WorldWideScience

Sample records for breath tests examination

  1. Examination of dialysis patients with the aminophenazone breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 endstage kidney disease patients (8 without and 4 with liver diseases) the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent mixed functional oxidases system (MFO) of the liver were studied by using the 14C-aminophenazone breath test before and after dialysis. The results showed that uremia seems to have a pressing influence on MFO activity. The activity was only significantly increased after dialysis in the group of patients without liver diseases. The MFO activity was reduced in patients with liver diseases. This is a restriction of the hepatic metabolic demethylation capacity. It is unclear if the 14C-aminophenazone breath test in dialysis patients is qualified to estimate metabolic capacity of the liver. Differentiation between the influence of uremia and of the liver disease on the alteration of MFO activity cannot be made. (author)

  2. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  3. [Hydrogen Breath Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Ulrich; Götz, Martin

    2016-02-01

    In the field of gastroenterology hydrogen breath test are used for the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption and small intestine bacterial overgrowth. This paper provides information on performing a hydrogen breath test and shows potential sources of error. PMID:26886040

  4. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  5. 13C-methacetin breath test reproducibility study reveals persistent CYP1A2 stimulation on repeat examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Kasicka-Jonderko; Anna Nita; Krzysztof Jonderko; Magdalena Kami(n)ska; Barbara B(l)o(n)ska-Fajfrowska

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To find the most reproducible quantitative parameter of a standard 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT).METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (10 female, 10 male) underwent the 13C-MBT after intake of 75 mg 13C-methacetin p.o. on three occasions. Short- and medium-term reproducibility was assessed with paired examinations taken at an interval of 2 and 18 d (medians), respectively.RESULTS: The reproducibility of the 1-h cumulative 13C recovery (AUC0-60), characterized by a coefficient of variation of 10%, appeared to be considerably better than the reproducibility of the maximum momentary 13C recovery or the time of reaching it. Remarkably, as opposed to the short gap between consecutive examinations, the capacity of the liver to handle 13C-methacetin increased slightly but statistically significantly when a repeat dose was administered after two to three weeks. Regarding the AUC0-60, the magnitude of this fixed bias amounted to 7.5%. Neither the time gap between the repeat examinations nor the gender of the subjects affected the 13C-MBT reproducibility. CONCLUSION: 13C-MBT is most reproducibly quantified by the cumulative 13C recovery, but the exactitude thereof may be modestly affected by persistent stimulation of CYP1A2 on repeat examinations.

  6. Clinical applications of breath testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Kelly M; Mashir, Alquam; Dweik, Raed A.

    2010-01-01

    Breath testing has the potential to benefit the medical field as a cost-effective, non-invasive diagnostic tool for diseases of the lung and beyond. With growing evidence of clinical worth, standardization of methods, and new sensor and detection technologies the stage is set for breath testing to gain considerable attention and wider application in upcoming years.

  7. Application of stable isotope to breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needles to say, radioisotopes have good characteristics as a tracer for examining biological functions. In fact, scyntigraphy is widely used over Japan. It is true, however, that there are some difficulties in applying radioisotopes to humans. Thus, greater attention began to be attracted to stable isotopes in the late 1960s, because these substances can be used for infants and pregnant women. They can be stored for a long period of time since they do not suffer damping as in the case of radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a tracer, stable isotopes can provide structural-chemical information including the position of isotope labels, and the mass and atomic composition of fragment ions. Such techniques as NMR spectroscopy is employed for this purpose. The method is currently used to perform examinations of congenital metabolic disorders. The carbon isotopes of 13C and 14C are used for breath test. Compounds labeled with these isotopes are administered and their ratio to the total CO2 in breath is measured to diagnose diseases. In the early 1970s, 13C has come into use for breath test. Similar breath test is applied to diagnosis of the bacterial overgrowth syndrome and ileal dysfunction syndrome. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  9. Hydrogen Breath Tests in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectivel...

  10. How to interpret hydrogen breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO as conventionally accepted double-peak criterion on lactulose hydrogen breath test is very insensitive and recently described early-peak criterion is often false positive. Hydrogen breath test is useful to diagnose various types of sugar malabsorption. Technique and interpretation of different hydrogen breath tests are outlined in this review. PMID:21860825

  11. How to Interpret Hydrogen Breath Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, Uday C

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen breath tests using various substrates like glucose, lactulose, lactose and fructose are being used more and more to diagnose small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and lactose or fructose malabsorption. Though quantitative culture of jejunal aspirate is considered as gold standard for the diagnosis of SIBO, hydrogen breath tests, in spite of their low sensitivity, are popular for their non-invasiveness. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for the diagnosis of SIBO a...

  12. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H2 and CH4 gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence...

  13. Hydrogen breath tests in gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen breath tests are widely used to explore pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and carbohydrate malabsorption are disorders detected by these tests that have been proposed to be of great importance for symptoms of GI diseases. Glucose hydrogen breath test is more acceptable for diagnosis of SIBO whereas lactose and fructose hydrogen breath tests are used for detection of lactose and fructose maldigestion respectively. Lactulose hydrogen breath test is also used widely to measure the orocecal transit time for GI motility. These methods are noninvasive and inexpensive. Many patients with functional gut disorders are unaware of the relationship between diet and GI symptoms they present. In particular, patients with chronic symptoms may regard their condition as normal and may not be aware that their symptoms can be effectively managed following a proper diagnosis. Patients with symptoms of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence and altered bowel movements (diarrhea and constipation), or with a medical diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or celiac disease, may have undiagnosed carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO. Hydrogen breath tests are specific and sensitive diagnostic tests that can be used to either confirm or eliminate the possibility of carbohydrate malabsorption or SIBO in such patients. Breath tests, though valuable tools, are underutilized in evaluating dyspepsia and functional bloating and diarrhea as well as suspected malabsorption. However, because of their simplicity, reproducibility and safety of procedure they are now being substituted to more uncomfortable and expensive techniques that were traditionally used in gastroenterology. PMID:25298621

  14. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  15. 42 CFR 84.88 - Breathing bag test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bag test. 84.88 Section 84.88 Public... RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.88 Breathing bag test. (a) Breathing bags will be tested in an air atmosphere saturated...

  16. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  17. 42 CFR 84.91 - Breathing resistance test; exhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; exhalation. 84.91...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.91 Breathing resistance test; exhalation. (a) Resistance to exhalation...-circuit apparatus with a breathing machine as described in § 84.88, and the exhalation resistance...

  18. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  19. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients. PMID:24976698

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84... Masks § 84.122 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance to airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece of a gas mask mounted on a breathing machine both before and...

  1. 42 CFR 84.152 - Breathing tube test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. 84.152... Respirators § 84.152 Breathing tube test; minimum requirements. (a)(1) Type A and Type B supplied-air respirators shall employ one or two flexible breathing tubes of the nonkinking type which extend from...

  2. 46 CFR 197.450 - Breathing gas tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas tests. 197.450 Section 197.450 Shipping....450 Breathing gas tests. The diving supervisor shall insure that— (a) The output of each air... or modification. (b) Purchased supplies of breathing mixtures supplied to a diver are checked...

  3. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  4. Air-breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie depicts the Rocketdyne static test of an air-breathing rocket. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's advanced Transportation Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  5. Breath testing for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: maximizing test accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Richard J; Chey, William D

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has increased considerably owing to a growing recognition of its association with common bowel symptoms including chronic diarrhea, bloating, abdominal distention, and the irritable bowel syndrome. Ideally, an accurate and objective diagnosis of SIBO should be established before initiating antibiotic treatment. Unfortunately, no perfect test exists for the diagnosis of SIBO. The current gold standard, small-bowel aspiration and quantitative culture, is limited by its high cost, invasive nature, lack of standardization, sampling error, and need for dedicated infrastructure. Although not without shortcomings, hydrogen breath testing provides the simplest noninvasive and widely available diagnostic modality for suspected SIBO. Carbohydrates such as lactulose and glucose are the most widely used substrates in hydrogen breath testing, with glucose arguably providing greater testing accuracy. Lactose, fructose, and sorbitol should not be used as substrates in the assessment of suspected SIBO. The measurement of methane in addition to hydrogen can increase the sensitivity of breath testing for SIBO. Diagnostic accuracy of hydrogen breath testing in SIBO can be maximized by careful patient selection for testing, proper test preparation, and standardization of test performance as well as test interpretation. PMID:24095975

  6. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  7. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  8. 42 CFR 84.203 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. 84.203 Section 84.203 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.203 Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements. (a) Resistance...

  9. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  10. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  11. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of 14C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO2 in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective

  12. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  13. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  14. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  15. Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSütterlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research considers distress (intolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation, the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. Furthermore, we assessed the BHT-task’s test-retest reliability in a one-year follow-up. 113 students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task. A subsample of these students (N = 34 repeated the breath holding task in a second session one year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a one year period was high (r = .67, p

  16. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... Due to the large interindividual variations of hydrogen excretion, unabsorbable standards should be used. The intraindividual variations of H2 production/excretion and differences in fermentability of different carbohydrate substrates only allow for semiquantitative estimates of malabsorbed amounts of...... some carbohydrates. Methane breath tests may supplement the information gained from hydrogen measurements, but further evaluations are needed. The hydrogen breath technique is rapid, simple and non-invasive as well as non-radioactive. It may be carried out in a large number of intact individuals under...

  17. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic pathway of 14C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14CO2. This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14CO2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites

  18. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  19. LOW DOSE CAPSULE BASED 13C-UREA BREATH TEST COMPARED WITH THE CONVENTIONAL 13C-UREA BREATH TEST AND INVASIVE TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane MATTAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context One of the limitations of 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection diagnosis in Brazil is the substrate acquisition in capsule presentation. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate a capsule-based 13C-urea, manipulated by the Pharmacy Division, for the clinical practice. Methods Fifty patients underwent the conventional and the capsule breath test. Samples were collected at the baseline and after 10, 20 and 30 minutes of 13C-urea ingestion. Urease and histology were used as gold standard in 83 patients. Results In a total of 50 patients, 17 were positive with the conventional 13C-urea (75 mg breath test at 10, 20 and 30 minutes. When these patients repeated breath test with capsule (50 mg, 17 were positive at 20 minutes and 15 at 10 and 30 minutes. The relative sensitivity of 13C-urea with capsule was 100% at 20 minutes and 88.24% at 10 and at 30 minutes. The relative specificity was 100% at all time intervals. Among 83 patients that underwent capsule breath test and endoscopy the capsule breath test presented 100% of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Capsule based breath test with 50 mg 13C-urea at twenty minutes was found highly sensitive and specific for the clinical setting. HEADINGS- Helicobacter pylori. Breath Test. Urea, analysis.

  20. Deadspace breathing as a screening test for early lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breathing through added external deadspace (V/sub Dext/) was found to increase the tidal volume of normal dogs in order to achieve alveolar ventilation adequate for gas exchange. Addition of V/sub Dext/ did not alter alveolar-arterial gas gradients or cardiovascular function. Respiratory patterns during V/sub Dext/ breathing were compared with variables measured during treadmill exercise to investigate deadspace breathing as an indicator of early lung dysfunction caused by radiation pneumonitis in dogs. Dogs were evaluated clinically, radiographically and by pulmonary function tests at rest before and after inhaling 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles. By 4 mo after inhalation of 32 to 50 μCi/kg 144Ce, there were increases in respiratory frequency and minute volume during V/sub Dext/ breathing and in minute volume and the ventilatory equivalent for O2 while running. No other significant functional, radiographic or clinical changes were noted. The dogs were sacrificed and scattered foci of inflammation were found in their lungs. Deadspace testing detected early, subclinical lung alterations with a sensitivity and at a time identical to treadmill testing and did not require whole-body exercise or training

  1. [14C]urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the [14C]- and [13C]urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted [14C]urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min [14C]urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that [14C]urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the [14C]urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model

  2. Clinical 13CO2 breath tests: methodology and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed to perform 13CO2 breath tests and the limitations and sources of error in these tests were explored. The random error introduced during each step of the analysis was determined and it was found that the precision was limited by the fluctuations in the isotope ratio of the patient's endogenous CO2. The detection limit was a 1.4 percent increase in the isotope ratio. This corresponds to an oxidation rate of 140 nmoles/kg-hr of singly labeled substrate to CO2. The use of stable isotope 13C provides a safe and sensitive alternative to the use of the radionuclide 14C and extends the utility of CO2 breath tests to the previously exempted populations of children and pregnant women

  3. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  4. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO2 after correction of endogenous production of CO2. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, 14 C-UBT and 13 C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the 13 C-UBT

  5. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  6. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Deslandres, Colette

    1999-01-01

    The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This t...

  7. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a nutritio

  8. Test-retest reproducibility of hydrogen breath test for lactose maldigestion in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, C; Solomons, N W

    1987-01-01

    The test-retest reproducibility of the H2 breath test within the same individual has not been rigorously evaluated in preschool children. In the present study, 10 children--5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-digesters on their first testing, and 5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-maldigesters at first screening--were retested under identical conditions of a second opportunity. In each case, the same diagnostic classification was provided, for a reproducibility of 100%. Regression of the area under the curve of the change in breath H2 concentration during the 3 h of the test had a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.59 (p = 0.05). The time-course of 3-h H2 breath tests in 43 children with lactose maldigestion revealed a peaking of the concentration of H2 most commonly 120 min following the oral dose of 240 ml whole milk. Seventy-seven percent of the children who eventually proved to be lactose maldigesters were so diagnosed by the end of the second hour of the breath test. Thus, even the abbreviated breath sampling schedule used in children is sensitive, and few maldigesters would go undetected because of a late rise in breath H2 concentration. PMID:3694351

  9. Application of electrochemical breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori in screening of Moscow students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkina, I A; Korotkova, O A; Loginov, I A; Vasilieva, E A; Yashina, N V; Anokhina, I V; Kozlov, A V; Tumanova, G M; Tedoradze, R V; Dalin, M V

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection is analyzed by the results of screening of first- and fourth-year students of Moscow Institute of Foreign Affairs using HelicoSense Scientific breath test system. Age-related dynamics of the infection in patients examined for the first time has been traced. The data on infection rates in patients after eradication therapy are presented. PMID:22803077

  10. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14CO2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  11. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  12. Activity calibration in breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical and measurement problems of the breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori are briefly discussed. Calibrated results obtained for population of 108 cases indicate difference between HP+ (infected with Helicobacter pylori) and HP- (non infected with Helicobacter pylori) in exhaled 14C activity not less than 3.9 kBq while the lower limit for HP+ cases was set at 6.8 kBq at the detection limit: 0.9 Bq/mmol of CO2. It was estimated that in exhalation way up to 29% of the taken activity was removed in HP+ cases during first 35 minutes. Radiation hazard for the patient system is negligibly small - dose equipment not exceeds 0.29% of the natural (environmental) yearly exposure. (author)

  13. The cut-off criterion for a positive hydrogen breath test in children: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Barillas, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three preschool children with adequate nutritional status underwent interval-sampling, 3-hour breath-hydrogen carbohydrate absorption tests after consuming either 240 ml of intact milk (containing 12 g of lactose) or the same volume of milk with 90-95% of its lactose prehydrolyzed in vitro (containing less than 1 g lactose, with the remaining sugar as glucose and galactose). Results were examined in a reappraisal of the cut-off criterion for the rise of breath H2 concentration signifying biologically incomplete absorption. If the greater than or equal to 10-ppm criterion advocated by some investigators is used, 83% of our subjects would have been classified as incomplete lactose digesters and 30% would have their tests with the monosaccharide-rich milk classified as positive. With the greater than or equal to 20 ppm criterion used in our laboratory and others, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the sample becomes 60% and only 4% of subjects have apparent monosaccharide absorption, 96% having a rise below the cut-off level with prehydrolyzed milk. At least in Guatemalan preschoolers, the 20-ppm criterion for a positive breath H2 test provides a superior specificity-sensitivity balance and more reasonable diagnostic conclusions. PMID:3794911

  14. Diagnostic Value of the 13C Methacetin Breath Test in Various Stages of Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizah Razlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT in differentiating between various stages of liver disease is not clear. A cross-sectional study of Asian patients was conducted to examine the predictive value of the 13C-MBT in various stages of chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic accuracy of the breath test was determined by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve analysis. Seventy-seven patients (47 men/30 women, mean age 50±16 years were recruited. Forty-seven patients had liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh A = 11, Child Pugh B = 15, and Child Pugh C = 21, 21 had fibrosis, and 9 had chronic inflammation. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for liver fibrosis, cirrhosis (all stages, Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B, and Child-Pugh C were 65% and 56%, 89% and 89%, 67% and 42%, 40% and 40%, and 50% and 77%, respectively. Area under curve values for fibrosis was 0.62 (0.39–0.86, whilst that for cirrhosis (all stages was 0.95 (0.91–0.99. The 13C-methacetin breath test has a poor predictive value for liver fibrosis but accurately determines advanced cirrhosis.

  15. Modified 13C-urea breath test and the detection of helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) is one of the most important non-invasive methods for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection. This examination is innocuous, simple, highly accurate. While the major drawback of 13C-UBT is the higher cost compared with other methods which hold back its widely using. The author review focuses on the most recent advances in the machines used to measure the 13C isotope and on the most important improvements about the UBT, such as the use of lower dose 13C-urea tablet or capsule, the modification of test meal, a shortened collection time of exhalation sample and so on

  16. 14C-urea breath test in the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is supposed to be one of the major causes of digestive and other diseases. Among a lot of invasive and non-invasive methods for its detection, none is ideal. The aim is an assessment of the Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach using breath test and comparison to other diagnostic methods, as well as following up the effects of therapy. In 17 patients with digestive discomfort, breath test, rapid urease test and histology were performed, while in 47 patients with proven HP infection the effect of therapy was followed up using breath test and clinical findings. Breath test was performed after per oral administration of the capsule of 14C urea (37 kBq). Findings of the breath and urease tests were in accordance in 14/17 patients (83%) while breath test and histology in 16/17 patients (94%). During follow-up of the therapeutic effects, breath test and clinical findings were in accordance in 43/47 patients (98%). Breath test can be useful in diagnosis but is a method of choice in following up the patients after therapy for H. pylori infection, because it is non-invasive, fast and precise. (author)

  17. The microdose rapid 14C urea breath test compares well with the original rapid 14 breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The 14C urea breath test (CUBT) is a sensitive test used in the detection of H. pylori infection. The rapid 14CUBT using 185 KBq of 14C urea showed a sensitivity of 100% when tested in 36 patients. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the 14CUBT performed following the ingestion of 37KBq microdose 14C urea capsule (Bicapsule, Trimed) with the earlier method which uses 185 KBq 14C urea. 19 patients (nine female age 21-52 yrs) were studied. All subjects first underwent a 14CUBT with the microdose capsule and a single 15 minute post ingestion sample. An hour later the test was repeated but with a dose of 185 KBq 14C urea in liquid form. A normal result was taken as 2 = 0.92). This is shown above. The Rapid 14CUBT performed following the microdose capsule whilst reducing patient radiation exposure is an accurate test for the detection of H. pylori. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  19. (13) C Breath Tests Are Feasible in Patients With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarsch, Jan; Menk, Mario; Malinowski, Maciej; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been established as an essential part of therapy in patients with pulmonary or cardiac failure. As physiological gaseous exchange is artificially altered in this patient group, it is debatable whether a (13) C-breath test can be carried out. In this proof of technical feasibility report, we assess the viability of the (13) C-breath test LiMAx (maximum liver function capacity) in patients on ECMO therapy. All breath probes for the test device were obtained directly via the membrane oxygenator. Data of four patients receiving liver function assessment with the (13) C-breath test LiMAx while having ECMO therapy were analyzed. All results were compared with validated scenarios of the testing procedures. The LiMAx test could successfully be carried out in every case without changing ECMO settings. Clinical course of the patients ranging from multiorgan failure to no sign of liver insufficiency was in accordance with the results of the LiMAx liver function test. The (13) C-breath test is technically feasible in the context of ECMO. Further evaluation of (13) C-breath test in general would be worthwhile. The LiMAx test as a (13) C-breath test accessing liver function might be of particular predictive interest if patients with ECMO therapy develop multiorgan failure. PMID:26527580

  20. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  1. An evaluation of the multiple-breath nitrogen washout as a pulmonary function test in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; McDonell, W. N.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple-breath nitrogen washouts (MBNW) were performed with 29 light horses. Seven normal horses were used to examine the reproducibility, and 22, ranging from normal to severely diseased, were used to examine the changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effect of a bronchodilator, salbutamol, on the distribution of ventilation. The MBNW were analyzed using the functional residual capacity (FRC), end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the MBNW (FETN2,fb), en...

  2. Almagate interference in breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.

  3. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations. Comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation. Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and inspiration before and after hyperventilation. Results. The mean breath-hold times in expiration (patients: 24±9 sec, volunteers: 27±7 sec) were significantly shorter than those in inspiration (patients: 41±20 sec, p<0.001; volunteers: 62±18 sec, p<0.001). Additional hyperventilation resulted in a significant increase (range: 40-60%, p≤0.005) of the mean breathhold times either in expiration and in inspiration and for both patients and volunteers. Conclusions. Although breath-holding in expiration is recommended for various imaging studies particularly of the thorax and of the abdomen, suspending respiration in inspiration enables the patient a considerable longer breath-hold time. (author)

  4. (13)C-5-FU breath test current status and future directions: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzeldin, Hany H; Acosta, Edward P; Mattison, Lori K; Fourie, Jeanne; Modak, Anil; Diasio, Robert B

    2009-12-01

    Breath tests (BTs) represent a safe non-invasive alternative strategy that could provide valuable diagnostic information in conditions like fat malabsorption, carbohydrate (lactose and fructose) malabsorption, liver dysfunction, impaired gastric emptying, abnormal small bowel transit time, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and Helicobacter pylori infection. To date, despite the availability of a number of breath tests, only three have gained approval by the FDA for application in a clinical setting ((13)C-urea breath test for the detection of H. pylori; NO breath test for monitoring asthma and alkane breath test for heart transplant rejection). Unfortunately, none of these tests investigate cancer patients or response to cancer chemotherapy. Several years ago it was realized that the presence of a reliable non-invasive approach could assist in the detection of patients at risk of developing severe life-threatening toxicities prior to the administration of fluoropyrimidines (e.g. 5-FU) or related cancer chemotherapy. 5-FU toxicity results mainly from deficient uracil catabolism. This review discusses the development of a BT that utilizes an orally administered pyrimidine ([2-(13)C]-uracil) which is metabolized via the same catabolic pathway as 5-FU. This ([2-(13)C]-uracil) breath test could provide a valuable addition to the patients' standard of care. PMID:21386199

  5. Methodology and application of 13C breath test in gastroenterology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C breath test has been widely used in research of nutrition, pharmacology and gastroenterology for its properties such as safety, non-invasion and so on. The author describes the principle, methodology of 13C breath test and its application in detection to Helico-bacteria pylori infection in stomach and small bowl bacterial overgrowth, measurement of gastric emptying, pancreatic exocrine function and liver function with various substrates

  6. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Däbritz, Jan; Mühlbauer, Michael; Domagk, Dirk; Voos, Nicole; Henneböhl, Geraldine; Siemer, Maria L; Foell, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in pediatric patients; and determine the significance of the findings and the outcome of patients with carbohydrate malabsorption. Methods We included 206 children (88 male, 118 female, median age 10.7 years, range 3–18 years) with a total...

  7. Carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Campylobacter pylori (CP), an organism suspected of causing chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. To detect gastric urease, we examined 32 patients who were being evaluated for possible peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given 10 microCi (370 kBq) of 14C-labeled urea. Breath samples were collected in hyamine at intervals between 1 and 30 min. The amount of 14C collected at these times was expressed as: body weight X (% of administered dose of 14C in sample)/(mmol of CO2 collected). The presence of C. pylori colonization was also determined by examination of multiple endoscopic gastric biopsy specimens. On average, patients who were proven to have C. pylori infection exhaled 20 times more labeled CO2 than patients who were not infected. The difference between infected patients and C. pylori negative control patients was highly significant at all time points between 2 and 30 min after ingestion of the radionuclide (p less than 0.0001). The noninvasive urea breath is less expensive than endoscopic biopsy of the stomach and more accurate than serology as a means of detecting Campylobacter pylori infection. Because the test detects actual viable CP organisms, it can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium after antibacterial therapy

  8. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  9. Acidic colonic microclimate--possible reason for false negative hydrogen breath tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, H; Ferenci, P; Frotz, S; Meryn, S.; Gangl, A

    1988-01-01

    About 5% of normal subjects fail to produce increased hydrogen breath concentration after ingestion of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose (low hydrogen producers). The existence of low hydrogen producers limits the diagnostic use of hydrogen (H2) breath tests. We studied the effects of lactulose and of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) pretreatment on stool-pH and on hydrogen exhalation after oral loading with lactulose or lactose in 17 hydrogen producers and 12 low hydrogen producers. In sev...

  10. Tricks for interpreting and making a good report on hydrogen and 13C breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, G; Di Rienzo, T A; Scaldaferri, F; Del Zompo, F; Pizzoferrato, M; Lopetuso, L R; Laterza, L; Bruno, G; Petito, V; Campanale, M C; Cesario, V; Franceschi, F; Cammarota, G; Gaetani, E; Gasbarrini, A; Ojetti, V

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests (BT) represent a valid and non-invasive diagnostic tool in many gastroenterological disorders. Their wide diffusion is due to the low cost, simplicity and reproducibility and their common indications include diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, Helicobacter pylori infection, small bowel bacterial overgrowth, gastric emptying time and orocaecal transit time. The review deals with key points on methodology, which would influence the correct interpretation of the test and on a correct report. While a clear guideline is available for lactose and glucose breath tests, no gold standard is available for Sorbitol, Fructose or other H2 BTs. Orocaecal transit time (OCTT) defined as time between assumption of 10 g lactulose and a peak > 10 ppm over the baseline value, is a well-defined breath test. The possible value of lactulose as a diagnostic test for the diagnosis of small bowel bacterial overgrowth is still under debate. Among (13)C breath test, the best and well characterized is represented by the urea breath test. Well-defined protocols are available also for other (13)C tests, although a reimbursement for these tests is still not available. Critical points in breath testing include the patient preparation for test, type of substrate utilized, reading machines, time between when the test is performed and when the test is processed. Another crucial point involves clinical conclusions coming from each test. For example, even if lactulose could be utilized for diagnosing small bowel bacterial overgrowth, this indication should be only secondary to orocaecal transit time, and added into notes, as clinical guidelines are still uncertain. PMID:24443074

  11. Diagnostic value of 14C urea breath test for Hp-associated peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a method of 14C urea breath test and to evaluate the accuracy of the method in clinical diagnosis. Methods: Helicobacter pylori(Hp)-positive patients were defined either by positive bacterial culture or by positive rapid urease test of endoscopic biopsy specimens. 1384 patients with suspected peptic disease were underwent 14C urea breath test. Of them, 44 patients underwent dynamic test at various intervals to determine the optimal time for expiratory air collection. Results: Dynamic breath test showed that the highest point of 14C counts was at 30 min after administration of 14C urea. When a cut-off value of 3.5 was selected, the sensitivity and specificity was of the test for detecting Hp infection 96.7% and 96.5% respectively. Hp positive rate detected by 14C urea breath test in 1092 adults and 292 children was 50.4% and 81.2%. Conclusions: This study suggests that 14C urea breath test is a simple and reliable method for detection of Hp infection and is of high sensitivity and specificity

  12. Aminopyrine breath test for evaluation of liver function. How to analyse the 14CO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that breath analysis of 14CO2, following administration of specifically labelled 14C-dimethylaminoantipyrine, allows assessment of Vsub(max) and Ksub(m) of in vivo demethylation in the rat. Consequently, this procedure was modified for application in man. Whereas in 23 liver normals the disappearance constant ksub(B) of 14CO2 from breath was 21+-SD4%/h, ksub(B) was significantly reduced in 14 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (8+-4%/h). Breath analysis is suggested as a non-invasive, convenient and valid method for measuring hepatic microsomal demethylation. Breath analysis discriminates between liver normals and patients with impaired liver function as well as established quantitative liver function tests (disappearance rate of BSP, galactose elimination capacity)

  13. A 14-day elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing the lactulose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark; Constantino, Tess; Kong, Yuthana; Bajwa, Meera; Rezaei, Abolghasem; Park, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive subjects with IBS and abnormal LBT suggesting the presence of bacterial overgrowth underwent a 2-week exclusive elemental diet. The diet consisted of Vivonex Plus (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Minneapolis, MN) in a quantity based on individual caloric requirement. On day 15 (prior to solid food), subjects returned for a follow-up breath test and those with an abnormal LBT were continued on the diet for an additional 7 days. The ability of an elemental diet to normalize the LBT was determined for days 15 and 21. A chart review was then conducted to evaluate any clinical benefit 1 month later. Of the 93 subjects available for analysis, 74 (80%) had a normal LBT on day 15 of the elemental diet. When those who continued to day 21 were included, five additional patients normalized the breath test (85%). On chart review, subjects who successfully normalized their breath test had a 66.4 +/- 36.1% improvement in bowel symptoms, compared to 11.9 +/- 22.0% in those who failed to normalize (P < 0.001). An elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing an abnormal LBT in IBS subjects, with a concomitant improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:14992438

  14. Validation of 14 C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to validate the 14 C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of 14 C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p 14 C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  15. A methodological aspect of the 14C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with 14C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with 14C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author)

  16. Change of Gastric Emptying With Chewing Gum: Evaluation Using a Continuous Real-Time 13C Breath Test (BreathID System)

    OpenAIRE

    Sakamoto, Yasunari; Kato, Shingo; Sekino, Yusuke; Sakai, Eiji; Uchiyama, Takashi; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Fujita, Koji; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Tokoro, Chikako; Goto, Ayumu; Abe, Yasunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims There are few reports on the correlation between chewing gum and the gastrointestinal functions. But previous report showed use of chewing gum to be an effective method for controlling gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between chewing gum and gastric emptying using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Methods Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, 2-way crossover study. The subjects fa...

