WorldWideScience

Sample records for breath tests examination

  1. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. The isotope breathe test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foundations of the breath diagnostic test, based on application of the carbon compounds, labeled with the stable (13C) or radioactive isotope are presented. The methodology for conducting the breath isotope test and the apparatuses, making it possible to determine under clinical conditions the isotope composition of the carbon, contained in the expired air, depending on the introduced tracer type, is briefly described. The safety of the method and prospects of its application are discussed. The examples of the breath isotope test practical application are presented

  3. 13C-methacetin breath test reproducibility study reveals persistent CYP1A2 stimulation on repeat examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Kasicka-Jonderko; Anna Nita; Krzysztof Jonderko; Magdalena Kami(n)ska; Barbara B(l)o(n)ska-Fajfrowska

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To find the most reproducible quantitative parameter of a standard 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT).METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (10 female, 10 male) underwent the 13C-MBT after intake of 75 mg 13C-methacetin p.o. on three occasions. Short- and medium-term reproducibility was assessed with paired examinations taken at an interval of 2 and 18 d (medians), respectively.RESULTS: The reproducibility of the 1-h cumulative 13C recovery (AUC0-60), characterized by a coefficient of variation of 10%, appeared to be considerably better than the reproducibility of the maximum momentary 13C recovery or the time of reaching it. Remarkably, as opposed to the short gap between consecutive examinations, the capacity of the liver to handle 13C-methacetin increased slightly but statistically significantly when a repeat dose was administered after two to three weeks. Regarding the AUC0-60, the magnitude of this fixed bias amounted to 7.5%. Neither the time gap between the repeat examinations nor the gender of the subjects affected the 13C-MBT reproducibility. CONCLUSION: 13C-MBT is most reproducibly quantified by the cumulative 13C recovery, but the exactitude thereof may be modestly affected by persistent stimulation of CYP1A2 on repeat examinations.

  4. Breath hydrogen test and sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, R P; Barnes, G L

    1983-01-01

    Sucrose breath hydrogen tests were performed on 7 children with proved sucrase isomaltase deficiency. All children had raised breath hydrogen excretion. The amount of hydrogen produced and symptoms experienced increased with increasing sucrose loads. The sucrose breath hydrogen test appears to be a reliable indicator of sucrose malabsorption in sucrase isomaltase deficiency.

  5. Breath Testing for Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: Should We Bother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The hydrogen breath test is based on following breath hydrogen levels after the administration of a carbohydrate (most commonly lactulose) to a patient with suspected small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. The test is based on the interaction between the administered carbohydrate and the intestinal bacteria. The resulting fermentation produces hydrogen. A positive breath test is based on a breath hydrogen rise prior to the expected arrival time in the highly microbial cecum. Despite renewed enthusiasm for breath testing in recent years due to associations with conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, breath testing poses many challenges. In this argument against breath testing, several pitfalls that complicate breath testing will be described. PMID:26902227

  6. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    OpenAIRE

    ZHAO Si-qian; Chen, Bao-Jun; LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-01-01

    Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further res...

  7. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system is a device intended to measure fractional nitric oxide in human breath. Measurement of changes...

  9. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  10. Breath Testing and the Demand for Drunk Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Frank Chaloupka

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation of the effect of a preliminary breath test law on drunk driving behavior. A preliminary breath test law reduces the procedural problems associated with obtaining evidence of drunk driving and thus increases the probability that a drunk driver will be arrested. In 1985, only 23 states had a preliminary breath test law. According to the theory of deterrence, increasing the probability of arrest for drunk driving will reduce the future occurrence of...

  11. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  12. Breath hydrogen test in infants and children with blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, O; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Maki, I; Tajiri, H; Kanaya, S; Kimura, S; Shimizu, K; Yabuuchi, H

    1984-06-01

    Breath hydrogen production after oral lactose loading was examined in infants and children with stagnant loop syndrome, blind loop syndrome, or both. All six infants under 3 years of age had bacteriological evidence of small intestinal colonization. The characteristics of the breath hydrogen test in this syndrome are: (a) extremely high basal excretion of breath hydrogen (after overnight fasting); (b) an earlier and greater breath hydrogen value (0.293 +/- 0.201 ml/min/m2: mean +/- SD) after oral lactose administration than formed in lactose malabsorption alone (0.050 +/- 0.041 ml/min/m2); and (c) the observation of a sustained hydrogen rise over several hours. This investigation demonstrated that the breath hydrogen test is a promising and noninvasive tool for diagnosing blind (or stagnant) loop syndrome.

  13. 13CO2-breath tests as diagnostic tools in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic breath test in gastroenterology and hepatology uses specifically 13C-labelled substrate containing a ''target bond'' which, on enzymatic cleavage, results in the release of a functional group destined to produce labelled 13CO2 as a metabolic end product. Advantages and methodology of the 13CO2 breath tests are presented together with the calculation methods for 13C dose ratios. An example is given with the 13C-octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying of solids. 2 figs., 5 refs

  14. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon. T...

  15. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of 14C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO2 in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective

  16. 14C-glycocholate breath test and pathological digestive transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-glycine glycocholate breath test is elegant, atraumatic and detects bacterial overgrowth in the proximal portion of small intestine. In such cases an early increase of specific radioactivity of CO2 occurs in expired air. Ileal bile salts malabsorption can also induce such an increase in principle later. However, a modification of transit (acceleration or paresis) can shift the time of appearance of the physiological 14CO2 peak due to colonic deconjugation of the labelled tracer, leading to a diagnostic error. Microbial overgrowth, gastroparesis, accelerated intestinal transit or malabsorption can complicate diabetes mellitus, especially in the case of diabetic neuropathy. Several of these disorder can coexist. It is possible to detect and quantify all these abnormalities in a single examination by the simultaneous use of labelled glycocholate and sup(99m)Tc DTPA. Oral administration of this mixture allows the measurement of gastric emptying half-time and the scintigraphic visualisation of labelled meal progression. Thus, the association of 14C-glycocholate breath-test and sup(99m)Tc DTPA digestive transit insures a correct interpretation in case of associated abnormalities

  17. Comparative study on cardiac autonomic modulation during deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing in type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Subbalakshmi, Narsajjana Krishnadasa; Adhikari, Prabha; Shanmugavel Jeganathan, Punnaimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction Diaphragmatic breathing is known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiopulmonary system, and enhances parasympathetic activation. We evaluated the influence of diaphragmatic breathing on time domain measures of heart rate variability in diabetics and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods A total of 122 type 2 diabetics and 94 healthy subjects (controls) were randomly allocated to a deep breathing test and diaphragmatic breathing (61 diabetics and 47 controls in...

  18. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  19. Breath holding duration as a measure of distress tolerance: examining its relation to measures of executive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSütterlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research considers distress (intolerance as an essential component in the development of various forms of psychopathology. A behavioral task frequently used to assess distress tolerance is the breath holding task. Although breath holding time (BHT has been associated with behavioral outcomes related to inhibitory control (e.g., smoking cessation, the relationship among breath holding and direct measures of executive control has not yet been thoroughly examined. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between a series of executive function tasks and breath holding duration. Furthermore, we assessed the BHT-task’s test-retest reliability in a one-year follow-up. 113 students completed an initial BHT assessment, 58 of which also completed a series of executive function tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Parametric Go/No-Go task and the N-back memory updating task. A subsample of these students (N = 34 repeated the breath holding task in a second session one year later. Test-retest reliability of the BHT-task over a one year period was high (r = .67, p

  20. A simple breath test for fat malabsorption in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolic pathway of 14C-labeled oleic acid leads to the formation and the breath excretion of 14CO2. This behavior can be used for measuring lipid absorption. The simple, accurate screening test includes the ingestion of 14C-labeled triolein and the intermittent collection of breath 14CO2 in a trapping solution. The results are strongly correlated to the measurement of fecal fat. The use of carbon-14 in man should not be restricted, provided the labeled substrates are converted into rapidly excreted metabolites

  1. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis of alcohol intoxication. (b) Classification. Class I....

  2. [14C]urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. pylori is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the [14C]- and [13C]urea breath tests. The prevalence of H. pylori infection also is known to increase with advancing age; however, the individual patient's age has not routinely been considered when interpreting urea breath test results. The aim of this study was to validate a short, age-adjusted [14C]urea breath test for use in diagnosing H. pylori infections. Forty-one subjects (28 volunteers, 13 patients) underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsies. Subjects were defined as being H. pylori-positive if histology or culture was positive. In addition, all subjects completed a 120-min [14C]urea breath test. A logistic regression analysis adjusting for age was used to estimate the probability of H. pylori positivity as a function of the 14C values generated. Sixteen subjects were H. pylori-positive, and 25 were H. pylori-negative. The 14C values generated between 15 and 80 min were found to be equally predictive in identifying H. pylori-positive subjects. Advancing age was associated with a higher probability of H. pylori-positivity. By taking advantage of the statistical probabilities, older patients could be accurately diagnosed with H. pylori at lower 14C values. We found that [14C]urea breath test to be both a sensitive and specific test that can be abbreviated to a 30-min examination (total test time). Moreover, our mathematical model indicates that a patient's age should be considered in order to optimize interpretation of the [14C]urea breath test, although further observations are needed to confirm this model

  3. Clinical 13CO2 breath tests: methodology and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods were developed to perform 13CO2 breath tests and the limitations and sources of error in these tests were explored. The random error introduced during each step of the analysis was determined and it was found that the precision was limited by the fluctuations in the isotope ratio of the patient's endogenous CO2. The detection limit was a 1.4 percent increase in the isotope ratio. This corresponds to an oxidation rate of 140 nmoles/kg-hr of singly labeled substrate to CO2. The use of stable isotope 13C provides a safe and sensitive alternative to the use of the radionuclide 14C and extends the utility of CO2 breath tests to the previously exempted populations of children and pregnant women

  4. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  5. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO2 after correction of endogenous production of CO2. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, 14 C-UBT and 13 C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the 13 C-UBT

  6. Development of Synthetic Methods of Breath Test Drug Carbon Labeled Methacetin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Si-qian; CHEN; Bao-jun; LUO; Zhi-fu

    2013-01-01

    The accurate detection of liver function has important clinical significance.Breath test,due to it’s many advantages such as noninvasive,simple as well as good accuracy when applied to liver function test,has been deeply researched and applied in clinic.There are some common breath tests to reflect hepatocyte microsome function:Aminopyrine breath

  7. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Deslandres, Colette

    1999-01-01

    The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This t...

  8. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a nutritio

  9. Test-retest reproducibility of hydrogen breath test for lactose maldigestion in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas-Mury, C; Solomons, N W

    1987-01-01

    The test-retest reproducibility of the H2 breath test within the same individual has not been rigorously evaluated in preschool children. In the present study, 10 children--5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-digesters on their first testing, and 5 of whom were diagnosed as lactose-maldigesters at first screening--were retested under identical conditions of a second opportunity. In each case, the same diagnostic classification was provided, for a reproducibility of 100%. Regression of the area under the curve of the change in breath H2 concentration during the 3 h of the test had a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.59 (p = 0.05). The time-course of 3-h H2 breath tests in 43 children with lactose maldigestion revealed a peaking of the concentration of H2 most commonly 120 min following the oral dose of 240 ml whole milk. Seventy-seven percent of the children who eventually proved to be lactose maldigesters were so diagnosed by the end of the second hour of the breath test. Thus, even the abbreviated breath sampling schedule used in children is sensitive, and few maldigesters would go undetected because of a late rise in breath H2 concentration. PMID:3694351

  10. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  11. 13C-methacetin breath test parameter S for liver diseases diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾文炳; 张维成; 许士元; 杨志忠; 刘纯; 朱德平; 文启彬; 申岐祥; 王先彬

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of 13C-methacetin breath test is set forth clearly with the analysis of pharmacokinetics mode, and the measuring method of 13C-methacetin breath test and its clinical applications in the diagnosis of liver diseases are reported in detail. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of the clinical test data, the advanced diagnostic parameter S is of important significance for the application and development of breath test.

  12. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  13. The cut-off criterion for a positive hydrogen breath test in children: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Barillas, C

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-three preschool children with adequate nutritional status underwent interval-sampling, 3-hour breath-hydrogen carbohydrate absorption tests after consuming either 240 ml of intact milk (containing 12 g of lactose) or the same volume of milk with 90-95% of its lactose prehydrolyzed in vitro (containing less than 1 g lactose, with the remaining sugar as glucose and galactose). Results were examined in a reappraisal of the cut-off criterion for the rise of breath H2 concentration signifying biologically incomplete absorption. If the greater than or equal to 10-ppm criterion advocated by some investigators is used, 83% of our subjects would have been classified as incomplete lactose digesters and 30% would have their tests with the monosaccharide-rich milk classified as positive. With the greater than or equal to 20 ppm criterion used in our laboratory and others, the prevalence of lactose maldigestion in the sample becomes 60% and only 4% of subjects have apparent monosaccharide absorption, 96% having a rise below the cut-off level with prehydrolyzed milk. At least in Guatemalan preschoolers, the 20-ppm criterion for a positive breath H2 test provides a superior specificity-sensitivity balance and more reasonable diagnostic conclusions. PMID:3794911

  14. Diagnostic Value of the 13C Methacetin Breath Test in Various Stages of Chronic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizah Razlan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of the 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT in differentiating between various stages of liver disease is not clear. A cross-sectional study of Asian patients was conducted to examine the predictive value of the 13C-MBT in various stages of chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic accuracy of the breath test was determined by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve analysis. Seventy-seven patients (47 men/30 women, mean age 50±16 years were recruited. Forty-seven patients had liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh A = 11, Child Pugh B = 15, and Child Pugh C = 21, 21 had fibrosis, and 9 had chronic inflammation. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for liver fibrosis, cirrhosis (all stages, Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B, and Child-Pugh C were 65% and 56%, 89% and 89%, 67% and 42%, 40% and 40%, and 50% and 77%, respectively. Area under curve values for fibrosis was 0.62 (0.39–0.86, whilst that for cirrhosis (all stages was 0.95 (0.91–0.99. The 13C-methacetin breath test has a poor predictive value for liver fibrosis but accurately determines advanced cirrhosis.

