig, Ekkehard [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine III, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84{+-}1.28 in the right and 2.1{+-}0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54{+-}1.18 and 2.8{+-}1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53{+-}4.06 and 3.46{+-}2.21 at inspiration and 4.45{+-}4.23 and 4.76{+-}3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  15. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  16. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  17. The role of size in synchronous air breathing of Hoplosternum littorale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Katherine A; Sloman, Richard D; De Boeck, Gudrun; Scott, Graham R; Iftikar, Fathima I; Wood, Chris M; Almeida-Val, Vera M F; Val, Adalberto L

    2009-01-01

    Synchronized air breathing may have evolved as a way of minimizing the predation risk known to be associated with air breathing in fish. Little is known about how the size of individuals affects synchronized air breathing and whether some individuals are required to surface earlier than necessary in support of conspecifics, while others delay air intake. Here, the air-breathing behavior of Hoplosternum littorale held in groups or in isolation was investigated in relation to body mass, oxygen tensions, and a variety of other physiological parameters (plasma lactate, hepatic glycogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and size of heart, branchial basket, liver, and air-breathing organ [ABO]). A mass-specific relationship with oxygen tension of first surfacing was seen when fish were held in isolation; smaller individuals surfaced at higher oxygen tensions. However, this relationship was lost when the same individuals were held in social groups of four, where synchronous air breathing was observed. In isolation, 62% of fish first surfaced at an oxygen tension lower than the calculated P(crit) (8.13 kPa), but in the group environment this was reduced to 38% of individuals. Higher oxygen tensions at first surfacing in the group environment were related to higher levels of activity rather than any of the physiological parameters measured. In fish held in isolation but denied access to the water surface for 12 h before behavioral testing, there was no mass-specific relationship with oxygen tension at first surfacing. Larger individuals with a greater capacity to store air in their ABOs may, therefore, remain in hypoxic waters for longer periods than smaller individuals when held in isolation unless prior access to the air is prevented. This study highlights how social interaction can affect air-breathing behaviors and the importance of considering both behavioral and physiological responses of fish to hypoxia to understand the survival mechanisms they employ.

  18. The distribution of mitochondria-rich cells in the gills of air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chen; Sung, Wen-Ting

    2003-01-01

    Respiration and ion regulation are the two principal functions of teleostean gills. Mainly found in the gill filaments of fish, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) proliferate to increase the ionoregulatory capacity of the gill in response to osmotic challenges. Gill lamellae consist mostly of pavement cells, which are the major site of gas exchange. Although lamellar MRCs have been reported in some fish species, there has been little discussion of which fish species are likely to have lamellar MRCs. In this study, we first compared the number of filament and lamellar MRCs in air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish species acclimated to freshwater and 5 g NaCl L(-1) conditions. An increase in filament MRCs was found in both air-breathing and non-air-breathing fish acclimated to freshwater. Lamellar MRCs were found only in air-breathing species, but the number of lamellar MRCs did not change significantly with water conditions, except in Periophthalmus cantonensis. Next, we surveyed the distribution of MRCs in the gills of 66 fish species (including 29 species from the previous literature) from 12 orders, 28 families, and 56 genera. Our hypothesis that lamellar MRCs are more likely to be found in air-breathing fishes was supported by a significant association between the presence of lamellar MRCs and the mode of breathing at three levels of systematic categories (species, genus, and family). Based on this integrative view of the multiple functions of fish gills, we should reexamine the role of MRCs in freshwater fish.

  19. Drug detection in breath: non-invasive assessment of illicit or pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, Phillip; Kamysek, Svend; Fuchs, Patricia; Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2017-03-20

    Breath analysis not only holds great potential for the development of new non-invasive diagnostic methods, but also for the identification and follow up of drug levels in breath. This is of interest for both, forensic and medical science. On the one hand, the detection of drugs of abuse in exhaled breath-similar to the well-known breath alcohol tests-would be highly desirable as an alternative to blood or urine analysis in situations such as police controls for drugged driving. The non-invasive detection of drugs and their metabolites is thus of great interest in forensic science, especially since marijuana is becoming legalized in certain parts of the US and the EU. The detection and monitoring of medical drugs in exhaled breath without the need of drawing blood samples on the other hand, is of high relevance in the clinical environment. This could facilitate a more precise medication and enable therapy control without any burden to the patient. Furthermore, it could be a step towards personalized medicine. This review gives an overview of the current state of drug detection in breath, including both volatile and non-volatile substances. The review is divided into two sections. The first section deals with qualitative detection of drugs (drugs of abuse), while the second is related to quantitative drug detection (medical drugs). Chances and limitations are discussed for both aspects. The detection of the intravenous anesthetic propofol is presented as a detailed example that demonstrates the potential, requirements, pitfalls and limitations of therapeutic drug monitoring by means of breath analysis.

  20. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  1. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  2. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  5. Effects of exogenous lactase administration on hydrogen breath excretion and intestinal symptoms in patients presenting lactose malabsorption and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibba, Ivan; Gilli, Agnese; Boi, Maria Francesca; Usai, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A), while mean peak H2 levels (74.95 ppm versus 7.85), P lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability.

  6. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variation in the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) and tacrolimus may result from differences in the activity of cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A). The erythromycin breath test is an in vivo assay of hepatic CYP3A activity......, but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath...

  7. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  8. SU-F-T-254: Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) Analysis of Breath Hold Vs Free Breathing Techniques for Esophageal Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badkul, R; Doke, K; Pokhrel, D; Aguilera, N; Lominska, C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lung and heart doses and associated toxicity are of concern in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. This study evaluates the dosimetry of deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) technique as compared to freebreathing( FB) using 3D-conformal treatment(3D-CRT) of esophageal cancer. Methods: Eight patients were planned with FB and DIBH CT scans. DIBH scans were acquired using Varian RPM system. FB and DIBH CTs were contoured per RTOG-1010 to create the planning target volume(PTV) as well as organs at risk volumes(OAR). Two sets of gross target volumes(GTV) with 5cm length were contoured for each patient: proximal at the level of the carina and distal at the level of gastroesophageal junction and were enlarged with appropriate margin to generate Clinical Target Volume and PTV. 3D-CRT plans were created on Eclipse planning system for 45Gy to cover 95% of PTV in 25 fractions for both proximal and distal tumors on FB and DIBH scans. For distal tumors celiac nodes were covered electively. DVH parameters for lung and heart OARs were generated and analyzed. Results: All DIBH DVH parameters were normalized to FB plan values. Average of heart-mean and heart-V40 was 0.70 and 0.66 for proximal lesions. For distal lesions ratios were 1.21 and 2.22 respectively. For DIBH total lung volume increased by 2.43 times versus FB scan. Average of lung-mean, V30, V20, V10, V5 are 0.82, 0.92, 0.76, 0.77 and 0.79 for proximal lesions and 1.17,0.66,0.87,0.93 and 1.03 for distal lesions. Heart doses were lower for breath-hold proximal lesions but higher for distal lesions as compared to free-breathing plans. Lung doses were lower for both proximal and distal breath-hold lesions except mean lung dose and V5 for distal lesions. Conclusion: This study showed improvement of OAR doses for esophageal lesions at mid-thoracic level utilizing DIBH vs FB technique but did not show consistent OAR sparing with DIBH for distal lesions.

  9. Assessing the colonic microbiome, hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes, transit and breath methane in constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P G; Parthasarathy, G; Chen, J; O'Connor, H M; Chia, N; Bharucha, A E; Gaskins, H R

    2017-10-01

    Differences in the gut microbiota and breath methane production have been observed in chronic constipation, but the relationship between colonic microbiota, transit, and breath tests remains unclear. In 25 healthy and 25 constipated females we evaluated the sigmoid colonic mucosal and fecal microbiota using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, abundance of hydrogenogenic FeFe (FeFe-hydA) and hydrogenotrophic (methyl coenzyme M reductase A [mrcA] and dissimilatory sulfite reductase A [dsrA]) genes with real-time qPCR assays, breath hydrogen and methane levels after oral lactulose, and colonic transit with scintigraphy. Breath hydrogen and methane were not correlated with constipation, slow colon transit, or with abundance of corresponding genes. After adjusting for colonic transit, the abundance of FeFehydA, dsrA, and mcrA were greater (Ptransit, and overall microbiome composition. In the colonic mucosa and feces, the abundance of hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were positively correlated (Ptransit. Corroborating our earlier findings with 16S rRNA genes, colonic mucosal but not fecal hydrogenogenic and hydrogenotrophic genes were more abundant in constipated vs. healthy subjects independent of colonic transit. Breath gases do not directly reflect the abundance of target genes contributing to their production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Hypoxia tolerance and air-breathing ability correlate with habitat preference in coral-dwelling fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, G. E.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; Östlund-Nilsson, S.; Munday, P. L.

    2007-06-01

    Hypoxia tolerance and air-breathing occur in a range of freshwater, estuarine and intertidal fishes. Here it is shown for the first time that coral reef fishes from the genera Gobiodon, Paragobiodon and Caracanthus, which all have an obligate association with living coral, also exhibit hypoxia tolerance and a well-developed air-breathing capacity. All nine species maintained adequate respiration in water at oxygen concentrations down to 15-25% air saturation. This hypoxia tolerance is probably needed when the oxygen levels in the coral habitat drops sharply at night. Air-breathing abilities of the species correlated with habitat association, being greatest (equaling oxygen uptake in water) in species that occupy corals extending into shallow water, where they may become air exposed during extreme low tides. Air-breathing was less well-developed or absent in species inhabiting corals from deeper waters. Loss of scales and a network of subcutaneous capillaries appear to be key adaptations allowing cutaneous respiration in air. While hypoxia tolerance may be an ancestral trait in these fishes, air-breathing is likely to be a more recent adaptation exemplifying convergent evolution in the unrelated genera Gobiodon and Caracanthus in response to coral-dwelling lifestyles.

  11. Pressure breathing in fighter aircraft for G accelerations and loss of cabin pressurization at altitude--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzsen, Lars P; Pfitzner, John

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to outline the past and present use of pressure breathing, not by patients but by fighter pilots. Of the historical and recent references quoted, most are from aviation-medicine journals that are not often readily available to anesthesiologists. Pressure breathing at moderate levels of airway pressure gave World War II fighter pilots a tactical altitude advantage. With today's fast and highly maneuverable jet fighters, very much higher airway pressures of the order of 8.0 kPa (identical with 60 mmHg) are used. They are used in conjunction with a counterpressure thoracic vest and an anti-G suit for the abdomen and lower body. Pressurization is activated automatically in response to +Gz accelerations, and to a potentially catastrophic loss of cabin pressurization at altitude. During +Gz accelerations, pressure breathing has been shown to maintain cerebral perfusion by raising the systemic arterial pressure, so increasing the level of G-tolerance that is afforded by the use of anti-G suits and seat tilt-back angles alone. This leaves the pilot less reliant on rigorous, and potentially distracting, straining maneuvers. With loss of cabin pressurization at altitude, pressure breathing of 100% oxygen at high airway pressures enables the pilot's alveolar PO(2) to be maintained at a safe level during emergency descent. Introduced in military aviation, pressure breathing for G-tolerance and pressure breathing for altitude presented as concepts that may be of general physiological interest to many anesthesiologists.

  12. Can air-breathing fish be adapted to higher than present temperatures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark

    Air-breathing in fish is thought to have evolved in environments at lower than present oxygen levels and higher than present temperatures raising the question of whether extant species are adapted to recent temperature regimes or living at sub-optimal temperatures. The air-breathing Pangasionodon...... hypophthalmus inhabits the Mekong river system covering two climate zones during its life cycle and migrating more than 2000 km from hatching in northern Laos to its adult life in the southern delta region. It is a facultative air-breather with well-developed gills and air-breathing organ and an unusual...... circulatory bauplan. Here we examine the question of its optimal temperature through aspects of its cardio respiratory physiology including temperature effects on blood oxygen binding, ventilation and blood gasses, stereological measures of cardiorespiratory system, metabolic rate and growth. Comparing...

  13. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  14. 'Breath figure' PLGA films as implant coatings for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Thiruselvam

    The breath figure method is a versatile and facile approach of generating ordered micro and nanoporous structures in polymeric materials. When a polymer solution (dissolved in a high vapor pressure organic solvent) is evaporated out in the presence of a moist air stream, the evaporative cooling effect causes the condensation and nucleation of water droplets onto the polymer solution surface. This leads to the formation of an imprinted porous structure upon removal of the residual solvent and water. The facile removal of the water droplet template leaving its structural imprint is a specifically appealing aspect of the breath figure film technology. The first part of the dissertation work involves the fabrication of drug loaded breath figure thin films and its utilization as a controlled drug release carrier and biomaterial scaffold. In a single fabrication step, single layer/multilayer porous thin films were designed and developed by combining the breath figure process and a modified spin or dip coating technique. Using biodegradable polymers such as poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG), drug loaded films were fabricated onto FDA approved medical devices (the Glaucoma drainage device and the Surgical hernia mesh). The porosity of the films is in the range of 2-4 microm as characterized by scanning electron microscope. The drug coated medical implants were characterized for their surface and bulk morphology, the degradation rate of the film, drug release rate and cell cytotoxicity. The results suggest that the use of breath figure morphologies in biodegradable polymer films adds an additional level of control to drug release. In comparison to non-porous films, the breath figure films showed an increased degradation and enhanced drug release. Furthermore, the porous nature of the film was investigated as a biomaterial scaffold to construct three dimensional in vitro tissue model systems. The breath figure film with interconnected

  15. Design and Implementation of a Laser-Based Ammonia Breath Sensor for Medical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2012-06-01

    Laser-based sensors can be used as non-invasive monitoring tools to measure parts per billion (ppb) levels of trace gases. Ammonia sensors are useful for applications in environmental pollutant monitoring, atmospheric and combustion kinetic studies, and medical diagnostics. This sensor was specifically designed to measure ammonia in exhaled breath to be used as a medical diagnostic and monitoring tool, however, it can also be extended for use in other applications. Although ammonia is a naturally occurring species in exhaled breath, abnormally elevated levels can be an indication of adverse medical conditions. Laser-based breath diagnostics have many benefits since they are cost effective, non-invasive, painless, real time monitors. They have the potential to improve the quality of medical care by replacing currently used blood tests and providing immediate feedback to physicians. This sensor utilizes a Quantum Cascade Laser and Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy with second harmonic normalized by first harmonic detection in a 76 m multi-pass absorption cell to measure ppb levels of ammonia with improved sensitivity over previous sensors. Initial measurements to determine the ammonia absorption line parameters were performed using direct absorption spectroscopy. This is the first experimental study of the ammonia absorption line transitions near 1103.46 cm1 with absorption spectroscopy. The linestrengths were measured with uncertainties less than 10%. The collisional broadening coefficients for each of the ammonia lines with nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide were also measured, many of which had uncertainties less than 5%. The sensor was characterized to show a detectability limit of 10 ppb with an uncertainty of less than 5% at typical breath ammonia levels. Initial breath test results showed that some of the patients with chronic kidney disease had elevated ammonia levels while others had ammonia levels in the same range as expected for healthy

  16. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  17. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  18. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  19. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  20. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  1. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  2. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  3. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  4. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  5. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  6. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  7. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  8. Air breathing in Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami, under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, and the association with sunlight and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, O E; Bergman, H L; Wood, C M; Laurent, P; Kavembe, D G; Bianchini, A; Maina, J N; Chevalier, C; Bianchini, L F; Papah, M B; Ojoo, R O

    2014-03-01

    Observations of the Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami in hot, highly alkaline Lake Magadi revealed that they air breathe not only during hypoxia, as described previously, but also during normoxia and hyperoxia. Air breathing under these latter conditions occurred within distinct groupings of fish (pods) and involved only a small proportion of the population. Air breathing properties (duration and frequency) were quantified from video footage. Air breathing within the population followed a diel pattern with the maximum extent of pod formation occurring in early afternoon. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water may be an irritant that encourages the air-breathing behaviour. The diel pattern of air breathing in the field and in experiments followed the diel pattern of ROS concentrations in the water which are amongst the highest reported in the literature (maximum daytime values of 2.53 – 8.10 μM H₂O₂). Interlamellar cell masses (ILCM) occurred between the gill lamellae of fish from the lagoon with highest ROS and highest oxygen levels, while fish from a normoxic lagoon with one third the ROS had little or no ILCM. This is the first record of air breathing in a facultative air-breathing fish in hyperoxic conditions and the first record of an ILCM in a cichlid species. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Heart rate response to breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Pagh, K; Nielsen, J S

    1987-01-01

    Heart rate responses to stepwise and periodic changes in lung volume were studied in seven young healthy males. Stepwise inspiration and expiration both resulted in an increase in heart rate followed by a rapid decrease in heart rate. The fastest heart rate was reached in 1.6 +/- 0.5 s and in 3.......6 +/- 1.4 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). The slowest heart rate was reached in 4.8 +/- 1.0 s and in 7.6 +/- 1.9 s in response to inspiration and expiration, respectively (P less than 0.01). Following this biphasic change the heart rate returned to a steady...... level. The difference between the fastest and the slowest heart rates was significantly larger in response to inspiration (21.7 +/- 7.3 beats per minute) than in response to expiration (12.0 +/- 7.3 beats per minute; P less than 0.01). Periodic changes in lung volume were performed with frequencies from...

  10. THE EFFECTS OF BREATHING EXERCISES TO INCREASE IMMUNITY IN ELDERLY HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswantoyo Siswantoyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: this study aimed to demonstrate influence of breathing exercise to increase immunity in elderly. It was an experimental study with Randomized Group Pre-Posttest design. The intervension was given in 21 meetings. Methods: The populations were elder participants of Satria Nusantara breathing exercise. Samples were 15 men aged over 45 years. each group. The unit of analysis was blood taken from cubital vein. Glucometer was to determine blood sugar levels. whereas beta-endorphin and lgG used ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, by indirect sandwitch. Data were read by Elisa Reader with a sensitivity of 95%. Data were analyzed descriptives and inferential statistics by SPSS software and further analysis using t-tests. Results showed that, lgG significantly increased, p = 0013. The mean increase of lgG was 33.266 ng/mL. For beta-endorphin. Results t-tests showed the significance of 0.000. The mean increase of endorphine was 3.922ng/mL, and blood sugar levels showed a decrease after the breathing exercise. The decrease of blood sugar was significant of 0.000. The mean decrease in blood sugar levels was 28.9 mg/100ml. Conclusion: It can be concluded that regular targeted and programmed breathiing exercise over 21 meetings increased the production of lgG and beta endorphins, as well as decreasing blood sugar levels. Breathing exercise was alternative sports to improve immunity. Key words: breathing exercise, immunity, elderly of health

  11. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  12. Adult and newborn rat inner retinal oxygenation during carbogen and 100% oxygen breathing. Comparison using magnetic resonance imaging delta Po2 mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, B A

    1996-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that breathing carbogen (95% O2-5% CO2) oxygenates the inner retina better than breathing 100% oxygen using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method that noninvasively measures inner retinal oxygenation in normal adult and newborn rats. Urethane-anesthetized adult and newborn (day 18) rats were studied. Sequential images were acquired in room air combined with either 100% oxygen or carbogen breathing. Normalized vitreous signal intensity changes were converted to oxygen tension changes (delta PO2) either on a pixel-by-pixel basis or in specific regions of interest. Systemic levels of hyperoxia during carbogen or 100% oxygen breathing were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In the adult rat, a significant difference (P = 0.017) was found in the preretinal vitreous delta PO2 during the breathing of either carbogen (130 +/- 9 mm Hg, mean +/- SEM; n = 5) or 100% oxygen (88 +/- 16 mm Hg; n = 5). Agreement was found between the MRI-determined delta PO2 values and literature oxygen microelectrodes data. In the newborn rat, significant differences (P delta PO2 were found during carbogen (164 +/- 23 mm Hg; n = 3) and oxygen breathing (91 +/- 8 mm Hg; n = 3). MRI delta PO2 mapping demonstrated for the first time that in the normal adult and newborn rat eye, carbogen breathing oxygenates the inner retina better than 100% oxygen breathing.