  17. Rapid point-of-care breath test for biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Phillips

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported volatile organic compounds (VOCs in breath as biomarkers of breast cancer and abnormal mammograms, apparently resulting from increased oxidative stress and cytochrome p450 induction. We evaluated a six-minute point-of-care breath test for VOC biomarkers in women screened for breast cancer at centers in the USA and the Netherlands. METHODS: 244 women had a screening mammogram (93/37 normal/abnormal or a breast biopsy (cancer/no cancer 35/79. A mobile point-of-care system collected and concentrated breath and air VOCs for analysis with gas chromatography and surface acoustic wave detection. Chromatograms were segmented into a time series of alveolar gradients (breath minus room air. Segmental alveolar gradients were ranked as candidate biomarkers by C-statistic value (area under curve [AUC] of receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve. Multivariate predictive algorithms were constructed employing significant biomarkers identified with multiple Monte Carlo simulations and cross validated with a leave-one-out (LOO procedure. RESULTS: Performance of breath biomarker algorithms was determined in three groups: breast cancer on biopsy versus normal screening mammograms (81.8% sensitivity, 70.0% specificity, accuracy 79% (73% on LOO [C-statistic value], negative predictive value 99.9%; normal versus abnormal screening mammograms (86.5% sensitivity, 66.7% specificity, accuracy 83%, 62% on LOO; and cancer versus no cancer on breast biopsy (75.8% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity, accuracy 78%, 67% on LOO. CONCLUSIONS: A pilot study of a six-minute point-of-care breath test for volatile biomarkers accurately identified women with breast cancer and with abnormal mammograms. Breath testing could potentially reduce the number of needless mammograms without loss of diagnostic sensitivity.

  18. A study on Helicobacter pylori infection in different parts of Karnataka using 14C urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-invasive 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) technique was used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The test utilises 14CO2 released due to the action of urease produced by H pylori. 14C UBT is found to be a simple alternative for endoscopic examinations for diagnosing H pylori infection. The test was performed on 664 subjects from various parts of Karnataka. Among them 34.9% of the subjects were found to be H pylori positive, and the infection rate varied from 16.9% to 38.6%. (author)

  19. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  20. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi Antonio E.; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M; Lopes Fabiana L.; Mezzasalma Marco A; Zin Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD) patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A to...

  1. 14C octanoic acid breath tests correlate with scintigraphy in the critically ill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Gastric stasis is common in the critically ill and reduces tolerance to nasogastric feeding. Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying is rarely used in the critically ill for practical reasons. Breath testing would be a more convenient way of determining gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was to validate 14C octanoic acid breath tests against scintigraphy in ventilated patients. 21 unselected mechanically ventilated patients receiving enteral nutrition via a nasogastric tube (14M, mean age 58yrs) were fed a dual radiolabelled nutrient meal consisting of 100ml Ensure, 74KBq 14C octanoic acid and 20MBq 99Tc sulphur colloid. 12 normal volunteers (9M mean age 38yrs) were also studied to establish normal ranges. Dynamic scintigraphic images were collected with subjects in 20 deg LAO position over 4 hours utilising a GE Starcam 300M mobile gamma camera. Breath samples were collected using the RAH 'Rapid-14' collection methodology at baseline and every 10 -15 minutes for 4 hours. Gastric emptying parameters were calculated and correlated. Normal breath test mean t- = 117min (SD=46). Delayed gastric emptying was seen in some of the critically ill patients, mean t- - 143 mm (SD=86). Strongest correlations were between normals scintigraphic t- (t-s) and breath test t- (t-B), r=0.96 (p-B, r=0.75 (p-s and t-B, n=16, r=0.73 (p14C octanoic acid breath tests in normal subjects and the critically ill. This may be a useful alternative for measurement of gastric emptying in the critically ill. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  2. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  3. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  5. Accuracy of the 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of simple, accurate and low-expense techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection has great relevance. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid 14 C-urea breath test (UBT) employing a very simple device for breathed air collection. One hundred and thirty-seven adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Clinical Hospital. The main measurements were histology for Helicobacter pylori (HP); urease test; urea breath test (UBT). One hundred and fifteen patients were infected by HP (HP +) according to both histology and the urease test, and 22 patients were HP-negative (HP-), according to the same two tests. UBT was capable of discriminating between HP + and HP- in a way that was similar to the combination of urease test and histology. When this combination of results is taken as the 'gold standard' for HP infection, the sensitivity and specificity of UBT are both greater than 90% for a range of cut-off points and breathed air collection times. It was concluded that the rapid UBT employing a simple device for air collection has a high accuracy in determining HP infection. (author)

  6. Application of the glycocolate 14C breath test in the stydy of rosacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel bacterial contamination was determined in patients affected by rosacea normal or gastric hyposecretors. The Breath Test 14C was used with glycocolate 14C Na. The study was completed by determination of gastric acidity, Key test, Schilling test and d xilosa test with positive results. Metronidazol was administered to these patients, thus normalizing the small bowel contamination and, at the same time, improving the dermatological process. (M.E.L.)

  7. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  8. Breath tests sustainability in hospital settings: cost analysis and reimbursement in the Italian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, M; Scaldaferri, F; Ojetti, V; Poscia, A

    2013-01-01

    The high demand of Breath Tests (BT) in many gastroenterological conditions in time of limited resources for health care systems, generates increased interest in cost analysis from the point of view of the delivery of services to better understand how use the money to generate value. This study aims to measure the cost of C13 Urea and other most utilized breath tests in order to describe key aspects of costs and reimbursements looking at the economic sustainability for the hospital. A hospital based cost-analysis of the main breath tests commonly delivery in an ambulatory setting is performed. Mean salary for professional nurses and gastroenterologists, drugs/preparation used and disposable materials, purchase and depreciation of the instrument and the testing time was used to estimate the cost, while reimbursements are based on the 2013 Italian National Health System ambulatory pricelist. Variables that could influence the model are considered in the sensitivity analyses. The mean cost for C13--Urea, Lactulose and Lactose BT are, respectively, Euros 30,59; 45,20 and 30,29. National reimbursement often doesn't cover the cost of the analysis, especially considering the scenario with lower number of exam. On the contrary, in high performance scenario all the reimbursement could cover the cost, except for the C13 Urea BT that is high influenced by the drugs cost. However, consideration about the difference between Italian Regional Health System ambulatory pricelist are done. Our analysis shows that while national reimbursement rates cover the costs of H2 breath testing, they do not cover sufficiently C13 BT, particularly urea breath test. The real economic strength of these non invasive tests should be considered in the overall organization of inpatient and outpatient clinic, accounting for complete diagnostic pathway for each gastrointestinal disease. PMID:24443075

  9. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  10. Assessment of the (14C) aminopyrine breath test in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of performing the (14C) aminopyrine breath test have been assessed. A tracer dose of 2 μCi without a loading dose and with a single breath collection at two hours was the method selected, since it gave the best discrimination between patients with hepatocellular diseases and normal subjects (5.2 +- 0.2%, mean - SEM). Reduced values occurred in patients with chronic active hepatitis (with and without cirrhosis) (1.5 +- 0.2%), alcoholic cirrhosis (1.7 +- 0.4%) and hepatitis (2.5 +- 0.3%), and late primary biliary cirrhosis suggesting defective microsomal function with respect to demethylation. Normal results were common in early primary biliary cirrhosis. Two weeks of prednisolone therapy caused some improvement in the breath test in nine of ten patients with chronic active hepatitis. It is concluded that the (14C) aminopyrine breath test is a simple test for detecting hepatocellular dysfunction, but has no obvious diagnostic advantage over the determination of serum aspartate transaminase and two hour post-prandial bile-acids. (author)

  11. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinaElizabethDavis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  12. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  13. A novel breath test to directly measure use of vaginal gel and condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Cheng, Helen; Wasdo, Scott; Montgomery, Liz; Smith-McCune, Karen; Booth, Matthew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; Morey, Timothy E; Dennis, Donn M

    2013-07-01

    We assessed the feasibility of a breath test to detect women's single or concurrent use of vaginal products by adding ester taggants to vaginal gel and condom lubricant. Healthy non-pregnant women were enrolled into a two-day cohort (N = 13) and a single-day cohort (N = 12) in San Francisco. Within each cohort, women were randomized (5:1) to tagged or untagged products, and inserted in a clinical setting: 4 mL of tenofovir placebo gel (ten tagged with 15 mg 2-pentyl acetate; three untagged), and an artificial phallus with a lubricated condom (11 tagged with 15 mg 2-butyl acetate; two untagged), on two separate days (two-day cohort) or concurrently (single-day cohort). Using a portable mini-gas chromatograph, the presence/absence of taggants was determined in breath specimens collected prior to, and at timed intervals following product exposure. Demographic, clinical and product use experience data were collected by structured interview. All participants completed all visits and inserted their assigned products. At 5 min post-insertion, the breath test was 100% accurate in identifying insertion of the tagged (or untagged) gel and/or condom. The half-life in breath of the two esters tested was <1 h with large variability between individuals, taggants and cohorts. Overall, among those receiving tagged product, six mild and two moderate product-related AEs were reported. All were transient and resolved spontaneously. Additional sensations included taste in mouth (N = 4) and scent (N = 5). The tagged products were well tolerated. This breath test has the potential to accurately and objectively monitor adherence to vaginal gel and condom used separately or concurrently. PMID:23321948

  14. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with infrared isotope spectrometry for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have evaluated a 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The 13C-test was analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry and compared with a 14C-urea breath test and the urease test in gastric mucosal biopsies. 46 patients were analyzed with breath tests, 23 patients were negative and 22 patients were positive with both methods. One patients was positive with 14C-method and negative with the 13C-urea breath test. 61 patients were analyzed with the 13C-urea breath test and the urease test. 30 patients were negative and 30 patients were positive with both methods, whereas one patient with a negative urease test had a positive breath test. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry is a fast, simple, non-radioactive, non-invasive, convenient and reliable method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. Glucose tolerance by 13CO2 breath test methodology and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The glucose tolerance test is a valuable diagnostic aid. The ability to utilize carbohydrate is decreased in diabetics and increased in hypopituitarism, hyperinsulinism, and adrenocortical hypofunction. Developments in mass spectrometric technology and availability of 13C-enriched substrates for clinical research have enabled the clinician to perform 13CO2 breath tests in normal and patients with various diseases. In this paper, we planned to evaluate the applicability of the non-invasive 13CO2 breath test for glucose tolerance studies and for the diagnosis of disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in adults using natural glucose. The methodology for breath sample collection, storage and analysis was developed and experimental conditions were designed and optimized. Static absorption of breath CO2 was carried out by having the subject exhale through a Tygon tube attached with glass adapter into an empty 250 ml flat bottom flask. Flask was closed by stopper after adding 10 ml 1.5 N NaOH solution and was shaken for 5 minutes. Samples were stored in plastic lined screw-cap vials for analysis. Analysis of same breath sample (δ 13C value -25.63, n=3) and laboratory internal standard (δ 13C value -3.56, n=4) show precision 0.10 and 0.03 respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed on normal volunteers using naturally labeled glucose (glaxose-D) in fasting and non fasting conditions using standard test meal. MS Excel software template for trioctanoic acid breath test, got from W. A. Coward, Dunn Nutrition Center, U. K. was modified for calculations of cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered from natural glucose. Mean glucose tolerance test data from Marcel Lacroix (1973) was used to the modified template and cumulative percentage of 13C dose was calculated and compared with our experiments' results. Marcel Lacroix fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 30.53 ± 4.06, n=8, 20-32 years. PINSTECH fasted data shows percentage dose recovered 31.28

  16. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to......The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... technique was determined in 20 patients following ingestion of lactulose. The increment between consecutive means of duplicate samples indicative of a significant rise of H2 concentration never exceeded 10 p.p.m., the mean coefficient of variation of the duplicate samples was below 5%. Fasting H2 levels...

  17. 14C-triolein breath test in the diagnosis of steatorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-triolein breath test was evaluated as a screening test for steatorrhea in 66 consecutive patients. Steatorrhea was found in 20 patients. Following an oral dose of 14C-triolein, 14CO2-activity in the expiratory air was measured after zero, three, four, five and six hours. Maximum 14CO 2-expiration was calculated. The ability of the test to discriminate between patients with steatorrhea and patients without steatorrhea showed a specificity of 98%, and a sensitivity of 85%. Thus the 14C-triolein test seems to be sufficiently accurate as a screening test for steatorrhea

  18. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Antonio E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% (n=13 PD patients, 14.8% (n=4 SAD patients, 9.5% (n=2 GAD patients had a panic attack after the test (c²= 21.44, df= 2, p=0.001. There was no heart rate or anxiety levels difference among the groups before and after the test. CONCLUSION: In this breath-holding challenge test the panic disorder patients were more sensitive than other anxiety disorder patients.

  19. Update on diagnostic value of breath test in gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ahmed, Sibtain; Abid, Shahab

    2016-08-15

    In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption. Evaluation of gastric emptying is routinely performed by scintigraphy which is however, difficult to perform and not suitable for children and pregnant women, this review has abridged the 13C-octanoic acid test in comparison to scintigraphy and has emphasized on its working protocol and challenges. A new development such as electronic nose test is also highlighted. Moreover we have also explored the limitations and constraints restraining the wide use of these BT. We conclude that breath testing has an enormous potential to be used as a diagnostic modality. In addition it offers distinct advantages over the traditional invasive methods commonly employed. PMID:27574563

  20. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p animal models. PMID:27294128

  1. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  2. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p < 0.01) with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0 ± 2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0 ± 1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0 ± 0.8 d). The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models. PMID:27294128

  3. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO’s association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical r...

  4. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Diagnosed by Glucose Hydrogen Breath Test in Post-cholecystectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hea Jung; Paik, Chang-Nyol; Chung, Woo Chul; Lee, Kang-Moon; Yang, Jin-Mo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Patients undergoing cholecystectomy may have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of SIBO in patients with intestinal symptoms following cholecystectomy. Methods Sixty-two patients following cholecystectomy, 145 with functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs), and 30 healthy controls undergoing hydrogen (H2)-methane (CH4) glucose breath test (GBT) were included in the study. Before performing GBT, all patients were ...

  5. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y.; RUTGEERTS, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  6. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  7. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji; Surampudi, Anand B.

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring.

  8. An acetone breath analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy: an initial test with human subjects under various situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a portable breath acetone analyzer using cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). The instrument was initially tested by measuring the absorbance of breath gases at a single wavelength (266 nm) from 32 human subjects under various conditions. A background subtraction method, implemented to obtain absorbance differences, from which an upper limit of breath acetone concentration was obtained, is described. The upper limits of breath acetone concentration in the four Type 1 diabetes (T1D) subjects, tested after a 14 h overnight fast, range from 0.80 to 3.97 parts per million by volume (ppmv), higher than the mean acetone concentration (0.49 ppmv) in non-diabetic healthy breath reported in the literature. The preliminary results show that the instrument can tell distinctive differences between the breath from individuals who are healthy and those with T1D. On-line monitoring of breath gases in healthy people post-exercise, post-meals and post-alcohol-consumption was also conducted. This exploratory study demonstrates the first CRDS-based acetone breath analyzer and its potential application for point-of-care, non-invasive, diabetic monitoring

  9. The interest of the 13C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with 13C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs

  10. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14C-urea breath test (UBT). 14C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  11. Microdose 14C urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: a survey in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dowlatabadi Bazaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon -14 urea breath test (UBTis a non-invasive and simple method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Attempts have been made to use lower doses of 14C-urea in the UBT in order to reduce the radiation risk of the test. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a microdose (1 µCi [37 KBq] 14C-UBT in Iranian population for validation of its diagnostic accuracy against gold standard methods. Eighty and two patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as 14C-UBT in one week. Rapid urease test and histological examinations were used as gold standard. Breath samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 minute after ingestion of 1 µCi of 14C- urea solution and their activities were measured using a scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (cpm and disintegration per minute (dpm. Good agreement was observed between the 14C-UBT and gold standard for samples which were collected 20 minutes after 14C-urea administration. The 14CUBT showed 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 95.45% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 97.50% accuracy. The results of this study showed good concordance between the 14C-UBT and invasive methods.

  12. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  13. Posttreatment 13C-Urea Breath Test Is Predictive of Antimicrobial Resistance to H. pylori After Failed Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ai-Wen; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Ching-Yih; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether a 13C-urea breath test can predict antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS Seventy patients who had failed triple eradication therapy and 108 untreated H. pylori-infected patients were given a 13C-urea breath test, endoscopy for culture of H. pylori, and assessment of clarithromycin resistance. The patients who had failed triple therapy then received 1 week of quadruple therapy to eradicate residual H. pylori. RESULTS The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test expressed as excessive δ13CO2 per ml (ECR) was higher in patients with residual H. pylori with clarithromycin resistance than in those without (23.8 vs 10.6; P or≤15, the 13C-urea breath test was 88.6% sensitive and 88.9% specific in predicting clarithromycin resistance of residual H. pylori. The H. pylori eradication rate of the rescue regimen was higher for patients with a posttreatment ECR of the 13C-urea breath test ≤ 15 than for those with a value >15 (93.8% vs 73.3%; P .05). CONCLUSION The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test is predictive of clarithromycin resistance in residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy and predicts efficacy of the rescue regimen. The value of the noninvasive test is promising for primary care physicians who need to select a rescue regimen without invasive H. pylori culture. PMID:15836546

  14. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 ...

  15. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM. PMID:26934035

  16. An application discussion of 14C urea breathing test (UBT) examination H. pylori infection in senile disease diagnosis%14C尿素呼气试验检测幽门螺杆菌感染在老年人疾病诊断中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关小红

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨14C尿素呼气试验(urea breath test,UBT)检测幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)感染在老年人消化道疾病、急性冠脉综合征(ACS)诊断中的意义.方法:用自身对照的方法比较30例消化道疾病患者内镜活检快速尿素酶试验H.pylori阳性与UBT阳性、血清学阳性情况,20例血清学H.pylori抗体阳性的ACS患者与UBT、内镜阳性情况.结果:消化道疾病组内镜活检H.pylori阳性者做UBT的阳性率为93%,血清学阳性95%,血清学H.pylori阳性的ACS者做UBT的阳性率为50%,不稳定心绞痛者症状消失10 d后查内镜H.pylori阳性率为42%.结论:用UBT诊断老年人与H.pylori感染有关的疾病安全可靠.

  17. Assessment of liver function in dogs using the 13C-galactose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Wyse, C A; Goodfellow, M R; Yam, P S; Preston, T; Papasouliotis, K; Hall, E J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the 13C-galactose breath test (13C-GBT) in assessing canine liver function by applying it to a group of healthy dogs, and to a group with clinicopathological evidence of liver dysfunction. Breath samples were collected 30 min before ingestion of 13C-galactose, and then at regular intervals thereafter for 6 h. The proportion of 13CO2/12CO2 in the breath samples was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. There was no significant difference in recovery of 13CO2 in the diseased group, compared to the healthy controls, but there was considerable inter-subject variation in both groups, possibly due to differences in the rate of gastric emptying, which could preclude detection of alterations in hepatic metabolism of galactose. The results of this study do not support the application of the 13C-GBT for assessment of canine liver function. PMID:19546016

  18. Nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectroscopy: A new analytical method for 13C-urea breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, stable isotope techniques in breath tests using 13C-labeled substrates are limited to a few centers equipped with expensive and complex isotope spectrometry (IRMS). Although breath samples can be mailed to these centers, widespread application of 13C-breath tests would be more feasible with a cheaper and more practicable analysis system at hand. The authors therefore tested the newly developed nondispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer (NDIRS) with reference to IRMS in a clinical setting, comparing the results of both techniques in 538 consecutive 13C-urea breath tests performed for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection. With NDIRS five false-positive and three false-negative results were observed; that is, the sensitivity of NDIRS was 98.3%, and the specificity was 98.6%. When running this large number of breath tests in 3 days, the NDIRS proved to be a reliable, stable, and easy-to-operate analytical tool, which is well qualified for gastroenterologic application in the diagnostic routine. Both the price and the easy handling of NDIRS will facilitate the widespread use of the noninvasive stable isotope technique for 13C breath test. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. The fate of ingested 14C-urea in the urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic fate of the radioactive carbon in the 14C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori was investigated in 18 subjects. After ingestion of labelled urea, breath was sampled for 24 h, and urine was collected for 3 days. Subjects were designated high or low expirers on the basis of their breath counts, and this agreed well with H. pylori serologic analyses. When given 185 or 37 kBq of 14C-urea, 51% of the label was recovered from the breath of high expirers, and 7% from the breath of low expirers. The mean combined urinary and breath recovery for high expirers was 86%, and for low expirers it was 97%. It is concluded that the long-term retention of 14C from ingested 14C-urea is low. The results enable a more accurate estimation to be made of radiation exposure resulting from the 14C-urea breath test. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Reduced accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth in gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the 14C-D-xylose breath test in the diagnosis of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth was prospectively evaluated in 10 patients with motility disorders: 6 myopathic, 3 neuropathic, and 1 mechanical obstruction. 6 of 10 patients had small-bowel bacterial overgrowth on culture of small-bowel aspirate. Increased breath 14CO2 levels were documented in 3 of 6 patients with positive cultures and in 2 of 4 with negative cultures. 2 patients with positive results by both methods and 1 of 2 with positive breath 14CO2 but negative cultures had previously undergone gastric surgery. 3 patients with myopathic dysmotility had positive cultures but negative breath tests. Cultures of duodenal aspirates and the D-xylose test had sensitivities of 80% and 40%, respectively, for the finding of hypoalbuminemia. Compared with cultures, the sensitivity and specificity of the breath test were 60% and 40%, respectively. Impaired delivery of 14C-D-xylose for bacterial metabolism may result from postprandial antral hypomotility or low amplitude small-bowel motility, contributing to the false-negative breath tests. Thus, cultures is the optimal method to detect small-bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with motility disorders. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  1. Evaluation of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with functional dyspepsia through H2 breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bafutto Gomes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Functional dyspepsia is a condition in which symptoms are not related to organic underlying disease; its pathogenesis is not well known. The small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by the increase in the number and/or type of colonic bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis of SIBO being associated to functional dyspepsia must be considered, since the impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the main etiologic factors involved on both pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is SIBO in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Case-control study, evaluating 34 patients: 23 functional dyspeptic and 11 non-dyspeptic (control group. Questionnaire applied based on Rome III criteria. The patients underwent H2-lactulose breath test, considered positive when: H2 peak exceeding 20 ppm, in relation to fasting, or two peaks exceeding 10 ppm sustained until 60 minutes. RESULTS: Of the 23 dyspeptic patients, 13 (56.5% obtained positive results for SIBO trough the H2-lactulose breath test. On control group, SIBO was not observed. The association between the dyspeptic group and the control group regarding SIBO was statistically significant, with P = 0.0052. In the group of dyspeptic patients, 12 (52.2% were using proton pump inhibitor; of these 9 (75% were positive for SIBO. In the control group, none of the 11 patients used proton pump inhibitors and SIBO was not observed. The association of the dyspeptic group using proton pump inhibitor that were positive for SIBO and the control group was statistically significant, with P = 0.0011. CONCLUSION: It was found that, patients with functional dyspepsia presented SIBO, when they underwent to H2-lactulose breath test, compared to the non-dyspeptic. In addition, it was observed a higher prevalence of SIBO in dyspeptic patients that were using proton pump inhibitors, compared to control group.

  2. Analysis of 14C-Urea breath test in patients with halitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between halitosis and the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). Methods: The results of 14C-urea breath test of 59 normal people, 50 patients with halitosis only and 56 patients infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were analyzed. Results: It showed that the 14C content and HP positive rate in group infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were much higher than that of halitosis only group and normal people group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The infection of Helicobacter pylori is an important factor but not only factor of halitosis. (authors)

  3. A preliminary investigation of 13C background in 13C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 13C-urea breath test which is used for diagnosis of the helicobacter pylori infection (HP), the 13C background values are measured in 495 normal donors in Beijing, Shandong, Jiangsu and Guizhou. The fluctuation is less than 0.2% for these areas and is about 0.1% within the same area. Through replacing of the individual 13C background values by the averaged values from local areas, the coincident rate for diagnosis of HP is higher than 98%

  4. Specific 13C functional pathways as diagnostic targets in gastroenterology breath-tests: tricks for a correct interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, M; Del Zompo, F; Mangiola, F; Lopetuso, L R; Petito, V; Cammarota, G; Gasbarrini, A; Scaldaferri, F

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive, non-radioactive, safe, simple and effective tests able to determine significant metabolic alterations due to specific diseases or lack of specific enzymes. Carbon isotope (13)C, the stable-non radioactive isotope of carbon, is the most used substrate in breath testing, in which (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured and expressed as a delta value, a differences between readings and a fixed standard. (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured with isotope ratio mass spectrometry or non-dispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer and generally there is a good agreement between these techniques in the isotope ratio estimation. (13)C/(12)C ratio can be expressed as static measurement (like delta over baseline in urea breath test) or as dynamic measurement as percent dose recovery, but more dosages are necessary. (13)C Breath-tests are involved in many fields of interest within gastroenterology, such as detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, study of gastric emptying, assessment of liver and exocrine pancreatic functions, determination of oro-caecal transit time, evaluation of absorption and to a lesser extend detection of bacterial overgrowth. The use of every single test in a clinical setting is vary depending on accuracy and substrate costs. This review is meant to present (13)C the meaning of (13)C/(12)C ratio and static and dynamic measure and, finally, the instruments dedicated to its use in gastroenterology. A brief presentation of (13)C breath tests in gastroenterology is also provided. PMID:24443068

  5. An optimized 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate an optimized 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) protocol for the diagnosis of-H pylori infection that is cost-efficient and maintains excellent diagnostic accuracy.METHODS: 70 healthy volunteers were tested with two simplified 13C-UBT protocols, with test meal (Protocol 2)and without test meal (Protocol 1). Breath samples were collected at 10, 20 and 30 min after ingestion of 50 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 10 mL of water, taken as a single swallow, followed by 200 mL of water (pH 6.0) and a circular motion around the waistline to homogenize the urea solution. Performance of both protocols was analyzed at various cut-off values. Results were validated against the European protocol.RESULTS: According to the reference protocol, 65.7% individuals were positive for H pylori infection and 34.3% were negative. There were no significant differences in the ability of both protocols to correctly identify positive and negative H pylori individuals. However, only Protocol 1 with no test meal achieved accuracy, sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The highest values achieved by Protocol 2 were 98.57%, 97.83%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively.CONCLUSION: A 10 min, 50 mg 13C-UBT with no test meal using a cut-off value of 2-2.5 is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection at a reduced cost.