  15. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A. J.; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  16. (13) C Breath Tests Are Feasible in Patients With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarsch, Jan; Menk, Mario; Malinowski, Maciej; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Pratschke, Johann; Stockmann, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Temporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been established as an essential part of therapy in patients with pulmonary or cardiac failure. As physiological gaseous exchange is artificially altered in this patient group, it is debatable whether a (13) C-breath test can be carried out. In this proof of technical feasibility report, we assess the viability of the (13) C-breath test LiMAx (maximum liver function capacity) in patients on ECMO therapy. All breath probes for the test device were obtained directly via the membrane oxygenator. Data of four patients receiving liver function assessment with the (13) C-breath test LiMAx while having ECMO therapy were analyzed. All results were compared with validated scenarios of the testing procedures. The LiMAx test could successfully be carried out in every case without changing ECMO settings. Clinical course of the patients ranging from multiorgan failure to no sign of liver insufficiency was in accordance with the results of the LiMAx liver function test. The (13) C-breath test is technically feasible in the context of ECMO. Further evaluation of (13) C-breath test in general would be worthwhile. The LiMAx test as a (13) C-breath test accessing liver function might be of particular predictive interest if patients with ECMO therapy develop multiorgan failure. PMID:26527580

  17. Phase V of the single-breath washout test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, G. M.; Michels, D. B.; Guy, H. J. B.

    1982-01-01

    A downward-deflecting phase V is often seen following the terminal rise (phase IV) in single-breath washout tests. To investigate the nature of phase V, experiments using simultaneous washouts of N2 and tracer boluses of Ar were performed on eight normal nonsmoking subjects aged 27-41 who exhibited a phase V. Phase V is found to occur in all subjects at expiratory flow rates between 0.1 and 2.0 l/sec shortly after expiration became flow limited. Volumes of both phases IV and V increase with increasing flow rate. The difference between the exhaled volumes at which flow became limited and phase V appeared is shown to be approximately equal to the anatomic dead space. Results support a model of lung emptying in a gravitational field in which flow limitation occurs first in the lower lung regions and then progresses toward the upper regions, causing phase IV. A decrease in the amount of flow from the upper relative to the lower regions after all regions have become flow limited then causes phase V.

  18. An evaluation of the multiple-breath nitrogen washout as a pulmonary function test in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallivan, G J; Viel, L; McDonell, W. N.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple-breath nitrogen washouts (MBNW) were performed with 29 light horses. Seven normal horses were used to examine the reproducibility, and 22, ranging from normal to severely diseased, were used to examine the changes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effect of a bronchodilator, salbutamol, on the distribution of ventilation. The MBNW were analyzed using the functional residual capacity (FRC), end-tidal N2 concentration of the final breath of the MBNW (FETN2,fb), en...

  19. Almagate interference in breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.

  20. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  1. Critical appraisal of 13C breath tests for microsomal liver function: aminopyrine revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijls, Kirsten E; de Vries, Hanne; Nikkessen, Suzan; Bast, Aalt; Wodzig, Will K W H; Koek, Ger H

    2014-04-01

    As liver diseases are a major health problem and especially the incidence of metabolic liver diseases like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, the demand for non-invasive tests is growing to replace liver biopsy. Non-invasive tests such as carbon-labelled breath tests can provide a valuable contribution to the evaluation of metabolic liver function. This review aims to critically appraise the value of the (13) C-labelled microsomal breath tests for the evaluation of metabolic liver function, and to discuss the role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of the different probe drugs, especially of aminopyrine. Although a number of different probe drugs have been used in breath tests, the perfect drug to assess the functional metabolic capacity of the liver has not been found. Data suggest that both the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine and the (13) C-methacetin breath test can play a role in assessing the capacity of the microsomal liver function and may be useful in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Furthermore, CYP2C19 seems to be an important enzyme in the N-demethylation of aminopyrine, and polymorphisms in this gene may influence breath test values, which should be kept in mind when performing the (13) C(2) -aminopyrine breath test in clinical practice.

  2. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations. Comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation. Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and inspiration before and after hyperventilation. Results. The mean breath-hold times in expiration (patients: 24±9 sec, volunteers: 27±7 sec) were significantly shorter than those in inspiration (patients: 41±20 sec, p<0.001; volunteers: 62±18 sec, p<0.001). Additional hyperventilation resulted in a significant increase (range: 40-60%, p≤0.005) of the mean breathhold times either in expiration and in inspiration and for both patients and volunteers. Conclusions. Although breath-holding in expiration is recommended for various imaging studies particularly of the thorax and of the abdomen, suspending respiration in inspiration enables the patient a considerable longer breath-hold time. (author)

  3. Methodology and application of 13C breath test in gastroenterology practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C breath test has been widely used in research of nutrition, pharmacology and gastroenterology for its properties such as safety, non-invasion and so on. The author describes the principle, methodology of 13C breath test and its application in detection to Helico-bacteria pylori infection in stomach and small bowl bacterial overgrowth, measurement of gastric emptying, pancreatic exocrine function and liver function with various substrates

  4. Breath alcohol test precision: an in vivo vs. in vitro evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, R G

    1989-12-01

    Random error is associated with breath alcohol measurements, as with all analytical methods. The total random uncertainty of a group of n measurements is typically determined by computing the standard deviation and requiring it to be less than some appropriate level (i.e., +/- 0.0042 g/210 l). The total random uncertainty has two primary sources; the instrumental method and the sample source. These are typically inseparable values. In breath alcohol testing the two primary sample sources are simulators and human breath. The present study evaluates ten groups of simulator samples consisting of ten measurements each on BAC Verifier Datamaster instruments. The data also includes ten breath alcohol measurements from each of 21 individuals following alcohol consumption. The range of standard deviations for the simulator samples was 0.0003-0.0022 g/210 l. The range of standard deviations for the human breath samples was 0.0015-0.0089 g/210 l. Two statistics that test for homogeneity for variances were applied. The simulator samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.5000 and an Fmax test of 48.9. The human breath samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.1519 and an Fmax test of 27.3. All were significant at P less than 0.001. The statistical tests demonstrated that the intragroup variability among the human subjects was comparable to the intragroup variability among the simulator samples. The data also demonstrates that the sample source (simulator or human) is probably the largest contributor to total random uncertainty. Therefore, when duplicate breath alcohol testing from individuals shows variability in the second decimal place the cause is differences in breath samples provided and not instrumental imprecision.

  5. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  6. Can Handling E85 Motor Fuel Cause Positive Breath Alcohol Test Results?

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healt...

  7. Acidic colonic microclimate--possible reason for false negative hydrogen breath tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelsang, H; Ferenci, P; Frotz, S; Meryn, S.; Gangl, A

    1988-01-01

    About 5% of normal subjects fail to produce increased hydrogen breath concentration after ingestion of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose (low hydrogen producers). The existence of low hydrogen producers limits the diagnostic use of hydrogen (H2) breath tests. We studied the effects of lactulose and of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) pretreatment on stool-pH and on hydrogen exhalation after oral loading with lactulose or lactose in 17 hydrogen producers and 12 low hydrogen producers. In sev...

  8. Aminopyrine breath test for evaluation of liver function. How to analyse the 14CO2 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that breath analysis of 14CO2, following administration of specifically labelled 14C-dimethylaminoantipyrine, allows assessment of Vsub(max) and Ksub(m) of in vivo demethylation in the rat. Consequently, this procedure was modified for application in man. Whereas in 23 liver normals the disappearance constant ksub(B) of 14CO2 from breath was 21+-SD4%/h, ksub(B) was significantly reduced in 14 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (8+-4%/h). Breath analysis is suggested as a non-invasive, convenient and valid method for measuring hepatic microsomal demethylation. Breath analysis discriminates between liver normals and patients with impaired liver function as well as established quantitative liver function tests (disappearance rate of BSP, galactose elimination capacity)

  9. A 14-day elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing the lactulose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Mark; Constantino, Tess; Kong, Yuthana; Bajwa, Meera; Rezaei, Abolghasem; Park, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive subjects with IBS and abnormal LBT suggesting the presence of bacterial overgrowth underwent a 2-week exclusive elemental diet. The diet consisted of Vivonex Plus (Novartis Nutrition Corp., Minneapolis, MN) in a quantity based on individual caloric requirement. On day 15 (prior to solid food), subjects returned for a follow-up breath test and those with an abnormal LBT were continued on the diet for an additional 7 days. The ability of an elemental diet to normalize the LBT was determined for days 15 and 21. A chart review was then conducted to evaluate any clinical benefit 1 month later. Of the 93 subjects available for analysis, 74 (80%) had a normal LBT on day 15 of the elemental diet. When those who continued to day 21 were included, five additional patients normalized the breath test (85%). On chart review, subjects who successfully normalized their breath test had a 66.4 +/- 36.1% improvement in bowel symptoms, compared to 11.9 +/- 22.0% in those who failed to normalize (P < 0.001). An elemental diet is highly effective in normalizing an abnormal LBT in IBS subjects, with a concomitant improvement in clinical symptoms. PMID:14992438

  10. Validation of 14 C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to validate the 14 C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of 14 C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p 14 C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  11. A study on Helicobacter pylori infection in different parts of Karnataka using 14C urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-invasive 14C Urea Breath Test (14C UBT) technique was used for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. The test utilises 14CO2 released due to the action of urease produced by H pylori. 14C UBT is found to be a simple alternative for endoscopic examinations for diagnosing H pylori infection. The test was performed on 664 subjects from various parts of Karnataka. Among them 34.9% of the subjects were found to be H pylori positive, and the infection rate varied from 16.9% to 38.6%. (author)

  12. Photoacoustic sensor for VOCs: first step towards a lung cancer breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marcus; Groninga, Hinrich G.; Dressler, Matthias; Harde, Hermann

    2005-08-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Specifically, the optical analysis of breath is an extraordinarily promising technique. Spectroscopic sensors for the non-invasive 13C-breath tests (the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is most prominent) are meanwhile well established. However, recent research and development go beyond gastroenterological applications. Sensitive and selective detection of certain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a patient's breath, could enable the diagnosis of diseases that are very difficult to diagnose with contemporary techniques. For instance, an appropriate VOC biomarker for early-stage bronchial carcinoma (lung cancer) is n-butane (C4H10). We present a new optical detection scheme for VOCs that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS). This method makes use of the transformation of absorbed modulated radiation into a sound wave. Employing a wavelength-modulated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive and selective measurements on butane. A detection limit for butane in air in the ppb range was achieved. In subsequent research the sensitivity will be successively improved to match the requirements of the medical application. Upon optimization, our photoacoustic sensor has the potential to enable future breath tests for early-stage lung cancer diagnostics.

  13. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the use of a (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) that was performed by patients at their homes as a part of a test-and-treat strategy in primary care and (2) to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients taking a first...

  14. Capsule 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Jing Peng; Ping-I Hsu; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ren-Shyan Liu; Shui-Cheng Lee; Daw-Guey Tsay; Ching-Chu Lo; Huei-Hwa Tseng; Wen-Keui Huang; Gin-Ho Lo

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the accuracy of capsule 13C-urea breath test (UBT) with conventional invasive methods for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection.METHODS: One hundred patients received CLO test,histological examination, culture and 100- or 50-mg capsule UBT for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection. Hpylori infection was defined as those with positive culture or positive results from both histology and CLO test.RESULTS: Both the sensitivity and specificity of the 100-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the 50-mg capsule UBT (n = 50) were 96.4and 100%, respectively. Taken together, the accuracy of capsule UBT (n=100) was higher than that of CLO test,histology and culture (100% vs 92%, 91% and 89%,respectively; P= 0.035, 0.018 and 0.005, respectively). Our data showed that the optimal timing of sampling for 100-and 50-mg capsule UBT was 15-30 and 6-15 min, respectively.CONCLUSION: Capsule UBT has a higher accuracy compared with biopsy-based tests. It is an ideal method for the diagnosis of Hpyloriinfection.

  15. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nardi Antonio E.; Nascimento Isabella; Valença Alexandre M; Lopes Fabiana L.; Mezzasalma Marco A; Zin Walter A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD) patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A to...

  16. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  17. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange. PMID:27311826

  18. Accuracy of the {sup 14} C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Ana Thereza Britto [Bahia Univ., Salvador (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Coelho, Luciano Kowalsky [Faculdade de Medicina de Blumenau, SC (Brazil); Secaf, Marie [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas; Modena, Jose Luiz Pimenta; Troncon, Luiz Ernesto de Almeida; Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2002-05-01

    The development of simple, accurate and low-expense techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection has great relevance. The objective was to determine the accuracy of a rapid {sup 14} C-urea breath test (UBT) employing a very simple device for breathed air collection. One hundred and thirty-seven adult patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in the Clinical Hospital. The main measurements were histology for Helicobacter pylori (HP); urease test; urea breath test (UBT). One hundred and fifteen patients were infected by HP (HP +) according to both histology and the urease test, and 22 patients were HP-negative (HP-), according to the same two tests. UBT was capable of discriminating between HP + and HP- in a way that was similar to the combination of urease test and histology. When this combination of results is taken as the 'gold standard' for HP infection, the sensitivity and specificity of UBT are both greater than 90% for a range of cut-off points and breathed air collection times. It was concluded that the rapid UBT employing a simple device for air collection has a high accuracy in determining HP infection. (author)

  19. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  20. Application of the glycocolate 14C breath test in the stydy of rosacea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel bacterial contamination was determined in patients affected by rosacea normal or gastric hyposecretors. The Breath Test 14C was used with glycocolate 14C Na. The study was completed by determination of gastric acidity, Key test, Schilling test and d xilosa test with positive results. Metronidazol was administered to these patients, thus normalizing the small bowel contamination and, at the same time, improving the dermatological process. (M.E.L.)