  13. CFD heat transfer simulation of the human upper respiratory tract for oronasal breathing condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries due to inhalation of hot gas are commonly encountered when dealing with fire and combustible material, which is harmful and threatens human life. In the literature, various studies have been conducted to investigate heat and mass transfer characteristics in the human respiratory tract (HRT. This study focuses on assessing the injury taking place in the upper human respiratory tract and identifying acute tissue damage, based on level of exposure. A three-dimensional heat transfer simulation is performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software to study the temperature profile through the upper HRT consisting of the nasal cavity, oral cavity, trachea, and the first two generations of bronchi. The model developed is for the simultaneous oronasal breathing during the inspiration phase with a high volumetric flow rate of 90 liters/minute and the inspired air temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. The geometric model depicting the upper HRT is generated based on the data available and literature cited. The results of the simulation give the temperature distribution along the center and the surface tissue of the respiratory tract. This temperature distribution will help to assess the level of damage induced in the upper respiratory tract and appropriate treatment for the damage. A comparison of nasal breathing, oral breathing, and oronasal breathing is performed. Temperature distribution can be utilized in the design of the respirator systems where inlet temperature is regulated favoring the human body conditions.

  14. Using an expiratory resistor, arterial pulse pressure variations predict fluid responsiveness during spontaneous breathing: an experimental porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael K; Vistisen, Simon T; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Fluid responsiveness prediction is difficult in spontaneously breathing patients. Because the swings in intrathoracic pressure are minor during spontaneous breathing, dynamic parameters like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are usually small. We hypothesized that during spontaneous breathing, inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors could induce high arterial pressure variations at hypovolemia and low variations at normovolemia and hypervolemia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that SPV and PPV could predict fluid responsiveness under these conditions. Eight prone, anesthetized and spontaneously breathing pigs (20 to 25 kg) were subjected to a sequence of 30% hypovolemia, normovolemia, and 20% and 40% hypervolemia. At each volemic level, the pigs breathed in a randomized order either through an inspiratory and/or an expiratory threshold resistor (7.5 cmH2O) or only through the tracheal tube without any resistor. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were measured during the breathing modes. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a 15% increase in stroke volume (DeltaSV) following fluid loading. Stroke volume was significantly lower at hypovolemia compared with normovolemia, but no differences were found between normovolemia and 20% or 40% hypervolemia. Compared with breathing through no resistor, SPV was magnified by all resistors at hypovolemia whereas there were no changes at normovolemia and hypervolemia. PPV was magnified by the inspiratory resistor and the combined inspiratory and expiratory resistor. Regression analysis of SPV or PPV versus DeltaSV showed the highest R2 (0.83 for SPV and 0.52 for PPV) when the expiratory resistor was applied. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for prediction of fluid responsiveness were 100% and 100%, respectively, for SPV and 100% and 81%, respectively, for PPV. Inspiratory and/or expiratory threshold resistors magnified SPV and PPV in spontaneously breathing pigs during hypovolemia

  15. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  16. A two-stage predictive model to simultaneous control of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants and distribution systems: adaptability to treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Tello, Antonio; Arias-Borrego, Ana; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2017-10-01

    The trihalomethanes (TTHMs) and others disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed in drinking water by the reaction of chlorine with organic precursors contained in the source water, in two consecutive and linked stages, that starts at the treatment plant and continues in second stage along the distribution system (DS) by reaction of residual chlorine with organic precursors not removed. Following this approach, this study aimed at developing a two-stage empirical model for predicting the formation of TTHMs in the water treatment plant and subsequently their evolution along the water distribution system (WDS). The aim of the two-stage model was to improve the predictive capability for a wide range of scenarios of water treatments and distribution systems. The two-stage model was developed using multiple regression analysis from a database (January 2007 to July 2012) using three different treatment processes (conventional and advanced) in the water supply system of Aljaraque area (southwest of Spain). Then, the new model was validated using a recent database from the same water supply system (January 2011 to May 2015). The validation results indicated no significant difference in the predictive and observed values of TTHM (R 2 0.874, analytical variance distribution systems studied, proving the adaptability of the new model to the boundary conditions. Finally the predictive capability of the new model was compared with 17 other models selected from the literature, showing satisfactory results prediction and excellent adaptability to treatment processes.

  17. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  18. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  19. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  20. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  1. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  2. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  3. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  4. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  5. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  6. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  7. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  8. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  9. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  10. Quartz tuning fork based sensor for detection of volatile organic compounds: towards breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Abraham; Panchal, Suresh; Phadke, Apoorva; Kashyap, A.; Suman, Jilma; Unnikrishnan, G.; Datar, Suwarna

    2018-04-01

    Several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present in the exhaled human breath whose concentration can vary depending on the physiological changes occurring within a human being. These changes in the concentration or the occurrence of a particular VOC can be used as signature of a particular disease in a person. In the present work, a sensor has been developed to detect VOCs such as 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol (BD), and cyclohexanone (CH), acetone, methanol and ethanol. Except for BD and CH, the rest of the VOCs are present in a healthy person in ppm levels. CH and BD have been reported to be present in the exhaled human breath of breast cancer patients in ppm levels and can be used to distinguish between a healthy person and a person with breast cancer. The selectivity of the sensor towards these two compounds in the presence of other VOCs commonly present in human breath like acetone, ethanol and methanol has been studied. The sensor has been developed using modified Quartz Tuning Forks (QTFs) with the intent of developing an array of such sensors identifying different VOCs present in a healthy human’s breath. Two differently modified QTFs have been used to detect 1 ppm of 1,4-dimethoxy-2,3-butanediol and 20 ppm of cyclohexanone. Linear Discriminants Analysis (LDA) has been used to classify seven different VOCs. For this purpose, features extracted from sensor responses -shift in resonant frequency, response time and recovery time of the sensors- have been used as features in the model. Differently modified array of QTFs along with the use of LDA can be a useful pathway towards development of a QTF based sensor array for human breath analysis.

  11. Variability in blood flow and pO2 in tumors in response to carbogen breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzen, Jennifer L.; Braun, Rod D.; Ong, Aqui L.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: There is speculation that the CO 2 in carbogen (95% O 2 , 5% CO 2 ) can block the vasoconstrictive effects of oxygen. However, it has recently been shown that blood flow in human tumors is variable while patients breathe carbogen. Furthermore, we have shown a consistent decrease in tumor blood flow (TBF) with carbogen breathing in the rat window chamber model. Also, we have previously shown that there is no significant difference in tumor growth time after radiation with air vs. carbogen breathing. This study was designed to investigate the effects of carbogen breathing on blood flow and oxygen levels in a solid tumor. Methods: Measurements were made in Fischer-344 rats with 8-10 mm diameter R3230Ac tumors transplanted either within the quadriceps muscle (n = 16) or subcutis (n = 14). Nontumor-bearing quadriceps muscle was studied in six other rats. After a 20-minute air-breathing baseline, rats breathed carbogen for an additional 40 minutes. Partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) was continuously monitored at one position for 60 minutes using 9-12 μm diameter oxygen microelectrodes. Blood flow was simultaneously monitored in all animals using laser Doppler flowmetry (1-2 probes/tumor). Results: Blood flow changes during carbogen breathing were variable in all tissues and intratumoral heterogeneity was observed. Despite variability in blood flow, pO 2 consistently increased in normal muscle but varied in both tumor sites. During carbogen breathing, the percent pO 2 measurements greater than the baseline average were 99.5% ± 0.4% (mean ± SEM), 42.7% ± 13.8%, and 79.8% ± 11.0% in normal muscle, subcutaneous tumor, and muscle tumor, respectively. To show the magnitude of change, average pO 2 values during air and carbogen breathing were calculated for each site. Normal muscle increased from 14.9 ± 2.3 to 39.0 ± 6.4 mm Hg (paired t-test; p = 0.009). Muscle tumors showed a rise from 14.6 ± 3.2 to 34.5 ± 8.2 mm Hg (p = 0.019). However, pO 2 in subcutaneous

  12. Tunable Quantum Spin Liquidity in the 1 /6 th-Filled Breathing Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, A.; Sinclair, R.; Verrier, A.; Ziat, D.; Zhou, H. D.; Sun, X. F.; Quilliam, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements on a series of materials, Li2 In1 -xScx Mo3 O8 , that can be described as a 1 /6 th-filled breathing kagome lattice. Substituting Sc for In generates chemical pressure which alters the breathing parameter nonmonotonically. Muon spin rotation experiments show that this chemical pressure tunes the system from antiferromagnetic long range order to a quantum spin liquid phase. A strong correlation with the breathing parameter implies that it is the dominant parameter controlling the level of magnetic frustration, with increased kagome symmetry generating the quantum spin liquid phase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that this is related to distinct types of charge order induced by changes in lattice symmetry, in line with the theory of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245134 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245134]. The specific heat for samples at intermediate Sc concentration, which have the minimum breathing parameter, show consistency with the predicted U (1 ) quantum spin liquid.

  13. Behavioral methods of alleviating motion sickness: effectiveness of controlled breathing and a music audiotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Pik Sang, Fleur D; Billar, Jessica P; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral countermeasures for motion sickness would be advantageous because of the side effects of antiemetic drugs, but few alternative treatments are available. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of controlling breathing and listening to a music audiotape designed to reduce motion sickness symptoms, on increasing tolerance to motion-induced nausea. Twenty-four healthy subjects were exposed to nauseogenic Coriolis stimulation on a rotating turntable under three conditions: whilst focusing on controlling breathing; listening to a music audiotape; or without intervention (control). The three conditions were performed by each subject according to a replicated factorial design at 1-week intervals at the same time of day. Ratings of motion sickness were obtained every 30 seconds. Once a level of mild nausea was reached subjects commenced controlling breathing or listened to the music audiotape. Motion was stopped after the onset of moderate nausea. Mean (+/- SD) motion exposure time in minutes tolerated before the onset of moderate nausea was significantly longer (p music (10.4 +/- 5.6 min) compared with control (9.2 +/- 5.9 min). Both controlling breathing and the music audiotape provided significant protection against motion sickness and with similar effectiveness. These nonpharmacologic countermeasures are only half as effective as standard doses of anti-motion sickness drugs, such as oral scopolamine; however, they are easy to implement and free of side effects.

  14. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Nagaraja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the ongoing inflammatory process of lung in healthy individuals with risk factors and comparing with that of a known diseased condition. To study the inflammatory response to treatment. Background: Morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases are raising in trend due to increased smokers, urbanization and air pollution, the diagnosis of these conditions during early stage and management can improve patient′s lifestyle and morbidity. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects were studied from July 2010 to September 2010; the level of hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath condensate was measured using Ecocheck. Results: Of the 100 subjects studied, 23 were healthy individuals with risk factors (smoking, exposure to air pollution, and urbanization; the values of hydrogen peroxide in smokers were 200-2220 nmol/l and in non-smokers 340-760 nmol/l. In people residing in rural areas values were 20-140 nmol/l in non-smokers and 180 nmol/l in smokers. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cases, during acute exacerbations values were 540-3040 nmol/l and 240-480 nmol/l following treatment. In acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, values were 400-1140 nmol/l and 100-320 nmol/l following treatment. In cases of bronchiectasis, values were 300-340 nmol/l and 200-280 nmol/l following treatment. In diagnosed pneumonia cases values were 1060-11800 nmol/l and 540-700 nmol/l following treatment. In interstitial lung diseases, values ranged from 220-720 nmol/l and 210-510 nmol/l following treatment. Conclusion: Exhaled breath condensate provides a non-invasive means of sampling the lower respiratory tract. Collection of exhaled breath condensate might be useful to detect the oxidative destruction of the lung as well as early inflammation of the airways in a healthy individual with risk factors and comparing the inflammatory response to treatment.

  17. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  18. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  19. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  20. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  1. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  2. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath; Quantifizierung organischer Spurenkomponenten in der menschlichen Atemluft. Acetonitril als Biomarker fuer Passivrauchen. Modell fuer Isopren im Atem, Zusammenhang Isoprenkonzentration, Cholesterinsynthese, lebensmittelchemische Untersuchungen an Knoblauch und Zwiebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prazeller, P

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  3. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  4. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  5. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, E; Yardley, L; Kirby, S; Thomas, M; Bruton, A

    2017-01-01

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retr...

  6. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  7. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case

  8. Comparison of nasal continuous positive airway pressure delivered by seven ventilators using simulated neonatal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevhammar, Thomas; Nilsson, Kjell; Zetterström, Henrik; Jonsson, Baldvin

    2013-05-01

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is an established treatment for respiratory distress in neonates. Most modern ventilators are able to provide NCPAP. There have been no large studies examining the properties of NCPAP delivered by ventilators. The aim of this study was to compare pressure stability and imposed work of breathing (iWOB) for NCPAP delivered by ventilators using simulated neonatal breathing. Experimental in vitro study. Research laboratory in Sweden. None. Neonatal breathing was simulated using a mechanical lung simulator. Seven ventilators were tested at different CPAP levels using two breath profiles. Pressure stability and iWOB were determined. Results from three ventilators revealed that they provided a slight pressure support. For these ventilators, iWOB could not be calculated. There were large differences in pressure stability and iWOB between the tested ventilators. For simulations using the 3.4-kg breath profile, the pressure swings around the mean pressure were more than five times greater, and iWOB more than four times higher, for the system with the highest measured values compared with the system with the lowest. Overall, the Fabian ventilator was the most pressure stable system. Evita XL and SERVO-i were found more pressure stable than Fabian in some simulations. The results for iWOB were in accordance with pressure stability for systems that allowed determination of this variable. Some of the tested ventilators unexpectedly provided a minor degree of pressure support. In terms of pressure stability, we have not found any advantages of ventilators as a group compared with Bubble CPAP, Neopuff, and variable flow generators that were tested in our previous study. The variation between individual systems is great within both categories. The clinical importance of these findings needs further investigation.

  9. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  10. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  11. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  12. Reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential in surface river water by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakruam, Pharkphum; Wattanachira, Suraphong

    2014-03-01

    This research was aimed at investigating the reduction of DOM fractions and their trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) by in-line coagulation with 0.1 μm ceramic membrane filtration. The combination of ceramic membrane filtration with a coagulation process is an alternative technology which can be applied to enhance conventional coagulation processes in the field of water treatment and drinking water production. The Ping River water (high turbidity water) was selected as the raw surface water because it is currently the main raw water source for water supply production in the urban and rural areas of Chiang Mai Province. From the investigation, the results showed that the highest percent reductions of DOC, UV-254, and THMFP (47.6%, 71.0%, and 67.4%, respectively) were achieved from in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration at polyaluminum chloride dosage 40 mg/L. Resin adsorption techniques were employed to characterize the DOM in raw surface water and filtered water. The results showed that the use of a ceramic membrane with in-line coagulation was able to most efficiently reduce the hydrophobic fraction (HPOA) (68.5%), which was then followed by the hydrophilic fraction (HPIA) (49.3%). The greater mass DOC reduction of these two fractions provided the highest THMFP reductions (55.1% and 37.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was able to reduce the hydrophobic (HPOB) fraction which is characterized by high reactivity toward THM formation. The percent reduction of mass DOC and THMFP of HPOB by in-line coagulation with ceramic membrane filtration was 45.9% and 48.0%, respectively. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  14. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  15. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  16. Follow-up of coeliac disease with the novel one-hour 13C-sorbitol breath test versus the H2-sorbitol breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveito, Kari; Hetta, Anne Kristine; Askedal, Mia; Brunborg, Cathrine; Sandvik, Leiv; Løberg, Else Marit; Skar, Viggo

    2011-07-01

    We recently developed a (13)C-sorbitol breath test ((13)C-SBT) as an alternative to the H(2)-sorbitol breath test (H(2)-SBT) for coeliac disease. In this study we compared the diagnostic properties of the H(2)-SBT and the (13)C-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease. Twenty-seven coeliac patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) performed the breath tests. All had been tested before treatment in the initial study of the (13)C-SBT, in which 39 untreated coeliac patients, 40 patient controls, and 26 healthy volunteers participated. Five gram sorbitol and 100 mg (13)C-sorbitol were dissolved in 250 ml tap water and given orally. H(2), CH(4) and (13)CO(2) were measured in end-expiratory breath samples every 30 min for 4 h. Increased H(2) concentration ≥20 ppm from basal values was used as cut-off for the H(2)-SBT. Sixty minutes values were used as diagnostic index in the (13)C-SBT. (13)CO(2) levels at 60 min increased in 20/26 treated coeliac patients (77%) after GFD, but were significantly lower than in control groups. Out of 20 patients who had a positive H(2)-SBT before GFD, 12 had a negative H(2)-SBT after GFD. Peak H(2) concentrations were not correlated with (13)C-SBT results. The study confirms the sensitivity of a one-hour (13)C-SBT for small intestinal malabsorption. The (13)C-SBT has superior diagnostic properties compared with the H(2)-SBT in follow-up of coeliac disease.

  17. Environmental and personal determinants of the uptake of disinfection by-products during swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Schmalz, Christina; Zwiener, Christian; Marco, Esther; Grimalt, Joan O; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Xiangru; Mitch, William; Critelli, Rossana; Naccarati, Alessio; Heederik, Dick; Spithoven, Jack; Arjona, Lourdes; de Bont, Jeroen; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Villanueva, Cristina M

    BACKGROUND: Trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine are internal dose biomarkers of exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools. OBJECTIVE: We assessed how these biomarkers reflect the levels of a battery of DBPs in pool water and

  18. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  19. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  20. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  2. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  3. Breathing multichimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yusuke; Okuda, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Chimera states for the one-dimensional array of nonlocally coupled phase oscillators in the continuum limit are assumed to be stationary states in most studies, but a few studies report the existence of breathing chimera states. We focus on multichimera states with two coherent and incoherent regions and numerically demonstrate that breathing multichimera states, whose global order parameter oscillates temporally, can appear. Moreover, we show that the system exhibits a Hopf bifurcation from a stationary multichimera to a breathing one by the linear stability analysis for the stationary multichimera.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone.

  5. Micropreconcentrator in LTCC Technology with Mass Spectrometry for the Detection of Acetone in Healthy and Type-1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rydosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis has long been recognized as a potentially attractive method for the diagnosis of several diseases. The main advantage over other diagnostic methods such as blood or urine analysis is that breath analysis is fully non-invasive, comfortable for patients and breath samples can be easily obtained. One possible future application of breath analysis may be the diagnosing and monitoring of diabetes. It is, therefore, essential, to firstly determine a relationship between exhaled biomarker concentration and glucose in blood as well as to compare the results with the results obtained from non-diabetic subjects. Concentrations of molecules which are biomarkers of diseases’ states, or early indicators of disease should be well documented, i.e., the variations of abnormal concentrations of breath biomarkers with age, gender and ethnic issues need to be verified. Furthermore, based on performed measurements it is rather obvious that analysis of exhaled acetone as a single biomarker of diabetes is unrealistic. In this paper, the author presents results of his research conducted on samples of breath gas from eleven healthy volunteers (HV and fourteen type- 1 diabetic patients (T1DM which were collected in 1-l SKC breath bags. The exhaled acetone concentration was measured using mass spectrometry (HPR-20 QIC, Hiden Analytical, Warrington, UK coupled with a micropreconcentrator in LTCC (Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic. However, as according to recent studies the level of acetone varies to a significant extent for each blood glucose concentration of single individuals, a direct and absolute relationship between blood glucose and acetone has not been proved. Nevertheless, basing on the research results acetone in diabetic breath was found to be higher than 1.11 ppmv, while its average concentration in normal breath was lower than 0.83 ppmv.