  6. Predicting outcome of paracetamol poisoning by using 14C-aminopyrine breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-aminopyrine (14C-amidopyrine) breath test, carried out within 24 to 36 hours of an overdosage of paracetamol, was used to predict the extent of liver damage in 30 seriously poisoned patients. Mean 14C02 excretion was 4.4% in 20 healthy control subjects; 5.5% in six patients who escaped injury; and 2.9%, 1.5%, and 0.2% in those with mild to moderate (12 patients), severe (eight patients), and fatal (four patients) liver damage respectively. This test proved to be a more reliable predictor of the extent of liver damage than plasma paracetamol concentration or half life or the results of conventional liver function tests and may enable treatment of hepatic failure to be started at an early stage. (author)

  7. False-positive breath-alcohol test after a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W; Rössner, S

    2007-03-01

    A 59-year-old man undergoing weight loss with very low calorie diets (VLCD) attempted to drive a car, which was fitted with an alcohol ignition interlock device, but the vehicle failed to start. Because the man was a teetotaller, he was surprised and upset by this result. VLCD treatment leads to ketonemia with high concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the blood. The interlock device determines alcohol (ethanol) in breath by electrochemical oxidation, but acetone does not undergo oxidation with this detector. However, under certain circumstances acetone is reduced in the body to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ignition interlock device responds to other alcohols (e.g. methanol, n-propanol and isopropanol), which therefore explains the false-positive result. This 'side effect' of ketogenic diets needs further discussion by authorities when people engaged in safety-sensitive work (e.g. bus drivers and airline pilots) submit to random breath-alcohol tests. PMID:16894360

  8. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Robert Lawrence

    The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine

  9. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...... red isotope spectrometry (IRIS) analyzer. Feeding the sugar beet diet high in soluble fibre and high water-binding capacity reduced the physical activity. Gastric emptying estimated using non-invasive breath test with 13C labelled isotope was comparable to that observed with total collection...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  10. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? 40.277 Section 40.277 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  11. Experimental study on L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function with animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using a small animal breath test model we designed and L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) of rats, the authors investigated its feasibility and validity and determined effective parameter of the test. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) weighting 280-290 g rats randomized into two groups acute hepatitis rats (n=10) and control rats (n=10). Hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) olive oil administration through intragastric gavage. PheBT was assisted by small mechanical ventilator improved and air samples were collected discontinuously, 20 mg/kg body weight L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered intravenously. Twenty-nine breath samples were taken before and different intervals within sixty minutes after administration. 13Cenrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results: All time phase curves of 13C enrichment in rat breath reached a peak almost at 2 min after the intravenous administration of 13C-Phe. The PheBT parameters, 13C excretion rate constant (PheBT-K), of CCl4 hepatitis rats were significantly lower than that of normal control rats [(2.45 ± 0.25) x 10-2 min-1 vs (2.98 ± 0.19) x 10-2 min-1, t = 5.40, P13C fast phase disposition constant did not statistically differ between the two groups (t=0.58, P>0.05). PheBT-K had significant negative cor-relation with serum ALT, AKP, TBA and total bilirum TBIL (the correlation coefficient r is -0.74, -0.73, -0.82 and -0.67 respectively, P0.05). Conclusions: It was indicated that the small animal breath test model we designed was a virtual tool to use in experimental study on breath test and PheBT-K was a sensitive index. (authors)

  12. Relationship between postoperative erythromycin breath test and early morbidity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Rasmussen, Allan; Kirkegaard, Preben;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in dosage requirements of the calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine and tacrolimus after liver transplantation may result from differences in the CYP3A activity of the liver graft. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) is...... an in vivo measure of graft CYP3A activity. This study evaluates the usefulness of an early postoperative ERMBT in predicting early morbidity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 26 liver transplant recipients, ERMBT was performed within 2 hr after transplantation. Main end points were the...... associated with low postoperative ERMBT values (0.21%+/-0.15% 14C/hr vs. 1.09%+/-0.72% 14C/hr, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: An early postoperative ERMBT may be useful in predicting the development of cyclosporine and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, severe graft dysfunction, or even graft loss in liver transplant...

  13. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna;

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...... before measurements started and expired air was then sucked out of the respiration chamber and collected into breath bags at frequent intervals until 5.5 h after the start of measurements. The ratio of 13C/12C was measured by means of an IRIS infrared analyser and results are reported in terms of delta...

  14. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Els Houben; Vicky De Preter; Jaak Billen; Marc Van Ranst; Kristin Verbeke

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose brea...

  15. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Charumathi Sabanayagam; Srinivas Teppala; Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. ...

  16. 13C basal abundance of expired CO2 -definition of pre-requisites for kinetic breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, M C; Sébastien, H; Brazier, J L

    2000-01-01

    A sufficiently stable rate of 13CO2 exhalation is necessary when the diagnostic 13CO2 breath tests are performed in healthy subjects and patients. The aim of the research was to define prerequisite conditions for kinetic breath tests in order to ensure a stable 13CO2 background. A 3-part protocol was developed. Part I: a study of the one-day variation of 13CO2 abundance in expired CO2 confirmed that shifts of the basal 13C abundance in breath are inherent in nature. Part II: a study of the variations of 13C enrichment after the ingestion of different meals and beverages showed that ingestion of food items containing C4 plant sugars, such as maize, induces a significant increase in isotopic abundance. Part III: a new test breakfast containing rice grain cereal, milk and orange juice was tested. This test meal induces no significant change on the basal 13CO2 abundance in healthy subjects. This new finding allows to avoid the fasting period normally required prior to a breath test which is sometimes difficult for children and pregnant women. PMID:11077930

  17. "VALIDATION OF 13C-UREA BREATH TEST WITH NON DISPERSIVE ISOTOPE SELECTIVE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A SURVEY IN IRANIAN POPULATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Davood Beiki

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The urea breath test (UBT which is carried out with 13C or 14C labeled urea is one of the most important non invasive methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Application of 13C-UBT is becoming increasingly popular because of its non radioactive nature which makes it suitable for diagnostic purposes in children and women of child bearing ages. While isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS is generally used to detect 13C in expired breath, this instrument is expensive and recently non dispersive isotope selective infrared (NDIR spectroscopy which is a lower cost technique has been employed as a reliable counterpart for IRMS in small clinics. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of NDIR spectroscopy technique in Iranian population in comparison with histological examination, rapid urease test and 14C-urea breath test as gold standard. Seventy six patients with dyspepsia were underwent 13CUBT for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Good agreements were found between the 13C-UBT and gold standard methods. The 13C-UBT showed 100% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 97.56% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 98.65% accuracy. On the basis of these results it could be concluded that 13C-UBT performed with NDIR spectroscopy is a reliable, accurate and non invasive diagnostic tool for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Iranian population.

  18. A citric acid solution is an optimal test drink in the 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    OpenAIRE

    J. E. Domínguez-Muñoz; Leodolter, A; Sauerbruch, T; Malfertheiner, P

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) is a simple, non-invasive and reliable test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The duration of the test, the timing of breath sampling, and the accuracy of the method vary according to the test meal used. AIM: To identify the optimal test meal or drink for rapid and accurate performance of the 13C-UBT for the detection of H pylori infection. PATIENTS: Eighty patients with dyspeptic symptoms were included. Of these, 48 patients ha...

  19. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-05-23

    (oxygen, nitrogen, water vapour and CO(2)) in patient respiratory monitoring have served as a platform for technological growth in clinical breath-testing applications. A few exhaled breath tests have demonstrated clinical utility and are in widespread use, and several FDA-approved devices are available. These widely used exhaled breath tests include detection of blood alcohol concentration and exhaled CO(2). Other clinical applications of exhaled breath analysis include testing for H. pylori infection, lactose intolerance, heart transplant rejection and, more recently, monitoring of airway inflammation by means of exhaled NO. Examination of exhaled breath has the potential to change the existing routine approaches in human medicine. The rapidly developing new analytical and computer technologies along with novel, unorthodox ideas are prerequisites for future advances in this field. Scientists who participated in the Breath Analysis Summit 2011 were invited to submit a full length paper to the Journal of Breath Research and this issue includes eight articles which describe the different applications of breath analysis. We thank all the authors for their valuable contribution and we trust that this collection will provide useful information and an update to this rapidly evolving field, giving an example of integration among scientists who address the same topic-breath analysis-from different and complementary perspectives, from basic to clinical research. PMID:22622266

  20. Impact of hydrogen breath testing on diagnosis, management, and clinical outcome in children with chronic functional GI symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g. abdominal pain) in children may have numerous etiologies including carbohydrate malabsorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Hydrogen breath testing (HBT) frequently is used as a modality to evaluate for these two diagnoses. Howev...

  1. 13C-breath tests for sucrose digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase-deficient and sacrosidase-supplemented patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is characterized by absence or deficiency of the mucosal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme. Specific diagnosis requires upper gastrointestinal biopsy with evidence of low to absent sucrase enzyme activity and normal histology. The hydrogen breath test (BT) is ...

  2. Investigation of the method and clinical usefulness of the 14CO2-glycocholate-breath-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycocholate breath-tests were performed in 22 clinical patients without gastrointestinal disorders, in 11 cases with M. Crohn of the ileum and in 8 patients, in whom an intestinal overgrowth with bacteria was suspected. Additional to the usual discontinuous measurement of the specific activity of 14CO2 the exhaled amount of CO2 and 14CO2 and 14C-serum activity were determined. No advantage was found in the determination of the latter; for 1) discontinuous measurement of the specific activity of 14CO2 was sufficient for detecting disturbed enterohepatic bile-salt circulation; and 2) measurement of 14C-serum-activity or 14C-activity in cholic acids or protein were of no help in differentiating between bacterial overgrowth and diseases of the ileum. There remained doubts regarding the clinical usefulness of the test. Low specifity and many positive tests in patients without corresponding symptoms require that therapeutical procedures in such patients are initiated with some reserve. (orig.)

  3. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  4. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U3O8. Profiles developed for U3O8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  5. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the use of a (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) that was performed by patients at their homes as a part of a test-and-treat strategy in primary care and (2) to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients taking a first......, positive H. pylori declined over the time course of the study (women: 19.6% in 2003 to 17.6% in 2009, p < .01; men: 20.7% in 2003 to 16.9% in 2009, p < .001). Patients who were older than 45 years had significantly higher positive H. pylori results than younger patients. CONCLUSIONS: A test......-and-treat system was possible to implement that allowed patients to perform UBTs at their homes. The results of the first-time UBTs demonstrated that approximately one of five patients who presented with dyspepsia in the clinical setting of Danish primary care was infected with H. pylori....

  6. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  7. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative evaluation with a three dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination magnetic resonance imaging sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Long-lin; SONG Bin; XU Juan; LI Ying-chun

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection and accurate staging are crucial for planning treatment and improving survival rate of hilar cholangiocarcinomas. This study investigated the diagnostic value of a three dimensional, spoiled gradient echo,T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence (3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, 3D-VIBE) in the preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods Thirty-one patients with surgically and histologically confirmed hilar cholangiocarcinomas underwent preoperative MR imaging examination. Unenhanced two-dimensional T1- and T2-weighted images, 2D MR cholangiopancreatographs (MRCP), gadolinium enhanced 3D-VIBE images in the early arterial, late arterial and portal venous phases followed by 2D T1-weighted images in the equilibrium phase were acquired. Images from 3D-VIBE, 2D T1-weighted enhanced sequences and 2D MRCP were interpreted by two abdominal radiologists through consensus reading in blind manner, focussing on the assessment of the morphological type, the longitudinal extent of tumor infiltration in the bile ducts and the involvement of neighbouring blood vessels. The accuracy of 3D-VIBE and 2D T1-weighted enhanced sequences in assessing the tumor resectability was compared.Results All the 31 tumors were directly displayed and accurately classified on 3D-VIBE images whereas 8 periductal infiltrating tumors (8/31, 25.8%) were not depicted on 2D T1-weighted enhanced images. Using the Bismuth Corlette classification, 3D-VIBE was closer to MRCP in delineating the intraductal extent of tumor infiltration than 2D T1-weighted enhanced (28/31, 90.3%; 10/31,32.3%; χ2=22.0, P<0.05). Involvement of the hepatic artery, the portal venous trunk and their branches was shown more frequently on 3D VIBE than 2D T1-weighted enhanced images. The positive predictive value and accuracy of 3D-VIBE (84.2%; 90.3%) for assessing tumor resectability were higher than those of 2D T1-weighted enhanced images (64.0%; 71.0%, all P

  8. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  9. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  10. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Els Houben

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2 excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  11. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To examine the intra-individual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intra-individual reproducibility. Methods: Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labelled with 13C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13CO2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were determined. Results: There was not a significant difference of t1/2 and tlag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t1/2, 19.4% for tlag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t1/2, 28.2% for tlag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intra-individual coefficient of variation of t1/2 and tlag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time. Conclusions: The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intra-individual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics

  12. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  13. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Gastroenterology

    1996-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  15. 46 CFR 162.039-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.039-6 Section..., Marine Type § 162.039-6 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Full examinations, tests, and... such examinations, inspections, and tests as to satisfy himself that the quality assurance program...

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.; Crabtree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n...

  17. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01–1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97–1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  18. Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test Result Is Associated with Age and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Carolyn; Tierney, Ann; Pickett-Blakely, Octavia

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases and structural/functional abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract. SIBO's association with clinical characteristics is unclear. This study investigates the association between clinical factors and SIBO according to lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) result. Methods. A cross-sectional study in a university-based gastroenterology practice was performed. Data was abstracted from the medical records of subjects undergoing LHBT from 6/1/2009 to 6/1/2013. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between predictor variables: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and positive LHBT, the outcome of interest. Results. LHBT was performed in 791 subjects. Fifty-four percent had a positive LHBT. There was no statistically significant difference between the LHBT results according to age or BMI. In females, the likelihood of a positive LHBT increased with age (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01-1.03). In males, the likelihood of a positive LHBT result decreased with age (OR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-1.00). Conclusion. There was an association between age, with respect to sex, and a positive LHBT. With increased age in females, the odds of a positive LHBT increased, while, in men, the odds of a positive LHBT decreased with age. PMID:27073800

  19. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests and inspections. 160.064-6 Section... Examinations, tests and inspections. (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of listed and... upon request. (b) Laboratory inspections and tests. Such examinations, inspections and tests as...

  20. 46 CFR 164.012-13 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 164.012-13 Section...-13 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of... upon request. (b) Laboratory inspection and tests. Such examinations, inspections and tests as...

  1. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the saliva ASD: (1) Check the expiration date on the device or on the package containing the device and show...

  2. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14C-breath tests: 14C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  3. Validation of a simplified carbon-14-urea breath test for routine use for detecting Helicobacter pylori noninvasively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon-14 (14C) urea breath test for detecting Helicobacter pylori with multiple breath sampling was developed. Carbon-14-urea (110 kBq) administered orally to 18 normal subjects and to 82 patients with Helicobacter infection. The exhaled 14C-labeled CO2 was trapped at 10-min intervals for 90 min. The total 14C activity exhaled over 90 min was integrated and expressed in %activity of the total dose given. In normals, a mean of 0.59% +/- 0.24% was measured, resulting in an upper limit of normal of 1.07%. In 82 patients, a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 83.8%, and a positive predictive value of 90.2% was found. The single probes at intervals of 40-60 min correlated best with the integrated result, with r ranging from 0.986 to 0.990. The test's diagnostic accuracy did not change at all when reevaluated with the 40-, 50-, or 60-min sample data alone. Thus, the 14C-urea breath test can be applied routinely as a noninvasive, low-cost and one-sample test with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting Helicobacter pylori colonization

  4. [BREATH TEST WITH LOCALLY PRODUCED 13С-UREA (TBILISI, GEORGIA) IN DIAGNOSTICS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdaladze, A; Mosidze, B; Elisabedashvili, G; Kordzaia, D

    2016-04-01

    Comparative assessment of results of detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection by breath tests with standard and locally produced 13С urea was done in 213 patients with gastric and duodenal pathology, including those who already were undergone the surgery. Invasive endoscopic biopsy test including rapid urease test (RUT), smear cytology and histology were also performed (tissue samples were obtained after endoscopy or surgery). RUT was carried out with the help of URE-HP test kit. Serological test for Hp antibodies was performed by IFA using kit ELISA. 13С urea breath test (UBT) was conducted for the determination of 13/12CO2 in breath samples by using of infrared spectroscope. In I group (125 patients) UBT was performed with standard 13С urea, in II group (88 patients) with locally produced 13С urea. Based on 5 different methods of Hp infection testing Hp positivity in 172 (80,8%) and Hp negativity in 41 (19,2%) patients were revealed. 13С-UBT showed the highest diagnostic value (accuracy-97,5%, sensibility-97,0%, specificity-100%) in Hp infection diagnosis. The (accuracy, sensibility and specificity of breath test with locally issued 13С urea (98,7%, 98,5% and 100% respectively) are the same as those for BT with standard 13С urea (96,7%, 96,2% and 100% respectively). These parameters are also highly credible in control of treatment efficiency (96,7%, 90,0% and 100% respectively). The correlation of index DOB‰ of breath test with results of RUT was revealed In Hp positive patients. This can serve as a marker of Hp infection rate. Preliminarily, in pre-clinical experimental study, harmless of locally issued 13С-urea from point of view of acute/sub-acute toxicity and allergy development was confirmed. The advantages (noninvasiveness, simplicity, rapidity, safety) and high diagnostic value of UBT (with both standard as well as locally produced 13С-urea) provide the opportunity to offer 13С-UBT as screening method of Hp infection diagnosis. It also

  5. Determination of Rifaximin Treatment Period According to Lactulose Breath Test Values in Nonconstipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS...

  6. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    OpenAIRE

    CESTAC, Julien; KRAÏEM, Sami; ASSAILLY, Jean Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Methods: Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers fro...

  7. Noninvasive ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test shows delayed gastric emptying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toepfer, Marcel; Folwaczny, Christian; Lochmüller, H.; Schroeder, M; Riepl, R. L.; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. However, ALS has been recognized to also involve non-motor systems. Subclinical involvement of the autonomic system in ALS has been described. The recently developed C-13-octanoic acid breath test allows the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying. With this new technique we investigated 18 patients with ALS and 14 healthy volunteers. None of the patients had diabe...

  8. Influence of oral and esophageal commensal microflora on 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen gastritis patients (12M: 5F; mean age: 40 y) were studied to evaluate the influence of oral and esophageal urease producing commensal microflora on the 14C-urea breath test(UBT). To determine the influence of oral bacterial on UBT, 111 kBq14C-urea in 10 ml water was given orally to 6 H.pylori negative subjects, with the instructions to expectorate the tracer after 30 sec. To evaluate the influence normal esophageal flora on UBT, the tracer was given to 11 patients (4 H.pylori-ve :7 H.pylori +ve) in the capsule and again after 6 h in water. One mmol C02 was collected before and up to 30 min. of tracer administration and 14C content measured. When given as mouth wash, 14C-urea liquid caused an immediate peak of 14C02 at 2 min (4263 ± 1024 dpm) and thereafter declined sharply reaching base line value after 10 min (208 ±62 dpm). When tracer was given in capsule, 14C02 level in H.pylori +ve patients increased significantly within 5 min and peaked at 10-15 min. (8644 ± 987 dpm at 15 min). However, when the tracer was given in liquid, 14CO2 levels were almost similar to those of 14C-urea mouth wash experiment in H.pylori -ve patients. It is therefore, concluded that normal commensal microflora present in the oropharynx and esophagus contribute significantly to 14C-UBT. For the accurate diagnosis of H.pylori infection, the tracer should therefore, be given in the capsule

  9. Dual therapy for third-line Helicobacter pylori eradication and urea breath test prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Nishizawa; Hidekazu Suzuki; Takama Maekawa; Naohiko Harada; Tatsuya Toyokawa; Toshio Kuwai; Masanori Ohara

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy.In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen,a third-line eradication regimen with mbeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk.Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy.A total of 46 patients were included; however,two were lost to followup.The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P =0.019).A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%.Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients,mainly diarrhea and stomatitis.Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT.

  10. Aperitif effects on gastric emptying: a crossover study using continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID System).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, M; Iida, H; Endo, H; Hosono, K; Akiyama, T; Yoneda, K; Fujita, K; Iwasaki, T; Takahashi, H; Yoneda, M; Goto, A; Abe, Y; Kobayashi, N; Kubota, K; Nakajima, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between aperitif and gastric emptying. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. Under two conditions (after drinking an aperitif versus not), the (13)C breath test was performed for 4 h with a liquid meal (200 kcal/200 ml) containing 100 mg (13)C acetate. We used 50 ml of umeshu as the aperitif. This is a traditional Japanese plum liqueur, and contains 7 ml alcohol (14%). In the aperitif group, T(1/2), T(lag), and T(peak) were significantly delayed [T(1/2) (132: 113-174) versus (112: 92-134) (P = 0.0069); T(lag) (80: 63-94) versus (55: 47-85) (P = 0.0069); and T(peak) (81: 62-96) versus (54: 34-84) (P = 0.0069), (median: range, aperitif versus control, min)]. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the aperitif group as compared with the control group. This study revealed that even a small amount of alcohol such as an aperitif may contribute to delayed gastric emptying. PMID:18688714

  11. Usefulness of N-dimethyl-13 C-aminopyrine breath test in the diagnosis of liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-dimethyl-13C-aminopyrine breath test was performed in patients with liver disease and healthy controls to compare cumulative 13CO2% dose per 3 hrs expired during breathing. Expired cumulative values were significantly lower in patients with liver cirrhosis than in healthy controls. They were also significantly lower in cirrhosis patients with a history of hepatic insufficiency than in patients without it. However, there was no significant difference between patients with esophageal varices and patients without it. A significant difference was observed between patients with chronic active hepatitis than in healthy controls, but not observed between patients with chronic inactive hepatitis and healthy controls. They did not correlate with sGOT or sGPT, but correlated with prothrombin levels or serum albumin levels. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Advantages of breath testing for the early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Sule-Suso, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-257. ISSN 1473-7159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * breath analysis * lung cancer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2010

  13. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    1996-01-01

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar d

  14. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  15. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard ... conditions such as asthma, emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or ...

  16. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  17. Bacterial contamination of the small bowel evaluated by breath tests, 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid, and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-one patients with diarrhoea due to suspected bacterial contamination of the small intestine were investigated with the bile breath test (BABT) and 75Se-labelled homocholic-tauro acid (SeHCAT). The impact of bile acid malabsorption due to dysfunction of the terminal ileum on BABT was evaluated. The group of patients with abnormal BABT, notably the 6 h accumulated value, showed a high frequency of reduced SeHCAT values, indicating that a reliable test for bile acid malabsorption is indispensable for interpreting the BABT in the investigation of small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The results of the 14C-D-xylose breath test were compared with the outcome of the combined SeHCAT-BABT in 44 patients. In contrast to previous findings, no correlation between the two breath tests was found. On the contary, a significant negative correlation was encountered for patients in whom either breath test was abnormal. Scanning electron microscopy for demonstration of adherent microorganisms was including in the investigation. No correlations were found with the outcomes of the different breath tests. The effect of antibiotic treatment was evaluated with regard to symptoms and breath tests. The results of the investigation indicate that different tests are needed for the diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine, because of the different metabolic characteristics of the contaminating bacteria. 36 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  18. 46 CFR 162.028-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.028-6 Section... Type § 162.028-6 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Full examinations, tests, and inspections to... laboratory in order that an inspector may be assigned to the factory to conduct such...

  19. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examinations. 160.076-31 Section... Flotation Devices § 160.076-31 Production tests and examinations. (a) Samples used in testing must be... product examination. Each sample PFD must be disassembled to the extent necessary to determine...

  20. Application of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for the evaluation of the 13C-urea breath test: comparison with three concordant methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho L.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the performance of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (IRIS for the 13C-urea breath test with the combination of the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT, urease test and histologic examination for the diagnosis of H. pylori (HP infection. Fifty-three duodenal ulcer patients were studied. All patients were submitted to gastroscopy to detect HP by the urease test, histologic examination and 14C-UBT. To be included in the study the results of the 3 tests had to be concordant. Within one month after admission to the study the patients were submitted to IRIS with breath samples collected before and 30 min after the ingestion of 75 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 200 ml of orange juice. The samples were mailed and analyzed 11.5 (4-21 days after collection. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Mann-Whitney test and by the Spearman correlation coefficient. Twenty-six patients were HP positive and 27 negative. There was 100% agreement between the IRIS results and the HP status determined by the other three methods. Using a cutoff value of delta-over-baseline (DOB above 4.0 the IRIS showed a mean value of 19.38 (minimum = 4.2, maximum = 41.3, SD = 10.9 for HP-positive patients and a mean value of 0.88 (minimum = 0.10, maximum = 2.5, SD = 0.71 for negative patients. Using a cutoff value corresponding to 0.800% CO2/weight (kg, the 14C-UBT showed a mean value of 2.78 (minimum = 0.89, maximum = 5.22, SD = 1.18 in HP-positive patients. HP-negative patients showed a mean value of 0.37 (minimum = 0.13, maximum = 0.77, SD = 0.17. IRIS is a low-cost, easy to manage, highly sensitive and specific test for H. pylori detection. Storing and mailing the samples did not interfere with the performance of the test.

  1. Predisposing factors for positive D-Xylose breath test for evaluation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: A retrospective study of 932 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Richard A; Zhang, Qing; Lodhia, Nilesh; Shuster, Jonathan; Phillip P Toskes; Moshiree, Baharak

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate, in the largest cohort to date, patient characteristics and associated risk factors for developing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) using the D-Xylose breath test (XBT).

  2. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Feng; Luo, Nan; Lee, Hin-Peng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the population-based Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT) with eradication therapy.