  1. Gastric emptying of a solid meal starts during meal ingestion : Combined study using C-13-octanoic acid breath test and Doppler ultrasonography - Absence of a lag phase in C-13-octanoic acid breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderhoud, IM; Mundt, MW; Roelofs, JMM; Samsom, M

    2004-01-01

    Scintigraphy and the C-13-octanoic acid breath test are both applied to assess gastric emptying. Using the C-13-octanoic acid breath test, excretion curves show C-13 excretion immediately after ingestion of a solid egg meal, in contrast with scintigraphy where gastric emptying is observed after a la

  2. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  3. Breath tests sustainability in hospital settings: cost analysis and reimbursement in the Italian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, M; Scaldaferri, F; Ojetti, V; Poscia, A

    2013-01-01

    The high demand of Breath Tests (BT) in many gastroenterological conditions in time of limited resources for health care systems, generates increased interest in cost analysis from the point of view of the delivery of services to better understand how use the money to generate value. This study aims to measure the cost of C13 Urea and other most utilized breath tests in order to describe key aspects of costs and reimbursements looking at the economic sustainability for the hospital. A hospital based cost-analysis of the main breath tests commonly delivery in an ambulatory setting is performed. Mean salary for professional nurses and gastroenterologists, drugs/preparation used and disposable materials, purchase and depreciation of the instrument and the testing time was used to estimate the cost, while reimbursements are based on the 2013 Italian National Health System ambulatory pricelist. Variables that could influence the model are considered in the sensitivity analyses. The mean cost for C13--Urea, Lactulose and Lactose BT are, respectively, Euros 30,59; 45,20 and 30,29. National reimbursement often doesn't cover the cost of the analysis, especially considering the scenario with lower number of exam. On the contrary, in high performance scenario all the reimbursement could cover the cost, except for the C13 Urea BT that is high influenced by the drugs cost. However, consideration about the difference between Italian Regional Health System ambulatory pricelist are done. Our analysis shows that while national reimbursement rates cover the costs of H2 breath testing, they do not cover sufficiently C13 BT, particularly urea breath test. The real economic strength of these non invasive tests should be considered in the overall organization of inpatient and outpatient clinic, accounting for complete diagnostic pathway for each gastrointestinal disease. PMID:24443075

  4. Assessment of the (14C) aminopyrine breath test in liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of performing the (14C) aminopyrine breath test have been assessed. A tracer dose of 2 μCi without a loading dose and with a single breath collection at two hours was the method selected, since it gave the best discrimination between patients with hepatocellular diseases and normal subjects (5.2 +- 0.2%, mean - SEM). Reduced values occurred in patients with chronic active hepatitis (with and without cirrhosis) (1.5 +- 0.2%), alcoholic cirrhosis (1.7 +- 0.4%) and hepatitis (2.5 +- 0.3%), and late primary biliary cirrhosis suggesting defective microsomal function with respect to demethylation. Normal results were common in early primary biliary cirrhosis. Two weeks of prednisolone therapy caused some improvement in the breath test in nine of ten patients with chronic active hepatitis. It is concluded that the (14C) aminopyrine breath test is a simple test for detecting hepatocellular dysfunction, but has no obvious diagnostic advantage over the determination of serum aspartate transaminase and two hour post-prandial bile-acids. (author)

  5. Feasibility of a breath test for monitoring adherence to vaginal administration of antiretroviral microbicide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Timothy E; Wasdo, Scott; Wishin, Judith; Quinn, Brian; van der Straten, Ariane; Booth, Matthew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; Melker, Richard J; Dennis, Donn M

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to microbicide gel use is critical to optimizing effectiveness in preventing human immunodeficiency virus transmission. The authors hypothesized that ester taggants added to vaginal gels would generate exhaled alcohol and ketone metabolites and provide a "breath test" for vaginal gel use. This 2-arm (vaginal and dermal), randomized, participant-blinded, pilot study tested this hypothesis. On 8 visits, healthy women (n = 8) received intravaginal taggant (2-butyl acetate, 2-pentyl acetate, isopropyl butyrate, or 2-pentyl butyrate; 30 mg) formulated in hydroxyethylcellulose or tenofovir placebo gel. A second group (n = 4) of women received the same formulations administered dermally on the forearm to determine if skin administration might confound the system. Breath samples were collected using bags before and after taggant administration for 1 hour. Samples were measured using a miniature gas chromatograph and/or gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for ester taggant, alcohol, and ketone concentrations. After vaginal administration, 2-butyl acetate, 2-pentyl acetate, and metabolites were observed in breath, whereas isopropyl butyrate, 2-pentyl butyrate, and metabolites were not. Some women reported self-resolving, mild burning (24/64 visits) with vaginal administration or a "bubblegum" taste (7/64 visits). No taggants or metabolites were detected following dermal application. A "breath test" for adherence to antiretroviral vaginal gel application appears physiologically and technically feasible. PMID:23400750

  6. A novel breath test to directly measure use of vaginal gel and condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Cheng, Helen; Wasdo, Scott; Montgomery, Liz; Smith-McCune, Karen; Booth, Matthew; Gonzalez, Daniel; Derendorf, Hartmut; Morey, Timothy E; Dennis, Donn M

    2013-07-01

    We assessed the feasibility of a breath test to detect women's single or concurrent use of vaginal products by adding ester taggants to vaginal gel and condom lubricant. Healthy non-pregnant women were enrolled into a two-day cohort (N = 13) and a single-day cohort (N = 12) in San Francisco. Within each cohort, women were randomized (5:1) to tagged or untagged products, and inserted in a clinical setting: 4 mL of tenofovir placebo gel (ten tagged with 15 mg 2-pentyl acetate; three untagged), and an artificial phallus with a lubricated condom (11 tagged with 15 mg 2-butyl acetate; two untagged), on two separate days (two-day cohort) or concurrently (single-day cohort). Using a portable mini-gas chromatograph, the presence/absence of taggants was determined in breath specimens collected prior to, and at timed intervals following product exposure. Demographic, clinical and product use experience data were collected by structured interview. All participants completed all visits and inserted their assigned products. At 5 min post-insertion, the breath test was 100% accurate in identifying insertion of the tagged (or untagged) gel and/or condom. The half-life in breath of the two esters tested was <1 h with large variability between individuals, taggants and cohorts. Overall, among those receiving tagged product, six mild and two moderate product-related AEs were reported. All were transient and resolved spontaneously. Additional sensations included taste in mouth (N = 4) and scent (N = 5). The tagged products were well tolerated. This breath test has the potential to accurately and objectively monitor adherence to vaginal gel and condom used separately or concurrently. PMID:23321948

  7. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with infrared isotope spectrometry for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have evaluated a 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. The 13C-test was analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry and compared with a 14C-urea breath test and the urease test in gastric mucosal biopsies. 46 patients were analyzed with breath tests, 23 patients were negative and 22 patients were positive with both methods. One patients was positive with 14C-method and negative with the 13C-urea breath test. 61 patients were analyzed with the 13C-urea breath test and the urease test. 30 patients were negative and 30 patients were positive with both methods, whereas one patient with a negative urease test had a positive breath test. 13C-urea breath test analyzed with isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry is a fast, simple, non-radioactive, non-invasive, convenient and reliable method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Comparison of the analytical capabilities of the BAC Datamaster and Datamaster DMT forensic breath testing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinn, Michele; Adatsi, Felix; Curtis, Perry

    2011-11-01

    The State of Michigan uses the Datamaster as an evidential breath testing device. The newest version, the DMT, will replace current instruments in the field as they are retired from service. The Michigan State Police conducted comparison studies to test the analytical properties of the new instrument and to evaluate its response to conditions commonly cited in court defenses. The effects of mouth alcohol, objects in the mouth, and radiofrequency interference on paired samples from drinking subjects were assessed on the DMT. The effects of sample duration and chemical interferents were assessed on both instruments, using drinking subjects and wet-bath simulators, respectively. Our testing shows that Datamaster and DMT results are essentially identical; the DMT gave accurate readings as compared with measurements made using simulators containing standard ethanol solutions and that the DMT did not give falsely elevated breath alcohol results from any of the influences tested.

  9. A 13CO2 breath test for liver glycogen oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Tanis

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn conclusion we developed a model to monitor the oxidation of liver glycogen. Our studies showed that it was possible to label the liver glycogen with naturally 13C-enriched carbohydrate and to monitor its oxidation. 13C-enriched muscle glycogen did not interfere with the test within th

  10. [The clinical application of 13C-breath tests in pancreatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniavskiĭ, V V

    2014-11-01

    Maldigestion persists in most patients with chronic pancreatitis (GP). The objective lipase and amylase insufficiency diagnosis is needed to achieve an adequate clinical response to oral pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy. The novel data is presented in the article about the role of 13C-mixed triglyceride and 13C-corn starch breath tests as a tools for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency diagnosis, for evaluating fat and starch malabsorbtion in CP patients. 135 patients were included in the investigation. It has been shown, that 13C-breath tests could be useful tools in clinical practice for CP diagnosis. They are well correlate with fecal elastase-1 level, has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of lipase and amylase deficiency. Tests make it possible to choose the initial pancreatic enzyme dosage and are beneficial during the treatment for pancreatic enzyme dose correction.

  11. Fatty acid breath test values in the malabsorption range in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, W.E.; Stuart, R.K.; Ettinger, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Fatty acid absorption breath tests (FABT) were found to be abnormal in most subjects in a group of cancer patients selected to exclude common causes of abnormal lipid absorption, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The breath tests were abnormal in both quality (delayed peak in 9 of 10 patients) and quantity (reduced maximum peak in 5 of 10 patients) of fatty acid absorption. Retrospective separation of patients into 2 groups (normal or low maximum peak height FABT), either at a common time after the start of the test or at each individual's maximum peak height FABT regardless of time, was significant at 0.005 and 0.001, respectively. The low maximum peak heights were in the range of the malabsorption syndrome. Further studies of pancreatic function and fat malabsorption are warranted before the abnormal results can be ascribed to altered intermediary metabolism or peripheral utilization of lipids.

  12. 14C-triolein breath test in the diagnosis of steatorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-triolein breath test was evaluated as a screening test for steatorrhea in 66 consecutive patients. Steatorrhea was found in 20 patients. Following an oral dose of 14C-triolein, 14CO2-activity in the expiratory air was measured after zero, three, four, five and six hours. Maximum 14CO 2-expiration was calculated. The ability of the test to discriminate between patients with steatorrhea and patients without steatorrhea showed a specificity of 98%, and a sensitivity of 85%. Thus the 14C-triolein test seems to be sufficiently accurate as a screening test for steatorrhea

  13. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Antonio E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% (n=13 PD patients, 14.8% (n=4 SAD patients, 9.5% (n=2 GAD patients had a panic attack after the test (c²= 21.44, df= 2, p=0.001. There was no heart rate or anxiety levels difference among the groups before and after the test. CONCLUSION: In this breath-holding challenge test the panic disorder patients were more sensitive than other anxiety disorder patients.

  14. Validation of {sup 14} C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar, Rejane; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; Laudanna, Antonio Atilio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Gastroenterologia]. E-mail: shiroineko@uol.com.br

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the {sup 14} C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of {sup 14} C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p < 0.0001). At 20 min, the test gave 100% sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off value of 562 cpm. Females were higher expirers than males (p=0.005). {sup 14} C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  15. Update on diagnostic value of breath test in gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran; Ahmed, Sibtain; Abid, Shahab

    2016-08-15

    In the field of gastroenterology, breath tests (BTs) are used intermittently as diagnostic tools that allow indirect, non-invasive and relatively less cumbersome evaluation of several disorders by simply quantifying the appearance in exhaled breath of a metabolite of a specific substrate administered. The aim of this review is to have an insight into the principles, methods of analysis and performance parameters of various hydrogen, methane and carbon BTs which are available for diagnosing gastrointestinal disorders such as Helicobacter pylori infection, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and carbohydrate malabsorption. Evaluation of gastric emptying is routinely performed by scintigraphy which is however, difficult to perform and not suitable for children and pregnant women, this review has abridged the 13C-octanoic acid test in comparison to scintigraphy and has emphasized on its working protocol and challenges. A new development such as electronic nose test is also highlighted. Moreover we have also explored the limitations and constraints restraining the wide use of these BT. We conclude that breath testing has an enormous potential to be used as a diagnostic modality. In addition it offers distinct advantages over the traditional invasive methods commonly employed. PMID:27574563

  16. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Du, Ji-Hui; Li, Rong; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0 ± 5.9 d) rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0 ± 4.0 d), and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d(-1) of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0 ± 2.9 d) were statistically similar (all p > 0.05) to and linearly correlated (r = 0.96, p animal models. PMID:27294128

  17. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  18. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  19. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y.; RUTGEERTS, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  20. The interest of the 13C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with 13C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs

  1. Virginity Testing Beyond a Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatjazi, Mehri; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Vedadhir, Abou-Ali; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2015-11-18

    Apart from religious values, virginity is important in different communities because of its prominent role in reducing sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies. Even though virginity testing has been proclaimed an example of violence against women by the World Health Organization, it is still conducted in many countries, including Iran. 16 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 32 to 60 years to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of Iranian examiners of virginity testing.The perception and experience of examiners were reflected in five main themes. The result of this study indicated that virginity testing is more than a medical examination, considering the cultural factors involved and its overt and covert consequences. In Iran, testing is performed for both formal and informal reasons, and examiners view such testing with ambiguity about the accuracy and certainty of the diagnosis and uncertainty about ethics and reproductive rights. Examiners are affected by the overt and covert consequences of virginity testing, beliefs and cultural values underlying virginity testing, and informal and formal reasons for virginity testing.

  2. Confirmation of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a potent urease producer, a characteristic that has been exploited in the development of the 14C-urea breath test (UBT). 14C-UBT is being used as a highly reliable test for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. There is paucity of reports on the utility of this test to confirm the H. pylori eradication after its treatment. The study was conducted to determine the utility of 14C-UBT in confirming the eradication of H. pylori

  3. Microdose 14C urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: a survey in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dowlatabadi Bazaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon -14 urea breath test (UBTis a non-invasive and simple method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Attempts have been made to use lower doses of 14C-urea in the UBT in order to reduce the radiation risk of the test. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a microdose (1 µCi [37 KBq] 14C-UBT in Iranian population for validation of its diagnostic accuracy against gold standard methods. Eighty and two patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as 14C-UBT in one week. Rapid urease test and histological examinations were used as gold standard. Breath samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 minute after ingestion of 1 µCi of 14C- urea solution and their activities were measured using a scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (cpm and disintegration per minute (dpm. Good agreement was observed between the 14C-UBT and gold standard for samples which were collected 20 minutes after 14C-urea administration. The 14CUBT showed 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 95.45% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 97.50% accuracy. The results of this study showed good concordance between the 14C-UBT and invasive methods.