  6. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O 2 /hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O 2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  7. Exhaled breath condensate metabolome clusters for endotype discovery in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Anirban; Desiraju, Koundinya; Aggarwal, Kunal; Kutum, Rintu; Roy, Siddhartha; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S. K.; Ghosh, Balaram; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Agrawal, Anurag

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is a complex, heterogeneous disorder with similar presenting symptoms but with varying underlying pathologies. Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a relatively unexplored matrix which reflects the signatures of respiratory epithelium, but is difficult to normalize for dilution. Here we

  8. Pulmonary Effects of Submerged Breathing of Air or Oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2002-01-01

    ...). The risks of developing PO2T are poorly characterized. The current shallow-water exposure limit, four hours breathing oxygen at 25 fsw or less in any 24-hour period, was established somewhat arbitrarily as a known "safe" exposure...

  9. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  10. Sex differences in sleep disordered breathing in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, Tijana; Komnenov, Dragana; Badr, M Safwan; Mateika, Jason H

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of sleep disordered breathing is greater in men compared to women. This disparity could be due to sex differences in the diagnosis and presentation of sleep apnea, and the pathophysiological mechanisms that instigate this disorder. Women tend to report more non-typical symptoms of sleep apnea compared to men, and the presentation of apneic events are more prevalent in rapid compared to non-rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, there is evidence of sex differences in upper airway structure and mechanics and in neural mechanisms that impact on the control of breathing. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature that addresses sex differences in sleep-disordered breathing, and to discuss the influence that upper airway mechanics, chemoreflex properties, and sex hormones have in modulating breathing during sleep in men and women. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sufficient volume to prevent gas waste during exhalation and to provide an adequate reserve for inhalation. (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to gasoline...

  12. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.

  13. Biomarker Analysis of Human Breath for Early Prediction of Hepatotoxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risby, Terence

    1998-01-01

    This past three years of research conducted with support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research has been directed towards evaluating the use of exhaled breath to estimate the actual-exposure...

  14. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  15. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better ... Trial to Look at Home Oxygen Therapy for COPD The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) ...

  16. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  17. Take a Deep Breath (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly 16 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD; however, many may not be aware they have the condition. This podcast discusses the importance of seeing a health care provider if you have trouble breathing.

  18. Breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction for quantifying developmental maturity in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusin, Craig G.; Hudson, John L.; Lee, Hoshik; Delos, John B.; Guin, Lauren E.; Vergales, Brooke D.; Paget-Brown, Alix; Kattwinkel, John; Lake, Douglas E.; Moorman, J. Randall

    2012-01-01

    In healthy neonates, connections between the heart and lungs through brain stem chemosensory pathways and the autonomic nervous system result in cardiorespiratory synchronization. This interdependence between cardiac and respiratory dynamics can be difficult to measure because of intermittent signal quality in intensive care settings and variability of heart and breathing rates. We employed a phase-based measure suggested by Schäfer and coworkers (Schäfer C, Rosenblum MG, Kurths J, Abel HH. Nature 392: 239–240, 1998) to obtain a breath-by-breath analysis of cardiorespiratory interaction. This measure of cardiorespiratory interaction does not distinguish between cardiac control of respiration associated with cardioventilatory coupling and respiratory influences on the heart rate associated with respiratory sinus arrhythmia. We calculated, in sliding 4-min windows, the probability density of heartbeats as a function of the concurrent phase of the respiratory cycle. Probability density functions whose Shannon entropy had a interaction. In this way, we analyzed 18 infant-years of data from 1,202 patients in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at University of Virginia. We found evidence of interaction in 3.3 patient-years of data (18%). Cardiorespiratory interaction increased several-fold with postnatal development, but, surprisingly, the rate of increase was not affected by gestational age at birth. We find evidence for moderate correspondence between this measure of cardiorespiratory interaction and cardioventilatory coupling and no evidence for respiratory sinus arrhythmia, leading to the need for further investigation of the underlying mechanism. Such continuous measures of physiological interaction may serve to gauge developmental maturity in neonatal intensive care patients and prove useful in decisions about incipient illness and about hospital discharge. PMID:22174403

  19. Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A

    2013-12-01

    Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Real time detection of exhaled human breath using quantum cascade laser based sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittel, Frank K.; Lewicki, Rafal; Dong, Lei; Liu, Kun; Risby, Terence H.; Solga, Steven; Schwartz, Tim

    2012-02-01

    The development and performance of a cw, TE-cooled DFB quantum cascade laser based sensor for quantitative measurements of ammonia (NH3) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations present in exhaled breath will be reported. Human breath contains ~ 500 different chemical species, usually at ultra low concentration levels, which can serve as biomarkers for the identification and monitoring of human diseases or wellness states. By monitoring NH3 concentration levels in exhaled breath a fast, non-invasive diagnostic method for treatment of patients with liver and kidney disorders, is feasible. The NH3 concentration measurements were performed with a 2f wavelength modulation quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) technique, which is suitable for real time breath measurements, due to the fast gas exchange inside a compact QEPAS gas cell. A Hamamatsu air-cooled high heat load (HHL) packaged CW DFB-QCL is operated at 17.5°C, targeting the optimum interference free NH3 absorption line at 967.35 cm-1 (λ~10.34 μm), with ~ 20 mW of optical power. The sensor architecture includes a reference cell, filled with a 2000 ppmv NH3 :N2 mixture at 130 Torr, which is used for absorption line-locking. A minimum detection limit (1σ) for the line locked NH3 sensor is ~ 6 ppbv (with a 1σ 1 sec time resolution of the control electronics). This NH3 sensor was installed in late 2010 and is being clinically tested at St. Luke's Hospital in Bethlehem, PA.

  1. Air-Breathing Launch Vehicle Technology Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J.

    2003-01-01

    Of the technical factors that would contribute to lowering the cost of space access, reusability has high potential. The primary objective of the GTX program is to determine whether or not air-breathing propulsion can enable reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) operations. The approach is based on maturation of a reference vehicle design with focus on the integration and flight-weight construction of its air-breathing rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system.

  2. Usefulness of Guided Breathing for Dose Rate-Regulated Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han-Oh, Sarah; Yi, Byong Yong; Berman, Barry L.; Lerma, Fritz; Yu, Cedric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of guided breathing for dose rate-regulated tracking (DRRT), a new technique to compensate for intrafraction tumor motion. Methods and Materials: DRRT uses a preprogrammed multileaf collimator sequence that tracks the tumor motion derived from four-dimensional computed tomography and the corresponding breathing signals measured before treatment. Because the multileaf collimator speed can be controlled by adjusting the dose rate, the multileaf collimator positions are adjusted in real time during treatment by dose rate regulation, thereby maintaining synchrony with the tumor motion. DRRT treatment was simulated with free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing signals acquired from 23 lung cancer patients. The tracking error and duty cycle for each patient were determined as a function of the system time delay (range, 0-1.0 s). Results: The tracking error and duty cycle averaged for all 23 patients was 1.9 ± 0.8 mm and 92% ± 5%, 1.9 ± 1.0 mm and 93% ± 6%, and 1.8 ± 0.7 mm and 92% ± 6% for the free, audio-guided, and audiovisual-guided breathing, respectively, for a time delay of 0.35 s. The small differences in both the tracking error and the duty cycle with guided breathing were not statistically significant. Conclusion: DRRT by its nature adapts well to variations in breathing frequency, which is also the motivation for guided-breathing techniques. Because of this redundancy, guided breathing does not result in significant improvements for either the tracking error or the duty cycle when DRRT is used for real-time tumor tracking

  3. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  4. The role of arterial chemoreceptors in the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in rabbits during airway occlusion or elastic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callanan, D; Read, D J

    1974-08-01

    1. The breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort in the five breaths following airway occlusion or elastic loading was assessed in anaesthetized rabbits from changes of airway pressure, diaphragm e.m.g. and lung volume.2. When the airway was occluded in animals breathing air, arterial O(2) tension fell by 20 mmHg and CO(2) tension rose by 7 mmHg within the time of the first five loaded breaths.3. Inhalation of 100% O(2) or carotid denervation markedly reduced the breath-by-breath progression but had little or no effect on the responses at the first loaded breath.4. These results indicate that the breath-by-breath augmentation of inspiratory effort following addition of a load is mainly due to asphyxial stimulation of the carotid bodies, rather than to the gradual emergence of a powerful load-compensating reflex originating in the chest-wall, as postulated by some workers.5. The small residual progression seen in animals breathing 100% O(2) or following carotid denervation was not eliminated (a) by combining these procedures or (b) by addition of gas to the lungs to prevent the progressive lung deflation which occurred during airway occlusion.6. Bilateral vagotomy, when combined with carotid denervation, abolished the residual breath-by-breath progression of inspiratory effort.

  5. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, S O; Isiekwe, G I; Soroye, M O; Agbaje, M O

    2015-01-01

    To provide baseline data about bad-breath perception and misconceptions among Nigerian adults. Multi-center cross-sectional study of individuals aged 18-64 years using examiner-administered questionnaires. Age comparisons were based on the model of emerging adults versus full adults. Data were recoded for statistical analyses and univariate and secondary log-linear statistics applied. Participants had lopsided perceptions about bad-breath. While 730 (90.8%) identified the dentist as the expert on halitosis and 719 (89.4%) knew that bad-breath is not contagious, only 4.4% and 2.5% associated bad-breath with tooth decay and gum disease respectively. There were no significant sex differences but the older adults showed better knowledge in a few instances. Most respondents (747, 92.9%) would tell a spouse about their bad-breath and 683 (85%) would tell a friend. Participants had lop-sided knowledge and perceptions about bad-breath. Most Nigerian adults are their "brothers' keepers" who would tell a spouse or friend about their halitosis so they could seek treatment.

  6. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  7. Remote monitoring of breathing dynamics using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carina Barbosa; Yu, Xinchi; Czaplik, Michael; Rossaint, Rolf; Blazek, Vladimir; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-11-01

    An atypical or irregular respiratory frequency is considered to be one of the earliest markers of physiological distress. In addition, monitoring of this vital parameter plays a major role in diagnosis of respiratory disorders, as well as in early detection of sudden infant death syndrome. Nevertheless, the current measurement modalities require attachment of sensors to the patient's body, leading to discomfort and stress. The current paper presents a new robust algorithm to remotely monitor breathing rate (BR) by using thermal imaging. This approach permits to detect and to track the region of interest (nose) as well as to estimate BR. In order to study the performance of the algorithm, and its robustness against motion and breathing disorders, three different thermal recordings of 11 healthy volunteers were acquired (sequence 1: normal breathing; sequence 2: normal breathing plus arbitrary head movements; and sequence 3: sequence of specific breathing patterns). Thoracic effort (piezoplethysmography) served as "gold standard" for validation of our results. An excellent agreement between estimated BR and ground truth was achieved. Whereas the mean correlation for sequence 1-3 were 0.968, 0.940 and 0.974, the mean absolute BR errors reached 0.33, 0.55 and 0.96 bpm (breaths per minute), respectively. In brief, this work demonstrates that infrared thermography is a promising, clinically relevant alternative for the currently available measuring modalities due to its performance and diverse remarkable advantages.

  8. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, Alžběta; Chippendale, Thomas W E; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    Previous measurements of acetone concentrations in the exhaled breath of healthy individuals and the small amount of comparable data for individuals suffering from diabetes are briefly reviewed as a prelude to the presentation of new data on the sporadic and wide variations of breath acetone that occur in ostensibly healthy individuals. Data are also presented which show that following a ketogenic diet taken by eight healthy individuals their breath acetone concentrations increased up to five times over the subsequent 6 h. Similarly, the breath acetone increased six and nine times when a low carbohydrate diet was taken by two volunteers and remained high for the several days for which the diet was continued. These new data, together with the previous data, clearly indicate that diet and natural intra-individual biological and diurnal variability result in wide variations in breath acetone concentration. This places an uncertainty in the use of breath acetone alone to monitor blood glucose and glycaemic control, except and unless the individual acts as their own control and is cognizant of the need for dietary control. (note)

  9. Ontogenetic changes and developmental adjustments in lactate dehydrogenase isozymes of an obligate air-breathing fish Channa punctatus during deprivation of air access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Riaz; Hasnain, Absar-Ul

    2005-02-01

    In air-breathing snakehead Channa punctatus, Ldh-B is expressed at all ontogenetic and developmental stages, while Ldh-A is expressed temporally in pre-hatchlings 12-13 days ahead of bimodal respiration marked by air-breathing. Remarkable differences are observed in the LDH isozyme expression among various ontogenetic and developmental stages upon denying air access. When denied air access, water-breathing larvae show two distinct characteristics: (i) they survive longer than transitory air-breathers due to independence from air-breathing and (ii) there is more transient induction of Ldh-B than Ldh-A. Transition to bimodal breathing, which occurred post-hatching in 15-day old larvae, is coincidental with inducibility of Ldh-A and concomitant down-regulation of Ldh-B. Heart tissue from air-breathing adults denied air access shows a preferential expression of LDH-A subunit and slight down-regulation of LDH-B. Heterotetramers of A and B subunits participate in adjusting LDH levels among those stages which either precede air-breathing switchover, or are subsequent to this transition. The contribution of heterotetramers depends on the stage-specific levels of LDH homotetramers A(4) or B(4). Scaling of muscle mass during growth, tolerance to extended deprivation of air access and induction of Ldh-A are correlated. Response to restoring air contact indicated that advanced air-breathing stages of C. punctatus possess an inherent capacity to sense surface air. In kinetic properties, LDH isozymes of C. punctatus are teleost-like but species specificity is displayed in oxidative potential by cardiac muscle and in L-lactate reduction by skeletal muscle.

  10. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Gitte F.; Nygaard, Ditte E.; Olsen, Mikael; Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Pedersen, Anders N.; Specht, Lena; Korreman, Stine S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  11. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gitte F.; Nygaard, Ditte E.; Olsen, Mikael; Juhler-Noettrup, Trine; Pedersen, Anders N.; Specht, Lena; Korreman, Stine S. (Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Background. The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. Methods. Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing during an uncoached versus coached planning 4DCT, respectively, and compared the mean breathing cycle amplitude to the free versus coached breathing from day 2 and 3 simulating free versus coached breathing during treatment. Results. For most volunteers it was impossible to apply coaching without changes in breathing cycle amplitude. No significant decrease in standard deviation of breathing cycle amplitude distribution was seen. Generally it was not possible to predict the breathing cycle amplitude and its variation the following days based on the breathing in the reference session irrespective of coaching or free breathing. We found a significant tendency towards an increased breathing cycle amplitude variation with the duration of the coaching session. Conclusion. These results suggest that large interfraction variation is present in breathing amplitude irrespective of coaching, leading to the suggestion of daily image guidance for verification of respiratory pattern and tumour related motion. Until further investigated it is not recommendable to use coached 4DCT for

  12. UREA BREATH TEST – ITS ROLE IN DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Each year many patients visit their physicians complaining of digestive symptoms, most commonly functional dyspepsia (»indigestion« or gastroesophageal reflux (»heartburn«. However, many patients with abdominal discomfort are actually suffering from gastric or duodenal ulcers that are commonly caused by H. pylori and thus are curable. Clearing the infection usually heals the ulcer and prevents relapse, so an accurate diagnosis is important. There are several options for diagnosing H. pylori infection: serology to detect antibodies against the bacterium; endoscopic biopsy for urease testing (H. pylori produce a urease that breaks down urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide; histology with special stains; or culture. Unfortunately, these procedures are invasive, expensive and not always accurate. Serological tests require a blood sample and tell only that a patient has been exposed to H. pylori at some time in the past, but not whether the patient is currently infected. Endoscopy and biopsy can detect current infection — the CLO test urease test allows rapid detection of H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens — but endoscopy and biopsy are unpleasant medical procedures.Recently, noninvasive, sensitive, specific, easy to perform and patient’s well accepted methods had been developed known as urea breath test (UBT. When an infected person swallows a dose of urea labeled with an isotope of carbon — carbon-13 (13C or carbon-14 (14C – H. pylori in the gastric mucosa break down the labeled urea to form ammonia and labeled carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is absorbed into the bloodstream and excreted via the lungs. The patient then exhales into a device that measures the level of carbon dioxide. The urea breath test is specific for H. pylori (it detects only urease-producing bacteria, it is sensitive (the labeled urea reaches a large area of the stomach and thus reflects total gastric urease activity and the results can be

  13. The effect of CO2 on ventilation and breath-holding during exercise and while breathing through an added resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T J; Godfrey, S

    1969-05-01

    1. Ventilation was measured while subjects were made to rebreathe from a bag containing CO(2) and O(2) in order to expose them to a steadily rising CO(2) tension (P(CO2)). The object of the experiments was to determine the effect of a variety of stimuli upon the increase in ventilation and fall in breath-holding time which occurs in response to the rising P(CO2).2. Steady-state exercise at 200 kg.m/min resulted in a small fall in the slope of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve (S(V)) and a small, though not statistically significant, fall in the P(CO2) at which ventilation would be zero by extrapolation (B(V)). There was a marked fall in the slope of the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve (S(BH)) and an increase in the P(CO2) at which breath-holding time became zero by extrapolation (B(BH)).3. These results have been interpreted with the aid of a model of the control of breath-holding and it is suggested that there is no change in CO(2) sensitivity on exercise, either during rebreathing or breath-holding.4. An increase in the resistance to breathing caused a marked reduction in S(V) and B(V), but no change in the breath-holding-CO(2) response curve. These findings suggest that the flattening of the ventilation-CO(2) response curve is mechanical in origin and acute airway obstruction produces no change in CO(2) sensitivity.5. On the basis of these results, we suggest that more information about CO(2) sensitivity can be obtained by a combination of ventilation and breath-holding-CO(2) response curves.

  14. Breath-by-breath analysis of expiratory gas concentration in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabisashi, T

    1981-01-01

    Expiratory oxygen and carbon-dioxide concentration were analysed breath by breath in order to examine their wave forms in adult awake hens restrained in various postural positions, including supine, prone and sitting positions. Expired gas was collected at the nostril in almost all the hens. In the sitting position free from vocalization, feeding, drinking, panting, and restlessness, hens showed various forms of stable pattern of oxygen-gas curves. These forms were classified into three types, or the ascending, flat and descending types, with respect to the plateau inclination. The waves of carbon-dioxide were not always a mirror image of those of oxygen. The rate of occurrence of each type varied with the hen's postural position. The wave form was altered with the experimental body-rotation of the hen. When placed between the deflections of stable pattern, the episodes of wave deformation resembling that seen at the time of uneven pulmonary ventilation in mammals could frequently be observed in any hen's posture examined. Cardiogenic oscillation appeared on the plateau of expired-gas curves.