  3. The 14C-monomethylamino-antipyrine breath test as in vivo parameter for characterizing the induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these investigations was to help clarify the following questions: 1) Does MAAP, following 14C labelling of the exocyclic aminomethyl group, offer a suitable substrate for a breath test in guinea pigs. 2) Which procedures for evaluating the 14C exhalation curves of the breath test are especially valid. 3) Can an induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system following pre-treatment with various inducing substances be detected by the 14C-MAAP breath test. 4) Do inducer-specific differences arise in response to the 14C-MAAP breath test by which the inducers can be characterized. 5) Is monomethylamino-antipyrine similar to amidopyrine in that it is a suitable independent in vivo parameter for the drug metasbolizing enzyme system in the liver of guinea pigs. (orig./MG)

  4. Effect of loperamide and naloxone on mouth-to-caecum transit time evaluated by lactulose hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Basilisco, G; Bozzani, A; Camboni, G; M. Recchia; Quatrini, M; Conte, D.; Penagini, R; PA Bianchi

    1985-01-01

    The effect of loperamide and naloxone on mouth-to-caecum transit time was evaluated by the lactulose hydrogen breath test in four men and four women. Each subject underwent tests during the administration of placebo, loperamide (12-16 mg po), naloxone (40 micrograms/kg/h by a three-hour intravenous infusion), and loperamide plus naloxone, carried out at intervals of one or two weeks. The transit time was significantly longer after loperamide, and this effect was antagonised by the concomitant...

  5. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  6. Imaging and retention measurements of selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine, and the carbon 14 glycochol breath test to document ileal dysfunction due to late radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess ileal dysfunction in patients with complaints after pelvic radiation therapy, retention measurements and scintigraphic imaging with selenium 75 homocholic acid conjugated with taurine (75Se-HCAT), combined with the carbon 14 clycochol breath test, were evaluated in 39 patients. In 22 patients without ileal resection the results of the 75Se-HCAT test and the breath test differentiated between a normal functioning ileum (both tests negative) and ileal dysfunction as a cause of complaints (one or both tests positive). Among the patients with ileal dysfunction, the combination of both tests permitted those with bacterial overgrowth (breath test positive, 75Se-HCAT negative) to be separated from patients with evidence of bile acid malabsorption (75Se-HCAT positive, breath test positive or negative). In 17 patients with small-bowel resection, the 75Se-HCAT test helped to estimate the severity of bile acid malabsorption with implications for therapy. In this group the breath test was false-negative in 7 cases with abnormal 75Se-HCAT. Additional systematically performed scintigraphic imaging improved the accuracy of the 75Se-HCAT test, revealing cases with prolonged colonic accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical, causing spurious retention values. In conclusion, assessment of ileal dysfunction by nuclear medicine techniques in post-irradiation conditions provides information about the aetiology and therefore the possibility of adjustment in the clinical management. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  8. Metallo-Dielectric Multilayer Structure for Lactose Malabsorption Diagnosis through H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    Cioffi, N.; de Ceglia, D.; De Sario, M; D'Orazio, A; Petruzzelli, V.(Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e dell'Informazione – Politecnico di Bari, Bari, Italy); F. Prudenzano; Scalora, M.; Trevisi, S.; Vincenti, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    A metallo-dielectric multilayer structure is proposed as a novel approach to the analysis of lactose malabsorption. When lactose intolerance occurs, the bacterial overgrowth in the intestine causes an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. By monitoring the changes in the optical properties of a multilayer palladium-polymeric structure, one is able to detect the patient's disease and the level of lactose malabsorption with high sensitivity and rapid response.

  9. 46 CFR 160.017-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 160.017-27 Section 160... examination. (a) General. Each ladder manufactured under Coast Guard approval must be tested in accordance... for effective monitoring throughout the production schedule. (e) Visual examination. The...

  10. 46 CFR 163.002-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 163.002-27 Section 163... examination. Each pilot hoist manufactured under Coast Guard approval must be tested as prescribed in § 163... laboratory must also conduct the visual examination described in § 163.002-21(b). The hoist may not be...

  11. 46 CFR 163.003-27 - Production tests and examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examination. 163.003-27 Section 163... examination. (a) General. Each ladder produced under Coast Guard approval must be tested in accordance with... for effective monitoring throughout the production schedule. (e) Visual examination. The...

  12. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  13. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao Chiahung (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Wang Shyhjen (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Hsu Chungyuan (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Lin Wanyu (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Huang Chihkua (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology); Chen Granhum (Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  14. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  15. Breath test to diagnose the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of active chronic gastritis and ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Brazil almost 80% of the population presents the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, considered to be the causative agent of active chronic gastritis and ulcers. This does not mean that all of these people will suffer gastritis or ulcers, but it is highly probable. The usual diagnostic procedure used a microbiological culture in mucus biopsy specimens collected during gastroscopy, an invasive method. The problem was to find a non-invasive, easy, fast and efficient procedure to diagnose this bacterium. The nuclear technique applied was liquid scintillation, a suitable technique to measure the low energy β emission of 14C. This was the best method available at the time to develop and establish the test. In order to develop a non-invasive test to diagnose H. pylori, research was carried out with doctors from the Department of Gastroenterology at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. This research applied a radiochemical method using 14C, a radioisotope of carbon. The patient's control breath sample was obtained after a 12 hour fast. Then a standard meal was offered to delay gastric emptying, after which the patient drank a determined amount of urea labelled with 14C in water. Breath samples were collected at 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes in a hyaline-ethanol solution with a pH (acid) indicator. If the bacteria were present, the labelled urea would be metabolized and the 14C would be eliminated as 14CO2 by exhalation; otherwise the 14C would be eliminated through the faeces. This 14C urea breath test was applied in around 5000 participants and the results were compared with results obtained through culture

  16. Correlation between symptoms developed after the oral ingestion of 50 g lactose and results of hydrogen breath testing for lactose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, L; Pohl, D.; Delco, F; Stutz, B; Fried, M; Tutuian, R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactase deficiency is a common condition responsible for various abdominal symptoms. Lactose hydrogen breath test is currently the gold standard in diagnosing lactose intolerance. AIM: To assess sensitivity and specificity of symptoms developed after oral lactose challenge. METHODS: Intensity of nausea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, bloating and diarrhoea was recorded every 15 min up to 3 h after ingestion of 50 g lactose in patients with positive (i.e. breath H2-concentration > or ...

  17. Influence of citric acid solution as a test drink in the 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobactor pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different test meals are used in the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) for the detection of H.pylori infection. The purpose of using test meals is to slow gastric emptying and to maximise the distribution of the urea substrate within the stomach so as to increase the area and time of contact between bacteria and substrate. Recently, citric acid has been suggested as an improved liquid test meal. The mechanism is not known and could act by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing the pH at the site of the bacteria, or both

  18. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  19. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children. PMID:12843086

  20. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children.

  1. Comparison of the 13C-urea breath test and the endoscopic phenol red mucosal pH test in the quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection loading

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Seok; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Jang, Se Na; Kim, Jin-Soo; Son, Hye Suk; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Byung-Wook; Han, Sok-Won; Choi, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chang, Eun Deok

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is a semiquantitative test for measuring Helicobacter pylori infection loading. H. pylori produces ammonia, which elevates the pH of the gastric mucosa and is detectable via endoscopy using a phenol red indicator. We evaluated whether this test could be used to diagnose H. pylori infection and whether phenol red staining was correlated with 13C-UBT results. Methods One hundred and twenty-three patients participated. The UBT was performed after in...

  2. Lactose malabsorption testing in daily clinical practice: a critical retrospective analysis and comparison of the hydrogen/methane breath test and genetic test (c/t-13910 polymorphism) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, Dietmar; Rezanka, Erwin; Stolba, Robert; Halwachs-Baumann, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a retrospective evaluation and comparison of the hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) breath test and genetic test (C/T-13910 polymorphism) results in lactose malabsorption testing. In total 263 consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption were included in this study. They underwent the H2/CH4 breath test following the ingestion of 50 g lactose and were tested for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. In total 51 patients (19.4%) had a C/C-13910 genotype, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Only 19 patients (7.2%) also had a positive H2/CH4 breath test. All in all 136 patients (51.69%) had a C/T-13910 and 76 patients (28.91%) a T/T-13910 genotype, indicating lactase persistence. Four patients (1.5%) with the C/T-13910 genotype and one patient (0.4%) with the T/T-13910 genotype had a positive H2/CH4 breath test result, indicating secondary lactose malabsorption. Cohen's Kappa measuring agreement between the two methods was 0.44. Twenty patients (7.6%) with a positive H2/CH4 peak within 60 minutes after lactose ingestion were classified as patients with lactose-dependent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). In conclusion, only moderate agreement between the breath test and the genetic test was shown. Secondary lactose malabsorption as well as preanalytical limitations of the combined H2/CH4 breath test procedure can cause discrepant results. This trial is registered with K-42-13. PMID:24829570

  3. Turnover of carbon in the 13C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of 13C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the 13C in the 13C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio 13C/12C in expired CO2 from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to 13C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  4. Validity and cost comparison of "carbon urea breath test for diagnosis of H Pylori in dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Rasool; Shahab Abid; Wasim Jafri

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate and compare the cost of microdose 14C urea breath test (UBT) with histology and rapid urease test for the diagnosis of H Pylori.METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing gastroscopy were enrolled. Gastric biopsies were taken for histology and rapid urease test. UBT was performed after gastroscopy by microdose "C urea capsules. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of UBT were calculated and compared with histology and rapid urease test. Cost comparison of these tests was also performed.RESULTS: H pylori was diagnosed by histology and rapid urease test in 66 (70%) and 61 (65%) patients, while 14C UBT detected infection in 63 (67%). Accuracy of UBT was 93% in comparison with histology while its positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 84%, respectively. Comparison of 14C UBT with rapid urease test gives an accuracy of 96%, with positive and negative predictive values of 95% and 97%, respectively. These results were highly reproducible with a Kappa test (P value < 0.001). Cost of histology or rapid urease test with gastroscopy was 110 USD or 95 USD respectively while the cost of UBT was 15 USD.CONCLUSION: Microdose 14C UBT was comparable to histology and rapid urease test. 14C UBT is an economical, self sufficient and suitable test to diagnose active Hpylori infection in less developed countries.

  5. Assessment of the peripheral ventilatory response to CO2 in heart failure patients: reliability of the single-breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of chemoreflex sensitivity in heart failure patients is gaining increasing interest since recent studies demonstrated that augmented chemosensitivity is an independent predictor of mortality and represents an important pathogenic factor in the development of Cheyne–Stokes respiration. The single-breath CO2 test is a well-established method to quantify peripheral hypercapnic chemoreflex sensitivity. As the original criteria for the computation of the chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects need to be modified in heart failure patients to take into account impaired cardiac function, the effects of such modifications on measurement reliability deserve investigation. Hence, we devised this study to assess the reliability of the single-breath CO2 test in heart failure patients. In 27 clinically stable, mild-to-moderate heart failure patients (age (mean±SD): 64±10 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 34±7%, NYHA class: 2.7±0.4), the test was administered on two consecutive days in the same conditions. Reliability was assessed by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean value of the chemoreflex sensitivity on the two days was: 0.25 ± 0.12 and 0.24 ± 0.12 l min−1 mmHg−1 (p = 0.45), respectively. The SEM was 0.05 l min−1 mmHg−1, indicating large intra-subject variability. Consequently, in order to be 95% confident that a real change has occurred between two measurements taken on the same individual (test–retest), the observed difference must be higher than ±0.15 l min−1 mmHg−1, which is about 60% of the mean value across our population. The ICC was 0.71, indicating thatintra-subject variability, although high, is a limited (29%) portion of inter-subject variability. Intra-subject variability should be carefully taken into account when using the single-breath CO2 test in assessing changes in individual patients. The observed ICC indicates that this test may provide

  6. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, T.; Bartholomeusz, F.D. L.; Bellon, M.S.; Chatterton, B.E. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide. SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  7. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  8. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  9. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debongnie, J.C.; Pauwels, S.; Raat, A.; de Meeus, Y.; Haot, J.; Mainguet, P. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Louvain Medical School, Brussels (Belgium))

    1991-06-01

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration.

  10. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastritis and ulcer disease using a simple and rapid carbon-14-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric urease was studied isotopically in 230 patients with biopsy-proven normal mucosa or chronic gastritis, including 59 patients with ulcer disease. Carbon-14-urea was given in 25 ml of water without substrate carrier or nutrient-dense meal, and breath samples were collected over a 60-min period. The amount of 14CO2 excreted at 10 min was independent of the rate of gastric emptying and was not quantitatively influenced by the buccal urease activity. The 10-min 14CO2 values discriminated well between Helicobacter pylori positive and negative patients (94% sensitivity, 89% specificity) and correlated with the number of organisms assessed by histology. The test was a good predictor of chronic gastritis (95% sensitivity and 96% specificity), and a quantitative relationship was observed between 14CO2 values and the severity and activity of the gastritis. In H. pylori positive patients, breath 14CO2 was found to be similar in patients with and without ulcer disease, suggesting that the number of bacteria is not a determining factor for the onset of ulceration

  11. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  12. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  13. Severe fuel damage scoping test postirradiation examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel bundle from the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test, conducted in the Power Burst Facility as part of the international Severe Fuel Damage Research Program, was examined posttest. This paper presents the results of the nondestructive portion of the examination, including gross gamma scanning, neutron radiography, and tomographic reconstruction of cross sections through the bundle using the neutron radiographs

  14. Measurement of the rate of fat absorption by the 14C-triolein breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the extent to which continuous measurement of the rate of 14CO2 excretion following the oral administration of 14C-labeled triolein (14C-T) would estimate the rate of absorption of triolein by the gut, ten adult male rats were fed 0.5 ml of 14C-T and the rate of production of expired labeled CO2 was measured continuously. Pairs of animals were sacrificed at 30 min intervals between 90 and 210 min and absorption rates were calculated by quantitating substrate remaining in the gut. Comparison of these rates with the cumulative excretion rates of labeled CO2 revealed a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. In a second experiment, adult rats received an intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, prior to receiving 14C-T. The rate of intestinal 14C-triglyceride output was determined from the increase in 14C in the blood over a 6 hr period. Comparison of the rates of intestinal secretion using Triton WR-1339 with that determined from the cumulative rates of excretion of 14CO2 revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The authors conclude that rates of triglyceride absorption can be estimated in vivo by the continuous measurement of labeled CO2 excreted in breath

  15. The 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test in gallstone patients with and without duodenal diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether gallstone patients with duodenal diverticula have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small bowel, the results of the 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test were compared in 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, and in 24 without diverticula. All patients had been treated with endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) for stones in the common bile duct before the study, and cholecystectomy had previously been performed in 20 patients. No significant differences between the groups were found concerning age, sex and body weight. Cummulative 14CO2 expired in 3 h in percentage of administered dose of 14C-d-xylose was 8.55% (7.58-9.57%) and 7.38% (6.32-8.96%) in patients with and without diverticula, respectively (p=0.06), indicating a higher bacterial activity in the small bowel in patients with duodenal diverticula than in those without diverticula. The results appeared to be influenced by cholecystectomy

  16. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  17. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  18. 29 CFR 1919.30 - Examinations subsequent to unit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examinations subsequent to unit tests. 1919.30 Section 1919.30 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... completion of the unit proof load tests required by §§ 1919.27 and 1919.28, the cargo gear and all...

  19. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lung sounds are best heard with a stethoscope. This is called auscultation. Normal lung sounds occur ... the bottom of the rib cage. Using a stethoscope, the doctor may hear normal breathing sounds, decreased ...

  20. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  1. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  2. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: Comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Festi; P. Portincasa; E. Roda; A. Colecchia; S. Capodicasa; L. Sandri; L. Colaiocco-Ferrante; T. Staniscia; E. Vitacolonna; A. Vestito; P. Simoni; G. Mazzella

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of 13C-phenylalanine and 13C-methacetin breath tests in quantitating functional hepatic mass in patients with chronic liver disease and to further compare these results with those of conventional tests, Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (50 HCV-related chronic hepatitis, 90 liver cirrhosis patients) and 40 matched healthy controls were studied. Both breath test and routine liver test, serum levels of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates were evaluated.RESULTS: Methacetin breath test, expressed as 60 min cumulative percent of oxidation, discriminated the hepatic functional capacity not only between controls and liver disease patients, but also between different categories of chronic liver disease patients. Methacetin breath test was correlated with liver function tests and serum bile acids.Furthermore, methacetin breath test, as well as serum bile acids, were highly predictive of Child-Pugh scores. The diagnostic power of phenylalanine breath test was always less than that of methacetin breath test.CONCLUSION: Methacetin breath test represents a safe and accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hepatic functional mass in chronic liver disease patients.

  4. Cardiogenic oscillation phase relationships during single-breath tests performed in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, A. M.; Elliott, A. R.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the phase relationships of the cardiogenic oscillations in the phase III portion of single-breath washouts (SBW) in normal gravity (1 G) and in sustained microgravity (microG). The SBW consisted of a vital capacity inspiration of 5% He-1.25% sulfurhexafluoride-balance O2, preceded at residual volume by a 150-ml Ar bolus. Pairs of gas signals, all of which still showed cardiogenic oscillations, were cross-correlated, and their phase difference was expressed as an angle. Phase relationships between inspired gases (e.g., He) and resident gas (n2) showed no change from 1 G (211 +/- 9 degrees) to microG (163 +/- 7 degrees). Ar bolus and He were unaltered between 1 G (173 +/- 15 degrees) and microG (211 +/- 25 degrees), showing that airway closure in microG remains in regions of high specific ventilation and suggesting that airway closure results from lung regions reaching low regional volume near residual volume. In contrast, CO2 reversed phase with He between 1 G (332 +/- 6 degrees) and microG (263 +/- 27 degrees), strongly suggesting that, in microG, areas of high ventilation are associated with high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q). This widening of the range of VA/Q in microG may explain previous measurements (G.K. Prisk, A.R. Elliott, H.J.B. Guy, J.M. Kosonen, and J.B. West J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1290-1298, 1995) of an overall unaltered range of VA/Q in microG, despite more homogeneous distributions of both ventilation and perfusion.

  5. Application of 13C-urea breath test in patients diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C-urea breath test(13C-UBT)was used to evaluate infection rate of H. pylori(HP) and effect of HP eradication in patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. Patiens without gastrointestinal disorders were set as control group. Within 640 patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test, there were 389 patients showed HP-positive by 13C-UBT. The positive rate of HP was 60.8%. 389 patients diagnosed as HP- positive by 13C-UBT were treated with PPI-based triple therapy, PPI-based double therapy and single PPI therapy, respectively. After treatment, the negative rate of 13C-UBT was 83.8%, 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The results showed significant difference between three kinds of therapy (P13C-UBT could improve the diagnostic rate of HP to patients who diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. (authors)

  6. Can the C-14 urea breath test reflect the extent and degree of ongoing helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) is the most specific noninvasive method to detect Helicobacter (H) pylori infection. We investigated if the C-14 UBT can reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx). One hundred fifty patients (M:F=83:67,age 48.6±11.2 yrs) underwent C-14 UBT, rapid urease test (CLO test) and GBx on the same day. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (137 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive (≥200 dpm), intermediate ( 50 ∼ 199 dpm) or negative ( < 50 dpm). The results of CLO tests were classified as positive or negative according to color change. The results of GBx on giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4(diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.5%, 88.4%, 97.1%, 88.4% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the CLO test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 83.2%, 81.4%, 91.8%, 81.4% and 82.7%, respectively. The quantitative values of the C-14 UBT were 45 ± 27 dpm in grade 0, 707 ±584 dpm in grade 1, 1558±584 dpm in grade 2, 1851±604 dpm in grade 3, and 2719 ± 892 dpm in grade 4. A significant correlation (r=0.848, p<0.01) was found between C-14 UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection on GBx with giemsa stain. We conclude that the C-14 UBT is a highly accurate, simple and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of ongoing H. pylori infection and reflects the degree of bacterial distribution

  7. 13C-tryptophan breath test detects increased catabolic turnover of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiya Teraishi; Hiroaki Hori; Daimei Sasayama; Junko Matsuo; Shintaro Ogawa; Miho Ota; Kotaro Hattori; Masahiro Kajiwara; Teruhiko Higuchi; Hiroshi Kunugi

    2015-01-01

    Altered tryptophan–kynurenine (KYN) metabolism has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The l-[1-13C]tryptophan breath test (13C-TBT) is a noninvasive, stable-isotope tracer method in which exhaled 13CO2 is attributable to tryptophan catabolism via the KYN pathway. We included 18 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-tryptophan (150 mg) was orally administered and the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in the breath was monitored for 180 min. The cumulative recove...

  8. Comparison of the 1-gram [14C]xylose, 10-gram lactulose-H2, and 80-gram glucose-H2 breath tests in patients with small intestine bacterial overgrowth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of three breath tests (1-g [14C]xylose, 10-g lactulose-H2, and 80-g glucose-H2) was studied in 20 subjects with culture-documented small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Elevated breath 14CO2 levels were seen within 30 min of [14C]xylose administration in 19 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 0 of 10 controls. In contrast, H2 breath tests demonstrated uninterpretable tests (absence of H2-generating bacteria) in 2 of 20 subjects with bacterial overgrowth and 1 of 10 controls and nondiagnostic increases in H2 production in 3 of 18 glucose-H2 and 7 of 18 lactulose-H2 breath tests in subjects with bacterial overgrowth. These findings demonstrate continued excellent reliability of the 1-g [14C]xylose breath test as a diagnostic test for bacterial overgrowth, indicate inadequate sensitivity of H2 breath tests in detecting bacterial overgrowth, and suggest the need for evaluation of a 13CO2 breath test having the same characteristics as the [14C]xylose test (avidly absorbed substrate having minimal contact with the colonic flora) for nonradioactive breath detection of bacterial overgrowth in children and reproductive-age women

  9. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  10. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labeling and analysis by an optical breath test analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in optical systems for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking 13C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment at US$ 15000-25000 is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare the conventional mass spectrometry methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple 13C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This allows an assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For a global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle data is required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will allow collection of hard data within a reasonable time frame. (author)

  11. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labelling and analysis by means of an optical breath test analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R C; Khan, M; Haque, A; Khadir, M; Bonetto, J P; Syamsul, R; Mayr, L; Heiling, M

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in optical systems (isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry) for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking (13)C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment, US$15,000-25,000, is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare conventional mass spectrometric methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple (13)C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This enables assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle, data are required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will enable collection of hard data within a reasonable time. PMID:14963630

  12. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  13. Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Printable Version (PDF—498 kb) Coping with Grief Breathing Problems? Breathing Problems? Learn to Recognize the Symptoms of COPD ... health care provider and ask for a simple breathing test called spirometry. Together, you can come up ...

  14. Three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination for solitary pulmonary lesions. Correlation of contrast enhancement pattern with pathological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of dynamic MR imaging of solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs) using a fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo technique with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE). Correlation between the enhancement pattern and the histological characteristics of the nodules was also assessed. Dynamic 3D-VIBE was performed in 16 patients with pathologically proven SPLs. Each lesion was analyzed for its internal enhancement pattern, dynamic enhancement pattern, and peripheral enhancement (PE). A heterogeneous pattern of internal enhancement was well correlated with histological observation of necrosis, cystic changes, and variously sized air spaces. The washout pattern was seen in the medullary parts of the nodules with little fibrous stroma. The progressive pattern was seen at foci of collapse in the alveolar structure, central scars, and prominent fibrosis. PE was also seen in 6 malignant lesions (43%), and was well correlated with the medullary growth of adenocarcinoma and marginal fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of squamous cell carcinoma. The presence of PE was statistically significantly related with tumor size (p<0.05). Dynamic 3D-VIBE allows assessment of the histological characteristics of SPLs. It is also thought that this technique may be a promising method for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. (author)

  15. Anatomy, variants, and pathologies of the superior glenohumeral ligament: Magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence and conventional magnetic resonance arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogul, Hayri; Karaca, Leyla; Emre, Cahit; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Tuncer, Kutsi; Topai, Murat; Okur, Aylin; Kantarci, Mecit [Medical Faculty, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this review was to demonstrate magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography findings of anatomy, variants, and pathologic conditions of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL). This review also demonstrates the applicability of a new MR arthrography sequence in the anterosuperior portion of the glenohumeral joint. The SGHL is a very important anatomical structure in the rotator interval that is responsible for stabilizing the long head of the biceps tendon. Therefore, a torn SGHL can result in pain and instability. Observation of the SGHL is difficult when using conventional MR imaging, because the ligament may be poorly visualized. Shoulder MR arthrography is the most accurately established imaging technique for identifying pathologies of the SGHL and associated structures. The use of three dimensional (3D) volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences produces thinner image slices and enables a higher in-plane resolution than conventional MR arthrography sequences. Therefore, shoulder MR arthrography using 3D VIBE sequences may contribute to evaluating of the smaller intraarticular structures such as the SGHL.

  16. Anatomy, variants, and pathologies of the superior glenohumeral ligament: Magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination sequence and conventional magnetic resonance arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this review was to demonstrate magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography findings of anatomy, variants, and pathologic conditions of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL). This review also demonstrates the applicability of a new MR arthrography sequence in the anterosuperior portion of the glenohumeral joint. The SGHL is a very important anatomical structure in the rotator interval that is responsible for stabilizing the long head of the biceps tendon. Therefore, a torn SGHL can result in pain and instability. Observation of the SGHL is difficult when using conventional MR imaging, because the ligament may be poorly visualized. Shoulder MR arthrography is the most accurately established imaging technique for identifying pathologies of the SGHL and associated structures. The use of three dimensional (3D) volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences produces thinner image slices and enables a higher in-plane resolution than conventional MR arthrography sequences. Therefore, shoulder MR arthrography using 3D VIBE sequences may contribute to evaluating of the smaller intraarticular structures such as the SGHL.

  17. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  18. Evaporative emissions in three-day diurnal breathing loss tests on passenger cars for the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Breakthrough emissions that dominate diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were observed in continuous 3-day diurnal breathing loss (DBL) tests. These measurements were conducted on nine vehicles for the Japanese market. Two of these vehicles, made by US and European manufacturers, also meet regulations in their countries of origin. Four vehicles exhibited marked emissions caused by breakthrough emissions during the experimental period, all made by Japanese manufacturers. Using our experimental results, we estimate the total diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan to be 32,792 t y-1. The compositions of the breakthrough and permeation emissions were analyzed in real time using proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry to estimate the ozone formation potential for the evaporative emissions. The real-time measurements showed that the adsorption of hydrocarbons in a sealed housing evaporative determination unit can result in underestimation, when concentrations are only monitored before and after a DBL test. The composition analysis gave an estimated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) 20% higher for the breakthrough emissions than for the gasoline that was tested, while the MIR for the permeation emissions was almost the same as the MIR for the fuel. Evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan were found to contribute 4.2% to emissions from stationary sources using a mass-based estimate, or 6.1% of emissions from stationary sources using a MIR-based estimate.

  19. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  20. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n = 908) infants. [13C]UBT and stool test results concurred with each other in 1,255 (94.86%) cases (kappa coefficient = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 0.92). In the H. pylori-positive group, delta-over-baseline (DOB) and optical density (OD) values were positively correlated (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). The positivity of the tests was higher (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 6.01; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.04) in Peru (546/878; 62.2%) than in Brazil (81/377; 21.5%) and increased with increasing age in Brazil (P = 0.02), whereas in Peru it decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The disagreement between the test results was associated with birth in Brazil and female gender but not with age and diarrhea. Our results suggest that both [13C]UBT and the stool monoclonal test are reliable for diagnosing H. pylori infection in very young children, which will facilitate robust epidemiological studies in infants and toddlers. PMID:24006009

  1. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenza Argnani, Mauro Di Camillo, Vanessa Marinaro, Tiziana Foglietta, Veronica Avallone, Carlo Cannella, Piero Vernia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT-25.METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded.RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77% with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm ± 29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm ± 40.01 SD; P < 0.001. Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84 for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31.CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a “standard” HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  2. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiorenza Argnani; Mauro Di Camillo; Vanessa Marinaro; Tiziana Foglietta; Veronica Avallone; Carlo Cannella; Piero Vernia

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm)±29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm±40.01 SD; P<0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  3. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  4. Field tests and examinations in cell of French fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the field tests carried out on more than 70 assemblies and those realized at the hot laboratory on a whole assembly of 25 rods taken from pressurized water power plants operating in France: dimension examination; fission gas release; oxidation and hydridation of cans

  5. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkjaer Arne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC and low back pain (LBP. However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS, sitting forward lean (SFL, sitting knee extension (SKE, and bent knee fall out (BKFO, all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL, measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8, were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27 cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62 cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29 cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52 cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1 mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these

  6. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  7. An inventory of aeronautical ground research facilities. Volume 2: Air breathing engine test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrello, C. J.; Hardin, R. D.; Heckart, M. V.; Brown, K. R.