  4. Posttreatment 13C-Urea Breath Test Is Predictive of Antimicrobial Resistance to H. pylori After Failed Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ai-Wen; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Lin, Ching-Yih; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Yang, Hsiao-Bai; Wu, Jiunn-Jong

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested whether a 13C-urea breath test can predict antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). METHODS Seventy patients who had failed triple eradication therapy and 108 untreated H. pylori-infected patients were given a 13C-urea breath test, endoscopy for culture of H. pylori, and assessment of clarithromycin resistance. The patients who had failed triple therapy then received 1 week of quadruple therapy to eradicate residual H. pylori. RESULTS The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test expressed as excessive δ13CO2 per ml (ECR) was higher in patients with residual H. pylori with clarithromycin resistance than in those without (23.8 vs 10.6; P or≤15, the 13C-urea breath test was 88.6% sensitive and 88.9% specific in predicting clarithromycin resistance of residual H. pylori. The H. pylori eradication rate of the rescue regimen was higher for patients with a posttreatment ECR of the 13C-urea breath test ≤ 15 than for those with a value >15 (93.8% vs 73.3%; P .05). CONCLUSION The posttreatment value of the 13C-urea breath test is predictive of clarithromycin resistance in residual H. pylori after failed triple therapy and predicts efficacy of the rescue regimen. The value of the noninvasive test is promising for primary care physicians who need to select a rescue regimen without invasive H. pylori culture. PMID:15836546

  5. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. METHODS: Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 ...

  6. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM. PMID:26934035

  7. An application discussion of 14C urea breathing test (UBT) examination H. pylori infection in senile disease diagnosis%14C尿素呼气试验检测幽门螺杆菌感染在老年人疾病诊断中的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关小红

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨14C尿素呼气试验(urea breath test,UBT)检测幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori)感染在老年人消化道疾病、急性冠脉综合征(ACS)诊断中的意义.方法:用自身对照的方法比较30例消化道疾病患者内镜活检快速尿素酶试验H.pylori阳性与UBT阳性、血清学阳性情况,20例血清学H.pylori抗体阳性的ACS患者与UBT、内镜阳性情况.结果:消化道疾病组内镜活检H.pylori阳性者做UBT的阳性率为93%,血清学阳性95%,血清学H.pylori阳性的ACS者做UBT的阳性率为50%,不稳定心绞痛者症状消失10 d后查内镜H.pylori阳性率为42%.结论:用UBT诊断老年人与H.pylori感染有关的疾病安全可靠.

  8. Assessment of liver function in dogs using the 13C-galactose breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S; Wyse, C A; Goodfellow, M R; Yam, P S; Preston, T; Papasouliotis, K; Hall, E J

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the 13C-galactose breath test (13C-GBT) in assessing canine liver function by applying it to a group of healthy dogs, and to a group with clinicopathological evidence of liver dysfunction. Breath samples were collected 30 min before ingestion of 13C-galactose, and then at regular intervals thereafter for 6 h. The proportion of 13CO2/12CO2 in the breath samples was measured by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. There was no significant difference in recovery of 13CO2 in the diseased group, compared to the healthy controls, but there was considerable inter-subject variation in both groups, possibly due to differences in the rate of gastric emptying, which could preclude detection of alterations in hepatic metabolism of galactose. The results of this study do not support the application of the 13C-GBT for assessment of canine liver function. PMID:19546016

  9. Reduced accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth in gastrointestinal motility disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the 14C-D-xylose breath test in the diagnosis of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth was prospectively evaluated in 10 patients with motility disorders: 6 myopathic, 3 neuropathic, and 1 mechanical obstruction. 6 of 10 patients had small-bowel bacterial overgrowth on culture of small-bowel aspirate. Increased breath 14CO2 levels were documented in 3 of 6 patients with positive cultures and in 2 of 4 with negative cultures. 2 patients with positive results by both methods and 1 of 2 with positive breath 14CO2 but negative cultures had previously undergone gastric surgery. 3 patients with myopathic dysmotility had positive cultures but negative breath tests. Cultures of duodenal aspirates and the D-xylose test had sensitivities of 80% and 40%, respectively, for the finding of hypoalbuminemia. Compared with cultures, the sensitivity and specificity of the breath test were 60% and 40%, respectively. Impaired delivery of 14C-D-xylose for bacterial metabolism may result from postprandial antral hypomotility or low amplitude small-bowel motility, contributing to the false-negative breath tests. Thus, cultures is the optimal method to detect small-bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with motility disorders. 25 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Analysis of 14C-Urea breath test in patients with halitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the relationship between halitosis and the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). Methods: The results of 14C-urea breath test of 59 normal people, 50 patients with halitosis only and 56 patients infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were analyzed. Results: It showed that the 14C content and HP positive rate in group infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were much higher than that of halitosis only group and normal people group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The infection of Helicobacter pylori is an important factor but not only factor of halitosis. (authors)

  11. Specific 13C functional pathways as diagnostic targets in gastroenterology breath-tests: tricks for a correct interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, M; Del Zompo, F; Mangiola, F; Lopetuso, L R; Petito, V; Cammarota, G; Gasbarrini, A; Scaldaferri, F

    2013-01-01

    Breath tests are non-invasive, non-radioactive, safe, simple and effective tests able to determine significant metabolic alterations due to specific diseases or lack of specific enzymes. Carbon isotope (13)C, the stable-non radioactive isotope of carbon, is the most used substrate in breath testing, in which (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured and expressed as a delta value, a differences between readings and a fixed standard. (13)C/(12)C ratio is measured with isotope ratio mass spectrometry or non-dispersive isotope-selective infrared spectrometer and generally there is a good agreement between these techniques in the isotope ratio estimation. (13)C/(12)C ratio can be expressed as static measurement (like delta over baseline in urea breath test) or as dynamic measurement as percent dose recovery, but more dosages are necessary. (13)C Breath-tests are involved in many fields of interest within gastroenterology, such as detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, study of gastric emptying, assessment of liver and exocrine pancreatic functions, determination of oro-caecal transit time, evaluation of absorption and to a lesser extend detection of bacterial overgrowth. The use of every single test in a clinical setting is vary depending on accuracy and substrate costs. This review is meant to present (13)C the meaning of (13)C/(12)C ratio and static and dynamic measure and, finally, the instruments dedicated to its use in gastroenterology. A brief presentation of (13)C breath tests in gastroenterology is also provided. PMID:24443068

  12. Early functional recovery for a graft after hepatic transplantation: interest of the aminopyrine-{sup 13}C breath test; Reprise precoce de fonction du greffon apres transplantation hepatique: interet du test respiratoire a l`aminopyrine-{sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mion, F.; Queneau, P.E.; Boillot, O.; Minaire, Y.; Delafosse, B. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France); Rousseau, M. [Inbiomed, 69 - Lyon (France); Brazier, J.L. [LEACM, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-12-31

    {sup 13}C-aminopyrine breath tests were carried out on 8 patients, just after liver transplantation, in order to examine the recovery of the graft metabolic functions. Test results are compared to usual data from hepatic biology and histology. Quantitative measures on hepatic functional mass are obtained. The relative sensitivity of the test could allow for detection of moderate hepatic dysfunctions. 4 figs., 8 refs.

  13. An optimized 13C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate an optimized 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) protocol for the diagnosis of-H pylori infection that is cost-efficient and maintains excellent diagnostic accuracy.METHODS: 70 healthy volunteers were tested with two simplified 13C-UBT protocols, with test meal (Protocol 2)and without test meal (Protocol 1). Breath samples were collected at 10, 20 and 30 min after ingestion of 50 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 10 mL of water, taken as a single swallow, followed by 200 mL of water (pH 6.0) and a circular motion around the waistline to homogenize the urea solution. Performance of both protocols was analyzed at various cut-off values. Results were validated against the European protocol.RESULTS: According to the reference protocol, 65.7% individuals were positive for H pylori infection and 34.3% were negative. There were no significant differences in the ability of both protocols to correctly identify positive and negative H pylori individuals. However, only Protocol 1 with no test meal achieved accuracy, sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 100%. The highest values achieved by Protocol 2 were 98.57%, 97.83%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively.CONCLUSION: A 10 min, 50 mg 13C-UBT with no test meal using a cut-off value of 2-2.5 is a highly accurate test for the diagnosis of H pylori infection at a reduced cost.

  14. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BACtest results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  15. False-positive breath-alcohol test after a ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W; Rössner, S

    2007-03-01

    A 59-year-old man undergoing weight loss with very low calorie diets (VLCD) attempted to drive a car, which was fitted with an alcohol ignition interlock device, but the vehicle failed to start. Because the man was a teetotaller, he was surprised and upset by this result. VLCD treatment leads to ketonemia with high concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the blood. The interlock device determines alcohol (ethanol) in breath by electrochemical oxidation, but acetone does not undergo oxidation with this detector. However, under certain circumstances acetone is reduced in the body to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ignition interlock device responds to other alcohols (e.g. methanol, n-propanol and isopropanol), which therefore explains the false-positive result. This 'side effect' of ketogenic diets needs further discussion by authorities when people engaged in safety-sensitive work (e.g. bus drivers and airline pilots) submit to random breath-alcohol tests. PMID:16894360

  16. Does low dose13C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The standard doses of 13C-urea in 13C-urea breath test is 75 mg. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of 13C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years performed the standard 13C-urea breath test (75 mg 13C-urea and repeated the 13C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of 13C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one (59.6% patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4% were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg 13C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3 at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg 13C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9, sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3, specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9, positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4, and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose 13C-urea breath test (25 mg 13C-urea does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of 13C-urea in the urea breath test.

  17. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  18. Experimental study on L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function with animal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Using a small animal breath test model we designed and L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) of rats, the authors investigated its feasibility and validity and determined effective parameter of the test. Methods: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) weighting 280-290 g rats randomized into two groups acute hepatitis rats (n=10) and control rats (n=10). Hepatitis was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) olive oil administration through intragastric gavage. PheBT was assisted by small mechanical ventilator improved and air samples were collected discontinuously, 20 mg/kg body weight L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered intravenously. Twenty-nine breath samples were taken before and different intervals within sixty minutes after administration. 13Cenrichment was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results: All time phase curves of 13C enrichment in rat breath reached a peak almost at 2 min after the intravenous administration of 13C-Phe. The PheBT parameters, 13C excretion rate constant (PheBT-K), of CCl4 hepatitis rats were significantly lower than that of normal control rats [(2.45 ± 0.25) x 10-2 min-1 vs (2.98 ± 0.19) x 10-2 min-1, t = 5.40, P13C fast phase disposition constant did not statistically differ between the two groups (t=0.58, P>0.05). PheBT-K had significant negative cor-relation with serum ALT, AKP, TBA and total bilirum TBIL (the correlation coefficient r is -0.74, -0.73, -0.82 and -0.67 respectively, P0.05). Conclusions: It was indicated that the small animal breath test model we designed was a virtual tool to use in experimental study on breath test and PheBT-K was a sensitive index. (authors)

  19. Relationship between postoperative erythromycin breath test and early morbidity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Rasmussen, Allan; Kirkegaard, Preben;

    2003-01-01

    of cyclosporine and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, episodes of early graft rejection, early graft function, and graft survival. RESULTS: Cyclosporine and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity were associated with low postoperative ERMBT values (mean 0.63%+/-0.25% 14C/hr vs. 1.35%+/-0.84% 14C/hr, P=0.02). No significant...... association between early graft rejection and ERMBT values was demonstrated. There was a significant inverse correlation between postoperative ERMBT values and the time to normalization of international normalized ratio as a measure of early graft function (r=-0.78, PGraft loss was associated......BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in dosage requirements of the calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine and tacrolimus after liver transplantation may result from differences in the CYP3A activity of the liver graft. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test (ERMBT...

  20. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the...

  1. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Charumathi Sabanayagam; Srinivas Teppala; Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. ...

  2. Employing components-of-variance to evaluate forensic breath test instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2008-03-01

    The evaluation of breath alcohol instruments for forensic suitability generally includes the assessment of accuracy, precision, linearity, blood/breath comparisons, etc. Although relevant and important, these methods fail to evaluate other important analytical and biological components related to measurement variability. An experimental design comparing different instruments measuring replicate breath samples from several subjects is presented here. Three volunteers provided n = 10 breath samples into each of six different instruments within an 18 minute time period. Two-way analysis of variance was employed which quantified the between-instrument effect and the subject/instrument interaction. Variance contributions were also determined for the analytical and biological components. Significant between-instrument and subject/instrument interaction were observed. The biological component of total variance ranged from 56% to 98% among all subject instrument combinations. Such a design can help quantify the influence of and optimize breath sampling parameters that will reduce total measurement variability and enhance overall forensic confidence.

  3. 13C-breath tests for sucrose digestion in congenital sucrase isomaltase-deficient and sacrosidase-supplemented patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID) is characterized by absence or deficiency of the mucosal sucrase-isomaltase enzyme. Specific diagnosis requires upper gastrointestinal biopsy with evidence of low to absent sucrase enzyme activity and normal histology. The hydrogen breath test (BT) is ...

  4. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bad breath; Halitosis ... Some disorders will produce distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of sulphur compounds by bacteria in the mouth. A fruity odor ...