  15. A clean environmental week: Let the nature breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-11-15

    High levels of CO 2 emissions in the atmosphere and toxic pollutants in air, water and food have serious repercussions on all life's systems, including living beings, environment and economy. Everyone on the Earth is concerned by pollution in some way or another, no matter where and how the pollution is produced as airborne and foodborne pollutants could circulate around the world in different ways, through for example climate components (wind, rain) and/or import and export of foodstuffs. Similarly to living beings that take advantage of day-night circadian rhythms to recover after diurnal hardships, the environment in its entirety could also be seen as a complex living system that needs regular breaks to assimilate or ingest toxic pollutants produced during intensive and continuous industrial processes. If greenhouses gas emissions and pollution rates continue to increase at the same rates as they are nowadays, uncontrollable climate effects might be inevitable and the air quality in some crowded cities in the world might be hardly respirable in the future. A global "Clean Environmental Week" is discussed as an attempt toward reducing air pollution and CO 2 emissions through the interruption or reduction of industrial polluting activities regularly, for a week or so per year, to let the nature 'breathe' and recover from environmentally challenging pollutions. A clean environmental period of 10 days per year could reduce CO 2 emissions by about one billion tons of CO 2 per annum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: take a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 40 year old man with a past medical history of intravenous drug abuse presented to the emergency department with difficulty walking and lower extremity weakness. He did admit to recent heroin use. He became somnolent in the ED and was given naloxone. However, he did not improve his level of consciousness sufficiently and was intubated for hypercarbia. The patient was transferred to the MICU and was evaluated for respiratory failure. He later that day passed a spontaneous breathing trial after he awoke and was extubated. However, he was soon thereafter was re-intubated for poor respiratory efforts and a weak cough. With an unexplained etiology for the respiratory failure, CT of the head, MRI of the brain and lab evaluation were pursued but were negative. At that point, a bedside ultrasound of the right hemi-diaphragm in the zone of apposition was obtained and is shown below: Figure 1. Ultrasound of ...

  17. Practice Variation in Spontaneous Breathing Trial Performance and Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Godard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs are standard of care in assessing extubation readiness; however, there are no universally accepted guidelines regarding their precise performance and reporting. Objective. To investigate variability in SBT practice across centres. Methods. Data from 680 patients undergoing 931 SBTs from eight North American centres from the Weaning and Variability Evaluation (WAVE observational study were examined. SBT performance was analyzed with respect to ventilatory support, oxygen requirements, and sedation level using the Richmond Agitation Scale Score (RASS. The incidence of use of clinical extubation criteria and changes in physiologic parameters during an SBT were assessed. Results. The majority (80% and 78% of SBTs used 5 cmH2O of ventilator support, although there was variability. A significant range in oxygenation was observed. RASS scores were variable, with RASS 0 ranging from 29% to 86% and 22% of SBTs performed in sedated patients (RASS < −2. Clinical extubation criteria were heterogeneous among centres. On average, there was no change in physiological variables during SBTs. Conclusion. The present study highlights variation in SBT performance and documentation across and within sites. With their impact on the accuracy of outcome prediction, these results support efforts to further clarify and standardize optimal SBT technique.

  18. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. To Breathe-Zone of Zero. Kimsooja.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Gutiérrez Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CAC Málaga. Del 7 de octubre de 2016 al 8 de enero de 2017. Desde el 7 de octubre y hasta el 8 de enero la artista coreana Kimsooja ocupa el espacio central del Centro de Arte Contemporáneo de Málaga con una instalación Lotus: Zone Cero, que insta a yacer horizontalmente para contemplar un universo de farolillos. La artista conceptual transforma la sala de una forma sutil, casi imperceptible, dando al espectador la posibilidad de transitar un suelo vacío, en silencio, que invita al recogimiento, al aislamiento y a la utilización del espacio expositivo como santuario. Para entender este proceso de conversión, resulta fundamental el sonido de cantos gregorianos, tibetanos o de llamadas a la oración de la pieza To Breathe, que resuena en ese «Espacio Cero». La artista activista Kimsooja (Daegu, Corea del Sur, 1957, nos tiene acostumbrados a este tipo de intervenciones donde imperceptiblemente el espacio se transforma mediante pequeños actos. Un lugar reconocido que vuelve a presentársenos lleno de una carga poética, conceptual y social que nos activa las percepciones sensoriales o la imaginación. Quizá porque basa su obra en esa dialéctica que parte de lo propio, sus raíces tradicionales de la cultura coreana, para dialogar con lo universal, la preocupación por el papel de la mujer, la religión, la identidad o el nomadismo.

  20. Towards The Design of a Smartphone-Based Biofeedback Breathing Training: Identifying Diaphragmatic Breathing Patterns from a Smartphone’s Microphone

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Chen-Hsuan Iris; Kowatsch, Tobias; Tinschert, Peter; Barata, Filipe; Nißen, Marcia Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Asthma, diabetes, hypertension, or major depression are non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and impose a major burden on global health. Stress is linked to both the causes and consequences of NCDs and it has been shown that biofeedback-based breathing trainings (BBTs) are effective in coping with stress. Here, diaphragmatic breathing, i.e. deep abdominal breathing, belongs to the most distinguished breathing techniques. However, high costs and low scalability of state-of-the-art BBTs that requir...

  1. Volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath in a healthy population: effect of tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jareño-Esteban, José Javier; Muñoz-Lucas, M Ángeles; Carrillo-Aranda, Belén; Maldonado-Sanz, José Ángel; de Granda-Orive, Ignacio; Aguilar-Ros, Antonio; Civera-Tejuca, Concepción; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Carlos; Callol-Sánchez, Luis Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Tobacco smoke is a source of free radicals and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are the main causes of oxidative stress. The analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in exhaled breath is an indirect method of measuring the level of oxidative stress that occurs in the airways caused by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study was to determine whether smoking influences the production of VOC, in a clinically healthy population. Exhaled breath from 89 healthy volunteers, divided into three groups (non-smokers, ex-smokers and smokers) was analysed. Samples were collected using Bio-VOC® devices and transferred to universal desorption tubes. Chemical compounds were analysed by thermal desorption, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. We analysed hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, nonanoic acid and propanoic acid, all identified by retention time and mass spectra referenced in the NIST 08 mass spectral library; confirmation was carried out using reference standards of the pure chemical compound. These VOC were found in very low concentrations. Only nonanal showed significant quantitative and qualitative statistical differences among the study groups. Nonanal concentration is dependent on smoking, but is independent of the amount of tobacco consumed, age and gender. Nonanal in exhaled breath is associated with tobacco consumption, current or previous. Nonanal is a sub-product of the destruction of the cell membrane, and its finding may be indicative of cell damage in smokers. This result appears in many farmers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life.

  3. Prospective MR image alignment between breath-holds: Application to renal BOLD MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalis, Inge M; Pilutti, David; Krafft, Axel J; Hennig, Jürgen; Bock, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To present an image registration method for renal blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measurements that enables semiautomatic assessment of parenchymal and medullary R2* changes under a functional challenge. In a series of breath-hold acquisitions, three-dimensional data were acquired initially for prospective image registration of subsequent BOLD measurements. An algorithm for kidney alignment for BOLD renal imaging (KALIBRI) was implemented to detect the positions of the left and right kidney so that the kidneys were acquired in the subsequent BOLD measurement at consistent anatomical locations. Residual in-plane distortions were corrected retrospectively so that semiautomatic dynamic R2* measurements of the renal cortex and medulla become feasible. KALIBRI was tested in six healthy volunteers during a series of BOLD experiments, which included a 600- to 1000-mL water challenge. Prospective image registration and BOLD imaging of each kidney was achieved within a total measurement time of about 17 s, enabling its execution within a single breath-hold. KALIBRI improved the registration by up to 35% as found with mutual information measures. In four volunteers, a medullary R2* decrease of up to 40% was observed after water ingestion. KALIBRI improves the quality of two-dimensional time-resolved renal BOLD MRI by aligning local renal anatomy, which allows for consistent R2* measurements over many breath-holds. Magn Reson Med 77:1573-1582, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Youbing, E-mail: youbing-yin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Choi, Jiwoong, E-mail: jiwoong-choi@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Hoffman, Eric A., E-mail: eric-hoffman@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Tawhai, Merryn H., E-mail: m.tawhai@auckland.ac.nz [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Lin, Ching-Long, E-mail: ching-long-lin@uiowa.edu [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C{sub 1} continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung.

  5. A multiscale MDCT image-based breathing lung model with time-varying regional ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Youbing; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Lin, Ching-Long

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm is presented that links local structural variables (regional ventilation and deforming central airways) to global function (total lung volume) in the lung over three imaged lung volumes, to derive a breathing lung model for computational fluid dynamics simulation. The algorithm constitutes the core of an integrative, image-based computational framework for subject-specific simulation of the breathing lung. For the first time, the algorithm is applied to three multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) volumetric lung images of the same individual. A key technique in linking global and local variables over multiple images is an in-house mass-preserving image registration method. Throughout breathing cycles, cubic interpolation is employed to ensure C1 continuity in constructing time-varying regional ventilation at the whole lung level, flow rate fractions exiting the terminal airways, and airway deformation. The imaged exit airway flow rate fractions are derived from regional ventilation with the aid of a three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) coupled airway tree that connects the airways to the alveolar tissue. An in-house parallel large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is adopted to capture turbulent-transitional-laminar flows in both normal and deep breathing conditions. The results obtained by the proposed algorithm when using three lung volume images are compared with those using only one or two volume images. The three-volume-based lung model produces physiologically-consistent time-varying pressure and ventilation distribution. The one-volume-based lung model under-predicts pressure drop and yields un-physiological lobar ventilation. The two-volume-based model can account for airway deformation and non-uniform regional ventilation to some extent, but does not capture the non-linear features of the lung. PMID:23794749

  6. Exploratory breath analyses for assessing toxic dermal exposures of firefighters during suppression of structural burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Stiegel, Matthew A; Fent, Kenneth W

    2014-09-01

    Firefighters wear fireproof clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) during rescue and fire suppression activities to protect against acute effects from heat and toxic chemicals. Fire services are also concerned about long-term health outcomes from chemical exposures over a working lifetime, in particular about low-level exposures that might serve as initiating events for adverse outcome pathways (AOP) leading to cancer. As part of a larger US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) study of dermal exposure protection from safety gear used by the City of Chicago firefighters, we collected pre- and post-fire fighting breath samples and analyzed for single-ring and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as bioindicators of occupational exposure to gas-phase toxicants. Under the assumption that SCBA protects completely against inhalation exposures, any changes in the exhaled profile of combustion products were attributed to dermal exposures from gas and particle penetration through the protective clothing. Two separate rounds of firefighting activity were performed each with 15 firefighters per round. Exhaled breath samples were collected onto adsorbent tubes and analyzed with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a targeted approach using selective ion monitoring. We found that single ring aromatics and some PAHs were statistically elevated in post-firefighting samples of some individuals, suggesting that fire protective gear may allow for dermal exposures to airborne contaminants. However, in comparison to a previous occupational study of Air Force maintenance personnel where similar compounds were measured, these exposures are much lower suggesting that firefighters' gear is very effective. This study suggests that exhaled breath sampling and analysis for specific targeted compounds is a suitable method for assessing systemic dermal exposure in a simple and non-invasive manner.

  7. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability.

  8. 2-Aminoacetophenone as a potential breath biomarker for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the cystic fibrosis lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laing Richard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with progressive life threatening decline of lung function in cystic fibrosis sufferers. Growth of Ps. aeruginosa releases a "grape-like" odour that has been identified as the microbial volatile organic compound 2-aminoacetophenone (2-AA. Methods We investigated 2-AA for its specificity to Ps. aeruginosa and its suitability as a potential breath biomarker of colonisation or infection by Solid Phase Micro Extraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS. Results Cultures of 20 clinical strains of Ps. aeruginosa but not other respiratory pathogens had high concentrations of 2-AA in the head space of in vitro cultures when analysed by GC/MS. 2-AA was stable for 6 hours in deactivated glass sampling bulbs but was not stable in Tedlar® bags. Optimisation of GC/MS allowed detection levels of 2-AA to low pico mol/mol range in breath. The 2-AA was detected in a significantly higher proportion of subjects colonised with Ps. aeruginosa 15/16 (93.7% than both the healthy controls 5/17 (29% (p Ps. aeruginosa 4/13(30.7% (p Ps. aeruginosa in sputum and/or BALF was 93.8% (95% CI, 67-99 and 69.2% (95% CI, 38-89 respectively. The peak integration values for 2-AA analysis in the breath samples were significantly higher in Ps. aeruginosa colonised subjects (median 242, range 0-1243 than the healthy controls (median 0, range 0-161; p Ps. aeruginosa (median 0, range 0-287; p Conclusions Our results report 2-AA as a promising breath biomarker for the detection of Ps. aeruginosa infections in the cystic fibrosis lung.

  9. Sleep disordered breathing analysis in a general population using standard pulse oximeter signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Amos, Yariv; Bogan, Richard K

    2013-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea reported as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is usually measured in sleep laboratories using a high number of electrodes connected to the patient's body. In this study, we examined the use of a standard pulse oximeter system with an automated analysis based on the photoplethysmograph (PPG) signal for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing. Using a standard and simple device with high accuracy might provide a convenient diagnostic or screening solution for patient evaluation at home or in other out of center testing environments. The study included 140 consecutive patients that were referred routinely to a sleep laboratory [SleepMed Inc.] for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing. Each patient underwent an overnight polysomnography (PSG) study according to AASM guidelines in an AASM-accredited sleep laboratory. The automatic analysis is based on photoplethysmographic and saturation signals only. Those two signals were recorded for the entire night as part of the full overnight PSG sleep study. The AHI calculated from the PPG analysis is compared to the AHI calculated from the manual scoring gold standard full PSG. The AHI and total respiratory events measured by the pulse oximeter analysis correlated very well with the corresponding results obtained by the gold standard full PSG. The sensitivity and specificity of AHI = or > 5 and 15 levels measured by the analysis are both above 90 %. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for the detection of respiratory event are both above 84 %. The tested system in this study yielded an acceptable result of sleep disordered breathing compared to the gold standard PSG in patients with moderate to severe sleep apnea. Accordingly and given the convenience and simplicity of the standard pulse oximeter device, the new system can be considered suitable for home and ambulatory diagnosis or screening of sleep disordered breathing patients.

  10. Advantage of using deep inspiration breath hold with active breathing control and image-guided radiation therapy for patients treated with lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, K.R.; Madhusudhansresty; Sha, Rajib Lochan; Raut, Birendra Kumar; Poornima; Subash; Mallikarjun; Anil; Krishnam Raju, A.; Vidya; Sudarshan, G.; Mahadev, Shankar; Narayana Murthy, P.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of moderate deep inspiration breath hold (mDIBH) using an active breathing control (ABC) apparatus on heart, spinal cord, liver and contra lateral lung doses and its volumes compared with free breathing (FB) with lung cancer irradiation

  11. Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, Paul E.; Young, Terry; Barnet, Jodi H.; Palta, Mari; Hagen, Erika W.; Hla, Khin Mae

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing is a common disorder with a range of harmful sequelae. Obesity is a strong causal factor for sleep-disordered breathing, and because of the ongoing obesity epidemic, previous estimates of sleep-disordered breathing prevalence require updating. We estimated the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in the United States for the periods of 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 using data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, an ongoing community-based study that was established in 1988 with participants randomly selected from an employed population of Wisconsin adults. A total of 1,520 participants who were 30–70 years of age had baseline polysomnography studies to assess the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants were invited for repeat studies at 4-year intervals. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was modeled as a function of age, sex, and body mass index, and estimates were extrapolated to US body mass index distributions estimated using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The current prevalence estimates of moderate to severe sleep-disordered breathing (apnea-hypopnea index, measured as events/hour, ≥15) are 10% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7, 12) among 30–49-year-old men; 17% (95% CI: 15, 21) among 50–70-year-old men; 3% (95% CI: 2, 4) among 30–49-year-old women; and 9% (95% CI: 7, 11) among 50–70 year-old women. These estimated prevalence rates represent substantial increases over the last 2 decades (relative increases of between 14% and 55% depending on the subgroup). PMID:23589584

  12. Effect of influenza vaccination on oxidative stress products in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Cataneo, Renee N; Chaturvedi, Anirudh; Danaher, Patrick J; Devadiga, Anantrai; Legendre, David A; Nail, Kim L; Schmitt, Peter; Wai, James

    2010-06-01

    Viral infections cause increased oxidative stress, so a breath test for oxidative stress biomarkers (alkanes and alkane derivatives) might provide a new tool for early diagnosis. We studied 33 normal healthy human subjects receiving scheduled treatment with live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). Each subject was his or her own control, since they were studied on day 0 prior to vaccination, and then on days 2, 7 and 14 following vaccination. Breath volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected with a breath collection apparatus, then analyzed by automated thermal desorption with gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. A Monte Carlo simulation technique identified non-random VOC biomarkers of infection based on their C-statistic values (area under curve of receiver operating characteristic). Treatment with LAIV was followed by non-random changes in the abundance of breath VOCs. 2, 8-Dimethyl-undecane and other alkane derivatives were observed on all days. Conservative multivariate models identified vaccinated subjects on day 2 (C-statistic = 0.82, sensitivity = 63.6% and specificity = 88.5%); day 7 (C-statistic = 0.94, sensitivity = 88.5% and specificity = 92.3%); and day 14 (C-statistic = 0.95, sensitivity = 92.3% and specificity = 92.3%). The altered breath VOCs were not detected in live attenuated influenza vaccine, excluding artifactual contamination. LAIV vaccination in healthy humans elicited a prompt and sustained increase in breath biomarkers of oxidative stress. A breath test for these VOCs could potentially identify humans who are acutely infected with influenza, but who have not yet developed clinical symptoms or signs of disease.

  13. Comparison of the 1-gram [14C]xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H2, and 80-gram glucose-H2 breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.E.; Toskes, P.P.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g [ 14 C]xylose, 10-g lactulose-H 2 , and 80-g glucose-H 2 ) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath 14 CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of [ 14 C]xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H 2 breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H 2 -generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H 2 production in 3 of 18 glucose-H 2 and 7 of 18 lactulose-H 2 breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g [ 14 C]xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H 2 breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a 13 CO 2 breath test having the same characteristics as the [ 14 C]xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women

  14. Human breath measurements in a clean-air chamber to determine half-lives for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Wallace, Lance A.; Pelllzzari, Edo D.; O'Neill, Hugh J.

    The expired breath of four non-occupationally exposed subjects was monitored following exposure at near-normal environmental concentrations using a specially developed pulmonary clearance technique. The four were exposed to polluted air on a heavily trafficked freeway or at a local dry-cleaning establishment, then spent the next 10 h in a clean-air environmental chamber. Breath and chamber-air samples were collected at regular intervals throughout the 10-h period and analyzed for the presence of selected target compounds. The breath levels of two of the compounds were elevated and decreased slowly with time once the subjects began to breathe clean air. Nonlinear least-squares fitting of the decay-uptake curves permitted the calculation of biological half-lives. Several of the target compounds occurred, however, at very low levels, and the resultant experimental scatter limited the value of these measurements. Higher initial exposures to most of the target compounds would have improved the reliability of the estimates.

  15. Comparison of Select Analytes in Exhaled Aerosol from E-Cigarettes with Exhaled Smoke from a Conventional Cigarette and Exhaled Breaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald A. Long

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled aerosols were collected following the use of two leading U.S. commercial electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and a conventional cigarette by human subjects and analyzed for phenolics, carbonyls, water, glycerin and nicotine using a vacuum-assisted filter pad capture system. Exhaled breath blanks were determined for each subject prior to each product use and aerosol collection session. Distribution and mass balance of exhaled e-cigarette aerosol composition was greater than 99.9% water and glycerin, and a small amount (<0.06% of nicotine. Total phenolic content in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol was not distinguishable from exhaled breath blanks, while total phenolics in exhaled cigarette smoke were significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosol and exhaled breaths, averaging 66 µg/session (range 36 to 117 µg/session. The total carbonyls in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols were also not distinguishable from exhaled breaths or room air blanks. Total carbonyls in exhaled cigarette smoke was significantly greater than in exhaled e-cigarette aerosols, exhaled breath and room air blanks, averaging 242 µg/session (range 136 to 352 µg/session. These results indicate that exhaled e-cigarette aerosol does not increase bystander exposure for phenolics and carbonyls above the levels observed in exhaled breaths of air.