    1971-01-01

    The inventory covers free jet and direct connect altitude cells, sea level static thrust stands, sea level test cells with ram air, and propulsion wind tunnels. Free jet altitude cells and propulsion wind tunnels are used for evaluation of complete inlet-engine-exhaust nozzle propulsion systems under simulated flight conditions. These facilities are similar in principal of operation and differ primarily in test section concept. The propulsion wind tunnel provides a closed test section and restrains the flow around the test specimen while the free jet is allowed to expand freely. A chamber of large diameter about the free jet is provided in which desired operating pressure levels may be maintained. Sea level test cells with ram air provide controlled, conditioned air directly to the engine face for performance evaluation at low altitude flight conditions. Direct connect altitude cells provide a means of performance evaluation at simulated conditions of Mach number and altitude with air supplied to the flight altitude conditions. Sea level static thrust stands simply provide an instrumented engine mounting for measuring thrust at zero airspeed. While all of these facilities are used for integrated engine testing, a few provide engine component test capability.

  8. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min−1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  9. 14C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had 14C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested 14C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption

  10. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry for patients undergoing a glycerol tri[1-14C]oleate fat malabsorption breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycerol tri[1-14C]olein test for fat malabsorption was carried out in two male volunteers and measurements of the loss of 14C in expired air, urine and faeces and the retention of 14C in biopsy samples of abdominal fat were made using accelerator mass spectrometry. Exhalation accounted for 73% and 55% of the administered activity and could be described by three-component exponential functions with halftimes of about 1 h, 2 days and 150 days, respectively. Urinary excretion accounted for 24% of the administered activity, almost all during the first 24 h after administration; about 2% was excreted in the faeces in 48 h. The halftime of retention of 14C in fat ranged from 137 to 620 days. Absorbed dose calculations indicate that for a normal adult the largest dose, 1.5-7.0 mGy/MBq is received by the adipose tissue, and that the effective dose is 0.3-0.5 mSv/MBq. It is concluded that no restrictions need to be placed on radiation safety grounds on the administration of 0.05-0.1 MBq 14C-triolein for the triolein breath test

  11. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  12. Traveling with breathing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  13. Development of prototype virtual testing system for ultrasonic examination engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of inspection results is affected by the skill of examination personnel, particularly with regard to manual ultrasonic testing (UT). The number and design of test specimens are among the most important points to be considered during training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. For training, a simulated UT training system using a computer mouse or touch sensor was proposed. However, this system proved to be inadequate as a replacement with for actual UT work. In this study, we have developed a novel virtual UT system that simulates actual UT work for piping welds. This system (Tool for Realistic UltraSound Testing) consists of a dummy UT probe, dummy piping, a computer system, and a 3D position detection system. It can detect the state of the dummy probe (3D position, skewing angle), and displays recorded A-scan data corresponding to the dummy probe status with random noise. Furthermore, it does not display A-scan data if the dummy probe is not in contact with the pipe. Thus, in this way, the system simulates actual UT work. Using this system, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of test specimens being utilized for training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. Additionally, highly efficient training and certification will be achieved through this system. (author)

  14. [An Examination of Variable Image Positions in the Aortic Valve Blood Flow Using Phase Contrast MRI: Effect of Breath-holding Methods in Healthy Volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichi; Morimoto, Noriyoshi; Fukushima, Sachi

    2015-12-01

    Phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating valvular pathology. In addition, PC-MRI can provide a noninvasive assessment of blood flow in an arbitrary cross section. However, the blood flow measurement with breath-hold or free breath PC-MRI may be different from each other because of intrathoracic pressure changing and variable image position. The aim of this study was to find both the optimal breath-hold technique and the image position. Quantitative flow images were acquired in four planes (ascending aorta: Ao, sino-tubular junction: STJ, valsalva sinus: valsalva, left ventricular outflow tract: LVOT), in healthy subjects (n=10). The study protocol was divided into two parts: (1) stroke volume (SV) measured in each slice positions by using inspiration, expiration, and navigation method during normal breathing and (2) SV measured at each breath-hold techniques in the Ao, STJ, valsalva, and LVOT. As a result, (1) SV of the respective measurement positions were not significant by using inspiration, expiration, and navigation method and (2) LVOT SV was significantly lower than Ao, STJ, and valsalva. PMID:26685835

  15. Comparison of a monoclonal antigen stool test (Hp StAR) with the 13C-urea breath test in monitoring Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Perri; Michele Quitadamo; Rosalba Ricciardi; Ada Piepoli; Rosa Cotugno; Annamaria Gentile; Alberto Pilotto; Angelo Andriulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the agreement between a mAb-based stool test (HP StAR) and the urea breath test (UBT) in monitoring (H pylori) infection after eradication therapy.METHODS: Patients with discordant results on UBT and Hp StAR underwent endoscopy with biopsies for rapid urease test, culture, and histology to confirm H pylori status.RESULTS: Among 250 patients (50±14 years), 240 (96.0%) had concordant UBT and Hp StAR tests with a significant correlation between DOB and A values (R = 0.87; P<0.0001).The remaining 10 (4.0%) patients had discordant tests (positive Hp StAR and negative UBT) with the Hp StAR inaccurate in five cases (false positive) and UBT inaccurate in the other five cases (false negative). The "maximal expected" sensitivity, specificity, +PV, -PV, +LR, and -LR were 91%, 100%, 100%, 97.4%, ∞, and 8.2 respectively,for the UBT, and 100%, 97.4%, 91%, 100%, 38.8, and 0,respectively, for the Hp StAR. Overall accuracy for both tests was 98%.CONCLUSION: Both the UBT and the Hp StAR are equally accurate in monitoring H pylori infection. Nowadays,the choice of the "best" non-invasive H pylori test in the post-treatment setting should be done not only in terms of diagnostic accuracy but also in view of cost and local facilities.

  16. Ultrasonic testing equipment for nondestructive examination of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the ultrasonic testing equipment the longitudinal-weld or spiral-weld large-size pipes welded by the submerged arc method can be examined for lonitudinal and transverse discontinuities. The search units are radialsymmetrically arranged in a testing spider. Two search units each, mounted opposits one another with respect to the weld, serve to find the transverse discontinuities whereas one search unit each, placed before and behind these couples, serves for detection of lonitudinal flaws. As search units, simple angle beam search units, straight beam search units, or dual search units may be used. (RW)

  17. CT examination of the scrotum and particularly of the testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derouet, H.; Braedel, H.U.; Ziegler, M.; Zwergel, T.; Khorsandian, C.

    1988-05-01

    CT examination of the tests was carried out in 49 patients for the investigation of testicular tumours. Hypodensity and inhomogeneity were typical of teratomas and hyperdensity and relative homogeneity of seminomas. Granulomatous orchitis and lymphomas showed the same characteristics as seminomas. Three testes in the abdomen could be localised and classified. One non-palpable primary tumour was found as well as an old partially calcified tumour, three old torsions and one lipo-sarcoma. In about 10% it was not possible to distinguish between tumour and inflammatory lesions. Compared with sonography, CT has advantages, particularly in the diagnosis of old torsion.

  18. 14C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent 14C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO2 absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative cheaper and safer) CO2 absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

  19. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  20. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4 product...... production). Sources of RS: Raw potato starch (RPS), 58% RS; corn flakes (CF), 5% RS; hylon VII high amylomaize starch, extrusion cooked and cooled (HAS) 30% RS; highly retrograded hylon VII high amylomaize starch (HRA) 89% RS.......To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...

  1. Intragastric acidification increases the sensitivity of 14C-urea breath test in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate if intragastric acidification at the ingestion of 14C-urea can decrease the likelihood of false-negative (FN) results of urea breath test (UBT) in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Methods: Twenty-three patients with positive 14C-UBT (UBT-1) results underwent an acid suppression treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/d for 14 d. On day 13, patients underwent second standard UBT (YBT-2). On day 14, patients underwent a modified UBT (UBT-3), which included consuming 200 mL of 0.1 mol/L citric acid solution 30 min before and at the administration of 14C-urea. Mean 14CO2 expiration and the number of FN results were compared for the three UBTs. Results: Omeprazole caused a significant decrease in mean 14CO2 excretion between UBT-1[(5.57 +- 3.90) Bq/mmol] and UBT-2[(1.98 +- 1.42) Bq/mmol, t=5.867, P=0.000]. Omeprazole caused 10(43.5%) FN UBT-2 results. Mean 14CO2 expiration in UBT-3 [(4.93 +- 3.77) Bq/mmol] was greater than that in UBT-2 (t=-4.538, P=0.000). UBT-3 caused only 2 FN results (8.7%, x2=6.66, P14C-urea increases 14Co2 expiration and decreases FN 14C-UBT results in patients taking PPI

  2. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  3. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of {sup 14}C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    {sup 14}C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used {sup 14}C-breath tests: {sup 14}C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low {sup 14}C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform {sup 14}C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of {sup 14}C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and {sup 14}C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the {sup 14}C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  4. The 14CO2 breath test: Facilities and limitations of a rapid and noninvasive method for in vivo evaluation of modified hepatic cytochrome P-450 - a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the breath test technique the cascade from O-demethylations to CO2 was investigated after pretreatment of mice with warfarin, phenobarbital, cobaltous chloride, sodium vanadate and metyrapone. It was the intention to examine the validity of the technique with respect to cytochrome P-450 activity. Therefore three different radioactive labeled substrates, i.e., hydrogen carbonate, formate and xenobiotics, were applied at three different levels of the one-carbon pathway and were utilized to demonstrate possible interference of the modifiers with the sequence from O-demethylation to CO2. Real in vivo information about a modified cytochrome P-450 system can be obtained using model substrates carefully selected with regard to the type of expected modification of the monooxygenase system. In addition, a parallel monitoring of the consecutive reaction sequence by measuring the conversion of formate to CO2 is necessary in order to guarantee the validity of the in vivo technique in visualizing the activity of the hepatic monooxygenase system. (orig.)

  5. Where c-14 urea breath tests lie in nuclear medicine. The detection of H pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 20th century, ulcers have been believed to be caused by stress and dietary factors. Treatment had focussed on hospitalisation, bed rest, and prescription of special bland foods. Later on, gastric acid was blamed for ulcer disease. Antacids and medication that block acid production became the standard of therapy. Despite this treatment, there seemed to be a high recurrence of ulcers. In 1982 a pair of Australian physicians Robin Warren and Barry Marshall were first to identify a link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcers, concluding that bacterium, not stress or diet, causes ulcers. However, the medical community was slow to accept their findings. It was not until 1994 that a Health Consensus Development Conference concluded that there was a strong association between H. pylori and ulcer diseases also recommending ulcer patients with H. pylori infection be treated with antibiotics. The paper discusses several tests, which have become available to medical staff in the detection of H. pylori. Sensitivity, specificity, relatively inexpensive ease of use and patient compliance are factors of a good diagnostic test. Copyright (2000) ANZ Nuclear Medicine

  6. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  7. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations: comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation: primerjava časov po izdihu in po vdihu z ali brez hiperventilacije: Zadrževanje diha pri bolnikih, ki so radiološko preiskovani:

    OpenAIRE

    Groell, Reinhard; Schaffler, Gottfried J; Schloffer, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Background: Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation.Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and...

  8. The Automated Hamolsky Test: Its Value in Thyroid Function Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest aroused by the Hamolsky test is due essentially to the fact that this test, which is performed in vitro, does not involve irradiation of the patient and that it is in general the only test capable, in the presence of iodine saturation of exogenic origin, of providing information on the functional state of the thyroid. In the authors' method, the adsorbents used in classical manual techniques have been replaced by a dialysis membrane which effects continuous separation of the free radioactive T3 (l-tri-iodothyronine-131I) from the protein-bound hormone after incubation with the plasma for analysis. The automatic recording of a non-stop dialysis and the continuous comparison of the plasmas with a reference plasma enable variations to be detected in the analytical device, thus ensuring very great accuracy in the results. Critical examination of this method, which has been performed since 1966 on almost 400 patients, shows that the automated version of the Hamolsky test can be adopted as a routine technique in the functional investigation of the thyroid. The advantages and disadvantages of this test and of the manual tests using resins are studied in detail in the latter part of the paper. (author)

  9. Discussion on test and application of Reilly breathing technique for self-contained breathing apparatus%自给正压式空气呼吸器R式呼吸法测试与应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晔

    2014-01-01

    Reilly emergency breathing technique,as one of basic skills of fireground survival for firefighters,can efficiently prolong the consumption time of self-contained breathing apparatus in case of disorientation,trauma or entrapment,and raise the success rate of rapid intervention. The values were tested,compared and analyzed be-tween the consumption time of 5 . 5 MPa air in cylinder with normal breathing model and Reilly emergency breathing technique in the state of running at 6 Km/h in treadmill and prone position in the field,and the proposal was put forward that the Reilly emergency breathing technique should be trained in the fire brigade and the rapid interven-tion system should be completed and implemented in order to improve the skills of breathing protection and the op-portunity of fireground survival.%对遇险消防员迅速实施二次救援是目前减少消防员火场伤亡的重要措施。当遭遇迷失、受伤、被困等意外而依靠自身的力量无法脱险、或空气呼吸器低压报警装置起鸣时,消防员如果能延长空气呼吸器的使用时间,就能够为外部救援力量的二次救援提供宝贵的时间,为成功获救创造条件。测试采用自由呼吸和R式呼吸法两种呼吸方式下、在跑步机上以6km/h的速度快步行走和俯卧状伏于地面两种运动状态下5.5MPa空气的使用时间。结果证明,采用R式呼吸法较之自由呼吸时空气的使用时间更长,采用R式呼吸法俯卧状伏于地面能更有效地延长空气的使用时间。为了提高火场遇险消防员的生存机率,应将R式呼吸法作为消防员基本生存技能纳入灭火救援业务训练大纲,规范消防员火场避险行动程序,并系统化地开展实战化专项训练。

  10. EFFECT OF DEEP BREATHING ON RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Context: Breathing is the most vital function for maintenanc e of life. Slow and deep breathing is an integral part of Pranayama and it r educes dead space ventilation and renews air throughout the lungs. The reported beneficial effec ts of deep breathing as a part of either long term or short term practice of pranayama on pulmonary fu nctions are well documented. However our knowledge about the effects of deep breathing on hu man respiratory parameters is poor. In the present study, we examined the relationship between exposure to deep breathing and performance on Respiratory parameters before and after the deep breathing. Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of deep breathing on respirator y parameters. S ettings & Design: The present study was a comparative prospective study consistin g of 30 male healthy subjects of 18-20 years age. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of physi ology, Adichunchanagiri institute of medical sciences, Man dya after the institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. The particip ants were asked to perform deep breathing. The duration of the study was twelve weeks. Pre and pos t deep breathing respiratory functions were assessed by measuring respiratory rate, chest expan sion and breath holding time. The parameters were analyzed by Student‘t’ test and p<0.05 was con sidered the level of significance. Results: There was significant decrease in respiratory rate, and s ignificant increase in chest expansion and breath holding time compared to pre deep breathing practic e. Conclusions: This study showed beneficial effects of deep breathing on respiratory functions in normal healthy individuals

  11. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Gallardo-Wong; S Morán; G Rodríguez-Leal; B Casta(n)eda-Romero; R Mera; J Poo; M Uribe; M Dehesa

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure.METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox.RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78,0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI:0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin,creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  12. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO/sub 2/ reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made.

  13. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  14. Catalogue of test specimens for non-destructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key elements in assuring the integrity of reactor primary circuits is the availability of trustworthy non-destructive methods for detecting dangerous defects that may be present. Various approaches to making such examinations are being developed, including the use of ultrasonic and radiographic techniques. To demonstrate their capability and reliability, they must be tested on steel specimens reproducing the various types of faults which may arise in real primary circuit vessels and piping. Such specimens are costly to fabricate. It is therefore clearly desirable that existing specimens should be made accessible to as many organisations as possible for testing. This catalogue contains detailed Information on forty-odd deliberately flawed plates, blocks, vessels, etc. which have been produced in OECD countries, along with the name of a contact person to whom inquiries should be directed in each case

  15. EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANE BEAMS OF AN OVERFLOW DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure of the overflow dam are in a serviceable operating condition, according to their opinion issued upon completion of examination and testing procedures. The recommendation is to regularly tighten screw nuts and to install high-strength bolts in the points of missing rivets. The authors also recommend applying a rust-proofing coating to all metal structures of the dam spans.

  16. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging using a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE): clinical utility in the evaluation of renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare, in terms of technical feasibility, image quality and clinical efficacy, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) with two-dimensional gradient-echo MR imaging for the evaluation of renal messes. Twenty-three patients with 25 renal masses underwent dynamic MR imaging using a 1.5-T MR system and the 3D VIBE, 2D fast low angle shot (FLASH), and combined fat saturation techniques after the injection of 20 ml of Gd-DTPA. We compared postcontrast 2D FLASH and 3D VIBE images with precontrast 2D FLASH images. For quantitative analysis, the signal-to-noise and lesion to kidney contrast-to-noise ratio of the images were calculated using the three different techniques. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists analyzed the images in terms of artifacts, lesion conspicuity and delineation, and general image quality. Delineation of the anatomy of renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal systems on reconstructed 3D VIBE MIP images was also assessed. Quantitative analysis showed that the SNR of a renal mass was slightly higher at postcontrast 2D FLASG than at 3D VIBE imaging, and the SNR of renal cortex was higher at 3D VIBE than at postcontrast 2D FLASF imaging. The differences were, though, statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The CNR of al renal mass was, however, significantly higher at 3D VIBE than at 2D FLASH imaging (p<0.05). Qualitative analysis showed that general image quality was best at postcontrast 3D VIBE, followed by 2D FLASH and precontrast 2D FLASH imaging, and image artifacts were worst at post-contrast 2D FLASH image (p<0.05). In terms of lesion conspicuity and delineation, 3D VIBE gave the best results and postcontrast images were better than precontrast (p<0.05). Reconstructed angiographic and urographic images using the VIBE technique provided information about the anatomy of the renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system. 3D VIBE MR imaging offers comparable or

  17. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging using a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE): clinical utility in the evaluation of renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare, in terms of technical feasibility, image quality and clinical efficacy, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) with two-dimensional gradient-echo MR imaging for the evaluation of renal masses. Twenty-three patients with 25 renal masses underwent dynamic MR imaging using a 1.5-T MR system and the 3D VIBE, 2D fast low angle shot (FLASH), and combined fat saturation techniques after the injection of 20 ml of Gd-DTPA. We compared postcontrast 2D FLASH and 3D VIBE images with precontrast 2D FLASH images. For quantitative analysis, the signal-to-noise and lesion to kidney contrast-to-noise ratio of the images were calculated using the three different techniques. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists analyzed the images in terms of artifacts, lesion conspicuity and delineation, and general image quality. Delineation of the anatomy of renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system on reconstructed 3D VIBE MIP images was also assessed. Quantitative analysis showed that the SNR of a renal mass was slightly higher at postcontrast 2D FLASH than at 3D VIBE imaging, and the SNR of renal cortex was higher at 3D VIBE than at postcontrast 2D FLASH imaging. The differences were, though, statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The CNR of a renal mass was, however, significantly higher at 3D VIBE than at 2D FLASH imaging (p<0.05). Qualitative analysis showed that general image quality was best at postcontrast 3D VIBE, followed by 2D FLASH and precontrast 2D FLASH imaging, and image artifacts were worst at post-contrast 2D FLASH image (p<0.05). In terms of lesion conspicuity and delineation, 3D VIBE gave the best results and postcontrast images were better than precontrast (p<0.05). Reconstructed angiographic and urographic images using the VIBE technique provided information about the anatomy of the renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system. 3D VIBE MR imaging offers comparable or

  18. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14CO2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14CO2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  19. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labeling and analysis by an optical breath test analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in optical systems for breath testing have provided a robust, low cost option for undertaking 13C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have potential as a research tool in soil science and agronomy. The relatively low cost of the equipment at US$ 15000-25000 is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The operational simplicity of the optical system means that relatively low maintenance and minimal training are required. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for 13C isotope-ratio analysis using the breath test analyser, and results were compared with conventional isotope-ratio analysis by mass spectrometry. In combination with simple 13C plant labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This allows an assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For a global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle data is required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will allow collection of data within a reasonable time frame. (author)

  20. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Chisen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen Granhum [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Kao Chiahung [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Wang Shyhjen [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Peng Shihnen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Huang Chihkuen [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China); Poon Sekkwong [Div. of Gastroenterology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired {sup 14}CO{sub 2} at 30 min were corrected with the amount of {sup 14}C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a {sup 14}CO{sub 2} concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of {sup 14}C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected {sup 14}C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  1. Experience with the 14C-aminopyrine breath test in hepatic cirrhosis and under the influence of diclofenac-sodium (Voltaren/sup R/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-aminopyrine breath test is a simple procedure for the non-invasive determination of the microsomal function of the liver. After oral administration of 74 kBq 14C-aminopyrine the 14CO2 activity of the expired breath air is determined in hourly intervals. There is a close correlation between its decrease and the elimination of aminopyrine from the plasma. Both the elimination constant of 14CO2 and the maximal specific 14CO2 activity are useful quantitative parameters of the test. They allow conclusions as to the hepatic demethylation capacity. Both parameters were significantly lower in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis than in 12 control patients. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac-sodium did not significantly influence the demethylation of 14C-aminopyrine in 5 patients with rheumatic diseases and in 2 healthy probands. Further experience with the breath test is necessary, especially with respect to its suitability for prospective investigation. (author)

  2. Determination of rifaximin treatment period according to lactulose breath test values in nonconstipated irritable bowel syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Young-Sang; Kim, Kyu-Nam

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) can partly explain irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and rifaximin has been observed to improve abdominal symptoms in nonconstipated IBS patients. However, there are few reports on the association of the rifaximin treatment periods with the results of a lactulose breath test (LBT). Therefore, we performed a retrospective review of patient charts to investigate the relation between the rifaximin treatment periods with LBT results in nonconstipated IBS patients. We also evaluated the time to achieve a symptomatic improvement in the IBS patients as compared to the changes in the LBT. We reviewed the charts for patients who showed IBS symptoms with documented positive results for LBT during their initial visit and who had a follow-up LBT after treatment with rifaximin. The LBT values were compared to the subjects' symptom scores. A total of 102 subjects had a follow-up LBT to assess LBT normalization. The subjects were divided into groups according to treatment periods of 4 weeks (n = 36), 8 weeks (n = 43), and 12 weeks (n = 23). The groups with a longer treatment exhibited an increase in the hydrogen gas value at 90 min and its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT. There were significant differences in hydrogen gas value at 90 min and in its sum during 90 min at the initial LBT between the groups treated for 4 and 12 weeks. The most significant treatment response was observed during the first 4 weeks for all treatment groups. Symptomatic improvement occurred earlier than LBT normalization in the treatment period over 4 weeks. The results indicate that different rifaximin treatment periods are needed in accordance with LBT levels to effectively eradicate SIBO. PMID:26028929

  3. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin4,sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability 2=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of tumor amplitude for a given peak pressure week-to-week. Film set-up reproducibility is adequate for detection of dosimetric errors resulting from motion of >3%. This work is funded by Swiss National Fund Grants 320030-127569 and 320030-1493942-1

  4. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  5. Interactions between breathing rate and low-frequency fluctuations in blood pressure and cardiac intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsman, H M; Peebles, K C; Tzeng, Y C

    2015-10-01

    Evidence derived from spontaneous measures of cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) suggests that slow breathing at 6 breaths/min augments BRS. However, increases in BRS associated with slow breathing may simply reflect the frequency-dependent nature of the baroreflex rather than the modulation of baroreflex function by changes in breathing rate per se. To test this hypothesis we employed a crossover study design (n = 14) wherein breathing rate and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) oscillation induced via the application of oscillating lower body negative pressure (OLBNP) were independently varied at fixed frequencies. Breathing rate was controlled at 6 or 10 breaths/min with the aid of a metronome, and SAP oscillations were driven at 0.06 Hz and 0.1 Hz using OLBNP. The magnitudes of SAP and R-R interval (cardiac period) oscillations were quantified using power spectral analysis, and the transfer function gain between SAP and R-R interval was used to estimate BRS. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine the main effects and interactions between breathing rate and OLBNP frequency. There was no statistical interaction between breathing and OLBNP frequency (P = 0.59), indicating that the effect of breathing rate on BRS did not differ according to OLBNP frequency (and vice versa). Additionally, there was no main effect for breathing rate (P = 0.28). However, we observed a significant main effect for OLBNP frequency (P = 0.01) consistent with the frequency-dependent nature of baroreflex. These findings suggest that increases in spectral indices of BRS reflect the frequency dependence of the baroreflex and are not due to slow breathing per se. PMID:26205543

  6. Deep breathing after surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... way to do so is by doing deep breathing exercises. Deep breathing keeps your lungs well-inflated and healthy while ... uncomfortable. But if you do not practice deep breathing after surgery, you may develop lung problems, like ...

  7. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  9. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath; Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... Heart failure Obesity (does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions ...

  10. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  11. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions.