  5. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  6. 13[C]-urea breath test as a novel point-of-care biomarker for tuberculosis treatment and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Jassal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathogen-specific metabolic pathways may be detected by breath tests based on introduction of stable isotopically-labeled substrates and detection of labeled products in exhaled breath using portable infrared spectrometers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested whether mycobacterial urease activity could be utilized in such a breath test format as the basis of a novel biomarker and diagnostic for pulmonary TB. Sensitized New-Zealand White Rabbits underwent bronchoscopic infection with either Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rabbits were treated with 25 mg/kg of isoniazid (INH approximately 2 months after infection when significant cavitary lung pathology was present. [(13C] urea was instilled directly into the lungs of intubated rabbits at selected time points, exhaled air samples analyzed, and the kinetics of delta(13CO(2 formation were determined. Samples obtained prior to inoculation served as control samples for background (13CO(2 conversion in the rabbit model. (13CO(2, from metabolic conversion of [(13C]-urea by mycobacterial urease activity, was readily detectable in the exhaled breath of infected rabbits within 15 minutes of administration. Analyses showed a rapid increase in the rate of (13CO(2 formation both early in disease and prior to treatment with INH. Following INH treatment, all evaluable rabbits showed a decrease in the rate of (13CO(2 formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Urea breath testing may provide a useful diagnostic and biomarker assay for tuberculosis and for treatment response. Future work will test specificity for M. tuberculosis using lung-targeted dry powder inhalation formulations, combined with co-administering oral urease inhibitors together with a saturating oral dose of unlabeled urea, which would prevent the delta(13CO(2 signal from urease-positive gastrointestinal organisms.

  7. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Discuss with your respiratory therapist the benefits of breathing techniques to increase ventilation and decrease your work of breathing Discuss with your physician appropriate use of respiratory ...

  8. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: preoperative evaluation with a three dimensional volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination magnetic resonance imaging sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Long-lin; SONG Bin; XU Juan; LI Ying-chun

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection and accurate staging are crucial for planning treatment and improving survival rate of hilar cholangiocarcinomas. This study investigated the diagnostic value of a three dimensional, spoiled gradient echo,T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequence (3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination, 3D-VIBE) in the preoperative evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.Methods Thirty-one patients with surgically and histologically confirmed hilar cholangiocarcinomas underwent preoperative MR imaging examination. Unenhanced two-dimensional T1- and T2-weighted images, 2D MR cholangiopancreatographs (MRCP), gadolinium enhanced 3D-VIBE images in the early arterial, late arterial and portal venous phases followed by 2D T1-weighted images in the equilibrium phase were acquired. Images from 3D-VIBE, 2D T1-weighted enhanced sequences and 2D MRCP were interpreted by two abdominal radiologists through consensus reading in blind manner, focussing on the assessment of the morphological type, the longitudinal extent of tumor infiltration in the bile ducts and the involvement of neighbouring blood vessels. The accuracy of 3D-VIBE and 2D T1-weighted enhanced sequences in assessing the tumor resectability was compared.Results All the 31 tumors were directly displayed and accurately classified on 3D-VIBE images whereas 8 periductal infiltrating tumors (8/31, 25.8%) were not depicted on 2D T1-weighted enhanced images. Using the Bismuth Corlette classification, 3D-VIBE was closer to MRCP in delineating the intraductal extent of tumor infiltration than 2D T1-weighted enhanced (28/31, 90.3%; 10/31,32.3%; χ2=22.0, P<0.05). Involvement of the hepatic artery, the portal venous trunk and their branches was shown more frequently on 3D VIBE than 2D T1-weighted enhanced images. The positive predictive value and accuracy of 3D-VIBE (84.2%; 90.3%) for assessing tumor resectability were higher than those of 2D T1-weighted enhanced images (64.0%; 71.0%, all P

  9. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  10. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J. [Illawarra Regional Hospital, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Gastroenterology

    1996-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  11. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  12. 46 CFR 162.039-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.039-6 Section..., Marine Type § 162.039-6 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Full examinations, tests, and... such examinations, inspections, and tests as to satisfy himself that the quality assurance program...

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.; Crabtree, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n...

  14. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests and inspections. 160.064-6 Section... Examinations, tests and inspections. (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of listed and... upon request. (b) Laboratory inspections and tests. Such examinations, inspections and tests as...

  15. 46 CFR 164.012-13 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 164.012-13 Section...-13 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Manufacturer's inspection and tests. Manufacturers of... upon request. (b) Laboratory inspection and tests. Such examinations, inspections and tests as...

  16. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 14C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used 14C-breath tests: 14C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low 14C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform 14C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of 14C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: 14C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, 14C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, 14C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and 14C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the 14C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  17. Assessment of antibacterial effect of garlic in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori using urease breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardast, Mahmoud; Namakin, Kokab; Esmaelian Kaho, Jamil; Hashemi, Sarira Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common pathogenic bacteria in the stomach. The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of oral garlic administration on bacterial urease activity inside the stomach and its contribution to the treatment of H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 15 patients were studied quantitatively with Urease Breath Test (UBT). The patients with gastrointestinal symptoms and a positive serum H. pylori IgG were enrolled. UBT was performed for each patient in three sessions as follows: at the beginning of the study, an initial UBT was performed based on which, the positive cases entered the study and the negative ones were excluded. Second UBT was done three days later in patients who were not receiving any treatment and were considered as the control, whereas the third UBT was performed three days after prescribing two medium-sized cloves of garlic (3 g) with their meal, twice a day (at noon and in the evening). The collected data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Results: the mean UBT significantly differed before and after treatment with garlic cloves, being significantly lower after garlic consumption. No meaningful difference was observed in the mean UBT without garlic consumption between the first and second steps. Conclusion: Raw garlic has anti-bacterial effects against H. pylori residing in the stomach and may be prescribed along with routine drugs for the treatment of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:27761418

  18. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna;

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... with substrates labelled with 13C provide an attractive tool to describe the dynamics of oxidation processes, and may in combination with indirect calorimetry refine estimation of substrate oxidation. The objective of our investigation was to estimate oxidation of 1-13C labelled leucine in mink in response...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...

  19. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2010-01-01

    and a low dietary fibre diet. Six gastric cannulated pregnant sows used in the total evacuation study were fed each of the diets for one week and the stomach content were evacuated in a randomized order 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 h after feeding on 5 subsequent days. In addition, a sample was taken 0.5 h prior...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials.......A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran...

  20. Noninvasive ¹³C-octanoic acid breath test shows delayed gastric emptying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Toepfer, Marcel; Folwaczny, Christian; Lochmüller, H.; Schroeder, M; Riepl, R. L.; Pongratz, D; Müller-Felber, W.

    1999-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. However, ALS has been recognized to also involve non-motor systems. Subclinical involvement of the autonomic system in ALS has been described. The recently developed C-13-octanoic acid breath test allows the noninvasive measurement of gastric emptying. With this new technique we investigated 18 patients with ALS and 14 healthy volunteers. None of the patients had diabe...

  1. Determining the limits and confounders for the 2-pentyl furan breath test by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shrawan; Chambers, Stephen; Pearson, John; Syhre, Mona; Epton, Michael; Scott-Thomas, Amy

    2011-09-15

    Aspergillus fumigatus produces 2-pentyl furan (2-PF), a volatile compound not produced by many other pathogens or normal human metabolism. 2-Pentyl furan has been detected in the breath of patients with invasive aspergillosis (IA) by SPME pre-concentration coupled with CG/MS providing the possibility of an attractive diagnostic test. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for peak integration were assessed both statistically and empirically respectively. 2-Pentyl furan was detected from 10 of 45 food stuffs tested. Levels were highest from soymilk (3 of 3 brands), lower from pumpkin, peanuts, rolled oats 2, Ensure Plus, tinned asparagus, tinned beans and a vegetable exact (Marmite). No 2-PF was detectable in anti-fungal medications used to treat IA or commonly used cosmetics tested. There was no difference in 2-PF breath levels between morning and afternoon or fasting and non fasting samples taken from healthy subjects eating a diet without 2-PF rich foods. 2-Pentyl furan levels were present in breath samples immediately after a mouth rinse with soy milk (Ptest for 2-PF can be conducted without an overnight fast or at a specified time provided the mouth has been rinsed 30 min or more from when 2-PF containing products have been ingested. PMID:21880557

  2. Influence of oral and esophageal commensal microflora on 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen gastritis patients (12M: 5F; mean age: 40 y) were studied to evaluate the influence of oral and esophageal urease producing commensal microflora on the 14C-urea breath test(UBT). To determine the influence of oral bacterial on UBT, 111 kBq14C-urea in 10 ml water was given orally to 6 H.pylori negative subjects, with the instructions to expectorate the tracer after 30 sec. To evaluate the influence normal esophageal flora on UBT, the tracer was given to 11 patients (4 H.pylori-ve :7 H.pylori +ve) in the capsule and again after 6 h in water. One mmol C02 was collected before and up to 30 min. of tracer administration and 14C content measured. When given as mouth wash, 14C-urea liquid caused an immediate peak of 14C02 at 2 min (4263 ± 1024 dpm) and thereafter declined sharply reaching base line value after 10 min (208 ±62 dpm). When tracer was given in capsule, 14C02 level in H.pylori +ve patients increased significantly within 5 min and peaked at 10-15 min. (8644 ± 987 dpm at 15 min). However, when the tracer was given in liquid, 14CO2 levels were almost similar to those of 14C-urea mouth wash experiment in H.pylori -ve patients. It is therefore, concluded that normal commensal microflora present in the oropharynx and esophagus contribute significantly to 14C-UBT. For the accurate diagnosis of H.pylori infection, the tracer should therefore, be given in the capsule

  3. Dual therapy for third-line Helicobacter pylori eradication and urea breath test prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihiro Nishizawa; Hidekazu Suzuki; Takama Maekawa; Naohiko Harada; Tatsuya Toyokawa; Toshio Kuwai; Masanori Ohara

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of a dual therapy with rabeprazole and amoxicillin (AMX) as an empiric third-line rescue therapy.In patients with failure of first-line treatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-AMX-clarithromycin regimen and second-line treatment with the PPI-AMX-metronidazole regimen,a third-line eradication regimen with mbeprazole (10 mg q.i.d.) and AMX (500 mg q.i.d.) was prescribed for 2 wk.Eradication was confirmed by the results of the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) at 12 wk after the therapy.A total of 46 patients were included; however,two were lost to followup.The eradication rates as determined by per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses were 65.9% and 63.0%,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects showing eradication failure; those patients showing successful eradication comprised 32.9 ± 28.8 permil and 14.8 ± 12.8 permil,respectively.The pretreatment UBT results in the subjects with eradication failure were significantly higher than those in the patients with successful eradication (P =0.019).A low pretreatment UBT result (≤ 28.5 permil) predicted the success of the eradication therapy with a positive predictive value of 81.3% and a sensitivity of 89.7%.Adverse effects were reported in 18.2% of the patients,mainly diarrhea and stomatitis.Dual therapy with rabeprazole and AMX appears to serve as a potential empirical third-line strategy for patients with low values on pretreatment UBT.

  4. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    1996-01-01

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar d

  5. Usefulness of N-dimethyl-13 C-aminopyrine breath test in the diagnosis of liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N-dimethyl-13C-aminopyrine breath test was performed in patients with liver disease and healthy controls to compare cumulative 13CO2% dose per 3 hrs expired during breathing. Expired cumulative values were significantly lower in patients with liver cirrhosis than in healthy controls. They were also significantly lower in cirrhosis patients with a history of hepatic insufficiency than in patients without it. However, there was no significant difference between patients with esophageal varices and patients without it. A significant difference was observed between patients with chronic active hepatitis than in healthy controls, but not observed between patients with chronic inactive hepatitis and healthy controls. They did not correlate with sGOT or sGPT, but correlated with prothrombin levels or serum albumin levels. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. 46 CFR 162.028-6 - Examinations, tests, and inspections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examinations, tests, and inspections. 162.028-6 Section... Type § 162.028-6 Examinations, tests, and inspections. (a) Full examinations, tests, and inspections to... laboratory in order that an inspector may be assigned to the factory to conduct such...

  7. 46 CFR 160.076-31 - Production tests and examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Production tests and examinations. 160.076-31 Section... Flotation Devices § 160.076-31 Production tests and examinations. (a) Samples used in testing must be... product examination. Each sample PFD must be disassembled to the extent necessary to determine...

  8. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that get stuck between your teeth. Lots of people have bad breath at some point. Don’t worry! There are steps you can take to keep your mouth fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth ( ...

  9. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... distinct breath odors. Bad breath related to poor oral hygiene is most common and caused by release of ... supplements? Do you smoke? What home care and oral hygiene measures have you tried? How effective are they? ...

  10. Application of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry for the evaluation of the 13C-urea breath test: comparison with three concordant methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho L.G.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the performance of isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry (IRIS for the 13C-urea breath test with the combination of the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT, urease test and histologic examination for the diagnosis of H. pylori (HP infection. Fifty-three duodenal ulcer patients were studied. All patients were submitted to gastroscopy to detect HP by the urease test, histologic examination and 14C-UBT. To be included in the study the results of the 3 tests had to be concordant. Within one month after admission to the study the patients were submitted to IRIS with breath samples collected before and 30 min after the ingestion of 75 mg 13C-urea dissolved in 200 ml of orange juice. The samples were mailed and analyzed 11.5 (4-21 days after collection. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Mann-Whitney test and by the Spearman correlation coefficient. Twenty-six patients were HP positive and 27 negative. There was 100% agreement between the IRIS results and the HP status determined by the other three methods. Using a cutoff value of delta-over-baseline (DOB above 4.0 the IRIS showed a mean value of 19.38 (minimum = 4.2, maximum = 41.3, SD = 10.9 for HP-positive patients and a mean value of 0.88 (minimum = 0.10, maximum = 2.5, SD = 0.71 for negative patients. Using a cutoff value corresponding to 0.800% CO2/weight (kg, the 14C-UBT showed a mean value of 2.78 (minimum = 0.89, maximum = 5.22, SD = 1.18 in HP-positive patients. HP-negative patients showed a mean value of 0.37 (minimum = 0.13, maximum = 0.77, SD = 0.17. IRIS is a low-cost, easy to manage, highly sensitive and specific test for H. pylori detection. Storing and mailing the samples did not interfere with the performance of the test.