  16. Can audio coached 4D CT emulate free breathing during the treatment course?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte F; Nygaard, Ditte E; Olsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The image quality of 4DCT depends on breathing regularity. Respiratory audio coaching may improve regularity and reduce motion artefacts. We question the safety of coached planning 4DCT without coaching during treatment. We investigated the possibility of coaching to a more stable...... breathing without changing the breathing amplitude. The interfraction variation of the breathing cycle amplitude in free and coached breathing was studied as well as the possible impact of fatigue on longer coaching sessions. METHODS: Thirteen volunteers completed respiratory audio coaching on 3 days within...... a 2 week period. An external marker system monitoring the motion of the thoraco-abdominal wall was used to track the respiration. On all days, free breathing and two coached breathing curves were recorded. We assumed that free versus coached breathing from day 1 (reference session) simulated breathing...

  17. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snorri Donaldsson

    Full Text Available The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing.Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically.The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance.The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  18. Imposed Work of Breathing for Flow Meters with In-Line versus Flow-Through Technique during Simulated Neonatal Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldsson, Snorri; Falk, Markus; Jonsson, Baldvin; Drevhammar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The ability to determine airflow during nasal CPAP (NCPAP) treatment without adding dead space or resistance would be useful when investigating the physiologic effects of different NCPAP systems on breathing. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on pressure stability of different flow measuring devices at the in-line and flow-through position, using simulated neonatal breathing. Six different flow measure devices were evaluated by recording pressure changes and imposed work of breathing for breaths with 16 and 32 ml tidal volumes. The tests were performed initially with the devices in an in line position and with 5 and 10 L/min using flow through technique, without CPAP. The flow meters were then subsequently tested with an Infant Flow CPAP system at 3, 5 and 8 cm H2O pressure using flow through technique. The quality of the recorded signals was compared graphically. The resistance of the measuring devices generated pressure swings and imposed work of breathing. With bias flow, the resistance also generated CPAP pressure. Three of the devices had low resistance and generated no changes in pressure stability or CPAP pressure. The two devices intended for neonatal use had the highest measured resistance. The importance of pressure stability and increased work of breathing during non-invasive respiratory support are insufficiently studied. Clinical trials using flow-through technique have not focused on pressure stability. Our results indicate that a flow-through technique might be a way forward in obtaining a sufficiently high signal quality without the added effects of rebreathing and increased work of breathing. The results should stimulate further research and the development of equipment for dynamic flow measurements in neonates.

  19. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kőszeghy, Áron; Lasztóczi, Bálint; Forro, Thomas; Klausberger, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs) in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  20. Spike-Timing of Orbitofrontal Neurons Is Synchronized With Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áron Kőszeghy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC has been implicated in a multiplicity of complex brain functions, including representations of expected outcome properties, post-decision confidence, momentary food-reward values, complex flavors and odors. As breathing rhythm has an influence on odor processing at primary olfactory areas, we tested the hypothesis that it may also influence neuronal activity in the OFC, a prefrontal area involved also in higher order processing of odors. We recorded spike timing of orbitofrontal neurons as well as local field potentials (LFPs in awake, head-fixed mice, together with the breathing rhythm. We observed that a large majority of orbitofrontal neurons showed robust phase-coupling to breathing during immobility and running. The phase coupling of action potentials to breathing was significantly stronger in orbitofrontal neurons compared to cells in the medial prefrontal cortex. The characteristic synchronization of orbitofrontal neurons with breathing might provide a temporal framework for multi-variable processing of olfactory, gustatory and reward-value relationships.

  1. Cardiorespiratory and autonomic interactions during snoring related resistive breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateika, J H; Mitru, G

    2001-03-15

    We hypothesized that blood pressure (BP) is less during snoring as compared to periods of non-snoring in non-apneic individuals. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this reduction may be accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in sympathetic (SNSA) and parasympathetic (PNSA) nervous system activity and an increase in heart rate (HR). N/A. N/A. N/A. The variables mentioned above in addition to breathing frequency were measured in 9 subjects during NREM sleep. In addition, the lowest systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) during inspiration and the highest SBP and DBP during expiration was determined breath-by-breath from segments selected from each NREM cycle. Heart rate variability was used as a marker of autonomic nervous system activity. Our results showed that BP during snoring decreased compared to non-snoring and the breath-by-breath BP analysis suggested that this difference may have been mediated by changes in intrathoracic pressure. In conjunction with the decrease in BP, SNSA decreased and HR increased however PNSA remained constant. Thus, a decrease in PNSA was likely not the primary mechanism responsible for the HR response. We conclude that BP responses and SNSA during snoring are similar to that reported previously in non-snoring individuals. However, the causal mechanisms maybe different and manifested in other measures such as HR. Thus, nocturnal cardiovascular and autonomic function maybe uniquely different in non-apneic snoring individuals.

  2. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring breath acetone for monitoring fat loss: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joseph C

    2015-12-01

    Endogenous acetone production is a by-product of the fat metabolism process. Because of its small size, acetone appears in exhaled breath. Historically, endogenous acetone has been measured in exhaled breath to monitor ketosis in healthy and diabetic subjects. Recently, breath acetone concentration (BrAce) has been shown to correlate with the rate of fat loss in healthy individuals. In this review, the measurement of breath acetone in healthy subjects is evaluated for its utility in predicting fat loss and its sensitivity to changes in physiologic parameters. BrAce can range from 1 ppm in healthy non-dieting subjects to 1,250 ppm in diabetic ketoacidosis. A strong correlation exists between increased BrAce and the rate of fat loss. Multiple metabolic and respiratory factors affect the measurement of BrAce. BrAce is most affected by changes in the following factors (in descending order): dietary macronutrient composition, caloric restriction, exercise, pulmonary factors, and other assorted factors that increase fat metabolism or inhibit acetone metabolism. Pulmonary factors affecting acetone exchange in the lung should be controlled to optimize the breath sample for measurement. When biologic factors are controlled, BrAce measurement provides a non-invasive tool for monitoring the rate of fat loss in healthy subjects. © 2015 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  4. The study of chloroform levels during water disinfection by chlorination reference to health risk in drinking water of karachi (pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, H.A.; Khattak, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the levels of the chloroform formation during water disinfiction treatment by chlorination with the subsequent formation of by-products like trihalomethanes (THMs) are formed. These THMs in drinking water are found in the form of chloroform, bromodichloromethane, Chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Out of these four compounds chloroform is the major culprit and Contribute 9.0% of the total THMs concentration (I). Therefore the present work was focused on the Estimation of levels of chloroform in the drinking water samples of Karachi city (Pakistan) by using Bootstrapping statistical technique with regards to the average cancer risk in the community. (author)

  5. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Hicks, James W

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems...... that bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending...... on species. The large variation between species suggests the independent evolution of air-breathing organs and behaviors results in different blood PCO2 regulating strategies. However, all three species continued to rely on the water for CO2 excretion to some extent when submerged....

  6. Evolution of lung breathing from a lungless primitive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M; Taylor, B E; Harris, M B

    2016-04-01

    Air breathing was critical to the terrestrial radiation and evolution of tetrapods and arose in fish. The vertebrate lung originated from a progenitor structure present in primitive boney fish. The origin of the neural substrates, which are sensitive to metabolically produced CO2 and which rhythmically activate respiratory muscles to match lung ventilation to metabolic demand, is enigmatic. We have found that a distinct periodic centrally generated rhythm, described as "cough" and occurring in lamprey in vivo and in vitro, is modulated by central sensitivity to CO2. This suggests that elements critical for the evolution of breathing in tetrapods, were present in the most basal vertebrate ancestors prior to the evolution of the lung. We propose that the evolution of breathing in all vertebrates occurred through exaptations derived from these critical basal elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Breath analysis using external cavity diode lasers: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrakli, Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Most techniques that are used for diagnosis and therapy of diseases are invasive. Reliable noninvasive methods are always needed for the comfort of patients. Owing to its noninvasiveness, ease of use, and easy repeatability, exhaled breath analysis is a very good candidate for this purpose. Breath analysis can be performed using different techniques, such as gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS), proton transfer reaction-MS, and selected ion flow tube-MS. However, these devices are bulky and require complicated procedures for sample collection and preconcentration. Therefore, these are not practical for routine applications in hospitals. Laser-based techniques with small size, robustness, low cost, low response time, accuracy, precision, high sensitivity, selectivity, low detection limit, real-time, and point-of-care detection have a great potential for routine use in hospitals. In this review paper, the recent advances in the fields of external cavity lasers and breath analysis for detection of diseases are presented.

  8. A wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a new wireless breathing-training support system for kinesitherapy. The system consists of an optical sensor, an accelerometer, a microcontroller, a Bluetooth module and a laptop computer. The optical sensor, which is attached to the patient's chest, measures chest circumference. The low frequency components of circumference are mainly generated by breathing. The optical sensor outputs the circumference as serial digital data. The accelerometer measures the dynamic acceleration force produced by exercise, such as walking. The microcontroller sequentially samples this force. The acceleration force and chest circumference are sent sequentially via Bluetooth to a physical therapist's laptop computer, which receives and stores the data. The computer simultaneously displays these data so that the physical therapist can monitor the patient's breathing and acceleration waveforms and give instructions to the patient in real time during exercise. Moreover, the system enables a quantitative training evaluation and calculation the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.

  9. Predictive value of 14CO2 breath tests for clinical use of 13CO2 breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The knowledge of the efficiency of 14 CO 2 breath tests makes possible the comparison of the efficiency of analogous tests using the stable isotope 13 C. 14 CO 2 exhalation studies render overall information. After parenteral administration of a 14 C labeled substrate, 14 CO 2 breath tests permit insight into the metabolism of the 14 C substrate and the associated intermediary metabolism. If the 14 C substrate is given orally or by intraduodenal instillation, 14 CO 2 breath tests supply information not only about gastrointenstinal absorption and digestion but also about the intermediary metabolism yielding 14 CO 2 , after the administered substrate or its degradation products have been absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of 14 CO 2 arising from absorption, digestion and intermediary metabolism can be estimated only by additional methods. 14 CO 2 breath tests are unable to delineate single metabolic reactions involved in the formation of carbon dioxide. Under these considerations the clinical application of 14 CO 2 breath tests may provide diagnostically useful results, especially in internal medicine and surgery. The tests are suitable for intraindividual assessment of the course of a disease and of therapeutic effects. They may be important in the research of the metabolism of 14 C labeled substrates

  10. Effects of high-frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati compared with breath awareness on the degree of optical illusion perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Maharana, Kanchan; Balrana, Budhi; Balkrishna, Acharya

    2011-06-01

    Prior research has shown that methods of meditation, breath control, and different kinds of yoga breathing affect attention and visual perception, including decreasing the size of certain optical illusions. Evaluating relationships sheds light on the perceptual and cognitive changes induced by yoga and related methods, and the locus of the effects. In the present study, the degree of optical illusion was assessed using Müller-Lyer stimuli before and immediately after two different kinds of practice, a high frequency yoga breathing called kapalabhati, and breath awareness. A nonyoga, control session tested for practice effects. Thirty participants (with group M age = 26.9 yr., SD = 5.7) practiced the two techniques for 18 min. on two separate days. The control group had 15 nonyoga practitioners assessed before and after 18 min. in which they did not perform any specific activity but were seated and relaxed. After both kapalabhati and breath awareness there was a significant decrease in the degree of optical illusion. The possibility that this was due to a practice or repetition effect was ruled out when 15 nonyoga practitioners showed no change in the degree of illusion when retested after 18 min. The changes were interpreted as due to changes in perception related to the way the stimuli were judged.

  11. Minimally invasive (13)C-breath test to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Murthy, Gayathri; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma. Phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity monitoring are currently limited to conventional blood dot testing. 1-(13)C-phenylalanine, a stable isotope can be used to examine phenylalanine metabolism, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine occurs in vivo via PAH and subsequently releases the carboxyl labeled (13)C as (13)CO2 in breath. Our objective was to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with PKU using a minimally-invasive 1-(13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PBT). Nine children (7 M: 2 F, mean age 12.5 ± 2.87 y) with PKU participated in the study twice: once before and once after sapropterin supplementation. Children were provided 6 mg/kg oral dose of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine and breath samples were collected at 20 min intervals for a period of 2h. Rate of CO2 production was measured at 60 min post-oral dose using indirect calorimetry. The percentage of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine exhaled as (13)CO2 was measured over a 2h period. Prior to studying children with PKU, we tested the study protocol in healthy children (n = 6; 4M: 2F, mean age 10.2 ± 2.48 y) as proof of principle. Production of a peak enrichment (Cmax) of (13)CO2 (% of dose) in all healthy children occurred at 20 min ranging from 17-29% of dose, with a subsequent return to ~5% by the end of 2h. Production of (13)CO2 from 1-(13)C-phenylalanine in all children with PKU prior to sapropterin treatment remained low. Following sapropterin supplementation for a week, production of (13)CO2 significantly increased in five children with a subsequent decline in blood phenylalanine levels, suggesting improved PAH activity. Sapropterin treatment was not effective in three children whose (13)CO2 production remained unchanged, and did not show a reduction in blood phenylalanine levels and improvement

  12. Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Sanchez, Jose F; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-08-01

    Developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology in response to chronic hypoxia is poorly understood in larval fishes, especially larval air-breathing fishes, which eventually in their development can at least partially "escape" hypoxia through air breathing. Whether the development air breathing makes these larval fishes less or more developmentally plastic than strictly water breathing larval fishes remains unknown. Consequently, developmental plasticity of cardiorespiratory physiology was determined in two air-breathing anabantid fishes ( Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus ). Larvae of both species experienced an hypoxic exposure that mimicked their natural environmental conditions, namely chronic nocturnal hypoxia (12 h at 17 kPa or 14 kPa), with a daily return to diurnal normoxia. Chronic hypoxic exposures were made from hatching through 35 days postfertilization, and opercular and heart rates measured as development progressed. Opercular and heart rates in normoxia were not affected by chronic nocturnal hypoxic. However, routine oxygen consumption M˙O2 (~4  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour in normoxia in larval Betta ) was significantly elevated by chronic nocturnal hypoxia at 17 kPa but not by more severe (14 kPa) nocturnal hypoxia. Routine M˙O2 in Trichopodus (6-7  μ mol·O 2 /g per hour), significantly higher than in Betta , was unaffected by either level of chronic hypoxia. P Crit , the PO 2 at which M˙O2 decreases as ambient PO 2 falls, was measured at 35 dpf, and decreased with increasing chronic hypoxia in Betta , indicating a large, relatively plastic hypoxic tolerance. However, in contrast, P Crit in Trichopodus increased as rearing conditions grew more hypoxic, suggesting that hypoxic acclimation led to lowered hypoxic resistance. Species-specific differences in larval physiological developmental plasticity thus emerge between the relatively closely related Betta and Trichopodus Hypoxic rearing increased hypoxic tolerance in

  13. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  15. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.; Coutris, G.; Milhaud, G.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolic pathway of 14 C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14 CO 2 . This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14 C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14 CO 2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites [fr

  16. Airflow Characteristics at the Breathing Zone of a Seated Person

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Nagano, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    A method for active control over the interaction between the free convection flow around occupant‘s body and locally applied airflow from front on the velocity field at the breathing zone of a seated person was studied. A workplace equipped with personalised ventilation (PV) generating flow from......) was installed below the table board, above the thighs of the manikin, and was used to exhaust the air of the free convection flow coming from the lower body parts of the manikin. The velocity field at the breathing zone was measured with Particle Image Velocimetry consisting of a dual cavity laser and two CCD...

  17. Analytical methodologies for broad metabolite coverage of exhaled breath condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Alexander A; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Pasamontes, Alberto; Brown, Joshua F; Schivo, Michael; Foutouhi, Soraya; Weimer, Bart C; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-09-01

    Breath analysis has been gaining popularity as a non-invasive technique that is amenable to a broad range of medical uses. One of the persistent problems hampering the wide application of the breath analysis method is measurement variability of metabolite abundances stemming from differences in both sampling and analysis methodologies used in various studies. Mass spectrometry has been a method of choice for comprehensive metabolomic analysis. For the first time in the present study, we juxtapose the most commonly employed mass spectrometry-based analysis methodologies and directly compare the resultant coverages of detected compounds in exhaled breath condensate in order to guide methodology choices for exhaled breath condensate analysis studies. Four methods were explored to broaden the range of measured compounds across both the volatile and non-volatile domain. Liquid phase sampling with polyacrylate Solid-Phase MicroExtraction fiber, liquid phase extraction with a polydimethylsiloxane patch, and headspace sampling using Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane Solid-Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry were tested for the analysis of volatile fraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry were used for analysis of non-volatile fraction. We found that liquid phase breath condensate extraction was notably superior compared to headspace extraction and differences in employed sorbents manifested altered metabolite coverages. The most pronounced effect was substantially enhanced metabolite capture for larger, higher-boiling compounds using polyacrylate SPME liquid phase sampling. The analysis of the non-volatile fraction of breath condensate by hydrophilic and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry indicated orthogonal metabolite coverage by these chromatography modes. We found that the metabolite coverage

  18. PREVALENCE OF SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED ACROMEGALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. A. Tsoy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obstructive sleep disordered breathing or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most common respiratory impairment in acromegaly. OSA is bound up with heightened cardiovascular mortality. Aim: Тo study frequency, features, and structure of sleep disordered breathing in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly and to elucidate the factors influencing their development. Materials and methods: 38 patients (10 men, 28 women, median age 53 (28-76 years, median body mass index (BMI 29 (19.9-44.3 kg/m² with newly diagnosed acromegaly were recruited into the study. All subjects underwent full polysomnography (Embla N7000, Natus, USA and Remlogica software (USA. Results: Sleep disordered breathing was found in 28 (73.7% patients. OSA was revealed in all cases, in 11 (39.3% subjects it was mixed. In 10 (35.7% patients OSA was mild, in 8 (28.6% moderate, and in 10 (35.7% severe. BMI (р<0.01, disease duration (р=0.003, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 level (р=0.04 were different in patients without OSA and patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. No difference was found in sex (р=0.4, age (р=0.064, and growth hormone level (р=0.6. Frequency of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and other glucose metabolism impairments was the same in subjects without OSA and with severe-to-moderate OSA. Conclusion: All patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly should undergo polysomnography. BMI, disease duration, and IGF-1 level are significant risk factors for OSA development. Correlation OSA with arterial hypertension and glucose metabolism impairments needs to be further investigated.