  12. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant steam generator: FEW tube test model post test examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) is part of an extensive testing program being carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. The problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination and the results of the post-test examination are described

  13. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  14. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  15. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  16. Post-Service Examination of PWR Baffle Bolts, Part I. Examination and Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor plants, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating with Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, The Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, and ATI Consulting, the selective procurement of baffle bolts that were withdrawn from service in 2011 and currently stored on site at Ginna. The goal of this program is to perform detailed microstructural and mechanical property characterization of baffle former bolts following in-service exposures. This report outlines the selection criteria of the bolts and the techniques to be used in this study. The bolts available are the original alloy 347 steel fasteners used in holding the baffle plates to the baffle former structures within the lower portion of the pressurized water reactor vessel. Of the eleven possible bolts made available for this work, none were identified to have specific damage. The bolts, however, did show varying levels of breakaway torque required in their removal. The bolts available for this study varied in peak fluence (highest dose within the head of the bolt) between 9.9 and 27.8x1021 n/cm2 (E>1MeV). As no evidence for crack initiation was determined for the available bolts from preliminary visual examination, two bolts with the higher fluence values were selected for further post-irradiation examination. The two bolts showed different breakaway torque levels necessary in their removal. The information from these bolts will be integral to the LWRS program initiatives in evaluating end of life microstructure and properties. Furthermore, valuable data will be obtained that can be incorporated into model predictions of long-term irradiation behavior and compared to results obtained in high flux experimental reactor conditions. The two bolts selected for the ORNL study will be shipped to Westinghouse with bolts of

  17. Changes in breathing pattern upon 100% oxygen in children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, K; Lenherr, N; Singer, F; Schulzke, S M; Frey, U; Latzin, P; Yammine, S

    2016-07-01

    Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2MBW) is an increasingly used tidal breathing test in young children to assess ventilation inhomogeneity. However, the test requires 100% oxygen to perform. We aimed to examine the potential influence of pure oxygen on breathing pattern in school-aged children. We performed tidal breathing measurements under room air followed by N2MBW in 16 former preterm children and 24 healthy controls. We compared tidal volume (VT), coefficient of variation of VT (CVVT), respiratory rate (RR), and minute ventilation (VE) between tidal breathing and N2MBW, and between the start and end of tidal breathing. Mean (range) age was 6.8 (5.9, 9.0) years. VT, RR and VE showed no significant change upon oxygen-exposure, while CVVT significantly decreased by 5% (95% CI: 1.2, 9.0; p=0.012). However CVVT was also the only parameter which significantly decreased during tidal breathing. Overall, pure oxygen has no systematic effect on breathing pattern in young school-aged children. N2MBW can reliably be used as tracer gas in this age group. PMID:26970571

  18. Point-of-care continuous 13C-methacetin breath test improves decision making in acute liver disease: Results of a pilot clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gadi Lalazar; Tomer Adar; Yaron Ilan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of the 13C-methacetin breath test (MBT) in patients with acute liver disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients with severe acute liver disease from diverse etiologies were followed-up with 13C-MBT during the acute phase of their illnesses (range 3-116 d after treatment). Patients fasted for 8 h and ingested 75 mg of methacetin prior to the MBT. We compared results from standard clinical assessment, serum liver enzymes, synthetic function, and breath test scores. RESULTS: Thirteen patients recovered and two patients died. In patients that recovered, MBT parameters improved in parallel with improvements in lab results. Evidence of consistent improvement began on day 3 for MBT parameters and between days 7 and 9 for blood tests. Later convergence to normality occurred at an average of 9 d for MBT parameters and from 13 to 28 d for blood tests. In both patients that died, MBT parameters remained low despite fluctuating laboratory values. CONCLUSION: The 13C-MBT provides a rapid, noninvasive assessment of liver function in acute severe liver disease of diverse etiologies. The results of this pilot clinical trial suggest that the MBT may offer greater sensitivity than standard clinical tests for managing patients with severe acute liver disease.

  19. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  20. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  1. Oxygen breathing regularity of eggs in storage period monitoring by non-invasive micro-test technique%基于非损伤微测技术监测贮期鸡蛋氧呼吸规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧华; 张涛; 马美湖

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is an important physiological activity of egg as a living organism, and it has a great influence on its storage, conveyance and incubation. Therefore, it is of great significance to study egg’s breathing regularity and respiration intensity in a day and during its storage time in a month. In this paper, non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT) was used to real-time monitor O2 flux passing in and out the eggs through the eggshell and study the breathing regularity and the respiration intensity of the eggs. With this method, gas exchange (O2) was measured and it was confirmed that breathing indeed exists. In order to study egg’s respiration in a day, a customized micro-testing examination platform was constructed for the real-time monitoring of the intensity and rate of oxygen exchange between an egg and its external environment at 4 time points (6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00). On the other hand, egg’s O2 flux was measured at the same time in a day during a month as to seeking for breathing regularity in its storage time. It was indicated that the optimal distance of probe towards the egg surface was 50μm and the blunt end of the egg was selected as the optimum measurement location via the pre-experiment. The results show that there are three breathing patterns of eggs, consuming O2, exhaust O2, and both including consuming and exhausting O2. After group A testing, it is concluded that both fertilized and non-fertilized eggs breathe strong at dawn and weak at noon regularly in a day and the respiration intensity of the two types of eggs perform difference at different time points. Fertilized eggs have more active physical activity and the process of metabolism than those of non-fertilized ones. Fertilized egg respiration shows significant difference (P<0.05) at noon and dawn in a day, but non-fertilized egg does not. In addition, after group B testing, it is intended that during storage time in a month, there exists two breathing peaks in its storage

  2. MIN 14C UBT: A combination of gastric basal transit and 14C-urea breath test for the detection of helicobacter pylori infection in human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) performed at different times combined with the study of the gastric basal transit, which evaluates the intragastric displacement of a labeled solution under fasting conditions, has the advantage of being representative of the whole stomach surface and constitutes a non-aggressive test for the detection of H. pylori. This test, which has been called MIN 14C UBT, is a modification of the conventional 14C UBT in which low volumes of a solution of 14C-urea together with 99mTc-sulfur colloid are administered. The 99mTc-sulfur colloid is not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and has the great advantage of allowing the 'visualization' of the transit of the 14C-urea within the gastrointestinal tract. This modification allows the simultaneous determination of the production of the 14CO2 and the place where this process occurs. The results show that there is a good correlation between the images obtained and the breath samples collected. We found that this test has a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 96% for H. pylori detection

  3. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E;

    1985-01-01

    presence of BOG was ruled out (diagnoses: irritable bowel syndrome, 8; chronic diarrhoea, 6; and lactose malabsorption, 1). These patients were used as controls. The other 22 of the 60 patients could not be placed in either group owing to the presence of factors known to predispose for BOG; none of them......Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients the...

  4. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjaer Arne; Remvig Lars; Kjaer Per; Enoch Flemming; Juul-Kristensen Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC) and low back pain (LBP). However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practi...

  5. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R; Peroni, M; Bernatowicz, K; Zakova, M; Knopf, A; Safai, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, Psi-villigen, Aargau (Switzerland); Parkel, T [CSEM, Swiss Centre of Electronics and Microtechnology, Landquart, Graubunden (Switzerland)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin{sup 4},sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability <0.5mm over 10min),aswell as patient-specific motion types. Maximum excursions of the tumor are 20mm and 14mm for the large and small tumor inserts respectively. Amplitude reproducibility (Coefficient of Variation) averaged at 16% for the workable pressure range over 2 months. Good correlation between tumor and surface motion was found with R{sup 2}=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of

  6. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  7. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. This paper describes the problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination, and the results of the post-test examination. Conditions of tube bowing and significant tube and tube support gouging was observed. An interpretation of the visual and metallurgical observations is also presented. The CRBRP steam generator has undergone design evaluations to resolve observed deficiences found in the FFTM

  8. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVChyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  9. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, B. A.

    1977-09-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  10. Comparative performance of capsulated Vs non-capsulated 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) is employed as a 'gold standard' technique for the detection of active Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, to follow up the patients after its eradication and for epidemiological evaluations. Due to high accuracy of this test and other benefits it is recommended as the best option for 'test-and-treat' strategy in primary health care centers. So far no appropriate study has been done to compare the performance of 14C-UBT using capsulated versus non-capsulated protocol. In this study, we employed a novel technique of performing capsulated 14C-UBT with simultaneous monitoring the dynamic movement of capsule and compared the results with non-capsulated protocol. (author)

  11. Use of the Biphasic (13)C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekun, Antone R; Balesh, Albert M; Shelby, Harold T

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). (13)CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from (13)C-sucrose and secondary (13)C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, (13)C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing (13)CO2-breath enrichment with plasma (13)C-glucose enrichment. (13)C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. (13)CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of (13)C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r (2) = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60', 0.92 at 75', and 0.96 at mean 60'-75' with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60', 0.77 at 75', and 0.76 at mean 60'-75' (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  12. Post-Test Examination of the Hydrogen Distribution in Zirconium Claddings After Loca Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the posttest examinations of the large scale LOCA simulation tests on fuel rod bundle scale, the hydrogen distributions in specimens prepared from the QUENCH-L0 and –L1 tests were determined by means of neutron imaging. The hydrogen distributions in samples prepared from the two tests differ significantly. Whereas clearly visible hydrogen bands were found in the inner rods of the QUENCH-L0 test; the hydrogen enrichments in no specimen prepared from the inner rods of the QUENCH-L1 test are more blurred. The reasons for these different behaviors can be the different times between reaching the temperature maxima and the quenching. In the QUENCH-L0 test the bundle was quenched immediately after reaching the maximal temperature. In QUENCH-L1 the hydrogen has about 130 s to diffuse and reach more homogeneous distributions without very pronounced contrasts between the hydrogen bands and the neighboring regions in the neutron images. In outer rods of both tests no hydrogen enrichments were found except two rods (#14 and #17) of test QUENCH-L0. The reason for it is the slightly lower temperature of the outer rods compared to the inner rods. (author)

  13. A methodological aspect of the {sup 14}C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis; Wybrany aspekt metodologiczny testu oddechowego z mocznikiem znakowanym stosowanego w diagnostyce zakazenia Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author) 38 refs, 2 tabs, 1 fig

  14. Postirradiation examination of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents the irradiation results and their evaluation for Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-4. It describes in detail the efforts by General Atomic Company over the last two years to establish a system for extracting meaningful performance information from a fuel test element. This has been done with the goal of making direct comparisons between as-measured data and core design code predictions. Special emphasis has been placed on determining the 95% confidence limits on most of the preirradiation and postirradiation measurements in order to allow a better comparison with GAUGE, FEVER, and TREVER code calculations which are used in HTGR core thermal and mechanical design

  15. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  16. Numerical and experimental examinations for eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessel's differential equations were solved for the problems of a rectangular sensing coil over to extended conducting layers and an inner coil in a conducting two-layer tube. The vector potentials in the different fields were calculated, and the field and current distributions in the material layers as well as the impedance of the air coil were derived from this changes of material data which may occur during testing were simulated with regard to the use of the multi-frequency method for the study of reactor components. Coils of different geometry were used for this in order to obtain an optimal phase position of the perturbation parameters. The theoretical data could be confirmed by measurements. From these studies, Fortran IV programmes were developed with the aim of determining optimal test frequencies and coil dimensions for the multi-frequency method. (orig./RW)

  17. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S.; Putkonen, M.; Puranen, J.; Raatikainen, T.

    1988-11-01

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis.

  18. EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANE BEAMS OF AN OVERFLOW DAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich; Zubkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Khurtin Vladimir Anatol'evich

    2012-01-01

    The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure o...

  19. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adar Tomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  20. Examinations of samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments of the Bell Canyon Tests in Holl AEC-7 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico during September 1979 and February 1980. This grout was made with fresh water. A study of this grout was begun in August 1979 in the laboratory to evauate the possible effects of temperature, pressure, and storage in fresh water or simulated groundwater (brine) on its phase composition and compressive strength at early ages. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperatures ranged up to about 1500F and included elevation at a few hours age after mixing; pressure was as high as 1500 psi; specimens were stored in simulated groundwater (brine) or in fresh water. Data from 1 to 90 days showed: (a) Higher temperature accelerated early strength gain. These differences essentially vanished by 90 days age. (b) Hydration products as identified by X-ray diffraction were normal; this indicated that a temperature range of 78 to 1530F was not significant. (c) Pressure did not affect composition. (d) Storage in simulated groundwater (brine) or fresh water had no detectable effect. (e) Since the BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate

  1. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies. PMID:27506143

  2. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  3. The interest of the {sup 13}C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer; Interet du test respiratoire a l`uree {sup 13}C dans le diagnostic et le suivi de l`ulcere duodenal chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Tsangaris, M. [INBIOMED, 69 - Lyon (France); Centarti, M.; Mion, F.; Minaire, Y. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France); Brazier, J.L. [Faculte de Pharmacie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-12-31

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with {sup 13}C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs.

  4. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  7. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  8. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  9. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  10. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  11. 29 CFR 1919.71 - Unit proof test and examination of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit proof test and examination of cranes. 1919.71 Section... § 1919.71 Unit proof test and examination of cranes. (a) Unit proof tests of cranes shall be carried out at the following times: (1) In the cases of new cranes, before initial use and every 4...

  12. Estimation of a personal orientation by manufacture of judicial-psychological examinations (tests)

    OpenAIRE

    Polynskay, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    In the article the questions of study of personality orientation are examined at the feasance of illegal actions of a person, in the case of setting and leading through the judicialpsychological examinations (tests).

  13. Měření dechové frekvence z EKG signálu s ohledem na vyšetření aktivit autonomního nervového systému Measurement of breathing frequency from ECG in the examination of autonomous nervous system activities: Suggested methods and their verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2005-02-01

    pertaining to breathing frequency measurement we opted for the less frequent method of breathing frequency diagnosis originating from the assessment of changes in ECG signal parameters pursuant to changes in thoracic volume during expiration and inspiration. The principal reason for selecting this method was in the fact that in the assessment of autonomous nervous system (ANS activity the ECG signal is monitored and this can also be used for diagnosing breathing frequency. Changes in ECG signal parameters were analysed by the method of spectral analysis of heart rate frequency (BFrr, the method of spectral analysis of variability amplitudes of QRS complexes (BFqrs and time analysis of periodicity in amplitudes changes of QRS complexes (BFv in order to suggest the optimal method of measuring breathing frequency. Monitoring of the ECG signal and calculation of ECG parameters, including the mentioned analysis, were processed by the VarCor PF6 system with modified programme equipment. Statistical verification of the selected method and recommendation of the optimal method for breathing frequency measurement was carried out with the help of reference values of breathing frequency at 9 and 12 cycles/min that were via acoustic signals transmitted to the tested subjects. Characteristics of the sample set: 55 men and women aged 22.7 ± 2.4 years, measurement was done in the positions supine 1 – standing – supine 2, the total number of statistically processed sets was n = 118. Based on the statistical results where the significance of differences between average values regarding reference values were tested by t-test and furthermore, based on the calculation of values based on absolute differences between breathing frequencies, the BFqrs method was recommended since it allows for diagnosing breathing frequency in the range of 6–25 cycles/min. The designed method will be applied to the existing algorithm of the diagnostic system VarCor PF6, thereby helping to specify the

  14. Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Cohen, Keira; Baya, Bocar; Srikrishna, Geetha; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sanogo, Moumine; Somboro, Anou M; Diarra, Bassirou; Diallo, Mariam H; Mazumdar, Varun; Yoder, Christian; Orsega, Susan; Belson, Michael; Kassambara, Hamadoun; Goita, Drissa; Murphy, Robert L; Dao, Sounkalo; Polis, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane; Timmins, Graham S; Dodd, Lori; Earl, Ashlee M; Bishai, William R

    2016-01-01

    Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa. PMID:27532494

  15. CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) for dynamic liver imaging: Comparison of gadoterate meglumine, gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We examined the influence of different clinically used contrast agents on the image quality of a new sequence called CDT-VIBE for dynamic MRI of the liver. • CDT-VIBE is a robust sequence for clinical routine as it provides good image quality regardless of the utilized contrast agent. • In average, more than 3 hepatic arterial dominant phases are acquired with the CDT-VIBE sequence regardless of the contrast agent. - Abstract: Purpose: CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-VIBE is a robust method for abdominal magnetic resonance imaging providing both high spatial and high temporal resolution. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) on image quality (IQ) with CDT-VIBE. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved, retrospective, inter-individual comparison study, 86 patients scanned at 3T were included. Within 28 s, 14 high-resolution 3D datasets were acquired using CDT-VIBE. 37 patients received 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine, 28 patients 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol, and 19 patients 0.1 mL/kg gadoxetic acid. Two blinded, board-certified radiologists assessed the image quality on a 5 point scale, as well as the number of hepatic arterial dominant (HAD) phases. Results: Regardless of the GBCA utilized, CDT-VIBE resulted in good IQ in terms of best IQ achieved among all 14 datasets (gadobutrol 4.3, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.7). With respect to worst IQ, the three groups showed statistically significant differences with gadobutrol receiving the highest rating (3.6) and gadoxetic acid the lowest (2.4) (gadoterate meglumine 3.0; 0.0014 < p < 0.0485). No statistically significant differences were found in the mean number of acquired HAD phases (gadobutrol 3.4, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.1; 0.18 < p < 0.57). Conclusion: Different gadolinium-based contrast agents can be utilized for dynamic liver imaging with CDT-VIBE resulting in good image quality

  16. CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) for dynamic liver imaging: Comparison of gadoterate meglumine, gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, Johannes, E-mail: Johannes.Budjan@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Ong, Melissa; Riffel, Philipp [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Haneder, Stefan [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We examined the influence of different clinically used contrast agents on the image quality of a new sequence called CDT-VIBE for dynamic MRI of the liver. • CDT-VIBE is a robust sequence for clinical routine as it provides good image quality regardless of the utilized contrast agent. • In average, more than 3 hepatic arterial dominant phases are acquired with the CDT-VIBE sequence regardless of the contrast agent. - Abstract: Purpose: CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-VIBE is a robust method for abdominal magnetic resonance imaging providing both high spatial and high temporal resolution. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) on image quality (IQ) with CDT-VIBE. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved, retrospective, inter-individual comparison study, 86 patients scanned at 3T were included. Within 28 s, 14 high-resolution 3D datasets were acquired using CDT-VIBE. 37 patients received 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine, 28 patients 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol, and 19 patients 0.1 mL/kg gadoxetic acid. Two blinded, board-certified radiologists assessed the image quality on a 5 point scale, as well as the number of hepatic arterial dominant (HAD) phases. Results: Regardless of the GBCA utilized, CDT-VIBE resulted in good IQ in terms of best IQ achieved among all 14 datasets (gadobutrol 4.3, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.7). With respect to worst IQ, the three groups showed statistically significant differences with gadobutrol receiving the highest rating (3.6) and gadoxetic acid the lowest (2.4) (gadoterate meglumine 3.0; 0.0014 < p < 0.0485). No statistically significant differences were found in the mean number of acquired HAD phases (gadobutrol 3.4, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.1; 0.18 < p < 0.57). Conclusion: Different gadolinium-based contrast agents can be utilized for dynamic liver imaging with CDT-VIBE resulting in good image quality.

  17. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  18. 30 CFR 77.900-2 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; record. 77.900-2 Section 77.900-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.900-2 Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record. The operator shall maintain a written record of each test, examination, repair or adjustment of all circuit...

  19. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  20. Evaluation of Computer Based Testing in lieu of Regular Examinations in Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Koichi

    Because computer based testing (CBT) has many advantages compared with the conventional paper and pencil testing (PPT) examination method, CBT has begun to be used in various situations in Japan, such as in qualifying examinations and in the TOEFL. This paper describes the usefulness and the problems of CBT applied to a regular college examination. The regular computer literacy examinations for first year students were held using CBT, and the results were analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire indicated many students accepted CBT with no unpleasantness and considered CBT a positive factor, improving their motivation to study. CBT also decreased the work of faculty in terms of marking tests and reducing data.

  1. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  2. Urease-positive bacteria in the stomach induce a false-positive reaction in a urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Takako; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of urease-positive non-Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the results of a urea breath test (UBT) to evaluate the diagnostic utility of a UBT using film-coated [(13)C]urea tablets. The UBT was performed in 102 patients treated with a proton pump inhibitor and antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. Urease-producing bacteria other than H. pylori were isolated and identified from the oral cavity and stomach. In 4/102 patients, the UBT gave false-positive results. These false-positive results were found to be caused by the presence of urease-positive bacteria in the oral cavity and stomach. Five bacterial species with urease activity (Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Staphylococcus aureus) were subsequently isolated from the oral cavity and/or stomach. As there was no correlation between the in vitro urease activity of urease-positive non-H. pylori bacteria and the UBT value, and all of the patients with a false-positive UBT result were suffering from atrophic gastritis, it is possible that the false-positive results in the UBT were a result of colonization of urease-positive bacteria and gastric hypochlorhydric conditions. Thus, for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection using a UBT, the influence of stomach bacteria must be considered when interpreting the results. PMID:18566138

  3. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xie; Nan Luo; Hin-Peng Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the populationbased Hdlicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT)with eradication therapy.METHODS: A tarkov model simulation was carried out in all 237900 Chinese males with age between 35 and 44 from the perspective of the public healthcare provider in Singapore. The main outcome measures were the costs, number of gastric cancer cases prevented, life years saved, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)gained from screening age to death. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio was addressed by one-way sensitivity analyses.RESULTS: Compared to no screening, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $16166 per life year saved or $13571 per QALY gained for the serology screening, and $38792 per life year saved and $32525 per QALY gained for the UBT. The ICER was $477079 per life year saved or $390337 per QALY gained for the UBT compared to the serology screening. The costeffectiveness of serology screening over the UBT was robust to most parameters in the model.CONCLUSION: The population-based serology screening for H pylori was more cost-effective than the UBT in prevention of gastric cancer in Singapore Chinese males.

  4. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Jyh-Chin Yang; Shih-Hung Huang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pyloridensity and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers.METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pyloriinfection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low (<16%o),intermediate (16-35%o), and high (>35%o) UBT groups.RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results andHpyloridensity (P<0.001).H pylorieradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6%in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P=0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤35%o and >35%o),the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P=0.04).CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy.

  5. Radiotherapy of lung cancer: the inspiration breath hold with a spirometric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CT acquisition during a free breathing examination generates images of poor quality. It creates an uncertainty on the reconstructed gross tumour volume and dose distribution. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of a breath hold method applied in all preparation and treatment days. Five patients received a thoracic radiotherapy with the benefit of this procedure. The breathing of the patient was measured with a spirometer. The patient was coached to reproduce a constant level of breath-hold in a deep inspiration. Video glasses helped the patients to fix the breath-hold at the reference level. The patients followed the coaching during preparation and treatment, without any difficulty. The better quality of the CT reconstructed images resulted in an easier contouring. No movements of the gross tumour volume lead to a better coverage. The deep breath hold decreased the volume of irradiated lung. This method improves the reproducibility of the thoracic irradiation. The decrease of irradiated lung volume offers prospects in dose escalation and intensity modulation radiotherapy. (authors)

  6. 76 FR 9374 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Examinations and Testing of Electrical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...; examination, testing and maintenance; 75.703 Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and enclosures of... Grounding offtrack direct-current machines and enclosures of related detached components; 75.800-4 Testing... Testing of Electrical Equipment, Including High Voltage Longwalls AGENCY: Mine Safety and...

  7. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  8. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  9. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  10. Neurophysiological testing correlates with clinical examination according to fibre type involvement and severity in sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lefaucheur, J.; Creange, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a comprehensive battery of neurophysiological tests for objective evaluation of sensory neuropathies including fibre type involvement and severity, and to determine the relation between neurophysiological data and clinical examination.

  11. Fast Flux Test Facility interim examination and maintenance cell: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fast Flux Test Facility Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell was designed to perform interim examination and/or disassembly of experimental core components for final analysis elsewhere, as well as maintenance of sodium-wetted or neutron-activated internal reactor parts and plant support hardware. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell equipment developed and used for the first ten years of operation has been primarily devoted to the disassembly and examination of core component test assemblies. While no major reactor equipment has required remote repair or maintenance, the Interim Examina Examination and Maintenance Cell has served as the remote repair facility for its own in-cell equipment, and several innovative remote repairs have been accomplished. The Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell's demonstrated versatility has shown its capability to support a challenging future. 12 refs., 9 figs

  12. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Heru Setianto; Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996) test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003) and Kruse (2011). The non...

  13. Severe Fuel-Damage Scoping Test post-irradiation examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel bundle from the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test, conducted in the Power Burst Facility as part of the international Severe Fuel Damage Research Program, was examined posttest. This paper presents the results of the nondestructive portion of the examination, including gross gamma scanning, neutron radiography, and tomographic reconstruction of cross sections through the bundle using the neutron radiographs

  14. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  15. 30 CFR 77.800-2 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; record. 77.800-2 Section 77.800-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record. The operator shall maintain a written record of each test, examination, repair, or adjustment of all circuit breakers protecting high-voltage circuits....

  16. Predicting Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Cognitive Ability Test Performance: An Examination of Three Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Jr., Thomas P.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    As the classroom and workplace, among other contexts, become more diverse in their population characteristics, the need to be aware of specific factors impacting testing outcome issues correspondingly increases. The focus in this study, among other purposes, was to identify possible interactions between examinee's individual-difference…

  17. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  18. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  19. Radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination (VIBE) with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) for dynamic gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI of the liver: advantages over Cartesian VIBE in the arterial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare radial volumetric imaging breath-hold examination with k-space weighted image contrast reconstruction (r-VIBE-KWIC) to Cartesian VIBE (c-VIBE) in arterial phase dynamic gadoxetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of the liver. We reviewed 53 consecutive DCE-MRI studies performed on a 3-T unit using c-VIBE and 53 consecutive cases performed using r-VIBE-KWIC with full-frame image subset (r-VIBEfull) and sub-frame image subsets (r-VIBEsub; temporal resolution, 2.5-3 s). All arterial phase images were scored by two readers on: (1) contrast-enhancement ratio (CER) in the abdominal aorta; (2) scan timing; (3) artefacts; (4) visualisation of the common, right, and left hepatic arteries. Mean abdominal aortic CERs for c-VIBE, r-VIBEfull, and r-VIBEsub were 3.2, 4.3 and 6.5, respectively. There were significant differences between each group (P full and r-VIBEsub in all factors except for visualisation of the common hepatic artery (P sub was not significantly different from that for r-VIBEfull. Radial VIBE-KWIC provides higher image quality than c-VIBE, and r-VIBEsub features high temporal resolution without image degradation in arterial phase DCE-MRI. circle Radial VIBE-KWIC minimised artefact and produced high-quality and high-temporal-resolution images. circle Maximum abdominal aortic enhancement was observed on sub-frame images of r-VIBE-KWIC. (orig.)

  20. 30 CFR 77.900-1 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; procedures. 77.900-1 Section 77.900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... § 77.900-1 Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures. Circuit breakers... qualified as provided in § 77.103. In performing such tests, the circuit breaker auxiliaries or...

  1. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing... RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in..., anti-social, self-incriminating and demeaning behavior; (5) Critical appraisals of other...

  2. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  3. Test-retest, inter-assessor and intra-assessor reliability of the modified Touwen examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Kouw, Eva; Hamming, Marjolein; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the Touwen examination (1979) for the assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is growing. However, information on psychometric properties of this assessment is scarce. Therefore the present study aimed at assessing the test's test-retest, inter- and intra-assessor reliability.

  4. The examination system for Japanese WOL and DMW PD qualification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the 1st Performance Demonstration (PD) qualification examination started in March of 2006 and was operated by the Performance Demonstration (PD) center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). The first application of Japanese PD system is crack depth sizing on stainless steel piping welds. PD center is planning to start weld overlay (WOL) PD examination as a second step, and dissimilar weld (DMW) PD examination as third step. In particular, WOL PD examination includes crack detection and length / depth sizing because it is necessary to detect the crack tip on detection and length sizing test. In the detection test, it is difficult to judge miss call or false call. Therefore ASME code and NDIS0603 introduced the idea of 'Grading Unit'. This paper reports the readiness of WOL-PD and DMW-PD test and explains grading unit and acceptance criteria. (author)

  5. Examination of W7-X target elements after high heat flux testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reception tests performed on the pre-series high heat flux elements of WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor by means of infrared thermography inspection and high heat flux thermal cycling tests, exhibited some tiles with thermal inhomogenities, which developed during high heat flux testing. To assess damage detection and to understand the behaviour of pre-series elements under heat loading, post-testing investigations were undertaken to discriminate the tiles with insufficient bonding. Metallographic studies showed a good correlation with the surface temperature rise measured during the thermal cycling tests and the results of non destructive post-examination.

  6. Is This Reliable Enough? Examining Classification Consistency and Accuracy in a Criterion-Referenced Test

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Alger

    2016-01-01

    One important step for assessing the quality of a test is to examine the reliability of test score interpretation. Which aspect of reliability is the most relevant depends on what type of test it is and how the scores are to be used. For criterion-referenced tests, and in particular certification tests, where students are classified into performance categories, primary focus need not be on the size of error but on the impact of this error on classification. This impact can be described in ter...

  7. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations With a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorp...