  11. The 14C-monomethylamino-antipyrine breath test as in vivo parameter for characterizing the induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these investigations was to help clarify the following questions: 1) Does MAAP, following 14C labelling of the exocyclic aminomethyl group, offer a suitable substrate for a breath test in guinea pigs. 2) Which procedures for evaluating the 14C exhalation curves of the breath test are especially valid. 3) Can an induction of the drug catabolizing enzyme system following pre-treatment with various inducing substances be detected by the 14C-MAAP breath test. 4) Do inducer-specific differences arise in response to the 14C-MAAP breath test by which the inducers can be characterized. 5) Is monomethylamino-antipyrine similar to amidopyrine in that it is a suitable independent in vivo parameter for the drug metasbolizing enzyme system in the liver of guinea pigs. (orig./MG)

  12. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Feng; Luo, Nan; Lee, Hin-Peng

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the population-based Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT) with eradication therapy.

  13. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  14. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  15. Metallo-Dielectric Multilayer Structure for Lactose Malabsorption Diagnosis through H2 Breath Test

    CERN Document Server

    Cioffi, N; De Sario, M; D'Orazio, A; Petruzzelli, V; Prudenzano, F; Scalora, M; Trevisi, S; Vincenti, M A

    2007-01-01

    A metallo-dielectric multilayer structure is proposed as a novel approach to the analysis of lactose malabsorption. When lactose intolerance occurs, the bacterial overgrowth in the intestine causes an increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. By monitoring the changes in the optical properties of a multilayer palladium-polymeric structure, one is able to detect the patient's disease and the level of lactose malabsorption with high sensitivity and rapid response.

  16. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  17. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  18. Relationship between the single-breath N test and age, sex, and smoking habit in three North American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, A S; Ghezzo, H; Anthonisen, N R; Cherniack, R M; Ducic, S; Macklem, P T; Manfreda, J; Martin, R R; McCarthy, D; Ross, B B

    1979-08-01

    This report describes a collaborative study conducted in Montreal, Canada, Portland, Ore., and Winnipeg, Canada, to establish the relationship between the single-breath N2 test and age, sex, and smoking and to determine the prevalence of functional abnormalities in these populations. In nonsmokers, age-related regressions for closing volume, closing capacity, and the slope of phase III obtained from the single-breath N2 test, plus the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to the forced vital capacity had very similar slopes, suggesting that differences in geographic location, climate, air pollution, and occupation had no effect on lung function detectable by these tests. Among the 6 city/six groups there was no systematic difference in the prevalence of functional abnormalities between the cities, but closing capacity expressed as a percentage of total lung capacity was abnormal most often in men and the slope of the alveolar plateau was abnormal most often in women. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms within different smoking categories was similar in the 3 cities. Although the number of cigarettes smoked had a significant effect on every test except the ratio of the I-s forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity in men, the effect of age was considerably greater than the effect of smoking, and the dose-response relationship was weak. We conclude that additional factors may interact with smoking to place a smoker at risk of developing chronic airflow limitation. PMID:475152

  19. Influence of citric acid solution as a test drink in the 14C-urea breath test for diagnosis of helicobactor pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different test meals are used in the 14C-urea breath test (UBT) for the detection of H.pylori infection. The purpose of using test meals is to slow gastric emptying and to maximise the distribution of the urea substrate within the stomach so as to increase the area and time of contact between bacteria and substrate. Recently, citric acid has been suggested as an improved liquid test meal. The mechanism is not known and could act by delaying gastric emptying, decreasing the pH at the site of the bacteria, or both

  20. Correlation between symptoms developed after the oral ingestion of 50 g lactose and results of hydrogen breath testing for lactose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Beyerlein, L; Pohl, D.; Delco, F; Stutz, B; Fried, M; Tutuian, R

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactase deficiency is a common condition responsible for various abdominal symptoms. Lactose hydrogen breath test is currently the gold standard in diagnosing lactose intolerance. AIM: To assess sensitivity and specificity of symptoms developed after oral lactose challenge. METHODS: Intensity of nausea, abdominal pain, borborygmi, bloating and diarrhoea was recorded every 15 min up to 3 h after ingestion of 50 g lactose in patients with positive (i.e. breath H2-concentration > or ...

  1. COPD: When You Learn More, You'll Breathe Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are treatments that do help people breathe easier." Spirometry: A Simple Breathing Test Everyone at risk for ... tested for COPD with a simple breathing test. Spirometry is one of the best and most common ...

  2. Measurement of liver function for patients with cirrhosis by 13C-methacetin breath test compared with Child-Pugh score and routine liver function tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-xiang; HUANG Liu-ye; WU Cheng-rong; CUI Jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ 13C-methacetin breath test was used for the evaluation of liver function, as for quantitative data could be achieved using this method, it had the characteristics of safety,quantification, and repetition and got recognition gradually through the world.1,2 We began this 13C-methacetin test to assess liver function of patients with cirrhosis from January 2002. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristic of this test for liver function evaluation and explore the correlation of this method with some clinical liver biochemical parameters and Child-Pugh score.

  3. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children. PMID:12843086

  4. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children.

  5. Comparison of the 13C-urea breath test and the endoscopic phenol red mucosal pH test in the quantification of Helicobacter pylori infection loading

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Young-Seok; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Jang, Se Na; Kim, Jin-Soo; Son, Hye Suk; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Byung-Wook; Han, Sok-Won; Choi, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Hae Kyung; Chang, Eun Deok

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is a semiquantitative test for measuring Helicobacter pylori infection loading. H. pylori produces ammonia, which elevates the pH of the gastric mucosa and is detectable via endoscopy using a phenol red indicator. We evaluated whether this test could be used to diagnose H. pylori infection and whether phenol red staining was correlated with 13C-UBT results. Methods One hundred and twenty-three patients participated. The UBT was performed after in...

  6. Turnover of carbon in the 13C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of 13C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the 13C in the 13C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio 13C/12C in expired CO2 from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to 13C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  7. Lactose Malabsorption Testing in Daily Clinical Practice: A Critical Retrospective Analysis and Comparison of the Hydrogen/Methane Breath Test and Genetic Test (C/T-13910 Polymorphism Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Enko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish a retrospective evaluation and comparison of the hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4 breath test and genetic test (C/T−13910 polymorphism results in lactose malabsorption testing. In total 263 consecutive patients with suspected lactose malabsorption were included in this study. They underwent the H2/CH4 breath test following the ingestion of 50 g lactose and were tested for the C/T−13910 polymorphism. In total 51 patients (19.4% had a C/C−13910 genotype, indicating primary lactose malabsorption. Only 19 patients (7.2% also had a positive H2/CH4 breath test. All in all 136 patients (51.69% had a C/T−13910 and 76 patients (28.91% a T/T−13910 genotype, indicating lactase persistence. Four patients (1.5% with the C/T−13910 genotype and one patient (0.4% with the T/T−13910 genotype had a positive H2/CH4 breath test result, indicating secondary lactose malabsorption. Cohen's Kappa measuring agreement between the two methods was 0.44. Twenty patients (7.6% with a positive H2/CH4 peak within 60 minutes after lactose ingestion were classified as patients with lactose-dependent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO. In conclusion, only moderate agreement between the breath test and the genetic test was shown. Secondary lactose malabsorption as well as preanalytical limitations of the combined H2/CH4 breath test procedure can cause discrepant results. This trial is registered with K-42-13.

  8. Validity and cost comparison of "carbon urea breath test for diagnosis of H Pylori in dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahid Rasool; Shahab Abid; Wasim Jafri

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To validate and compare the cost of microdose 14C urea breath test (UBT) with histology and rapid urease test for the diagnosis of H Pylori.METHODS: Ninety-four consecutive patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing gastroscopy were enrolled. Gastric biopsies were taken for histology and rapid urease test. UBT was performed after gastroscopy by microdose "C urea capsules. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of UBT were calculated and compared with histology and rapid urease test. Cost comparison of these tests was also performed.RESULTS: H pylori was diagnosed by histology and rapid urease test in 66 (70%) and 61 (65%) patients, while 14C UBT detected infection in 63 (67%). Accuracy of UBT was 93% in comparison with histology while its positive and negative predictive values were 97% and 84%, respectively. Comparison of 14C UBT with rapid urease test gives an accuracy of 96%, with positive and negative predictive values of 95% and 97%, respectively. These results were highly reproducible with a Kappa test (P value < 0.001). Cost of histology or rapid urease test with gastroscopy was 110 USD or 95 USD respectively while the cost of UBT was 15 USD.CONCLUSION: Microdose 14C UBT was comparable to histology and rapid urease test. 14C UBT is an economical, self sufficient and suitable test to diagnose active Hpylori infection in less developed countries.

  9. Fabry-Perot microcavity sensor for H2-breath-test analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; De Sario, Marco; Petruzzelli, V.; D'Orazio, Antonella; Prudenzano, Francesco; de Ceglia, Domenico; Scalora, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Leak detection of hydrogen for medical purposes, based on the monitoring of the optical response of a simple Fabry-Perot microcavity, is proposed to investigate either the occurrence of lactose intolerance, or lactose malabsorption condition. Both pathologic conditions result in bacterial overgrowth in the intestine, which causes increased spontaneous emission of H2 in the human breath. Two sensitivity figures of merit are introduced to inspect changes in the sensor response, and to relate the microcavity response to a pathologic condition, which is strictly related to a different level of exhaled hydrogen. Different sensor configurations using a metal-dielectric microcavity are reported and discussed in order to make the most of the well-known ability of palladium to spontaneously absorb hydrogen.

  10. Assessment of the peripheral ventilatory response to CO2 in heart failure patients: reliability of the single-breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of chemoreflex sensitivity in heart failure patients is gaining increasing interest since recent studies demonstrated that augmented chemosensitivity is an independent predictor of mortality and represents an important pathogenic factor in the development of Cheyne–Stokes respiration. The single-breath CO2 test is a well-established method to quantify peripheral hypercapnic chemoreflex sensitivity. As the original criteria for the computation of the chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects need to be modified in heart failure patients to take into account impaired cardiac function, the effects of such modifications on measurement reliability deserve investigation. Hence, we devised this study to assess the reliability of the single-breath CO2 test in heart failure patients. In 27 clinically stable, mild-to-moderate heart failure patients (age (mean±SD): 64±10 years, left ventricular ejection fraction: 34±7%, NYHA class: 2.7±0.4), the test was administered on two consecutive days in the same conditions. Reliability was assessed by the standard error of measurement (SEM) and by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean value of the chemoreflex sensitivity on the two days was: 0.25 ± 0.12 and 0.24 ± 0.12 l min−1 mmHg−1 (p = 0.45), respectively. The SEM was 0.05 l min−1 mmHg−1, indicating large intra-subject variability. Consequently, in order to be 95% confident that a real change has occurred between two measurements taken on the same individual (test–retest), the observed difference must be higher than ±0.15 l min−1 mmHg−1, which is about 60% of the mean value across our population. The ICC was 0.71, indicating thatintra-subject variability, although high, is a limited (29%) portion of inter-subject variability. Intra-subject variability should be carefully taken into account when using the single-breath CO2 test in assessing changes in individual patients. The observed ICC indicates that this test may provide

  11. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, T.; Bartholomeusz, F.D. L.; Bellon, M.S.; Chatterton, B.E. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide. SA (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  12. A simplified 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT) in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Urea Breath Test (UBT) is an accurate, noninvasive means of assessing the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. Two tests are currently available, using 13C- and 14C-labelled urea, respectively. 13C is a nonradioactive isotope, unlike 14C, but the 13C-UBT is technically more challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of a simplified 13C-UBT with no test meal, using the 14C-UBT as the previously validated standard. 76 studies were performed on 72 patients; 4 patients performed the test twice. 28 patients were female, 44 male. The mean age was 51.1 years (range 23-86 years). 42 patients presented for post-eradication follow up, and 30 for initial diagnosis. All subjects underwent a 14C-UBT with a 15 minute sample. The 13C-UBT was then performed without a test meal and the breath samples obtained at baseline and 20 minutes. Of the 14C-UBT studies, 27 were positive, ranging from 1372 to 10,987 DPM (Normal <1000 DPM), and 49 were negative, range 177-946 DPM. 26 of the 13C-UBT studies were positive, with a Delta value ranging from 4.29-47.89 (Normal: Delta <3.5), and 50 were negative, range -0.20-2.80. There were 1 false-positive and 2 false-negative 13-UBT studies. This yielded a sensitivity of 92.6% and specificity of 98.0% for the simplified 13C-UBT. From these results we conclude that the simplified 13C-UBT is an accurate means of detecting the presence of Helicobacter pylori within the stomach

  13. A flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on a flight test facility design for examining digital information transfer. Information is given on aircraft/ground exchange, data link research activities, data link display format, a data link flight test, and the flight test setup.

  14. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  15. Measurement of the rate of fat absorption by the 14C-triolein breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To characterize the extent to which continuous measurement of the rate of 14CO2 excretion following the oral administration of 14C-labeled triolein (14C-T) would estimate the rate of absorption of triolein by the gut, ten adult male rats were fed 0.5 ml of 14C-T and the rate of production of expired labeled CO2 was measured continuously. Pairs of animals were sacrificed at 30 min intervals between 90 and 210 min and absorption rates were calculated by quantitating substrate remaining in the gut. Comparison of these rates with the cumulative excretion rates of labeled CO2 revealed a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.91. In a second experiment, adult rats received an intravenous injection of Triton WR-1339, a potent inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, prior to receiving 14C-T. The rate of intestinal 14C-triglyceride output was determined from the increase in 14C in the blood over a 6 hr period. Comparison of the rates of intestinal secretion using Triton WR-1339 with that determined from the cumulative rates of excretion of 14CO2 revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. The authors conclude that rates of triglyceride absorption can be estimated in vivo by the continuous measurement of labeled CO2 excreted in breath

  16. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  17. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  18. The 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test in gallstone patients with and without duodenal diverticula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess whether gallstone patients with duodenal diverticula have bacterial overgrowth in the proximal small bowel, the results of the 1-g 14C-d-xylose breath test were compared in 24 patients with duodenal diverticula, and in 24 without diverticula. All patients had been treated with endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) for stones in the common bile duct before the study, and cholecystectomy had previously been performed in 20 patients. No significant differences between the groups were found concerning age, sex and body weight. Cummulative 14CO2 expired in 3 h in percentage of administered dose of 14C-d-xylose was 8.55% (7.58-9.57%) and 7.38% (6.32-8.96%) in patients with and without diverticula, respectively (p=0.06), indicating a higher bacterial activity in the small bowel in patients with duodenal diverticula than in those without diverticula. The results appeared to be influenced by cholecystectomy

  19. Primary Test of Economic Understanding. Examiner's Manual. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Bureau of Business and Economic Research.