  19. Compressed breathing air - the potential for evil from within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Ian L; Mouldey, Peter G

    2008-06-01

    Human underwater activities rely on an adequate supply of breathable compressed gas, usually air, free from contaminants that could cause incapacitation underwater or post-dive or longer-term health effects. Potentially fatal but well-known hazards are hypoxia secondary to steel cylinder corrosion and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning due to contaminated intake air. Another phenomenon may be behind some previously unexplained episodes of underwater incapacitation and perhaps death: low-level CO poisoning and/or the effects of gaseous contaminants generated within the compressor, including toluene and other volatile compounds. Many low molecular weight volatile contaminants are anaesthetic and will be potentiated by pressure and nitrogen narcosis. In sub-anaesthetic doses, impaired judgement, lowered seizure threshold and sensitisation of the heart to arrhythmias may occur. Toxic compounds can be volatilised from some compressor oils, especially mineral oils, in overheated compressors, or be created de novo under certain combinations of temperature, humidity and pressure, perhaps catalysed by metal traces from compressor wear and tear. Most volatiles can be removed by activated carbon filtration but many filters are undersized and may overload in hot, moist conditions and with short dwell times. A compressor that passes normal testing could contaminate one or more cylinders after heating up and then return to producing clean air as the filters dry and the systems cool. The scope of this problem is very unclear as air quality is tested infrequently and often inadequately, even after fatalities. More research is needed as well as better education regarding the safe operation and limitations of high-pressure breathing air compressors.

  20. Cerebrovascular pulsatility in patients with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Cabral, Digna; Lee, David J; Sacco, Ralph L; Rundek, Tatjana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the association between the pulsatility index (PI), a surrogate of cerebral small vessel disease and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We conducted a transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study of 19 consecutive patients free of stroke and cardiovascular disease, referred for the evaluation of SDB. TCD was performed by a certified technologist. Subsequent polysomnography was performed according to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. We evaluated the association between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the oxygen nadir, the blood flow velocities, and the Gosling PI, for the middle cerebral artery. We performed Spearman's rank correlation and nonparametric regression to evaluate the relationship between AHI, oxygen levels, and the PI. Median age was 48 years (range 37-83), with 52 % male sex (n = 10), and median BMI of 29.9 (range 25-40.4). The median AHI was 16.4 (0.2-69). The median PI was 0.97 (0.72-1.89) cm/s. The PI correlated with the AHI (rho = 0.44; p = 0.004) and with age (rho = 0.57; p = 0.001). Nonparametric regression adjusting for age showed a positive association between the AHI and the PI (standardized estimate = 0.88; p = 0.002). There was no relation between the oxygen nadir and the PI. We observed increased PI in patients with SDB during wakefulness. The PI could potentially be an estimate of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with SDB and hence allow evaluating cerebral hemodynamics during wakefulness with a clinically relevant device.

  1. Clinical breath analysis: Discriminating between human endogenous compounds and exogenous (environmental) chemical confounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath originate from current or previous environmental exposures (exogenous compounds) and internal metabolic anabolic and catabolic) production (endogenous compounds). The origins of certain VOCs in breath presumed to be endogenous ...

  2. Impact of manakin motion on particle transport in the breathing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current experimental investigation is focused on particle measurements using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) in the breathing zone of a seated, breathing, thermal manikin under stationary and rotational conditions. Particle size, concentration, flux, and velocity data were co...

  3. Effect of upper costal and costo-diaphragmatic breathing types on electromyographic activity of respiratory muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celhay, Isabel; Cordova, Rosa; Miralles, Rodolfo; Meza, Francisco; Erices, Pia; Barrientos, Camilo; Valenzuela, Saúl

    2015-04-01

    To compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in young-adult subjects with different breathing types. This study included 50 healthy male subjects with complete natural dentition, and no history of orofacial pain or craniomandibular-cervical-spinal disorders. Subjects were classified into two groups: upper costal breathing type, and costo-diaphragmatic breathing. Bipolar surface electrodes were located on sternocleidomastoid, diaphragm, external intercostal, and latissimus dorsi muscles. Electromyographic activity was recorded during the following tasks: (1) normal quiet breathing; (2) speaking the word 'Mississippi'; (3) swallowing saliva; and (4) forced deep breathing. Sternocleidomastoid and latissimus dorsi EMG activity was not significantly different between breathing types, whereas diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity was significantly higher in the upper costal than costo-diaphragmatic breathing type in all tasks (P<0·05; Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test). Diaphragm and external intercostal EMG activity suggests that there could be differences in motor unit recruitment strategies depending on the breathing type.

  4. Rapid detection of nicotine from breath using desorption ionisation on porous silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, T M; Abdelmaksoud, H; Voelcker, N H

    2017-05-04

    Desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) was used for the detection of nicotine from exhaled breath. This result represents proof-of-principle of the ability of DIOS to detect small molecular analytes in breath including biomarkers and illicit drugs.

  5. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, G; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  6. Stability of selected volatile breath constituents in Tedlar, Kynar and Flexfilm sampling bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The stability of 41 selected breath constituents in three types of polymer sampling bags, Tedlar, Kynar, and Flexfilm, was investigated using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The tested molecular species belong to different chemical classes (hydrocarbons, ketones, aldehydes, aromatics, sulphurs, esters, terpenes, etc.) and exhibit close-to-breath low ppb levels (3–12 ppb) with the exception of isoprene, acetone and acetonitrile (106 ppb, 760 ppb, 42 ppb respectively). Stability tests comprised the background emission of contaminants, recovery from dry samples, recovery from humid samples (RH 80% at 37 °C), influence of the bag’s filling degree, and reusability. Findings yield evidence of the superiority of Tedlar bags over remaining polymers in terms of background emission, species stability (up to 7 days for dry samples), and reusability. Recoveries of species under study suffered from the presence of high amounts of water (losses up to 10%). However, only heavier volatiles, with molecular masses higher than 90, exhibited more pronounced losses (20–40%). The sample size (the degree of bag filling) was found to be one of the most important factors affecting the sample integrity. To sum up, it is recommended to store breath samples in pre-conditioned Tedlar bags up to 6 hours at the maximum possible filling volume. Among the remaining films, Kynar can be considered as an alternative to Tedlar; however, higher losses of compounds should be expected even within the first hours of storage. Due to the high background emission Flexfilm is not suitable for sampling and storage of samples for analyses aiming at volatiles at a low ppb level. PMID:23323261

  7. Increase of methanol in exhaled breath quantified by SIFT-MS following aspartame ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Vicherková, Petra; Smith, David

    2015-11-19

    Aspartame, methyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalaninate, is used worldwide as a sweetener in foods and drinks and is considered to be safe at an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 40 mg per kg of body weight. This compound is completely hydrolyzed in the gastrointestinal tract to aspartic acid, phenylalanine and methanol, each being toxic at high levels. The objective of the present study was to quantify the volatile methanol component in the exhaled breath of ten healthy volunteers following the ingestion of a single ADI dose of aspartame. Direct on-line measurements of methanol concentration were made in the mouth and nose breath exhalations using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, several times before aspartame ingestion in order to establish individual pre-dose (baseline) levels and then during two hours post-ingestion to track their initial increase and subsequent decrease. The results show that breath methanol concentrations increased in all volunteers by 1082   ±   205 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv) from their pre-ingestion values, which ranged from 193 to 436 ppbv to peak values ranging from 981-1622 ppbv, from which they slowly decreased. These observations agree quantitatively with a predicted increase of 1030 ppbv estimated using a one-compartment model of uniform dilution of the methanol generated from a known amount of aspartame throughout the total body water (including blood). In summary, an ADI dose of aspartame leads to a 3-6 fold increase of blood methanol concentration above the individual baseline values.

  8. Effects of Exogenous Lactase Administration on Hydrogen Breath Excretion and Intestinal Symptoms in Patients Presenting Lactose Malabsorption and Intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ibba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish whether supplementation with a standard oral dose of Beta-Galactosidase affects hydrogen breath excretion in patients presenting with lactose malabsorption. Methods. Ninety-six consecutive patients positive to H2 Lactose Breath Test were enrolled. Mean peak H2 levels, the time to reach the peak H2, the time to reach the cut-off value of 20 ppm, the cumulative breath H2 excretion, the areas under the curve, and a Visual Analogical 10-point Scale for symptoms were calculated. Genotyping of the C/T-13910 variant was carried out. Results. Following the oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase, in 21.88% of the cases, H2 Lactose Breath Test became negative (Group A, while mean peak H2 levels (74.95 ppm versus 7.85, P<0.0000, in 17.71% (Group B were still positive, with the H2 level 20 ppm above the baseline, but the peak H2 levels were significantly lower than those observed at the baseline test (186.7 ppm versus 66.64, P<0.0000, while in 60.41% (Group C they were still positive with the peak H2 levels similar to those observed at the baseline test (94.43 versus 81.60 ppm. All 96 individuals tested presented the C/C-13910 genotype nonpersistence. Conclusions. The response to oral administration of Beta-Galactosidase in patients with symptoms of lactose malabsorption presents a significant variability.

  9. DiapHRaGM: A mnemonic to describe the work of breathing in patients with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Tulaimat

    Full Text Available The assessment of the work of breathing in the definitions of respiratory failure is vague and variable.Identify a parsimonious set of signs to describe the work of breathing in hypoxemic, acutely ill patients.We examined consecutive medical ICU patients receiving oxygen with a mask, non-invasive ventilation, or T-piece. A physician inspected each patient for 10 seconds, rated the level of respiratory distress, and then examined the patient for vital signs and 17 other physical signs. We used the rating of distress as a surrogate for measuring the work of breathing, constructed three multivariate models to identify the one with the smallest number of signs and largest explained variance, and validated it with bootstrap analysis.We performed 402 observations on 240 patients. Respiratory distress was absent in 78, mild in 157, moderate in 107, and severe in 60. Respiratory rate, hypoxia, heart rate, and frequency of most signs increased as distress increased. Respiratory rate and hypoxia explained 43% of the variance in respiratory distress. Diaphoresis, gasping, and contraction of the sternomastoid explained an additional 28%. Heart rate, blood pressure, alertness, agitation, body posture, nasal flaring, audible breathing, cyanosis, tracheal tug, retractions, paradox, scalene or abdominal muscles contraction did not increase the explained variance in respiratory distress.Most of the variance is respiratory distress can be explained by five signs summarized by the mnemonic DiapHRaGM (diaphoresis, hypoxia, respiratory rate, gasping, accessory muscle. This set of signs may allow for efficient, standardized assessments of the work of breathing of hypoxic patients.

  10. Reduced phrenic motoneuron recruitment during sustained inspiratory threshold loading compared to single-breath loading: a twitch interpolation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Raux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganisation and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganisation between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment, we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganisation should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope. Fourteen healthy subjects (age: 21 – 40 years were studied. Bilateral phrenic stimulation was delivered at rest, upon prepared and targeted voluntary inspiratory efforts (vol, upon unprepared inspiratory efforts against a single-breath inspiratory threshold load (single-breath, and upon sustained inspiratory efforts against the same type of load (continuous. The slope of the relationship between diaphragm twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure and the underlying transdiaphragmatic pressure was –1.1 ± 0.2 during vol, –1.5 ± 0.7 during single-breath, and -0.6 ± 0.4 during continuous (all slopes expressed in percent of baseline.percent of baseline-1 all comparisons significant at the 5% level. The contribution of the diaphragm to inspiration, as assessed by the gastric pressure to transdiaphragmatic pressure ratio, was 31 ± 17 % during vol, 22 ± 16 % during single-breath (p=0.13, and 19 ± 9 % during continuous (p = 0.0015 vs. vol. This study shows that the relationship between the amplitude of the transdiaphragmatic pressure produced by a diaphragm twitch and its counterpart produced by the underlying diaphragm contraction is not unequivocal. If twitch interpolation is interpreted as

  11. Purification yields of forced air filters for radioactive breath protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Air filters for breath protection were tested as to purification yield using the in-situ DOP testing method. Only some of them satisfied the requirements made by the authors. Requirements, testing methods, experimental set-up and results are presented. (G.J.P.)

  12. African breathing and spiritual healing | Edwards | Indilinga: African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Discerning visitors to Africa typically have an 'ancestral-roots' experience on encountering an essential humanity and ... In its original, essential and literal meaning, psychology is concerned with the breath, energy ... some other form. Such an essential and spiritual form of psychology, still practiced internationally,

  13. Softening of the Radial Breathing Mode in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farhat, H. (ed.); Sasaki, K.; Kalbáč, Martin; Hofmann, M.; Saito, R.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kong, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2009), 126804-1-126804-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic carbon nanotubes * radial breathing mode * single waled carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  14. WE-DE-209-02: Active Breathing Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsa, D. [Stronach Regional Cancer Centre (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  16. Take a Deep Breath (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-24

    Nearly 16 million Americans have been diagnosed with COPD; however, many may not be aware they have the condition. This podcast discusses the importance of seeing a health care provider if you have trouble breathing.  Created: 11/24/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 11/24/2016.

  17. Morbidity prior to a Diagnosis of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and society. Most studies have focused on cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) after a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS); however, the overall morbidity prior...

  18. Finding aroma clues in the human breath to diagnose diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    History of human odor analysis in disease diagnosis The use of the sense of smell as an indicator of human disease probably originated with Hippocrates (circa 400 BC). Early medical practitioners recognized that the presence of human diseases changed the odors released from the body and breath. Physicians once relied heavily on their sense of smell to provide useful...

  19. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Peter; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes

  20. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  1. Radioprotection of normal tissues of the mouse by hypoxic breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Joiner, B.; Denekamp, J.

    1989-01-01

    Hypoxic breathing during irradiation has been advocated as a therapeutic modality, to increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. In this form of treatment, the total and daily X-ray dose is increased by a factor of 1.25, on the assumption that all normal tissues in the beam will be protected to a similar extent by breathing gas containing a reduced oxygen concentration (usually 10%). To test this concept, we have determined the effect of varying the inspired oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of 3 normal tissues in the mouse (kidney, jejunum and skin), and have compared these results with data from the literature for mouse lung. Reduction of the inspired oxygen tension from 21% (air) to 7-8% led to much greater radioprotection of skin (protection factor 1.37) than of lung (1.09). Protection factors for jejunum and kidney were 1.16 and 1.36 respectively. The results show that the extent of radioprotection afforded by hypoxic breathing is tissue dependent, and that great care must be taken clinically in choosing the increased radiation dose to be used in conjunction with hypoxic breathing

  2. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    An increase in produced hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  3. A hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.V.A.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2005-01-01

    An increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration in exhaled breath (EB) of patients, who suffer from some diseases related to the lung function, has been observed and considered as a reliable indicator of lung diseases. In the EB of these patients, hydrogen peroxide is present in the vapour phase

  4. [Characteristics of tidal breathing pulmonary function in children with tracheobronchomalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Chen, Qaing; Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Shuang-Gui; Hu, Ci-Lang; Wu, Ai-Min

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics of tidal breathing pulmonary function in children with tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). In this study, 30 children who were diagnosed with TBM using electronic bronchoscopy were enrolled in the observation group; 30 healthy children were recruited in the normal control group. For individuals in each group, the assessment of tidal breath pulmonary function was performed at diagnosis and 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after diagnosis. There were no significant differences in tidal volume, inspiratory time, expiratory time, and inspiratory to expiratory ratio between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had a significantly higher respiratory rate and significantly lower ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) and ratio of volume to peak tidal expiratory flow to total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE). There was a time-dependent increase in TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE for TBM children from the time of initial diagnosis to 12 months after diagnosis. Tidal breathing pulmonary function has characteristic changes in children with TBM. Tidal breathing pulmonary function tends to be recovered with increased age in children with TBM.

  5. The effect of African breath psychotherapeutic workshops on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of an African breath psychotherapeutic workshop called Shiso on spirituality perceptions and experiences. In view of previous pilot study findings, it was hypothesized that further Shiso workshops with enlarged samples would improve participants' spirituality in ...

  6. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  7. Toward a hydrogen peroxide sensor for exhaled breath analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; van Dorp, Henriëtte; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution a chip-integrated amperometric sensor for the detection of H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is reported. The electrode chip is characterized, and detection of H2O2 in an aqueous phase is shown by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Variation of conditions

  8. Breath acetone concentration; biological variability and the influence of diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Kseniya; Rejšková, A.; Chippendale, T. W. E.; Smith, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 8 (2011), N23-N31 ISSN 0967-3334 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P172 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : acetone * breath * ketogenic diet Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.677, year: 2011

  9. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  10. The Breathing Cell: Cyclic Intermembrane Distance Variation in Reverse Electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Domingo, Jordi; Slouwerhof, E.; Vermaas, David; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2016-01-01

    The breathing cell is a new concept design that operates a reverse electrodialysis stack by varying in time the intermembrane distance. Reverse electrodialysis is used to harvest salinity gradient energy; a rather unknown renewable energy source from controlled mixing of river water and seawater.

  11. The breathing cell : cyclic intermembrane distance variation in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, J.; Slouwerhof, E.; Vermaas, D.A.; Saakes, M.; Nijmeijer, K.

    2016-01-01

    The breathing cell is a new concept design that operates a reverse electrodialysis stack by varying in time the intermembrane distance. Reverse electrodialysis is used to harvest salinity gradient energy; a rather unknown renewable energy source from controlled mixing of river water and seawater.

  12. WE-DE-209-02: Active Breathing Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsa, D.

    2016-01-01

    Breast radiation therapy is associated with some risk of lung toxicity as well as cardiac toxicity for left-sided cases. Radiation doses to the lung and heart can be reduced by using the deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) technique, in which the patient is simulated and treated during the deep inspiration phase of the breathing cycle. During DIBH, the heart is usually displaced posteriorly, inferiorly, and to the right, effectively expanding the distance between the heart and the breast/chest wall. As a result, the distance between the medial treatment field border and heart/lung is increased. Also, in a majority of DIBH patients, the air drawn into the thoracic cavity increases the total lung volume. The DIBH was discussed by an AAPM Task Group 10 years ago in the AAPM TG 76 report. However, DIBH is still not the standard of care in many clinics, which may be partially due to challenges associated with its implementation. Therefore, this seccion will focus primarily on how to clinically implement four different DIBH techniques: (1) Active Breathing Control, (2) Spirometric Motion Management, (3) 3D Surface Image-Guided, and (4) Self-held Breath Control with Respiratory Monitoring and Feedback Guidance. Learning Objectives: Describe the physical displacement of the heart and the change in lung volume during DIBH and discuss dosimetric consequences of those changes. Provide an overview of the technical aspects. Describe work flow for patient simulation and treatment. Give an overview of commissioning and routine. Provide practical tips for clinical implementation.

  13. Bad-breath: Perceptions and misconceptions of Nigerian adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... Key words: Bad‑breath, emerging adults, misconceptions, Nigeria, perceptions. Date of ... negligible minority being attributable to food and ill health. Many cases of ..... Intra‑ and extra‑oral halitosis: finding of a new form of ...

  14. The breathing of webs under repeated partial edge loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škaloud, Miroslav; Zörnerová, Marie; Urushadze, Shota

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2012), s. 463-468 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Steel structures and bridges. Podbanske, 26.09.2012-28.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1340 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : slender webs * breathing * fatigue limit state * design * repeated partial edge loading Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  15. NASOPHARYNGEAL CONCENTRATIONS IN THE HUMAN VOLUNTEER BREATHING ACETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to examine the absorption of a common chemical into the nasopharyngeal region in humans, a 57 year old male volunteer inhaled uniformly labeled 13C-acetone at 1.4 ppm for 30 min while performing different breathing maneuvers; nose inhale, nose exhale (NINE); mouth ...

  16. Mass spectrometry for real-time quantitative breath analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Herbig, J.; Beauchamp, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014), 027101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : breath analysis * proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry * selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.631, year: 2014

  17. Breathing Patterns In The Newborn And Related Cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transition from foetal to neonatal life is a dramatic one; it demands considerable and effective physiological alteration in the newborn to ensure survival. Simultaneously cardio-respiratory adjustments are initiated and breathing maintained on a continuous basis. The basic movements in the human foetus being about 8 ...