  8. A simple test of one minute heart rate variability during deep breathing for evaluation of sympathovagal imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the magnitude of the fluctuation in the number of heart beats per minute in conjunction with respiration. HRV with deep breathing (HRVdb) has recently become a popular non-invasive research tool in cardiology. This study was carried out to determine and compare the HRV in patients with Type 2 DM with those of Non diabetic controls. Methods: Sixty diabetic patients attending out patient department in Karnataka Institute of Diabetology, Bangalore and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled. HRV was performed on all the subjects and the results obtained were compared between the groups. The One minute HRV was analysed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by lead II electrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. Results: Statistically significant decrease in mean minimal heart rate and 1 minute HRV (16.30 +- 6.42 vs 29.33 +- 8.39) was observed during deep breathing among Type 2 Diabetic patients on comparison with that of healthy controls. There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate between the groups. Conclusion: Significant decrease in HRV in Type 2 DM patients is suggestive of reduced parasympathetic activity or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity in them. Hence HRVdb provides a sensitive screening measure for parasympathetic dysfunction in many autonomic disorders. (author)

  9. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  10. Breath-holding Test Evaluation of Smoking on Brain Vascular Function%吸烟对大脑中动脉血流速度及搏动指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 杨雪霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:吸烟对大脑中动脉( MCA)血流速度及搏动指数( PI)的影响。方法:入住神经内科的男性患者60例,根据吸烟情况分为吸烟组(n=30)和对照组(不吸烟,n=30);采用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)技术结合屏气试验检测2组受试者屏气前、屏气20 s后双侧MCA的平均血流速度( Vm)、PI、收缩期与舒张期血流速度比值( S/D),同时计算3项指标的变化率以及屏气指数( BHI),评价吸烟对患者脑血管功能的影响。结果:屏气前,吸烟组Vm明显低于对照组,PI、S/D均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);屏气后2组患者MCA的Vm均显著高于屏气前,PI、S/D 均显著低于屏气前,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组屏气后MCA的Vm、PI及S/D3项指标的变化率均显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组BHI显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论:长期吸烟可使脑血管反应性及顺应性降低。%Objective:To explore the ihfluehce of smokihg oh middle cerebral artery(MCA)ahd pulsatility ihdex( PI). Method:60 cases of male patiehts hospitalized ih heurology departmeht were ehrolled ih this study ahd divided ihto smokihg group( n=30 )ahd cohtrol group( ho smokihg,n=30). TCD by trahscrahial combihed with breath holdihg test was adopted to detect average blood flow velocity( Vm),PI ahd systolic/diastolic ratio( S/D)ih bilateral MCA 20 secohds before breath ahd 20 secohds after breath. Meahwhile,the rate of chahge of the above three ihdexes ahd breath holdihg ihdex( BHI)were calculated ahd the ihfluehce of smokihg oh cerebrovascular fuhctioh of patiehts was evaluated. Results:Before breath,the MCA Vm ih smokihg group was sighificahtly lower thah that of cohtrol group while PI ahd S/D ih smokihg group were sighificahtly higher thah their couhterparts ih cohtrol group,ahd the differehces were statistically

  11. The wearing examination report of a protection mask. Mask man test in the wearing examination report Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Radiation Control Section practice regularity the face piece fit test (it is called Mask man test) to ensure proper fit for workers who use half masks. This report summarized the matter shown below. The development of the test equipment in connection with the face piece fit test from 1970 to present. The performance test of various respirators. The results and present problems of the face piece fit test to ensure proper fit for workers who use half masks. (author)

  12. Investigation of Metabolism of Exogenous Glucose at the Early Stage and Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats Using [1, 2, 3-13C]Glucose Breath Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Sho; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism at the early stage and onset of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Specifically, after the oral administration of [1, 2, 3-13C]glucose, the levels of exhaled 13CO2, which most likely originated from pyruvate decarboxylation and tricarboxylic acid, were measured. Eight OLETF rats and eight control rats (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) were administered 13C-glucose. Three types of 13C-glucose breath tests were performed thrice in each period at 2-week intervals. [3-13C]glucose results in a 13C isotope at position 1 in the pyruvate molecule, which provides 13CO2. The 13C at carbons 1 and 2 of glucose is converted to 13C at carbons 2 and 1 of acetate, respectively, which produce 13CO2. Based on metabolic differences of the labeled sites, glucose metabolism was evaluated using the results of three breath tests. The increase in 13CO2 excretion in OLETF rats was delayed in all three breath tests compared to that in control rats, suggesting that OLETF rats had a lower glucose metabolism than control rats. In addition, overall glucose metabolism increased with age in both groups. The utilization of [2-13C]glucose was suppressed in OLETF rats at 6–12 weeks of age, but they showed higher [3-13C]glucose oxidation than control rats at 22–25 weeks of age. In the [1-13C]glucose breath test, no significant differences in the area under the curve until 180 minutes (AUC180) were observed between OLETF and LETO rats of any age. Glucose metabolism kinetics were different between the age groups and two groups of rats; however, these differences were not significant based on the overall AUC180 of [1-13C]glucose. We conclude that breath 13CO2 excretion is reduced in OLETF rats at the primary stage of prediabetes, indicating differences in glucose oxidation kinetics between OLETF and LETO rats. PMID:27483133

  13. Clinical application of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain%13C呼气试验在儿科腹痛症状疾病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨13C 呼气试验对儿科腹痛疾病的诊断价值。方法:收治腹痛患儿446例,采用13C 呼气试验法检测,主要检测幽门螺杆菌感染。对确诊幽门螺杆菌感染的患者实施针对性治疗,于治疗后2个月进行回访调查,统计治疗前后感染症状的差异性。结果:本次13C呼气试验检测阳性169例,阳性率37.9%。患儿感染症状表现反酸、胃灼热、胃痛、口臭、上腹部不适等症状。结论:13C呼气试验是临床检测幽门螺杆菌的有效方法,对儿科腹痛诊断具有较高价值。%Objective:To explore the diagnostic value of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain.Methods:446 patients with abdominal pain were selected.They were given 13C breath test for detection of helicobacter pylori infection.Patients diagnosed with helicobacter pylori infection were given targeted therapy.After 2 months of treatment,all patients received a return visit survey.We compared the differences of symptoms before and after treatment.Results:In this 13C breath test,169 cases were positive,and the positive rate was 37.9%.Symptoms of infection were mainly acid reflux,heartburn,stomach pain,bad breath,abdominal discomfort and other symptoms.Conclusion: 13C breath test was an effective method for clinical detection of helicobacter pylori,and it was of high value in the diagnosis of pediatric abdominal pain.

  14. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  15. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF. PMID:27188907

  16. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  17. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect the...

  18. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education. PMID:20046457

  19. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  20. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  1. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  2. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  3. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  4. The examination and testing of portable radiation instruments for external radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance is intended to assist employers and other people to conform to the requirements of regulation 24 of the Ionising Radiation Regulations 1985. Regulation 24(1) requires employers who undertake work with ionising radiation to carry out adequate monitoring of controlled and supervised areas, for the purpose of checking the efficacy of the methods used for restricting the exposure of persons. In order to do this, the employer is required by regulation 24(2), (3) and (4) to provide suitable monitoring equipment which has been examined and tested by, or under the immediate supervision of a qualified person. This guidance sets out standards of good practice, consistent with the regulatory requirements, for carrying out these examinations and tests. However it is accepted that the qualified person may be able to justify variations in the procedures for certain applications. The overall objective of the tests is to ensure that the instruments are tested before being taken into use for the first time, that they are properly maintained, and also that they are examined and tested at least once in every 14 months. The tests required are outlined, then detailed in a later section. (author)

  5. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    or during deep inspiration; and one ABC scan near the end of normal expiration. For two patients, the ABC scans were repeated 1 week later. Contours of the lungs, liver, and kidneys were outlined when applicable. The positions and volumes of the organs in the different scans were quantified and compared. Results. The ABC procedure was tolerated well by all patients. When ABC was applied near the end of normal expiration, the minimal duration of active breath-hold was 15 seconds for a lung patient, and 20 seconds or more for all other patients. Two patients maintained 50 seconds of breath-hold when ABC was applied during deep inspiration. The usual scan artifacts associated with breathing motion were not observed in the ABC scans. The volumes of soft tissue organs were similar for the ABC scans. The positions of the liver and kidney varied by about 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm respectively between the end of normal inspiration and expiration. Organ positions were highly reproducible for identical points in the breathing cycle. Lung volumes varied by less than 5% in ABC scans that were acquired during the same CT session and when they were separated by 1 week. Figure 1 shows an example of the almost identical diaphragm positions of a normal subject in 2 ABC 'scout-view' profiles taken 5 minutes apart. Conclusions. The results are promising. ABC provides a simple means to reproducibly minimize breathing motion. When applied for treatment, the ABC procedure requires no more than normal operation of the treatment machine. The minimal variation in organ position with repeated application of ABC indicates that it is possible to complete, piece-meal, a treatment that might require extended beam-on time. Research is being conducted to examine the variation of breathing motion during the course of treatment and to incorporate the information in treatment planning

  6. Assessing Intervention Effects on Repeated Standardized Test Performance: Examining Raw Percentage Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Henry T., Jr.

    Effects of test-taking instruction for University of North Carolina medical students who failed end-of-year examinations were studied. The exam is compensatory and includes a number of subtests, including National Board (NB) Part I standardized subtests in pathology, pharmacology, and physiology. Students who had to repeat NB Part I subtests were…

  7. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  8. Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Memmott, Jenny E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. Relationships between elementary (third- or fourth-grade) students' academic achievement at comparable schools, but with contrasting music programs as to instructional quality, were…

  9. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  10. An item-level examination of the Flynn effect on the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shiu; A.A. Beaujean; O. Must; J. te Nijenhuis; A. Must

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia using the Estonian version of the National Intelligence Tests (NIT; Haggerty et al., 1919 and National Research Council, 1920). Using secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of stude

  11. Examination and testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard provides the examination and testing requirements that will apply to the work of any organization participating in the construction, installation, and fabrication of parts or components of concrete containment structures, or both, that are defined as class containment. 2 tabs

  12. 30 CFR 75.800-4 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; record. 75.800-4 Section 75.800-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.800-4 Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers... adjustment of all circuit breakers protecting high-voltage circuits which enter any underground area of...

  13. 30 CFR 75.800-3 - Testing, examination and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... High-Voltage Distribution § 75.800-3 Testing, examination and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures. (a) Circuit breakers and their auxiliary devices protecting underground high-voltage circuits... breakers; procedures. 75.800-3 Section 75.800-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...

  14. 30 CFR 75.900-4 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; record. 75.900-4 Section 75.900-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... maintenance of circuit breakers; record. The operator of any coal mine shall maintain a written record of each test, examination, repair, or adjustment of all circuit breakers protecting low- and...

  15. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  16. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  17. Examination of austenitic weld material, a comparison between radiographic and ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inservice inspection for LMFBRs, such as the SNR 300 (Kalkar Power Station), poses some interesting problems due to the special characteristics of these installations. Compared to LWR vessel walls are fairly thin and are mainly constructed of austenitic material where most of the LWR pressure boundaries are of ferritic material. This paper deals with a small part of the development work that is carried out in order to achieve adequate volumetric examinations for sodium pumps and intermediate heat exchangers. In case of the SNR 300, besides visual examination (TV), volumetric examination of all highly stressed areas (welds) is required by the German licensing authorities. For the sodium pumps this involves examination of all nozzle welds. The wall thicknesses vary between approx. 40 and 20 mm. The pump barrels will be welded to the piping system which has, in case of the primary circuit, a wall thickness of 8,8 mm (nominal-value). For the inservice examinations ultrasonic testing was adopted. The development work to date was mainly focused on so called SEL transducers. SEL is a German abbreviation for: transmitter/receiver/ longitudinal. These twin crystal transducers with intersecting beams which operate in the longitudinal mode have mainly frequencies ranging from 2 to 5 MHz. Since the SNR 300 pump vessels have highly curved surfaces diameters: 1200 - 1800 mm for the vessel and 600 mm for the nozzles - flat type transducers were not considered. For the pumps the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialprufung (BAM) of Berlin supplied us with calculated and tailor made SEL-transducers. These transducers are not merely shaped contact type transducers but they are designed in such a way that the acoustical effects of the curvature of the test object is taken into account. The focus point (intersection of the beam axis) in steel is thus predetermined. Naturally these transducers were tested in order to ascertain their potential. Checking out of the SEL transducers was done on an

  18. The transition of the national certification examination from paper and pencil to computer adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1996-02-01

    The Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists (CCNA) has been exploring computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the national certification examination (NCE) over the past several years. CCNA representatives have consulted with experts in testing and with individuals from professional associations who use CAT for certification or licensure testing. This article will provide an overview of CAT and discuss how the CCNA plans to implement CAT for the NCE beginning April 8, 1996. A future article that explains the theoretical concepts of CAT will be published in the April 1996 AANA Journal. It is important to note that the NCE will not be a new test, the current content outline and item bank will remain the same. It is only the method of test administration that is changed--from paper and pencil to CAT. Each candidate will answer questions and take a test that is individualized to his or her ability or competence level and meets the specifications of the test outline. All candidates must achieve the same passing score. The implementation of CAT for the NCE will be advantageous for the candidates and provide a more efficient competency assessment. The last paper and pencil examination was administered on December 9, 1995. The transition is a significant event in nurse anesthesia history, just as nurse anesthesia was the first advanced practice nursing specialty to implement the certification credential, the CCNA will be the first to introduce CAT. PMID:8928607

  19. Examination of repeatability in reflood phenomena under forced flooding in SCTF core-I tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slab core test program is a part of the large scale reflood test program together with the cylindrical core test program and the major purpose is to investigate the two dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the core and the effect of fluid communication between the core and the upper plenum on the reflood phenomena. In order to check repeatability in tested phenomena, two pairs of repetition tests were performed and compared. Repeated thermo-hydraulic phenomena were identified. Peculiar behavior of some data was examined. As the result, it was found that thermo-hydraulic behavior such as core cooling from the bottom had satisfactory repeatability and that most of the peculiar behavior also had repeatability. Reliability of some advanced instruments was also checked with the use of repeatable phenomena. Some of the instruments showed poor repeatability and are required improvement. (author)

  20. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  1. Post-irradiation examination of Oconee 1 fuel: end-of-cycle 2 nondestructive test phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard B and W Mark B (15 x 15) pressurized water reactor fuel assemblies were nondestructively examined at the end of the second cycle of Oconee 1 reactor operation. Burnups of the 16 fuel assemblies examined ranged from 13,100 to 20,000 MWd/mtU. The examinations were conducted in the Oconee 1 and 2 spent fuel storage pool using the installed underwater test equipment. Data obtained included fuel rod and fuel assembly dimensions, water channel spacings, holddown spring forces, fuel rod crud characteristics, and fuel column axial gap and stack lengths. Visual examinations revealed no evidence of significant rod bowing, cladding deformation, cocked grids, or rod defects. The results, summarized in this report, indicate that the assemblies performed well through two cycles of reactor operation

  2. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  3. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  4. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  5. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  6. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  7. Shutdown and post-test examination plan for the small steam generator model (SSGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, J.W.; Sessions, C.E.

    1975-12-01

    A detailed working plan to terminate and to examine the Westinghouse duplex tube small steam generator model (SSGM) is defined and presented. Following completion of the current phase (DNB Corrosion Testing in Off-Normal Water Chemistry) of testing, the Advanced Reactors Division GPL-1/SWL-1 Loops will be shut down on both the water side and the sodium side. The SSGM will be cleaned prior to removal of the model from the test silo. During disassembly and following removal of the model to a dissection area at ARD, visual and photographic records of SSGM will be made. Secondary cleaning and initial dissection into seven sections will be conducted with protective oils and plastic bags used to inert the outer shell and duplex tube samples. The major sampling and detailed microscopic examination of the duplex tubing, tube-to-tubesheet welds and tube-support pads will be made following shipment of the dissected model to Tampa. A 72-inch section containing the region over which the DNB interface moved during the SSGM testing will be inerted and shipped to General Electric Company for their examination.

  8. Examination of sensitivity and specificity of some serological tests in diagnostics of bovine brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Kazimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The most reliable diagnosis of an infectuous disease is confirmed by isolation of its pathogen. When it comes to brucellosis, it is important to know that brucella isolation is rarely successful; it is not only very complicated but is as well hazardous for laboratory workers. Due to the above mentioned reasons, it is reasonable to use serological tests for routine diagnosis of this zoonose. This paper deals with examination of bovine sera samples with the aim to detect the titer of specific antibodies against brucellosis. In order to choose and evaluate properly the best test in terms of applicability, speed of performance, and provision of correct results, five serological tests were assayed: rapid serum plate agglutination (Rose Bengal test, Brucella abortus bovis test (RB, BAB test; serum agglutination test (titration - by Wright, as micro method (mSAT; reaction of complement fixation, and also as micro method (mCF; indirect imunoenzyime test (iELISA and competitive imunoenzyme test (cELISA. This paper includes 630 samples of bovine blood sera, as well as positive and negative international antibrucella serum as the mandatory control. The presence of specific antibodies against brucella was determined in 125 samples of bovine blood sera. Based on the analysis of the results obtained, evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of these tests was conducted. iELISA and RB test proved to be the most sensitive, while the highest specificity was determined in mCF, and less specific were mSAT and iELISA. RB test had the lowest specificity.

  9. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations With a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Raskin, Cody

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to help SPH better address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly redu...

  10. Radiation shielding test for hot cells of Irradiated Material Examination Facility(IMEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation shielding test for IMEF(Irradiated Material Examination Facility) hot cell walls was executed using two Co 60 sources with the activities of 1,600 Ci and 30 Ci respectively. The tested walls are made of heavy concrete or lead, with the maximum thickness of 1,200 mm for concrete cell and 200 mm for lead cell. At first, we measured the dose rates for several standard walls and the result was used as standard reference. We also measured dose rates for hot cell walls by the same method and compared with reference. The number of testing points are 6,000 and we found out defect for several points which are mostly located in boundaries between embedded material and concrete. The defective areas were re tested after repaired and results for the areas were acceptable

  11. Joining techniques development for neutron irradiation tests and post irradiation examinations in JMTR-HL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot laboratory (JMTR-HL) associated with the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was founded to examine the material and fuel specimens irradiated mainly in the JMTR. Through the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) have been developed and performed, the JMTR-HL contributes not only to research of materials for light water reactors, fast reactors, high temperature gas reactor, and fusion reactor, but also to production of domestic industrial radio isotopes like 192Ir. As the part of PIE technology development, several kinds of welding techniques have been systematically developed. These research and development of welding techniques such as circumference and sealing for irradiation capsules and rewelding with irradiated materials were implemented under the remote-controlled conditions in the hot cells. These techniques are very indispensable for the neutron irradiation tests and PIEs to be conducted in the JMTR. (author)

  12. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Mason; Matteo Vandoni; Giacomo deBarbieri; Erwan Codrons; Veena Ugargol; Luciano Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/...

  13. Examination of sensitivity and specificity of some serological tests in diagnostics of bovine brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Matović Kazimir; Ašanin Ružica; Radojičić Sonja; Lako B.; Žarković A.

    2008-01-01

    The most reliable diagnosis of an infectuous disease is confirmed by isolation of its pathogen. When it comes to brucellosis, it is important to know that brucella isolation is rarely successful; it is not only very complicated but is as well hazardous for laboratory workers. Due to the above mentioned reasons, it is reasonable to use serological tests for routine diagnosis of this zoonose. This paper deals with examination of bovine sera samples with the aim to detect the titer of specific a...

  14. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  15. The Advanced Placement Physics Examinations: Test Development and Free-Response Section Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Terri; Cain, L. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics B and C Examinations are developed by a Test Development Committee consisting of both high school and college teachers appointed by The College Board. We will discuss the creation of the tests from their conception to their administration to more than 60,000 high school students each year. We will also discuss the reading of the free response sections for each exam. A group of readers, consisting of interested and motivated high school AP physics teachers and college instructors who teach comparable courses, is appointed to read the free response sections during June of each year. Two experienced readers, one of whom is a member of the Test Development Committee, will share information in this talk on becoming involved with the AP program as a reader.

  16. Introduction and Administration of the Clinical Skill Test of the Medical Licensing Examination, Republic of Korea (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Sang Kim

    2010-01-01

    The first trial of the clinical skill test as part of the Korean Medical Licensing Examination was done from September 23 to December 1, 2009, in the clinical skill test center located in the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board (NHPLEB) building, Seoul. Korea is the first country to introduce the clinical skill test as part of the medical licensing examination in Asia. It is a report on the introduction and administration of the test. The NHPLEB launched researches on the va...

  17. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  18. TFTR D and D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR DandD (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the DandD effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well

  19. TFTR D&D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving J. Zatz

    2003-01-31

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR D&D (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the D&D effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well.

  20. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  1. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  2. Examination of a size-change test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Gu, Xiaohong; Ji, Liang; Kelly, George; Nickel, Nichole; Norum, Paul; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Tamizhmani, Govindasamy; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2012-10-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/-5°C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/-5% between laboratories.

  3. The Seasonal KPSS Test: Examining Possible Applications with Monthly Data and Additional Deterministic Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassen El Montasser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been notably less definitive in distinguishing between finite sample studies of seasonal stationarity than in seasonal unit root tests. Although the use of seasonal stationarity and unit root tests is advised to determine correctly the most appropriate form of the trend in a seasonal time series, such a use is rarely noted in the relevant studies on this topic. Recently, the seasonal KPSS test, with a null hypothesis of no seasonal unit roots, and based on quarterly data, has been introduced in the literature. The asymptotic theory of the seasonal KPSS test depends on whether data have been filtered by a preliminary regression. More specifically, one may proceed to extracting deterministic components, such as the mean and trend, from the data before testing. In this paper, we examine the effects of de-trending on the properties of the seasonal KPSS test in finite samples. A sketch of the test’s limit theory is subsequently provided. Moreover, a Monte Carlo study is conducted to analyze the behavior of the test for a monthly time series. The focus on this time-frequency is significant because, as we mentioned above, it was introduced for quarterly data. Overall, the results indicated that the seasonal KPSS test preserved its good size and power properties. Furthermore, our results corroborate those reported elsewhere in the literature for conventional stationarity tests. These subsequent results assumed that the nonparametric corrections of residual variances may lead to better in-sample properties of the seasonal KPSS test. Next, the seasonal KPSS test is applied to a monthly series of the United States (US consumer price index. We were able to identify a number of seasonal unit roots in this time series. [1] [1]    Table 1 in this paper is copyrighted and initially published by JMASM in 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp. 69–77, ISSN: 1538–9472, JMASM Inc., PO Box 48023, Oak Park, MI 48237, USA, ea@jmasm.com.

  4. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)

  5. Non-Destructive Testing: Sample Questions for Conduct of Examinations at Levels 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports industrial applications of radiation technology which include non-destructive testing (NDT) under its various programmes such as individual country Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, Regional Projects and Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs). NDT technology is essentially needed for the improvement of the quality of industrial products, equipment and plants all over the world, especially in developing Member States. Trained and certified personnel is one of the essential requirements for applying this technology in industry. With this in view, the IAEA first played an important role in cooperation with the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the development of a standard for training and certification of NDT personnel, namely ISO 9712, 'Non-Destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel'. Subsequently the syllabi and needed training materials were identified and developed for the creation of, in each of the Member States, a core group of personnel who are trained and qualified to establish the training and certification process in their respective countries. One of the important requirements for such a process is to have the examination questions for conducting the certification examinations. A need had been felt to compile the appropriate questions firstly for conducting these examinations at the national and regional levels and secondly to provide these to the certification bodies of the Member States so that they could initiate their own level 1 and 2 certification examinations. For this purpose, Experts' Task Force Meetings were convened first in Accra, Ghana and then in Vienna, Austria under the AFRA regional projects on NDT. The experts examined and discussed in detail the ISO 9712 (1999 and 2005 versions) requirements for general, specific and practical examinations for level 1 and 2 personnel. After that a set of questions has been established which are

  6. Irradiation programme MANITU: Results of pre-examinations and Charpy tests with unirradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. The results of MANITU will have a lasting influence on the future actions within the materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated refrence specimens of MANITU a first tendency is recognizable. The Charpy properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-WVTa alloys are clearly better compared with the modified commerical 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the pre-examinations are documented and the Charpy test results with unirradiated reference specimens are analysed and assessed. (orig.)