    This manual for examiners administering the Primary Test of Economic Understanding (PTEU) describes the purpose, development, and validity of the test which is designed to provide a measure of students' growth and a means to assess the effectiveness of existing materials, teaching strategies, and pre-service and in-service economics education…

  20. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causes of abnormal breath sounds may include: Acute bronchitis Asthma Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis Congestive heart failure Emphysema Interstitial lung disease Foreign body obstruction of the airway Pneumonia Pulmonary edema Tracheobronchitis

  1. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  2. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air Considerations There is no standard definition for difficulty breathing. Some people feel breathless with ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  3. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Teppala, Srinivas; Shankar, Anoop

    2012-01-01

    We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87). In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI) = 3.68 (2.01–6.72)) but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04)), P-interaction = 0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction = 0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men. PMID:22518133

  4. Markers of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Diabetes Mellitus in a Multiethnic Sample of US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charumathi Sabanayagam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined gender and ethnic differences in the association between sleep disordered breathing (SDB and diabetes among 6,522 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–08. SDB severity was defined based on an additive summary score including sleep duration, snoring, snorting, and daytime sleepiness. We found that the summary SDB score was significantly associated with diabetes after adjusting for potential confounders in the whole population. Compared to those without any sleep disturbance, the multivariable odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval (CI of diabetes among those with ≥3 sleep disturbances was 2.04 (1.46–2.87. In sex-specific analyses, this association was significant only in women (OR (95% CI = 3.68 (2.01–6.72 but not in men (1.10 (0.59–2.04, P-interaction =0.01. However, there were no ethnic differences in this association, P-interaction =0.7. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, SDB was independently associated with diabetes only in women, but not in men.

  5. Cardiogenic oscillation phase relationships during single-breath tests performed in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, A. M.; Elliott, A. R.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the phase relationships of the cardiogenic oscillations in the phase III portion of single-breath washouts (SBW) in normal gravity (1 G) and in sustained microgravity (microG). The SBW consisted of a vital capacity inspiration of 5% He-1.25% sulfurhexafluoride-balance O2, preceded at residual volume by a 150-ml Ar bolus. Pairs of gas signals, all of which still showed cardiogenic oscillations, were cross-correlated, and their phase difference was expressed as an angle. Phase relationships between inspired gases (e.g., He) and resident gas (n2) showed no change from 1 G (211 +/- 9 degrees) to microG (163 +/- 7 degrees). Ar bolus and He were unaltered between 1 G (173 +/- 15 degrees) and microG (211 +/- 25 degrees), showing that airway closure in microG remains in regions of high specific ventilation and suggesting that airway closure results from lung regions reaching low regional volume near residual volume. In contrast, CO2 reversed phase with He between 1 G (332 +/- 6 degrees) and microG (263 +/- 27 degrees), strongly suggesting that, in microG, areas of high ventilation are associated with high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q). This widening of the range of VA/Q in microG may explain previous measurements (G.K. Prisk, A.R. Elliott, H.J.B. Guy, J.M. Kosonen, and J.B. West J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1290-1298, 1995) of an overall unaltered range of VA/Q in microG, despite more homogeneous distributions of both ventilation and perfusion.

  6. Measurement of hepatic functional mass by means of 13C-methacetin and 13C-phenylalanine breath tests in chronic liver disease: Comparison with Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Festi; P. Portincasa; E. Roda; A. Colecchia; S. Capodicasa; L. Sandri; L. Colaiocco-Ferrante; T. Staniscia; E. Vitacolonna; A. Vestito; P. Simoni; G. Mazzella

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and compare the clinical usefulness of 13C-phenylalanine and 13C-methacetin breath tests in quantitating functional hepatic mass in patients with chronic liver disease and to further compare these results with those of conventional tests, Child-Pugh score and serum bile acid levels.METHODS: One hundred and forty patients (50 HCV-related chronic hepatitis, 90 liver cirrhosis patients) and 40 matched healthy controls were studied. Both breath test and routine liver test, serum levels of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid conjugates were evaluated.RESULTS: Methacetin breath test, expressed as 60 min cumulative percent of oxidation, discriminated the hepatic functional capacity not only between controls and liver disease patients, but also between different categories of chronic liver disease patients. Methacetin breath test was correlated with liver function tests and serum bile acids.Furthermore, methacetin breath test, as well as serum bile acids, were highly predictive of Child-Pugh scores. The diagnostic power of phenylalanine breath test was always less than that of methacetin breath test.CONCLUSION: Methacetin breath test represents a safe and accurate diagnostic tool in the evaluation of hepatic functional mass in chronic liver disease patients.

  7. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  8. Application of 13C-urea breath test in patients diagnosed as H. pylori-negative by gastroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C-urea breath test(13C-UBT)was used to evaluate infection rate of H. pylori(HP) and effect of HP eradication in patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. Patiens without gastrointestinal disorders were set as control group. Within 640 patients diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test, there were 389 patients showed HP-positive by 13C-UBT. The positive rate of HP was 60.8%. 389 patients diagnosed as HP- positive by 13C-UBT were treated with PPI-based triple therapy, PPI-based double therapy and single PPI therapy, respectively. After treatment, the negative rate of 13C-UBT was 83.8%, 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. The results showed significant difference between three kinds of therapy (P13C-UBT could improve the diagnostic rate of HP to patients who diagnosed as HP-negative by histology and rapid urease test. (authors)

  9. Can the C-14 urea breath test reflect the extent and degree of ongoing helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) is the most specific noninvasive method to detect Helicobacter (H) pylori infection. We investigated if the C-14 UBT can reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx). One hundred fifty patients (M:F=83:67,age 48.6±11.2 yrs) underwent C-14 UBT, rapid urease test (CLO test) and GBx on the same day. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (137 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive (≥200 dpm), intermediate ( 50 ∼ 199 dpm) or negative ( < 50 dpm). The results of CLO tests were classified as positive or negative according to color change. The results of GBx on giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4(diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.5%, 88.4%, 97.1%, 88.4% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the CLO test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 83.2%, 81.4%, 91.8%, 81.4% and 82.7%, respectively. The quantitative values of the C-14 UBT were 45 ± 27 dpm in grade 0, 707 ±584 dpm in grade 1, 1558±584 dpm in grade 2, 1851±604 dpm in grade 3, and 2719 ± 892 dpm in grade 4. A significant correlation (r=0.848, p<0.01) was found between C-14 UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection on GBx with giemsa stain. We conclude that the C-14 UBT is a highly accurate, simple and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of ongoing H. pylori infection and reflects the degree of bacterial distribution

  10. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  11. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labeling and analysis by an optical breath test analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent developments in optical systems for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking 13C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment at US$ 15000-25000 is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare the conventional mass spectrometry methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple 13C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This allows an assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For a global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle data is required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will allow collection of hard data within a reasonable time frame. (author)

  12. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E;

    1985-01-01

    Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients the pr...

  13. Carbon sequestration and estimated carbon credit values as measured using 13C labelling and analysis by means of an optical breath test analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R C; Khan, M; Haque, A; Khadir, M; Bonetto, J P; Syamsul, R; Mayr, L; Heiling, M

    2004-05-01

    Recent developments in optical systems (isotope-selective non-dispersive infrared spectrometry) for breath testing have provided a robust, low-cost option for undertaking (13)C analysis. Although these systems were initially developed for breath testing for Helicobacter pylori, they have an enormous potential as a soil science research tool. The relatively low cost of the equipment, US$15,000-25,000, is within the research budgets of most institutes or universities. The simplicity of the mechanisms and optical nature mean that the equipment requires relatively low maintenance and minimal training. Thus methods were developed to prepare soil and plant materials for analysis using the breath test analyser. Results that compare conventional mass spectrometric methods with the breath test analyser will be presented. In combination with simple (13)C-plant-labeling techniques it is possible to devise methods for estimating carbon sequestration under different agronomic management practices within a short time frame. This enables assessment of the carbon credit value of a particular agronomic practice, which can in turn be used by policy makers for decision-making purposes. For global understanding of the effect of agricultural practices on the carbon cycle, data are required from a range of cropping systems and agro-ecological zones. The method and the approach described will enable collection of hard data within a reasonable time. PMID:14963630

  14. Validation in an animal model of the carbon 13-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test for the detection of intestinal fat malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalivianakis, M; Elstrodt, J; Havinga, R; Kuipers, F; Stellaard, F; Sauer, PJJ; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine, in a rat model of fat malabsorption, the potency of the carbon 13-labeled mixed triglyceride (C-13-MTG) breath test as a noninvasive, patient-friendly replacement for classic fat balance studies, Study design: Comparison of the percentage of Fat absorption, detected by fat b

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori in gastric cancer in a south-east Asian population by 14C-urea breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of gastric cancer. There is a great variability in seropositivity and histological frequency of H. pylori in gastric cancer. The present prospective study investigates the prevalence of H. pylori infection in gastric cancer patients using 14C-urea breath testing. Patients with endoscopic biopsy-proven gastric cancer were fasted for 6 h prior to ingesting 18.5 x 104 Bq of 14C-urea cocktail orally. Breath samples were collected after 20 min by AS/King them to blow into a hyamine solution and measurements were read in a scintillation counter. Fifty out of 51 patients (98%) with gastric cancer were positive on the 14C-urea breath test compared to 29 patients (61%) who were positive on histology. There was no association between sex, age or tumour site, stage, differentiation, Lauren type and H. pylori status. The test was negative in one patient with cardiac tumour in which histology of the resected specimen was also negative for the bacteria. Active H. pylori infection is highly prevalent in gastric cancer in a South-East Asian population. The 14C-urea breath test is a highly sensitive method for detecting the presence of H. pylori even in gastric adenocarcinoma irrespective of the stage

  16. Three-dimensional dynamic MR imaging with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination for solitary pulmonary lesions. Correlation of contrast enhancement pattern with pathological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of dynamic MR imaging of solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs) using a fat-suppressed three-dimensional gradient-echo technique with a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE). Correlation between the enhancement pattern and the histological characteristics of the nodules was also assessed. Dynamic 3D-VIBE was performed in 16 patients with pathologically proven SPLs. Each lesion was analyzed for its internal enhancement pattern, dynamic enhancement pattern, and peripheral enhancement (PE). A heterogeneous pattern of internal enhancement was well correlated with histological observation of necrosis, cystic changes, and variously sized air spaces. The washout pattern was seen in the medullary parts of the nodules with little fibrous stroma. The progressive pattern was seen at foci of collapse in the alveolar structure, central scars, and prominent fibrosis. PE was also seen in 6 malignant lesions (43%), and was well correlated with the medullary growth of adenocarcinoma and marginal fibrosis with lymphocytic infiltration of squamous cell carcinoma. The presence of PE was statistically significantly related with tumor size (p<0.05). Dynamic 3D-VIBE allows assessment of the histological characteristics of SPLs. It is also thought that this technique may be a promising method for differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. (author)

  17. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Infants and Toddlers in South America: Concordance between [13C]Urea Breath Test and Monoclonal H. pylori Stool Antigen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Mayuko; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Melo, Fabrício Freire; Checkley, William; Braga, Lúcia Libanez Bessa C.; Silva, Igor Simões; Gilman, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate noninvasive tests for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection in very young children are strongly required. We investigated the agreement between the [13C]urea breath test ([13C]UBT) and a monoclonal ELISA (HpSA) for detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. From October 2007 to July 2011, we enrolled 414 infants (123 from Brazil and 291 from Peru) of ages 6 to 30 months. Breath and stool samples were obtained at intervals of at least 3 months from Brazilian (n = 415) and Peruvian (n = 908) infants. [13C]UBT and stool test results concurred with each other in 1,255 (94.86%) cases (kappa coefficient = 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 0.92). In the H. pylori-positive group, delta-over-baseline (DOB) and optical density (OD) values were positively correlated (r = 0.62; P < 0.001). The positivity of the tests was higher (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 6.01; 95% CI = 4.50 to 8.04) in Peru (546/878; 62.2%) than in Brazil (81/377; 21.5%) and increased with increasing age in Brazil (P = 0.02), whereas in Peru it decreased with increasing age (P < 0.001). The disagreement between the test results was associated with birth in Brazil and female gender but not with age and diarrhea. Our results suggest that both [13C]UBT and the stool monoclonal test are reliable for diagnosing H. pylori infection in very young children, which will facilitate robust epidemiological studies in infants and toddlers. PMID:24006009

  18. Evaporative emissions in three-day diurnal breathing loss tests on passenger cars for the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Breakthrough emissions that dominate diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles were observed in continuous 3-day diurnal breathing loss (DBL) tests. These measurements were conducted on nine vehicles for the Japanese market. Two of these vehicles, made by US and European manufacturers, also meet regulations in their countries of origin. Four vehicles exhibited marked emissions caused by breakthrough emissions during the experimental period, all made by Japanese manufacturers. Using our experimental results, we estimate the total diurnal evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan to be 32,792 t y-1. The compositions of the breakthrough and permeation emissions were analyzed in real time using proton transfer reaction plus switchable reagent ion mass spectrometry to estimate the ozone formation potential for the evaporative emissions. The real-time measurements showed that the adsorption of hydrocarbons in a sealed housing evaporative determination unit can result in underestimation, when concentrations are only monitored before and after a DBL test. The composition analysis gave an estimated maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) 20% higher for the breakthrough emissions than for the gasoline that was tested, while the MIR for the permeation emissions was almost the same as the MIR for the fuel. Evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles in Japan were found to contribute 4.2% to emissions from stationary sources using a mass-based estimate, or 6.1% of emissions from stationary sources using a MIR-based estimate.