  18. Take a Breath (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-26

    Breathing is a natural bodily function that most take for granted. But for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, inhaling and exhaling is a daily struggle. In this podcast, Dr. Anne Wheaton discusses health problems associated with COPD.  Created: 3/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 3/26/2015.

  19. Medical Diagnostic Breath Analysis by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, Joseph S.; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri

    2009-06-01

    Certain medical conditions give rise to the presence of chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals - known as biomarkers - may also be present in low concentrations in human breath. Cavity ring down spectroscopy possesses the requisite selectivity and sensitivity to detect such biomarkers in the congested spectrum of a breath sample. The ulcer-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori, is a prolific producer of the enzyme urease, which catalyses the breakdown of urea ((NH_2)_2CO) in the stomach as follows: (NH_2)_2CO + H_2O ⟶ CO_2 + 2NH_3 Currently, breath tests seeking altered carbon-isotope ratios in exhaled CO_2 after the ingestion of ^{13}C- or ^{14}C-labeled urea are used to diagnose H. pylori infection. We present recent results from an ongoing collaboration with Tampere Area University Hospital. The study involves 100 patients (both infected and uninfected) and concerns the possible correlation between the bacterial infection and breath ammonia. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, D. J. Evans, Jr, D. G. Evans, L. C. Alpert, A. R. Opekun, T. W. Boutton, Lancet 1(8543), 1174-7 March 1987.

  20. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  1. SU-E-J-211: Design and Study of In-House Software Based Respiratory Motion Monitoring, Controlling and Breath-Hold Device for Gated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, Senthilkumar [Madurai Medical College ' Govt. Rajaji Hospital, Madurai (India)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this present work was to fabricate an in-house software based respiratory monitoring, controlling and breath-hold device using computer software programme which guides the patient to have uniform breath hold in response to request during the gated radiotherapy. Methods: The respiratory controlling device consists of a computer, inhouse software, video goggles, a highly sensitive sensor for measurement of distance, mounting systems, a camera, a respiratory signal device, a speaker and a visual indicator. The computer is used to display the respiratory movements of the patient with digital as well as analogue respiration indicators during the respiration cycle, to control, breath-hold and analyze the respiratory movement using indigenously developed software. Results: Studies were conducted with anthropomophic phantoms by simulating the respiratory motion on phantoms and recording the respective movements using the respiratory monitoring device. The results show good agreement between the simulated and measured movements. Further studies were conducted for 60 cancer patients with several types of cancers in the thoracic region. The respiratory movement cycles for each fraction of radiotherapy treatment were recorded and compared. Alarm indications are provided in the system to indicate when the patient breathing movement exceeds the threshold level. This will help the patient to maintain uniform breath hold during the radiotherapy treatment. Our preliminary clinical test results indicate that our device is highly reliable and able to maintain the uniform respiratory motion and breathe hold during the entire course of gated radiotherapy treatment. Conclusion: An indigenous respiratory monitoring device to guide the patient to have uniform breath hold device was fabricated. The alarm feature and the visual waveform indicator in the system guide the patient to have normal respiration. The signal from the device can be connected to the radiation

  2. The use of counting beads to improve the classification of fast breathing in low-resource settings: a multi-country review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordam, Aaltje Camielle; Barberá Laínez, Yolanda; Sadruddin, Salim; van Heck, Pabla Maria; Chono, Alex Opio; Acaye, Geoffrey Larry; Lara, Victor; Nanyonjo, Agnes; Ocan, Charles; Källander, Karin

    2015-01-01

    To decrease child mortality due to common but life-threatening illnesses, community health workers (CHWs) are trained to assess, classify and treat sick children. For pneumonia, CHWs are trained to count the respiratory rate of a child with cough and/or difficulty breathing, and determine whether the child has fast breathing or not based on how the child’s breath count relates to age-specific respiratory rate cut-off points. International organizations training CHWs to classify fast breathing realized that many of them faced challenges counting and determining how the respiratory rate relates to age-specific cut-off points. Counting beads were designed to overcome these challenges. This article presents findings from different studies on the utility of these beads, in conjunction with a timer, as a tool to improve classification of fast breathing. Studies conducted by the International Rescue Committee and Save the Children among illiterate CHWs assessed the effectiveness of counting beads to improve both counting and classifying respiratory rate against age-specific cut-off points. These studies found that the use of counting beads enabled and improved the assessment and classification of fast breathing. However, a Malaria Consortium study found that the use of counting beads decreased the accuracy of counting breaths among literate CHWs. Qualitative findings from these studies and two additional studies by UNICEF suggest that the design of the beads is crucial: beads should move comfortably, and a separate bead string, with colour coding, is required for the age groups with different cut-off thresholds—eliminating more complicated calculations. Further research, using standardized protocols and gold standard comparisons, is needed to understand the accuracy of beads in comparison to other tools used for classifying pneumonia, which CHWs benefit most from each different tool (i.e. disaggregating data by levels of literacy and numeracy) and what the impact is

  3. Real-time continuous visual biofeedback in the treatment of speech breathing disorders following childhood traumatic brain injury: report of one case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, B E; Pitt, G; Theodoros, D G; Ward, E C

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of traditional and physiological biofeedback methods for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns was investigated in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). An A-B-A-B single-subject experimental research design was utilized to provide the subject with two exclusive periods of therapy for speech breathing, based on traditional therapy techniques and physiological biofeedback methods, respectively. Traditional therapy techniques included establishing optimal posture for speech breathing, explanation of the movement of the respiratory muscles, and a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks focusing on establishing an appropriate level of sub-glottal air pressure, and improving the subject's control of inhalation and exhalation. The biofeedback phase of therapy utilized variable inductance plethysmography (or Respitrace) to provide real-time, continuous visual biofeedback of ribcage circumference during breathing. As in traditional therapy, a hierarchy of non-speech and speech tasks were devised to improve the subject's control of his respiratory pattern. Throughout the project, the subject's respiratory support for speech was assessed both instrumentally and perceptually. Instrumental assessment included kinematic and spirometric measures, and perceptual assessment included the Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment, Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech, and analysis of a speech sample. The results of the study demonstrated that real-time continuous visual biofeedback techniques for modifying speech breathing patterns were not only effective, but superior to the traditional therapy techniques for modifying abnormal speech breathing patterns in a child with persistent dysarthria following severe TBI. These results show that physiological biofeedback techniques are potentially useful clinical tools for the remediation of speech breathing impairment in the paediatric dysarthric population.

  4. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico

    2018-01-01

    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure

  5. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  6. Scintigraphic determination of gastrointestinal transit times. A comparison with breath hydrogen and radiologic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Larsen, N E; Hilsted, J

    1991-01-01

    A scintigraphic method for determination of gastrointestinal transit times was compared with the breath hydrogen test and a multiple-bolus, single-radiograph technique. A close temporal association was found between the caecal appearance of radioactivity and the onset of breath hydrogen excretion...... the breath hydrogen concentration profiles....

  7. A Study on How to Breathe Properly When Practicing Tai Chi Chuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanchun

    2011-01-01

    When practicing Tai Chi Chuan, proper breath plays an important role in shaping Tai Chi Chuan's style and its fitness value. The paper aims to analyse the postures of Tai Chi Chuan and its breath characteristics. The paper also presents some new insights on how to co-ordinate breath with postures by case studies.

  8. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J.; Tytgat, K. M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F. A.; Bowen, B. M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R. L.; Riddell, R. H.; Hunt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared

  9. Biomechanical interpretation of a free-breathing lung motion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Tianyu; White, Benjamin; Lamb, James; Low, Daniel A; Moore, Kevin L; Yang Deshan; Mutic, Sasa; Lu Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a biomechanical model for free-breathing motion and compare it to a published heuristic five-dimensional (5D) free-breathing lung motion model. An ab initio biomechanical model was developed to describe the motion of lung tissue during free breathing by analyzing the stress–strain relationship inside lung tissue. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model was equivalent to a heuristic 5D free-breathing lung motion model proposed by Low et al in 2005 (Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 63 921–9), in which the motion was broken down to a linear expansion component and a hysteresis component. To test the biomechanical model, parameters that characterize expansion, hysteresis and angles between the two motion components were reported independently and compared between two models. The biomechanical model agreed well with the heuristic model within 5.5% in the left lungs and 1.5% in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. The biomechanical model predicted that a histogram of angles between the two motion components should have two peaks at 39.8° and 140.2° in the left lungs and 37.1° and 142.9° in the right lungs. The data from the 5D model verified the existence of those peaks at 41.2° and 148.2° in the left lungs and 40.1° and 140° in the right lungs for patients without lung cancer. Similar results were also observed for the patients with lung cancer, but with greater discrepancies. The maximum-likelihood estimation of hysteresis magnitude was reported to be 2.6 mm for the lung cancer patients. The first-order approximation of the biomechanical model fit the heuristic 5D model very well. The biomechanical model provided new insights into breathing motion with specific focus on motion trajectory hysteresis.

  10. Adhesion of volatile propofol to breathing circuit tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dominik; Maurer, Felix; Trautner, Katharina; Fink, Tobias; Hüppe, Tobias; Sessler, Daniel I; Baumbach, Jörg Ingo; Volk, Thomas; Kreuer, Sascha

    2017-08-21

    Propofol in exhaled breath can be measured and may provide a real-time estimate of plasma concentration. However, propofol is absorbed in plastic tubing, thus estimates may fail to reflect lung/blood concentration if expired gas is not extracted directly from the endotracheal tube. We evaluated exhaled propofol in five ventilated ICU patients who were sedated with propofol. Exhaled propofol was measured once per minute using ion mobility spectrometry. Exhaled air was sampled directly from the endotracheal tube and at the ventilator end of the expiratory side of the anesthetic circuit. The circuit was disconnected from the patient and propofol was washed out with a separate clean ventilator. Propofol molecules, which discharged from the expiratory portion of the breathing circuit, were measured for up to 60 h. We also determined whether propofol passes through the plastic of breathing circuits. A total of 984 data pairs (presented as median values, with 95% confidence interval), consisting of both concentrations were collected. The concentration of propofol sampled near the patient was always substantially higher, at 10.4 [10.25-10.55] versus 5.73 [5.66-5.88] ppb (p tubing was 4.58 [4.48-4.68] ppb, 3.46 [3.21-3.73] in the first hour, 4.05 [3.77-4.34] in the second hour, and 4.01 [3.36-4.40] in the third hour. Out-gassing propofol from the breathing circuit remained at 2.8 ppb after 60 h of washing out. Diffusion through the plastic was not observed. Volatile propofol binds or adsorbs to the plastic of a breathing circuit with saturation kinetics. The bond is reversible so propofol can be washed out from the plastic. Our data confirm earlier findings that accurate measurements of volatile propofol require exhaled air to be sampled as close as possible to the patient.

  11. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  12. Breath-to-breath variability of exhaled CO2 as a marker of lung dysmaturity in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouzas, Sotirios; Theodorakopoulos, Ilias; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Frey, Urs

    2017-12-01

    The concept of diffusional screening implies that breath-to-breath variations in CO 2 clearance, when related to the variability of breathing, may contain information on the quality and utilization of the available alveolar surface. We explored the validity of the above hypothesis in a cohort of young infants of comparable postmenstrual age but born at different stages of lung maturity, namely, in term-born infants ( n = 128), preterm-born infants without chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI; n = 53), and preterm infants with moderate/severe CLDI ( n = 87). Exhaled CO 2 volume (V E,CO2 ) and concentration (F E,CO2 ) were determined by volumetric capnography, whereas their variance was assessed by linear and nonlinear variability metrics. The relationship between relative breath-to-breath change of V E,CO2 (ΔV E,CO2 ) and the corresponding change of tidal volume (ΔV T ) was also analyzed. Nonlinear F E,CO2 variability was lower in CLDI compared with term and non-CLDI preterm group ( P variability was attributed to the variability of V T ( r 2 = 0.749), whereas in term and healthy preterm infants this relationship was weaker ( r 2 = 0.507 and 0.630, respectively). The ΔV E,CO2 - ΔV T slope was less steep in the CLDI group (1.06 ± 0.07) compared with non-CLDI preterm (1.16 ± 0.07; P variability that can be quantified by nonlinear variability metrics and may reflect the degree of lung dysmaturity. In infants with moderate/severe chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI), the variability of the exhaled CO 2 is mainly driven by the variability of breathing, whereas in term-born and healthy preterm infants this relationship is less strong. The slope of the relative CO 2 -to-volume change is less steep in CLDI infants, suggesting that dysmature lungs are less efficient in eliminating CO 2 under tidal breathing conditions.

  13. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.bischoff@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  14. Comparison of two validated gas-chromatographic methods for the determination of trihalomethanes in drinking water Comparação de dois métodos cromatográficos validados para a dosagem de trialometanos em água potável

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Yumiko Tominaga; Antonio Flavio Mídio

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the results obtained using two validated gas-chromatographic procedures on drinking water for the determination of trihalomethanes are compared. The volatile compounds, chloroform (CF), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM) and bromoform (BF) were detected by purge and trap capillary column gas-chromatography with electrolytic conductivity detector ( ELCD) and the simple and rapid gas-chromatographic method by electron capture detector (ECD) after liquid-liqui...

  15. Padrão respiratório e movimento toracoabdominal de crianças respiradoras orais Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TCS Brant

    2008-12-01

    motion of mouth-breathing children aged between eight and ten years and to compare these characteristics with those of nose-breathing children of the same ages. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a university laboratory. The sample size of 50 subjects was estimated based on the results of a pilot study with ten children in each group (total of 20 children and considering a significance level of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80. Twenty-six mouth-breathing and 25 nose-breathing children participated. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to analyze the following variables, among others: respiratory frequency (f, rib cage contribution towards tidal volume (%RC/Vt, phase angle (PhAng and the ratio between time taken to reach peak inspiratory flow and total inspiratory time (PifT/Ti. Peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2 was measured using pulse oximetry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent groups or the Mann-Whitney U test, according to the sample distribution of the variables. RESULTS: A total of 4,816 respiratory cycles were analyzed: 2,455 from mouth-breathers and 2,361 from nose-breathers, with a mean of 94 cycles per child. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups, for the variables studied (f=20.00±2.68 versus 20.73±2.58, p=0.169; %RC/Vt=39.30±11.86 versus 38.36±10.93, p=0.769; PhAng=14.53±7.97 versus 13.31±7.74, p=0.583; PifT/Ti=57.40±7.16 versus 58.35±5.99, p=0.610; SpO2=96.42±1.52% versus 96.88± 1.01%, p=0.208; respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that mouth-breathing children show breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion that are similar to those of nose-breathing children in the same age group.

  16. To breathe or fight? Siamese fighting fish differ when facing a real opponent or mirror image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Gareth; Beattie, Emma; Elwood, Robert W

    2016-08-01

    Displays are a feature of animal contest behaviour and have been interpreted as a means of gathering information on opponent fighting ability, as well as signalling aggressive motivation. In fish, contest displays often include frontal and lateral elements, which in the latter involves contestants showing their flanks to an opponent. Previous work in a range of fish species has demonstrated population-level lateralization of these displays, preferentially showing one side to their opponent. Mirrors are commonly used in place of a real opponent to study aggression in fish, yet they may disrupt the normal pattern of display behaviour. Here, using Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens, we compare the aggressive behaviour of males to a mirror image and real opponent behind a transparent barrier. As this species is a facultative air-breather, we also quantify surface breathing, providing insights into underlying fight motivation. Consistent with previous work, we found evidence of population-level lateralization, with a bias to present the left side and use the left eye when facing a real opponent. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the aggressive displays to a mirror and real opponent, with positive correlations between the behaviour in the two scenarios. However, there were important differences in surface breathing, which was more frequent and of longer duration in the mirror treatment. The reasons for these differences are discussed in relation to the repertoire of contest behaviour and motivation when facing a real opponent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ammonia as a respiratory gas in water and air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David J; Ip, Yuen K

    2006-11-01

    Ammonia is produced in the liver and excreted as NH(3) by diffusion across the gills. Elevated ammonia results in an increase in gill ventilation, perhaps via stimulation of gill oxygen chemo-receptors. Acidification of the water around the fish by carbon dioxide and acid excretion enhances ammonia excretion and constitutes "environmental ammonia detoxification". Fish have difficulties in excreting ammonia in alkaline water or high concentrations of environmental ammonia, or when out of water. The mudskipper, Periphthalmodon schlosseri, is capable of active NH(4)(+) transport, maintaining low internal levels of ammonia. To prevent a back flux of NH(3), these air-breathing fish can increase gill acid excretion and reduce the membrane NH(3) permeability by modifying the phospholipid and cholesterol compositions of their skin. Several air-breathing fish species can excrete ammonia into air through NH(3) volatilization. Some fish detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. The brains of some fish can tolerate much higher levels of ammonia than other animals. Studies of these fish may offer insights into the nature of ammonia toxicity in general.

  18. Analysis of breath volatile organic compounds in children with chronic liver disease compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Katharine; Alkhouri, Naim; Cikach, Frank; Patel, Nishaben; Yan, Chen; Grove, David; Lopez, Rocio; Rome, Ellen; Dweik, Raed A

    2015-04-20

    Breath testing is increasingly being used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for disease states across medicine. The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as measured by mass spectrometry in healthy children and children with chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients between the ages of 6 and 21 were recruited for the study. Control subjects were recruited from a general pediatric population during well-child visits, while patients with CLD were recruited from pediatric gastroenterology clinic visits. The diagnosis of CLD was confirmed by clinical, laboratory, and/or histologic data. A single exhaled breath was collected and analyzed by means of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry per protocol. A total of 104 patients were included in the study (49 with CLD and 55 healthy controls). Of the patients with CLD, 20 had advanced liver fibrosis (F3-F4). In the CLD cohort, levels of exhaled 1-decene, 1-heptene, 1-octene and 3 methylhexane were found to be significantly higher when compared to the control population (p CLD patients when compared to controls (p CLD was excellent (AUROC = 0.97). Our study demonstrates that children with CLD have a unique pattern of exhaled VOCs. Utilization of a combination of these VOCs represents a promising non-invasive diagnostic tool and may provide further insight into the pathophysiologic processes and pathways leading to pediatric liver disease. Further analysis of these compounds in external cohorts are needed to validate our findings.

  19. Chronic adaptations of lung function in breath-hold diving fishermen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Diniz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify and analyze the existence of chronic adaptations of lung function in freediving fishermen whose occupation is artisanal fishing. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 11 breath-hold diving fishermen and 10 non-breath-hold diving fishermen (control from the village of Bitupitá in the municipality of Barroquinha (Ceará - Brazil. Anthropometric measurements, chest and abdominal circumferences as well as spirometric and respiratory muscle strength tests were conducted according to the specifications of the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS. In order to compare the measured values versus the predicted values, Student t test was used in the case of parametric test and Wilcoxon test in the case of nonparametric test. To compare the inter-group means Student t test was used for parametric test and Mann-Whitney test for the nonparametric one. The level of significance was set at α = 5%. Results: The forced vital capacity (FVC (4.9±0.6 l vs. 4.3±0.4 l and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (4.0±0.5 l vs. 3.6±0.3 l were, respectively, higher in the group of divers compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, in the group of free divers, the measured FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratios were significantly greater than the predicted ones. No differences were found between the measured respiratory pressures. Conclusions: These results indicate that breath-hold diving seems to produce chronic adaptations of the respiratory system, resulting in elevated lung volumes with no airway obstruction.