  7. Tensile testing and scanning electron microscope examination of Charpy impact specimens from the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Materials Technology Group of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has performed a fractographic examination of neutron irradiated and unirradiated Charpy ''V'' notch specimens which have been deformed to failure in a tensile testing apparatus. The evaluation was carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to evaluate the fracture mode. Photomicrographs were then evaluated to determine if ductile areas were present on the fracture surfaces of the specimens. The irradiated tensile tests (Charpy ''V'' notch configuration) showed minimum notch tensile strengths of 37.2 Ksi before failure. The unirradiated 6061 T-6 material exhibited a minimum notch tensile strength of 41.9 Ksi. 2 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  8. Metallurgical examinations of Dampierre 1 steam generator. Comparison with non destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, EDF replaced the steam generators (SG) in DAMPIERRE 1 PWR unit (900 MW). One SG was installed in a special building in order to expertise its components, to perform inspections and to test maintenance processes. On site investigations are currently followed by metallurgical examination of removed tubes and samples in hot laboratory. One of the phases of the programme was the non destructive testing of tubes and shells, including the inspection of internal supports structure, shell welded joints and Inconel 182 tubesheet to separation plate weld. The programme results will be useful for the validation of in-service inspection techniques and maintenance tools. In particular, efficiency and innocuity of chemical cleaning have been evaluated. (authors). 9 figs., 3 refs

  9. Results of mechanical tests and supplementary microstructural examinations of the TMI-2 lower head samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallographic examinations and mechanical tests have been completed on specimens from 15 prism-shaped samples cut from the lower head of the TMI-2 pressure vessel as a part of the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP). The results of these examinations and tests are summarized here. Four samples were found to have attained temperatures as high as 1,100 C during the accident, with an estimated cooling rate of 10--100 C/min from the maximum temperature. Tensile tests were conducted on the lower head material at room temperature and at temperatures of 600--1,200 C. A strong dependence of yield and tensile strengths on temperature was observed, and the data generally matched well with literature data on A533, Grade B steel. However, the observed strengths of material from the hot spot in the as-received condition lay well above the remaining data, reflecting the heat treatment received during the accident. Creep tests were conducted on the lower head material over the temperature range of 600--1,200 C at stress levels resulting in failure times of 1--100 h. The data from the lower head material compared well with similar data obtained earlier on archive material from the Midland reactor 600 C. However, at higher temperatures, the TMI-2 lower head data fell increasingly above data from the Midland material. The TMI-2 data were fit using both Larson-Miller and Manson-Haferd time-temperature parameters. Cracks were found in the stainless steel cladding of boat samples from the hot spot. The cracks appeared to be the result of hot-tearing, probably assisted by intergranular penetration of liquid Ag-Cd. Materials in the cracks suggest the presence of control-assembly debris on the lower head before the massive fuel flow arrived

  10. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T 800 degrees C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B4C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B4C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs

  11. In-pile creep test technique for zirconium alloys examination in BR-10 reactor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation enhanced creep phenomenon was discovered in stainless steels as a specific physical process accompanying high-intensity neutron flux irradiation in fast reactors. IPPE is also experienced in irradiation creep test activities, studying different types of materials under irradiation in BR-10 fast reactor. Series of in-channel type test facilities were constructed and tested in BR-10 reactor's 'dry' channels in order to carry out full-scale instrumented examination regarded to in-pile creep behaviour of different reactor materials. As a result, a specific test technique, named 'Tensometric method', has been developed and experimentally proved to be power enough in order to investigate irradiation creep of materials right in situ under neutron irradiation. The main peculiarity of test facility, which is constructed to apply the tensometric method, consists in absence of any special deformation-measurement cell at all. The in-pile creep strain measurement technique developed at IPPE is based on the non-direct measurement of specimen's deformation (either linear tensile strain or angular twisting one), which directly affects the loaded draws' tension parameters. Starting from 1993, in-pile creep experiments to investigate in-reactor creep behaviour of E110 and E635 zirconium alloys were carried out in BR-10. Experimental results and data collected during more than 20-year of BR-10 in-reactor creep test experience can be assumed as a strong evidence that the tensometric technique is a powerful instrument, which can give a chance to study different irradiation effects on reactor materials directly under irradiation. (author)

  12. Breathing adapted radiotherapy: final clinic results of the program for the support to costly innovating techniques (Stic) of 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the comparison, from a clinic point of view, between breathing adapted conformational radiotherapy (BART) and conventional conformational radiotherapy, in the case of lung and breast cancers. The assessment comprised a clinic examination, a thoracic radiography, breathing functional tests, a thoracic scanography at different moments (3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months), and dosimetric criteria for tumour target volumes and the different thoracic organs at risk. Data have been collected among more than six hundred patients. Breathing adapted techniques allow acute and late toxicity to be reduced, notably for the lung, heart and oesophagus during a lung irradiation. They are less interesting for mammary irradiation, but could be important for a radiotherapy of the left breast. Short communication

  13. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu{sub 2}O, and malachite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding

  14. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu2O, and malachite, Cu2(OH)2CO3, on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu2(OH)3Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding bentonite. Differences that can have a

  15. Probing plasmonic breathing modes optically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The confinement of surface plasmon modes in flat nanoparticles gives rise to plasmonic breathing modes. With a vanishing net dipole moment, breathing modes do not radiate, i.e., they are optically dark. Having thus escaped optical detection, breathing modes were only recently revealed in silver nanodisks with electron energy loss spectroscopy in an electron microscope. We show that for disk diameters >200 nm, retardation induced by oblique optical illumination relaxes the optically dark character. This makes breathing modes and thus the full plasmonic mode spectrum accessible to optical spectroscopy. The experimental spectroscopy data are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations

  16. Xylitol improves compliance of patients to 13C- urea breath test%木糖醇改善13C-尿素呼气试验患者的依从性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园; 吴本俨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of xylitol on the texture of reagents used in 13C- urea breath test and the value of DOB test. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 0.05g or 0.10g xylitol group and non xylitol group. Texture of reagents used in 13C-urea breath test was assessed by the patients themselves in the xylitol group. DOB value was detected twice by paired test. Results The acceptable texture was significantly higher in 0.05g and 0.11g xylitol group than in non xylitol group(43.3% and 66.7% vs 20.0% and 33.3%, P<0.05) and in patients receiving 0.10g xylitol than in those receiving 0.05g xylitol(P<0.05). However, no difference was observed in DOB value between patients receiving 0.05g or 0.l0g xylitol(P>0.05). Conclusion Adding an appropriate amount of xylitol can improve the texture and compliance of patients to 13C-urea breath test. The best result can be achieved by adding 0.10g xylitol with no effect on the DOB value in 13C-urea breath test.%目的 观察木糖醇对13C-尿素呼气试验检测试剂的口感及DOB检测值的影响.方法 120例病人同时进行不添加和添加木糖醇0.05g和0.10g组,自评检测的试剂口感,并配对检验两次检测的DOB值变化.结果 木糖醇0.05g组和0.10g组,口感可接受百分比分别为43.3%和66.7%,显著高于未添加木糖醇时检测(分别为20.0%和33.3%,P<0.05),添加木糖醇0.10g口感可耐受百分比显著高于添加0.05g组(P<0.05).两种剂量木糖醇对DOB检测值均无显著性影响(P>0.05).结论 在13C-尿素呼气试验检查试剂中加入适量木糖醇可改善口感、提高病人依从性、其中添加0.10g木糖醇效果最优,对13C-尿素呼气试验的DOB值无影响.

  17. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  18. Effects of afferent input on the breathing pattern continuum in the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stephen G; Sundin, Lena; Florindo, Luis Henrique; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu; Milsom, William K

    2003-06-12

    This study used a decerebrate and artificially-ventilated preparation to examine the roles of various afferent inputs in breathing pattern formation in the tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). Three general breathing patterns were observed: (1) regular breathing; (2) frequency cycling and (3) episodic breathing. Under normoxic, normocapnic conditions, 50% of control fish exhibited regular continuous breathing and 50% exhibited frequency cycling. Denervation of the gills and oro-branchial cavity promoted frequency cycling. Central denervation of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves produced episodic breathing. Regardless of the denervation state, hyperoxia produced either frequency cycling or episodic breathing while hypoxia and hypercarbia shifted the pattern to frequency cycling and continuous breathing. We suggest that these breathing patterns represent a continuum from continuous to episodic breathing with waxing and waning occupying an intermediate stage. The data further suggest that breathing pattern is influenced by both specific afferent input from chemoreceptors and generalised afferent input while chemoreceptors specific for producing changes in breathing pattern may exist in fish. PMID:12809797

  19. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  20. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  1. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  2. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined to...... participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  3. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  4. Post-test examination of the VVER-1000 fuel rod bundle CORA-W2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, P.; Noack, V.; Burbach, J.; Metzger, H.; Schanz, G.; Hagen, S.; Sepold, L.

    1995-08-01

    The upper half of the bundle is completely oxidized, the lower half has kept the fuel rods relatively intact. The post-test examination results show the strong impact of the B{sub 4}C absorber rod and the stainless steel grid spacers on the `low-temperature` bundle damage initiation and progression. The B{sub 4}C absorber rod completely disappeared in the upper half of the bundle. The multicomponent melts relocated and formed coolant channel blockages on solidification with a maximum extent of about 30% in the lower part of the bundle. At temperatures above the melting point of the ZrNb1 cladding extensive fuel dissolution occured. (orig./HP)

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Pursed-Lip Breathing Education in Copd Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hajibagheri

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breathing rehabilitation techniques are designed to reduce symptoms, decrease disability, increase participation in physical and social activities, and improve the overall quality of life for individuals with chronic respiratory disease. However, the role of these techniques remains unclear. This study examined the effects of pursed-lip breathing (PLB education on the respiratory function, arterial blood gases and day to day life in patients with COPD. Methods: A before-after quasi-experimental research was conducted on 40 patients with COPD at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan. Spirogram and ABG were tested before and after three-months of PLB exercise and a questionnaire (AQ20 was used to assess day to day activities. Wilcoxon matched- pairs signed-rank and descriptive tests were used for statistical analysis of collected data. Results: The study showed that after three months breathing exercise, O2 saturation was significantly increased (P=0.002. Although there was an increase in PaO2 , it was not significant. In addition, a decrease in PaCO2 (P=0.014 and the respiration rate (P < 0.000 was observed. The level of activities of daily living was also increased (P < 0.000. Forced expired volume second one (FEV1% and forced vital capacity (FVC did not change. Conclusion: We conclude that pursed-lip breathing education can improve lung function, arterial blood gas levels and also the levels of day to day activities. Therefore, breathing exercises education should be a part of physiotherapy programs in COPD patients until improvement in the quality of their life.

  6. Estado nutricional e teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado com lactose e lactulose em crianças indígenas terenas Nutritional status and breath hydrogen test with lactose and lactulose in Terena Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildney Maria dos Santos Alves

    2002-04-01

    ão Verde and Córrego Seco in Mato Grosso do Sul. The nutritional status was assessed based upon weight and height, using NCHS data as reference. The breath hydrogen test after an oral lactose (18g administration was used for evaluation of lactose absorption and tolerance. The occurrence of bacterial overgrowth was evaluated using the breath hydrogen test after the administration of lactulose (5g. Results: the median z scores of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age were, respectively, in infants under 1 year (n=34: -0.66, +0.60 and -0.85. Between 1 and 5 years (n=111, the values were: -0.50, +0.28 and -1.17. Between 5 and 10 years (n=119, these anthropometric values were, respectively: -0.09, +0.50 and -0.60. Deficient lactose absorption or malabsorption was verified only after the fourth year of age in 89.3% of the 197 evaluated children. Lactose intolerance was found in 37.1% of them. Small-bowel overgrowth was detected in 11.5% of the Terena Indian children (n=252. Conclusions: the prevalence of recent malnutrition was low, but the median height-for-age was lower than the NCHS reference. The prevalence of ontogenetic lactase deficiency was high. Bacterial overgrowth may be considered as evidence of the occurrence of nonsymptomatic environmental enteropathy in Terena Indian children.

  7. Teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na doença hepática crônica pelo vírus C 13C-methacetin breath test in hepatitis C chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    óticos (19,2 ± 7,1% para cirróticos compensados e 14,7 ± 4,0% para os cirróticos descompensados que nos grupos controle (29,9 ± 4,5% e com hepatite crônica (27,8 ± 6,1%. A melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de cirrose entre os portadores de hepatite crônica C foi encontrada para o teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min com 81% de sensibilidade e 77% de especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: O teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina se correlaciona com alterações estruturais encontradas na hepatite crônica pelo vírus C e o percentual de recuperação de 13CO2 aos 120 minutos é um sensível parâmetro para identificar a presença de cirrose nesses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The 13C-methacetin breath test is a non-invasive method to evaluate hepatic microssomal function that allows a quantitative assessment of the functional hepatic mass. AIM: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the 13C-methacetin breath test in patients with hepatitis C chronic liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and 13 matched healthy controls were studied. HCV patients were classified as having chronic hepatitis (n = 51, cirrhosis (n = 27, being seven with decompensated disease (presence of ascite, jaundice and/or encephalopathy. HbsAg/HIV co-infected patients, chronic alcohol drinker, having other chronic diseases and those using drugs that could interfere with hepatic cytochrome P450, were excluded. The disease stage and activity in biopsy fragments were determined according the Brazilian Society of Hepatology criteria. Breath test was performed with 75 mg of 13C-methacetin, and the 13CO2 in the expired air was measured through a nondispersive infra red spectrometry. The delta over baseline, and the cumulative recovery of 13CO2 at 40 (13C-methacetin breath test 40 min and 120 minutes (13C-methacetin breath test 120 min were calculated. RESULTS: 13C-methacetin breath test parameters correlate only with hepatic staging but not with necroinflammatory

  8. DME-221 thoria fuel: fabrication, irradiation testing, and post-irradiation examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, S.; Floyd, M.R.; Hamilton, H.; Livingstone, S.; Harrison, N.F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Thoria (ThO{sub 2}) has several advantages over Urania (UO{sub 2}) as a nuclear fuel; its higher thermal conductivity results in lower operating temperatures, and its higher melting point and chemical inertness promise better stability under postulated accident conditions. Thorium is a 'fertile' material, breeding mainly fissile {sup 233}U as it is irradiated, making it more proliferation resistant. Thorium is also abundant as a natural resource, and is therefore an attractive future energy source. Past irradiation tests have shown that pellet microstructure greatly influences the irradiation performance of thoria fuels (e.g., fission-gas release is strongly influenced by the as-fabricated fuel microstructure). The “DME-221” test, conducted at AECL’s Chalk River Laboratories, was designed to demonstrate the superior irradiation performance of thoria fuels characterized by homogeneous, high-density microstructures. Eighteen DME-221 fuel elements were irradiated in the National Research Universal (NRU) loops in a 36-element demountable bundle. Six of the elements had pellets comprised of natural thoria (ThO{sub 2}), and twelve comprised of thoria blended with 1.0 wt.% or 1.5 wt% {sup 235}U in (Th, U)O{sub 2}. Various power histories were achieved as a result of the varied initial fissile concentration. To date, DME-221 thoria fuel has demonstrated excellent performance to burnups up to ∼930 MWh/kgHE (39 GWd/tHE); fission-gas release is substantially lower than that expected from UO{sub 2} fuels experiencing similar operating histories. This paper highlights the fabrication, irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination of twelve DME-221 fuel elements. The remaining six DME-221 elements are currently planned for irradiation in NRU to burnups up to 1500 MWh/kgHE (42-63 GWd/tHE). (author)

  9. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  10. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation. PMID:26465334

  11. Avaliação do teste de respiração espontânea na extubação de neonatos pré-termo Spontaneous breathing trial evaluation in preterm newborns extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza Andrade

    2010-06-01

    workload. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT, performed immediately before extubation, can provide useful information on the patient's spontaneous breathing ability. This study aimed to assess the SBT effectiveness for extubation success prediction in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: After Ethics Committee approval, an observational, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted. A sample of 60 preterm infants compliant with the weaning criteria was categorized in two groups: 'SBT' group (n=30, with the patients who underwent 30 minutes spontaneous breathing trial (SBT with continuous positive pressure airway (CPAP, and the control group (n=30 where the extubation was performed without spontaneous breathing trial. The heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, pulse oxymetry oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the Silverman-Andersen score were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the spontaneous breathing trial. Were also assessed for both groups, and versus extubation success or failure, the weight, gestational age, Apgar score, mean airway pressure, inspired oxygen concentration, and tracheal tube time. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normal distribution. Extubation success was defined as a 48 hours period with no reintubation requirement. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified between the groups for the analyzed variables, except for the mean airway pressure. A significant association was shown between spontaneous breathing trial and successful extubation. CONCLUSION: The significant association between SBT and extubation success may contribute for prediction of successful weaning in preterm infants.

  12. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  13. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  14. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  15. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NOx, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCPAS), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NOx signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOCPAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  16. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NO{sub x} in exhaled human breath

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riess, Ulrich; Tegtbur, Uwe [Hannover Medical School, Sports Physiology and Sports Medicine, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany); Fauck, Christian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Markewitz, Doreen [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany); Salthammer, Tunga, E-mail: tunga.salthammer@wki.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer WKI, Department of Material Analysis and Indoor Chemistry, Bienroder Weg 54 E, 38108 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NO{sub x}, total volatile organic compounds (TVOC{sub PAS}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NO{sub x} signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOC{sub PAS} are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  17. One-year follow-up study of Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with 13C-urea breath test after 3-d and 7-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hwang-Huei Wang; Jen-Wei Chou; Kuan-Fu Liao; Zong-Yi Lin; Hsueh-Chou Lai; Chang-Hu Hsu; Chih-Bin Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term role of a 3-d rabeprazole based triple therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)-infected active peptic ulcers.METHODS: We prospectively studied 115 consecutive patients with H pylori-infected active peptic ulcers. H pylori infection was confirmed if any two of H pylori DNA,histology, and rapid urease test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labeled 3-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or 7-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. Subsequently, all patients received oral rabeprazole 20 mg once daily until the 8th wk. Three months after therapy, all patients were followed-up endoscopically for the peptic ulcer, H pylori DNA, histology, and rapid urease test. One year after therapy, Hpyioriinfection was tested using the 13C-urea breath test.RESULTS: The ulcer healing rates 3 mo after therapy were 81.0% vs 75.4% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, P = 0.47] respectively,and 90.4% vs 89.6% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [perprotocol (PP) analysis, P= 0.89] respectively. The eradication rates 3 mo after therapy were 75.9% vs 73.7% for the 3-dand 7-d groups (ITT, P = 0.79) respectively, and 84.6%vs 87.5% for the 3-d and 7-d groups (PP, P = 0.68)respectively. One year after therapy, seventy-five patients returned to receive the 13C-urea breath test, and the eradication rates were 78.4% vs 81.6% in 3-d and 7-dgroups (PP, P = 0.73) respectively.CONCLUSION: Our study showed the eradication rates against H pyloriinfection 3 and 12 mo after triple therapy were not different between the 3-d and 7-d rabeprazolebased groups. Therefore, the 3-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy may be an alternative treatment for peptic ulcers with H pylori infection.

  18. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  19. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  20. Autonomic control of the heart during circular breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J F; Sollers, J J

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) has become an increasingly popular method for probing the autonomic nervous system (ANS). A number of specific periodicities have been identified in the spectra of cardiac time series. One major mechanism involved in a number of these periodicities is respiratory modulation of neural traffic to the heart. One respiratory maneuver that has never been investigated is circular breathing. This technique is employed by wind musicians to produce an uninterrupted stream of sound without pauses for breathing. The current study examined the effects of circular breathing on ANS control of the heart in a highly proficient professional musician. Results indicated that circular breathing both with and without producing a sound was associated with altered autonomic control of the heart. Specifically, circular breathing was associated with increases in heart rate and decreases in high frequency HRV. This high frequency HRV has been most closely linked with respiratory sinus arrhythmia and respiratory modulation of vagal neural traffic. We conclude that the examination of novel breathing maneuvers may help to illuminate the role of respiratory modulation of HRV. PMID:10834249

  1. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  2. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  3. Strategies for laboratory HIV testing: an examination of alternative approaches not requiring Western blot.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, P. A.; Maskill, W. J.; Tamashiro, H.; Heymann, D L

    1994-01-01

    Advances in laboratory tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have permitted the development of alternative HIV testing strategies that do not require use of the Western blot approach. Three strategies are proposed. In strategy I, sera are tested for HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/rapid/simple (ERS) test; in strategy II, sera reactive in an initial ERS test are retested using a second ERS test; strategy III involves retesting with a third E...

  4. Performance testing of a system for remote ultrasonic examination of the Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robotic inspection system is being developed for remote ultrasonic examination of the double wall waste storage tanks at Hanford. Performance testing of the system includes demonstrating robot mobility within the tank annulus, evaluating the accuracy of the vision based navigation process, and verifying ultrasonic and video system performance. This paper briefly describes the system and presents a summary of the plan for performance testing of the ultrasonic testing system. Performance test results will be presented at the conference

  5. The Examination of Reliability According to Classical Test and Generalizability on a Job Performance Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelboga, Atilla; Tavsancil, Ezel

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were carried out with the data obtained by a job performance scale for the years 2005 and 2006. The reliability coefficients obtained (estimated) from the classical test theory and generalizability theory analyses were compared. In classical test theory, test retest…

  6. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, A; Collins, J. S.; Watson, P. R.; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing.

  7. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A; Collins, J S; Watson, P R; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing. PMID:10750235

  8. Examining the Relationship between Home and School Computer Use and Students' English/Language Arts Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Russell, Michael; Bebell, Damian; Tucker-Seeley, Kevon R.

    2005-01-01

    With increased emphasis on test-based accountability measures has come increased interest in examining the impact of technology use on students' academic performance. However, few empirical investigations exist that address this issue. This paper (1) examines previous research on the relationship between student achievement and technology use, (2)…

  9. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  10. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  11. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Materials and Methods Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end o...

  12. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup

  13. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H.; Oho, W. U.; Kim, B. K

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup.

  14. Breast Self-Examination and the Older Woman: Field Testing an Educational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Judith A.

    1989-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of theoretically based educational strategy with standard breast self-examination educational strategy. Found that women in experimental group (N=68) were significantly more likely to perform breast self-examination appropriately three months following instruction than were women in standard treatment group (N=66) after…

  15. Development of underwater high-definition camera for the confirmation test of core configuration and visual examination of BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop underwater High-Definition camera for the confirmation test of core configuration and visual examination of BWR fuels in order to reduce the time of these tests and total cost regarding to purchase and maintenance. The prototype model of the camera was developed and examined in real use condition in spent fuel pool at HAMAOKA-2 and 4. The examination showed that the ability of prototype model was either equaling or surpassing to conventional product expect for resistance to radiation. The camera supposes to be used in the dose rate condition of under about 10 Gy/h. (author)

  16. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. (a) Purpose. The prevalence of human... adulteration for patient examination and surgeons' gloves as a means of assuring safe and effective devices....

  17. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects. Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer( The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CERt (% 13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application)The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C: 3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30 min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9; Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7; Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5; Child B: 102.0±17.3; Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C); T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure. (authors)

  18. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Li; LIN Xiang-Tong; JIANG Yi-Bin; SUN Su; SUN Da-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects.Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CER, (%13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application. The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C:3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9;Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7;Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5;Child B: 102.0±17.3;Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C);T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure.

  19. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT

  20. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.bischoff@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  1. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  2. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15 were companion nonaccelerated tests of fuel rods and fuel particles representative of the Large High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (LHTGR). The purpose of the tests was to broaden the data base of H-327 graphite and various fuel types; specifically, UO2, UC2, weak acid resin UC/sub x//O/sub y/, and several fertile fuel types were tested. The irradiation reached peak fuel temperatures of 16000C volume- and time-averaged temperatures of 13000C, and fast fluence exposures up to 2 x 1025 n/m2 (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Experimental results were compared with predictions based on accelerated irradiation tests, postirradiation heating, and other Peach Bottom test elements to validate HTGR design codes. The nuclear design predictions were modified by measurements which allowed the verification of thermal design calculations and thermocouple readings

  3. The impact of fatigue on latent print examinations as revealed by behavioral and eye gaze testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Thomas; Swofford, Henry J; Vanderkolk, John; Emerick, Brandi

    2015-06-01

    Eye tracking and behavioral methods were used to assess the effects of fatigue on performance in latent print examiners. Eye gaze was measured both before and after a fatiguing exercise involving fine-grained examination decisions. The eye tracking tasks used similar images, often laterally reversed versions of previously viewed prints, which holds image detail constant while minimizing prior recognition. These methods, as well as a within-subject design with fine grained analyses of the eye gaze data, allow fairly strong conclusions despite a relatively small subject population. Consistent with the effects of fatigue on practitioners in other fields such as radiology, behavioral performance declined with fatigue, and the eye gaze statistics suggested a smaller working memory capacity. Participants also terminated the search/examination process sooner when fatigued. However, fatigue did not produce changes in inter-examiner consistency as measured by the Earth Mover Metric. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25918906

  4. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,

  5. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  6. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  7. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  8. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  9. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  10. TCD breath-holding test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity in smoking men%TCD屏气试验评价男性吸烟者的脑血管反应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To apply transcranial doppler (TCD) combined with breath-holding test for evaluat ing cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy smoking men. Methods Thirty healthy smoking men were selected as the smoking group, and 40 healthy non-smoking men were selected as the control group. All the subjects received the ex amination before and after breath-holding test. The velocity of flow and Doppler spectra of bilateral MCA were moni tored by TCD. Then the change rates of mean flow velocity of MCA and pulsatiity index (PI) were calculated to ana lyze the cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Results Before breath-holding test, the peak velocity (Vp), end of diastol ic velocity (Vd) and mean flow velocity (Vm) of MCA of the smoking group was significantly slower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the smoking group was significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). After breath-holding test, the peak velocity, end of diastolic velocity and mean flow velocity of MCA of all the subjects all have varying degrees of increase (P<0.01), with the spectrum in creased slowly, pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) significantly decreased (P<0.01). The change rate of mean flow velocity of MCA in the smoking group [(25.60±3.53)%] was significantly lower than that in the control group (28.54±4.57)%], P<0.01. The change rate of PI in the smoking group [(19.02±4.20)%] was significantly lower than that of the control group [(21.10±4.63)%], P<0.01. Conclusion The cerebrovascular reactivity of healthy men with long-term smoking shows a decreasing trend.%目的 应用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)结合屏气试验评价健康吸烟者的脑血管反应性.方法 应用TCD检查70例健康男性(其中30例吸烟者为吸烟组,40例不吸烟者为对照组)静息状态下及屏气30s后双侧大脑中动脉(MCA)血流速度及频谱形态,计算MCA平均血流速度增加率及搏

  11. Post-irradiation examination of Oconee 1 fuel - cycle 1 destructive test phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard B and W Mark-B (15 x 15) pressurized water reactor fuel rods were destructively examined after one cycle of irradiation in the Oconee 1 reactor. Fuel rod average burnup ranged from 10,603 to 11,270 MWd/mtU for the rods examined. Data obtained included fuel rod extraction loads, rod dimensional changes, cladding tensile properties, fuel pellet gap length, fission product distribution, fission gas and crud composition, fuel densification, chemical burnup analysis, and fuel and cladding microstructure. As expected, parametric changes were well within the design envelope. Superficial corrosion and wear were found at spacer grid contact points. However, the 19 rods examined were structurally sound and exhibited no indications of cladding defects associated with pelletcladding interactions

  12. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... sensing as other systems rely on either measuring the airflow at the mouth and nose through a mask or with a stretchable wire around the chest. In this paper a wireless system that is able to measure the breath rate of a human from a distance is presented. The system is based on a commercially available...

  13. Testing and examination of TMI-2 electrical components and discrete devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the approach and results of the in situ test conducted on TMI-2 reactor building electrical components and discrete devices. Also included are the necessary presumptions and assumptions to correlate observed anomalies to the accident

  14. The examination of the heart rate regulation in healthy people with the stochastic tests methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The determination of relations between the complexity of the cardiovascular system regulation and the com-plexity of the test signal is not a fully solved problem. The elimination of this uncertainty can be done using stochastic test signals and power value which changes are random. Aim of research: To compare the reaction of cardio - vascular system during the deterministic and random loads. Material and methods:In the research,h two types of physical loads were used: the traditional bicycle ergometer test with stepwise increasing load and 3 minutes steps duration and test with a stochastic pseudonormal load values distribution and 30 seconds steps duration. Results: It is established that the average load required to achieve a submaximal heart rate was 509 W for the traditional and 445 W for the stochastic test, respectively. The time of obtained submaximal heart rate during stepwise-increasing load was 7 min., whereas during the stochastic load significantly less - 5min. The results show that the limit of efficiency of the cardio-vascular system during stochastic load test is achieved faster than during deterministic load test. Conclusions: Stress tests using random loads can be useful for the athletes training. Supposedly, the use of stochastic loads must be effective during rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular diseases, for instance the increasing of the physical load time in each stage can be used in order to reach steady state. Also, the proposed study confirms the perspectives of non-linear and stochastic methods in the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system diseases.

  15. 10 CFR 55.47 - Waiver of examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicant— (1) Has had extensive actual operating experience at a comparable facility, as determined by the... employed. The certification must contain a description of the applicant's operating experience, including... 55.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Written Examinations...

  16. Test of a new gonad shield in radiographic hip joint examinations of sucklings and infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation and application of a shield consisting of lead rubber are described. Using the shield, a considerable decrease of radiation exposure to male and female infants could be achieved. Therefore it is recommended for application in mass examinations of hip joints. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 77.800-1 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuit breakers; procedures. 77.800-1 Section 77.800-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures. (a) Circuit breakers and their auxiliary devices... circuit breaker and its auxiliary devices, and such repairs or adjustments as are indicated by such...

  18. An Examination of the Test Scores of the Folger and Konovsky Measure of Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConinck, James B.; King, Wesley C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the validity of the measure of procedural justice developed by R. Folger and M. Konovsky (1989) through confirmatory factor analysis of data from 416 bank employees and 221 marketing managers. Results indicate that an underlying construct for the feedback and planning subscales is the communication relationship between manager and…

  19. A Study of the Effects of Breath Management Instruction on the Breathing Mode, Knowledge of Breathing, and Performance Skills of College-Level Brass Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Sehmann, Karin Harfst

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of breathing instruction on the breath management, performance, and knowledge of breathing among college-level brass musicians. Finds that breathing instruction significantly improved the breath management and knowledge of the breathing for the experimental groups and the musical range of the trombone players in the…

  20. An Examination of the Relationship between Test Anxiety and Decision Making Styles of Elementary School 8th Grades Students*

    OpenAIRE

    Bacanlı, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Feride; Sürücü, Arş. Gör. Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    The pupose of this study is to examine the test anxiety of 8 th grade students and career decision making styles with respect to gender. In addition, the purpose of this study is to examine whether the decision making styles that students use for coping with decision making predict test anxiety. The study group consists of 425 students (230 girl, 195 boy) who are receiving education at the 5 state and 2 private schools which are in Cankaya, Kecioren and Sincan in Ankara. The range of ages...