  20. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden-Close, Emily; Yardley, Lucy; Kirby, Sarah; Thomas, Mike; Bruton, Anne

    2017-10-05

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retraining delivered by digital versatile disc (DVD) or face-to-face sessions with a respiratory physiotherapist) took part in semi-structured telephone interviews about their experiences. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Breathing retraining was perceived positively as a method of asthma management. Motivations for taking part included being asked, to enhance progress in research, to feel better/reduce symptoms, and to reduce medication. Participants were positive about the physiotherapist, liked having the materials tailored, found meetings motivational, and liked the DVD and booklet. The impact of breathing retraining following regular practice included increased awareness of breathing and development of new habits. Benefits of breathing retraining included increased control over breathing, reduced need for medication, feeling more relaxed, and improved health and quality of life. Problems included finding time to practice the exercises, and difficulty mastering techniques. Breathing retraining was acceptable and valued by almost all participants, and many reported improved wellbeing. Face to face physiotherapy was well received. However, some participants in the DVD group mentioned being unable to master techniques. PATIENTS RECEPTIVE TO BREATHING RETRAINING: Patients with asthma taught how to change their unconscious breathing patterns generally like non-pharmacological interventions. Researchers in the UK, led by Mike Thomas from the University of Southampton

  1. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies MicroRNAs from Posterior Intestine of Loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and Their Response to Intestinal Air-Breathing Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Songqian; Cao, Xiaojuan; Tian, Xianchang; Wang, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert important roles in animal growth, immunity, and development, and regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Knowledges about the diversities of miRNAs and their roles in accessory air-breathing organs (ABOs) of fish remain unknown. In this work, we used high-throughput sequencing to identify known and novel miRNAs from the posterior intestine, an important ABO, in loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) under normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited conditions. A total of 204 known and 84 novel miRNAs were identified, while 47 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the two small RNA libraries (i.e. between the normal and intestinal air-breathing inhibited group). Potential miRNA target genes were predicted by combining our transcriptome data of the posterior intestine of the loach under the same conditions, and then annotated using COG, GO, KEGG, Swissprot and Nr databases. The regulatory networks of miRNAs and their target genes were analyzed. The abundances of nine known miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The relative expression profiles of six known miRNAs and their eight corresponding target genes, and two novel potential miRNAs were also detected. Histological characteristics of the posterior intestines in both normal and air-breathing inhibited group were further analyzed. This study contributes to our understanding on the functions and molecular regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in accessory air-breathing organs of fish.

  2. Reduction of carboxyhaemoglobin levels in the venous blood of cigarette smokers following the administration of carbogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Graham; Kondor, Natalie; Yousefi, Vandad; Green, Alex; Wong, Frances; Aquino-Parsons, Christina

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have high carboxyhaemoglobin levels which can promote tumour radioresistance. Inhalation of carbogen gas shortens the half-life of carboxyhaemoglobin, increasing tumour radiosensitivity in animal models. Breathing 2.5% carbogen for 30 min results in a greater reduction in venous blood COHb levels than breathing 5% carbogen for 7 min

  3. Hypercarbic cardiorespiratory reflexes in the facultative air-breathing fish jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus): the role of branchial CO2 chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Boijink, Cheila; Florindo, Luiz Henrique; Leite, Cleo A Costa; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia; Milsom, William K; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2010-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the roles that externally versus internally oriented CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive chemoreceptors might play in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the air-breathing fish, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju). Fish were exposed to graded hypercarbia (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and also to graded levels of environmental acidosis (pH approximately 7.0, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, 5.3 and 4.7) equal to the pH levels of the hypercarbic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO(2) versus H(+). We also injected boluses of CO(2)-equilibrated solutions (5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and acid solutions equilibrated to the same pH as the CO(2) boluses into the caudal vein (internal) and buccal cavity (external) to distinguish between internal and external stimuli. The putative location of the chemoreceptors was determined by bilateral denervation of branches of cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) to the gills. The data indicate that the chemoreceptors eliciting bradycardia, hypertension and gill ventilatory responses (increased frequency and amplitude) to hypercarbia are exclusively branchial, externally oriented and respond specifically to changes in CO(2) and not H(+). Those involved in producing the cardiovascular responses appeared to be distributed across all gill arches while those involved in the gill ventilatory responses were located primarily on the first gill arch. Higher levels of aquatic CO(2) depressed gill ventilation and stimulated air breathing. The chemoreceptors involved in producing air breathing in response to hypercarbia also appeared to be branchial, distributed across all gill arches and responded specifically to changes in aquatic CO(2). This would suggest that chemoreceptor groups with different orientations (blood versus water) are involved in eliciting air-breathing responses to hypercarbia in jeju.

  4. A Pilot Study on the Effects of Slow Paced Breathing on Current Food Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) involves slow paced breathing (approximately six breaths per minute), thereby maximizing low-frequent heart rate oscillations and baroreflex gain. Mounting evidence suggests that HRV-BF promotes symptom reductions in a variety of physical and mental disorders. It may also positively affect eating behavior by reducing food cravings. The aim of the current study was to investigate if slow paced breathing can be useful for attenuating momentary food craving. Female students performed paced breathing either at six breaths per minute (n = 32) or at nine breaths per minute (n = 33) while watching their favorite food on the computer screen. Current food craving decreased during a first resting period, increased during paced breathing, and decreased during a second resting period in both conditions. Although current hunger increased in both conditions during paced breathing as well, it remained elevated after the second resting period in the nine breaths condition only. Thus, breathing rate did not influence specific food craving, but slow paced breathing appeared to have a delayed influence on state hunger. Future avenues are suggested for the study of HRV-BF in the context of eating behavior.

  5. The efficacy of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride in the suppression of morning breath odour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirynen, Marc; Avontroodt, Pieter; Soers, Catherine; Zhao, Hong; Pauwels, Martine; Coucke, Wim; van Steenberghe, Daniel

    2002-10-01

    Breath odour is a complaint encountered worldwide, often linked to microbial overload in the oral cavity. This double blind, crossover, randomised study assessed the efficacy of several antiseptic mouthrinses or slurry vs. a control solution in the prevention of morning bad breath during an experimental period of 7 days without mechanical plaque control. Sixteen dental students with a healthy periodontium abolished, after a thorough professional cleaning, all means of mechanical plaque control during five experimental periods of 7 days, interleaved by washout periods of at least 3 weeks. During each experimental period, as the only oral hygiene measure, the students rinsed twice a day with one of the following formulations (in a randomised order): a 0.2% chlorhexidine-alcohol mouthrinse (CHX-Alc), a 0.05% CHX + 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride + 0.14% zinc lactate mouthrinse (CHX-CPC-Zn), an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride (125 ppm F-/125 ppm F-) containing mouthrinse (AmF/SnF2Mr), a slurry of a tooth paste (AmF/SnF2Sl) containing amine fluoride (350 ppm F-) and stannous fluoride (1050 ppm F-) and a placebo solution (placebo). At days 0, 3 and 7, morning breath was scored via VSC level measurements of the mouth air, and organoleptic ratings of the mouth air and tongue coating. At the same visits both the degree of gingival inflammation and the de novo plaque formation were rated. At the end of each period a questionnaire for subjective ratings was completed and microbiological samples were taken from the tongue dorsum, the saliva and the supragingival plaque for anaerobic and aerobic culturing. Although oral hygiene during the experimental periods was limited to rinsing, bad breath parameters systematically improved (P bacterial load (aerobic & anaerobic) in the saliva (>or= 0.5 log reduction with a superiority (P bacterial load on the tongue dorsum could only be detected for the CHX-Alc solution (0.5 log). The antibacterial effect of the placebo solution and the

  6. Evaluation of the Scott Aviation Portable Protective Breathing Device for contaminant leakage as prescribed by FAA Action Notice A-8150.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Two types of crewmember protective breathing equipment (PBE) were performance tested for compliance with Action Notice A-8150.2 at ground level (- 1,300 feet) and 8,000 feet altitude. PBE 1 was a 'hood with oral-nasal mask,' which used potassium supe...

  7. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakumura, Yuichi; Koyama, Yutaro; Tokutake, Hiroaki; Hida, Toyoaki; Sato, Kazuo; Itoh, Toshio; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck

    2017-02-04

    Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at very low concentrations (ppb level). We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH₃CN, isoprene, 1-propanol) is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer.

  8. Diagnosis by Volatile Organic Compounds in Exhaled Breath from Lung Cancer Patients Using Support Vector Machine Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Sakumura

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs at very low concentrations (ppb level. We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs. We detected 68 VOCs as marker species using GC/MS analysis. We reduced the number of VOCs and used support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify the samples. We observed that a combination of five VOCs (CHN, methanol, CH3CN, isoprene, 1-propanol is sufficient for 89.0% screening accuracy, and hence, it can be used for the design and development of a desktop GC-sensor analysis system for lung cancer.

  9. Improved fireman's compressed air breathing system pressure vessel development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, H. A.; Morris, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prototype high pressure glass filament-wound, aluminum-lined pressurant vessels suitable for use in a fireman's compressed air breathing system were designed, fabricated, and acceptance tested in order to demonstrate the feasibility of producing such high performance, lightweight units. The 4000 psi tanks have a 60 standard cubic foot (SCF) air capacity, and have a 6.5 inch diamter, 19 inch length, 415 inch volume, weigh 13 pounds when empty, and contain 33 percent more air than the current 45 SCF (2250 psi) steel units. The current steel 60 SCF (3000 psi) tanks weigh approximately twice as much as the prototype when empty, and are 2 inches, or 10 percent shorter. The prototype units also have non-rusting aluminum interiors, which removes the hazard of corrosion, the need for internal coatings, and the possibility of rust particles clogging the breathing system.

  10. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Ainslie, Philip N; Hoiland, Ryan L; Willie, Chris K; MacLeod, David B; Madden, Dennis; Maslov, Petra Zubin; Drviš, Ivan; Dujić, Željko

    2016-01-01

    The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on a maximal breath-hold (BH) in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7) performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg). Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline), and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO 2 ) by about 26% (p tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa). The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01). These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H + washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO 2 .

  11. Sensitive Spectroscopic Analysis of Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicer, A.; Bounds, J.; Zhu, F.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Kaya, N.; Aluauee, E.; Amani, M.; Schuessler, H. A.

    2018-06-01

    We have developed a novel optical setup which is based on a high finesse cavity and absorption laser spectroscopy in the near-IR spectral region. In pilot experiments, spectrally resolved absorption measurements of biomarkers in exhaled breath, such as methane and acetone, were carried out using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). With a 172-cm-long cavity, an efficient optical path of 132 km was achieved. The CRDS technique is well suited for such measurements due to its high sensitivity and good spectral resolution. The detection limits for methane of 8 ppbv and acetone of 2.1 ppbv with spectral sampling of 0.005 cm-1 were achieved, which allowed to analyze multicomponent gas mixtures and to observe absorption peaks of 12CH4 and 13CH4. Further improvements of the technique have the potential to realize diagnostics of health conditions based on a multicomponent analysis of breath samples.

  12. Humidity evolution (breathing effect) in enclosures with electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Morten Arnfeldt; Popok, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Packaging and enclosures used for protecting power electronics operating outdoors are designed to withstand the local climatic and environmental changes. Hermetic enclosures are expensive and therefore other solutions for protecting the electronics from a harsh environment are required. One...... of the dangerous parameters is high humidity of air. Moisture can inevitable reach the electronics either due to diffusion through the wall of an enclosure or small holes, which are designed for electrical or other connections. A driving force for humid air movement is the temperature difference between...... the operating electronics and the surrounding environment. This temperature, thus, gives rise to a natural convection, which we also refer to as breathing. Robust and intelligent enclosure designs must account for this breathing as it can significantly change the humidity distribution in the enclosure...

  13. A fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Farmery, Andrew D.; Chen, Rui; Hahn, Clive E. W.

    2011-11-01

    A reliable and cost effective fibre optic oxygen sensor for monitoring of human breathing has been developed using a normal 200μm silica core/silica cladding optical fibre and a polymer sensing matrix. The fibre optic oxygen sensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of a fluorophore by oxygen. The sensing matrix, containing immobilized Pt(II) complexes, was coated at the end of the silica core/silica cladding optical fibre. The sensitivity and time response of the sensor were evaluated using the method of luminescence lifetime measurement. The polymer substrate influence on the time response of the sensor was improved by using a fibre taper design, and the response time of the optimized sensor was less than 200ms. This silica fibre based optic oxygen sensor is suitable for monitoring of patient breathing in intensive care unit in terms of safety and low cost.

  14. Toward Portable Breath Acetone Analysis for Diabetes Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a lifelong condition that may cause death and seriously affects the quality of life of a rapidly growing number of individuals. Acetone is a selective breath marker for diabetes that may contribute to the monitoring of related metabolic disorder and thus simplify the management of this illness. Here, the overall performance of Si-doped WO3 nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis as portable acetone detectors is critically reviewed focusing on the requirements for medical diagnostic. The effect of flow rate, chamber volume and acetone dissociation within the measuring chamber are discussed with respect to the calibration of the sensor response. The challenges for the fabrication of portable breath acetone sensors based on chemo-resistive detectors are underlined indicating possible solutions and novel research directions. PMID:21828897

  15. Examination of dialysis patients with the aminophenazone breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, H.G.; Adler, D.; Hornak, H.; Wuenschmann, H.J.; Mayer, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    In 12 endstage kidney disease patients (8 without and 4 with liver diseases) the activities of cytochrome P 450 -dependent mixed functional oxidases system (MFO) of the liver were studied by using the 14 C-aminophenazone breath test before and after dialysis. The results showed that uremia seems to have a pressing influence on MFO activity. The activity was only significantly increased after dialysis in the group of patients without liver diseases. The MFO activity was reduced in patients with liver diseases. This is a restriction of the hepatic metabolic demethylation capacity. It is unclear if the 14 C-aminophenazone breath test in dialysis patients is qualified to estimate metabolic capacity of the liver. Differentiation between the influence of uremia and of the liver disease on the alteration of MFO activity cannot be made. (author)

  16. Defences against ammonia toxicity in tropical air-breathing fishes exposed to high concentrations of environmental ammonia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Y K; Chew, S F; Wilson, J M; Randall, D J

    2004-10-01

    In the tropics, air-breathing fishes can be exposed to environmental ammonia when stranded in puddles of water during the dry season, during a stay inside a burrow, or after agricultural fertilization. At low concentrations of environmental ammonia, NH(3) excretion is impeded, as in aerial exposure, leading to the accumulation of endogenous ammonia. At high concentrations of environmental ammonia, which results in a reversed NH(3) partial pressure gradient (DeltaP(NH3)), there is retention of endogenous ammonia and uptake of exogenous ammonia. In this review, several tropical air-breathing fishes (giant mudskipper, African catfish, oriental weatherloach, swamp eel, four-eyed sleeper, abehaze and slender African lungfish), which can tolerate high environmental ammonia exposure, are used as examples to demonstrate how eight different adaptations can be involved in defence against ammonia toxicity. Four of these adaptations deal with ammonia toxicity at branchial and/or epithelial surfaces: (1) active excretion of NH(4)(+); (2) lowering of environmental pH; (3) low NH(3) permeability of epithelial surfaces; and (4) volatilization of NH(3), while another four adaptations ameliorate ammonia toxicity at the cellular and subcellular levels: (5) high tolerance of ammonia at the cellular and subcellular levels; (6) reduction in ammonia production; (7) glutamine synthesis; and (8) urea synthesis. The responses of tropical air-breathing fishes to high environmental ammonia are determined apparently by behavioural adaptations and the nature of their natural environments.

  17. Evaluation of the Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Humans Exposed to Plane Waves: The Effect of Breathing Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cavagnaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety aspects of the exposure of people to uniform plane waves in the frequency range from 900 MHz to 5 GHz are analyzed. Starting from a human body model available in the literature, representing a man in resting state, two new anatomical models are considered, representing different phases of the respiratory activity: tidal breath and deep breath. These models have been used to evaluate the whole body Specific Absorption Rate (SAR and the 10-g averaged and 1-g averaged SAR. The analysis is performed using a parallel implementation of the finite difference time domain method. A uniform plane wave, with vertical polarization, is used as an incident field since this is the canonical exposure situation used in safety guidelines. Results show that if the incident electromagnetic field is compliant with the reference levels promulgated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and by IEEE, the computed SAR values are lower than the corresponding basic restrictions, as expected. On the other side, when the Federal Communications Commission reference levels are considered, 1-g SAR values exceeding the basic restrictions for exposure at 4 GHz and above are obtained. Furthermore, results show that the whole body SAR values increase passing from the resting state model to the deep breath model, for all the considered frequencies.

  18. Optimization of imaging before pulmonary vein isolation by radiofrequency ablation: breath-held ungated versus ECG/breath-gated MRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgayer, C.; Haller, S.; Bremerich, J. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Zellweger, M.J.; Sticherling, C.; Buser, P.T. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Cardiology, Basel (Switzerland); Weber, O. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-12-15

    Isolation of the pulmonary veins has emerged as a new therapy for atrial fibrillation. Pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging enhances safety and efficacy; moreover, it reduces radiation exposure of the patients and interventional team. The purpose of this study was to optimize the MR protocol with respect to image quality and acquisition time. In 31 patients (23-73 years), the anatomy of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus was assessed on a 1.5-Tesla scanner with four different sequences: (1) ungated two-dimensional true fast imaging with steady precession (2D-TrueFISP), (2) ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP, (3) ungated breath-held contrast-enhanced three-dimensional turbo fast low-angle shot (CE-3D-tFLASH), and (4) ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP. Image quality was scored from 1 (structure not visible) to 5 (excellent visibility), and the acquisition time was monitored. The pulmonary veins and left atrium were best visualized with CE-3D-tFLASH (scores 4.50 {+-} 0.52 and 4.59 {+-} 0.43) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (4.47 {+-} 0.49 and 4.63 {+-} 0.39). Conspicuity of the oesophagus was optimal with CE-3D-TrueFISP and 2D-TrueFISP (4.59 {+-} 0.35 and 4.19 {+-} 0.46) but poor with CE-3D-tFLASH (1.03 {+-} 0.13) (p < 0.05). Acquisition times were shorter for 2D-TrueFISP (44 {+-} 1 s) and CE-3D-tFLASH (345 {+-} 113 s) compared with ECG/breath-gated 3D-TrueFISP (634 {+-} 197 s) and ECG/breath-gated CE-3D-TrueFISP (636 {+-} 230 s) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an MR imaging protocol comprising CE-3D-tFLASH and 2D-TrueFISP allows assessment of the pulmonary veins, left atrium and oesophagus in less than 7 min and can be recommended for pre-procedural imaging before electric isolation of pulmonary veins. (orig.)

  19. Breathing shoes and complementarities: strategic innovation in a mature industry

    OpenAIRE

    A. Camuffo; A. Furlan; P. Romano; A. Vinelli

    2008-01-01

    This paper tells the story of Geox, an Italian footwear manufacturer that, in less than a decade, has become one of the world's largest shoe manufacturers. Applying the related notions of complementarity and performance landscape to study strategic positioning in the footwear industry, we show that, though grounded on product innovation (the original Geox breathes® patented system which allows ventilation in waterproof rubber sole), Geox's competitive advantage has not grown out of operationa...

  20. Calming Children When Drawing Blood Using Breath-based Biofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Sonne, T.; Merritt, T.; Marshall, P. E.; Lomholt, J.; Müller, J.; Grønbæk, K.

    2017-01-01

    Blood sampling is a common and necessary procedure in the treatment and diagnosis of a variety of diseases. However, it often results in painful and stressful experiences for children. Designed together with domain experts, ChillFish is a breath-controlled biofeedback game technology with bespoke airflow sensor that aims to calm children during blood sampling procedures. An experimental pilot study was conducted in which 20 children aged 6-11 were assigned to one of two conditions involving e...