  19. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  20. Hydrogen breath test for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance, is the routine sugar load the best one?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fiorenza Argnani; Mauro Di Camillo; Vanessa Marinaro; Tiziana Foglietta; Veronica Avallone; Carlo Cannella; Piero Vernia

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of lactose intolerance (LI) following a load of 12.5 g in patients diagnosed as high-grade malabsorbers using the hydrogen breath test (HBT)-25. METHODS: Ninety patients showing high-grade malabsorption at HBT-25 were submitted to a second HBT with a lactose load of 12.5 g. Peak hydrogen production, area under the curve of hydrogen excretion and occurrence of symptoms were recorded. RESULTS: Only 16 patients (17.77%) with positive HBT-25 proved positive at HBT-12.5. Hydrogen production was lower as compared to HBT-25 (peak value 21.55 parts per million (ppm)±29.54 SD vs 99.43 ppm±40.01 SD; P<0.001). Symptoms were present in only 13 patients. The absence of symptoms during the high-dose test has a high negative predictive value (0.84) for a negative low-dose test. The presence of symptoms during the first test was not useful for predicting a positive low-dose test (positive predictive value 0.06-0.31). CONCLUSION: Most patients with a positive HBT-25 normally absorb a lower dose of lactose and a strict lactose restriction on the basis of a "standard" HBT is, in most instances, unnecessary. Thus, the 25 g lactose tolerance test should probably be substituted by the 12.5 g test in the diagnosis of LI, and in providing dietary guidelines to patients with suspected lactose malabsorption/intolerance.

  1. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursed lip breathing; COPD - pursed lip breathing; Emphysema - pursed lip breathing; Chronic bronchitis - pursed lip breathing; Pulmonary fibrosis - pursed lip breathing; Interstitial lung disease - pursed lip breathing; Hypoxia - pursed lip breathing; ...

  2. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  3. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkjaer Arne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC and low back pain (LBP. However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS, sitting forward lean (SFL, sitting knee extension (SKE, and bent knee fall out (BKFO, all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL, measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8, were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27 cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62 cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29 cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52 cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1 mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these

  4. Measurement of Uncertainty for Aqueous Ethanol Wet-Bath Simulator Solutions Used with Evidential Breath Testing Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Rong-Jen; Beltran, Jada; Rogers, Craig; Barlow, Jeremy; Razatos, Gerasimos

    2016-09-01

    Aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solutions are used to perform calibration adjustments, calibration checks, proficiency testing, and inspection of breath alcohol instruments. The Toxicology Bureau of the New Mexico Department of Health has conducted a study to estimate a measurement of uncertainty for the preparation and testing of these wet-bath simulator solutions. The measurand is identified as the mass concentration of ethanol (g/100 mL) determined through dual capillary column headspace gas chromatography with flame ionization detector analysis. Three groups were used in the estimation of the aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solutions uncertainty: GC calibration adjustment, GC analytical, and certified reference material. The standard uncertainties for these uncertainty sources were combined using the method of root-sum-squares to give uc = 0.8598%. The combined standard uncertainty was expanded to U = 1.7% to reflect a confidence level of 95% using a coverage factor of 2. This estimation applies to all aqueous ethanol wet-bath simulator solution concentrations produced by this laboratory.

  5. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry for patients undergoing a glycerol tri[1-{sup 14}C]oleate fat malabsorption breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael E-mail: mikael.gunnarsson@rfa.mas.lu.se; Stenstroem, Kristina; Leide-Svegborn, Sigrid; Faarinen, Mikko; Magnusson, C.-E.Carl-Erik; Aaberg, Magnus; Skog, G.Goeran; Hellborg, Ragnar; Mattsson, S.Soeren

    2003-04-01

    The glycerol tri[1-{sup 14}C]olein test for fat malabsorption was carried out in two male volunteers and measurements of the loss of {sup 14}C in expired air, urine and faeces and the retention of {sup 14}C in biopsy samples of abdominal fat were made using accelerator mass spectrometry. Exhalation accounted for 73% and 55% of the administered activity and could be described by three-component exponential functions with halftimes of about 1 h, 2 days and 150 days, respectively. Urinary excretion accounted for 24% of the administered activity, almost all during the first 24 h after administration; about 2% was excreted in the faeces in 48 h. The halftime of retention of {sup 14}C in fat ranged from 137 to 620 days. Absorbed dose calculations indicate that for a normal adult the largest dose, 1.5-7.0 mGy/MBq is received by the adipose tissue, and that the effective dose is 0.3-0.5 mSv/MBq. It is concluded that no restrictions need to be placed on radiation safety grounds on the administration of 0.05-0.1 MBq {sup 14}C-triolein for the triolein breath test.

  6. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p<0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p<0.05). In Group II, the prercentage reduction were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p>0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  7. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry for patients undergoing a glycerol tri[1-14C]oleate fat malabsorption breath test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The glycerol tri[1-14C]olein test for fat malabsorption was carried out in two male volunteers and measurements of the loss of 14C in expired air, urine and faeces and the retention of 14C in biopsy samples of abdominal fat were made using accelerator mass spectrometry. Exhalation accounted for 73% and 55% of the administered activity and could be described by three-component exponential functions with halftimes of about 1 h, 2 days and 150 days, respectively. Urinary excretion accounted for 24% of the administered activity, almost all during the first 24 h after administration; about 2% was excreted in the faeces in 48 h. The halftime of retention of 14C in fat ranged from 137 to 620 days. Absorbed dose calculations indicate that for a normal adult the largest dose, 1.5-7.0 mGy/MBq is received by the adipose tissue, and that the effective dose is 0.3-0.5 mSv/MBq. It is concluded that no restrictions need to be placed on radiation safety grounds on the administration of 0.05-0.1 MBq 14C-triolein for the triolein breath test

  8. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  9. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test as the primary diagnostic investigation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection compared to invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. There is a risk factor for gastric or duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue-Lymphomas. There are several invasive and non-invasive methods available for the diagnosis of H. pylori. The 13C-urea breath test is a non-invasive method recommended for monitoring H. pylori eradication therapy. However, this test is not yet used for primary assessment of H. pylori in Germany. Objectives: What are the clinical and health economic benefits of the 13C-urea breath test in the primary assessment of H. pylori compared to other invasive and non-invasive methods? Methods: A systematic literature search including a hand search was performed for studies investigating test criteria and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test in comparison to other methods used in the primary assessment of H. pylori. Only studies that directly compared the 13C-urea breath test to other H. pylori-tests were included. For the medical part, biopsy-based tests were used as the gold standard. Results: 30 medical studies are included. Compared to the immunoglobulin G (IgG test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in twelve studies, lower in six studies and one study reports no differences. The specificity is higher in 13 studies, lower in three studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the stool antigen test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in nine studies, lower in three studies and one study reports no difference. The specificity is higher in nine studies, lower in two studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the urease test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in four studies, lower in three studies and four studies report no differences. The specificity is higher in five studies, lower in five studies and one study reports no difference. Compared

  10. Development of prototype virtual testing system for ultrasonic examination engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of inspection results is affected by the skill of examination personnel, particularly with regard to manual ultrasonic testing (UT). The number and design of test specimens are among the most important points to be considered during training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. For training, a simulated UT training system using a computer mouse or touch sensor was proposed. However, this system proved to be inadequate as a replacement with for actual UT work. In this study, we have developed a novel virtual UT system that simulates actual UT work for piping welds. This system (Tool for Realistic UltraSound Testing) consists of a dummy UT probe, dummy piping, a computer system, and a 3D position detection system. It can detect the state of the dummy probe (3D position, skewing angle), and displays recorded A-scan data corresponding to the dummy probe status with random noise. Furthermore, it does not display A-scan data if the dummy probe is not in contact with the pipe. Thus, in this way, the system simulates actual UT work. Using this system, it is possible to significantly reduce the number of test specimens being utilized for training or assessing the qualification of UT examination personnel. Additionally, highly efficient training and certification will be achieved through this system. (author)

  11. [Language tests for the examination of nasal resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorek, J; Pruszewicz, A; Obrebowski, A

    1996-01-01

    A set of 7 word tests with different number of nasal phonemes was prepared. These tests are adjusted to technical possibilities of nasal resonance examination by means of own construction apparatus. The VII-th test consisting only oral speech sounds appeared to be most important for estimating physiological nasal resonance characteristic for the Polish language and gave individual timbre of the voice. For Polish language these resonance rate is 15.2%. It is useful as reference data to evaluate patients with pathological nasal resonance. The VII-th test together with the V-th one which contain 6.3% of nasal consonants, and the VI-th with 33.3% of them were used for detailed evaluation of nasal resonance.

  12. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related breathing difficulties. Learn some ways to control breathing and some techniques to help you reach a greater level of relaxation during your day: Diaphragmatic Breathing Minimizing Shortness of Breath Instant Relaxation Drill Meditation ...

  13. Comparison of a monoclonal antigen stool test (Hp StAR) with the 13C-urea breath test in monitoring Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Perri; Michele Quitadamo; Rosalba Ricciardi; Ada Piepoli; Rosa Cotugno; Annamaria Gentile; Alberto Pilotto; Angelo Andriulli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the agreement between a mAb-based stool test (HP StAR) and the urea breath test (UBT) in monitoring (H pylori) infection after eradication therapy.METHODS: Patients with discordant results on UBT and Hp StAR underwent endoscopy with biopsies for rapid urease test, culture, and histology to confirm H pylori status.RESULTS: Among 250 patients (50±14 years), 240 (96.0%) had concordant UBT and Hp StAR tests with a significant correlation between DOB and A values (R = 0.87; P<0.0001).The remaining 10 (4.0%) patients had discordant tests (positive Hp StAR and negative UBT) with the Hp StAR inaccurate in five cases (false positive) and UBT inaccurate in the other five cases (false negative). The "maximal expected" sensitivity, specificity, +PV, -PV, +LR, and -LR were 91%, 100%, 100%, 97.4%, ∞, and 8.2 respectively,for the UBT, and 100%, 97.4%, 91%, 100%, 38.8, and 0,respectively, for the Hp StAR. Overall accuracy for both tests was 98%.CONCLUSION: Both the UBT and the Hp StAR are equally accurate in monitoring H pylori infection. Nowadays,the choice of the "best" non-invasive H pylori test in the post-treatment setting should be done not only in terms of diagnostic accuracy but also in view of cost and local facilities.

  14. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF EXAMINATION TESTS IN MATHEMATICS FOR ECONOMISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASPŘÍKOVÁ, Nikola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Examination results are rather important for many students with regard to their future profession development. Results of exams should be carefully inspected by the teachers to help improve design and evaluation of tests and education process in general. Analysis of examination papers in mathematics taken by students of basic mathematics course at University of Economics in Prague is reported. The first issue addressed is identification of significant dependencies between performance in particular problem areas covered in the test and also between particular items and total score in test or ability level as a latent trait. The assessment is first performed with Spearman correlation coefficient, items in the test are then evaluated within Item Response Theory framework. The second analytical task addressed is a search for groups of students who are similar with respect to performance in test. Cluster analysis is performed using partitioning around medoids method and final model selection is made according to average silhouette width. Results of clustering, which may be also considered in connection with setting of the minimum score for passing the exam, show that two groups of students can be identified. The group which may be called "well-performers" is the more clearly defined one.

  15. [An Examination of Variable Image Positions in the Aortic Valve Blood Flow Using Phase Contrast MRI: Effect of Breath-holding Methods in Healthy Volunteers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichi; Morimoto, Noriyoshi; Fukushima, Sachi

    2015-12-01

    Phase contrast MRI (PC-MRI) is a useful tool for evaluating valvular pathology. In addition, PC-MRI can provide a noninvasive assessment of blood flow in an arbitrary cross section. However, the blood flow measurement with breath-hold or free breath PC-MRI may be different from each other because of intrathoracic pressure changing and variable image position. The aim of this study was to find both the optimal breath-hold technique and the image position. Quantitative flow images were acquired in four planes (ascending aorta: Ao, sino-tubular junction: STJ, valsalva sinus: valsalva, left ventricular outflow tract: LVOT), in healthy subjects (n=10). The study protocol was divided into two parts: (1) stroke volume (SV) measured in each slice positions by using inspiration, expiration, and navigation method during normal breathing and (2) SV measured at each breath-hold techniques in the Ao, STJ, valsalva, and LVOT. As a result, (1) SV of the respective measurement positions were not significant by using inspiration, expiration, and navigation method and (2) LVOT SV was significantly lower than Ao, STJ, and valsalva. PMID:26685835

  16. Ultrasonic testing equipment for nondestructive examination of welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the ultrasonic testing equipment the longitudinal-weld or spiral-weld large-size pipes welded by the submerged arc method can be examined for lonitudinal and transverse discontinuities. The search units are radialsymmetrically arranged in a testing spider. Two search units each, mounted opposits one another with respect to the weld, serve to find the transverse discontinuities whereas one search unit each, placed before and behind these couples, serves for detection of lonitudinal flaws. As search units, simple angle beam search units, straight beam search units, or dual search units may be used. (RW)

  17. CT examination of the scrotum and particularly of the testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derouet, H.; Braedel, H.U.; Ziegler, M.; Zwergel, T.; Khorsandian, C.

    1988-05-01

    CT examination of the tests was carried out in 49 patients for the investigation of testicular tumours. Hypodensity and inhomogeneity were typical of teratomas and hyperdensity and relative homogeneity of seminomas. Granulomatous orchitis and lymphomas showed the same characteristics as seminomas. Three testes in the abdomen could be localised and classified. One non-palpable primary tumour was found as well as an old partially calcified tumour, three old torsions and one lipo-sarcoma. In about 10% it was not possible to distinguish between tumour and inflammatory lesions. Compared with sonography, CT has advantages, particularly in the diagnosis of old torsion.

  18. 14C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent 14C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO2 absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative cheaper and safer) CO2 absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

  19. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  20. [Eosin Y-water test for sperm function examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shu-wei; Lü, Nian-qing; Xu, Hao-qin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the principles of the in vitro staining technique, hypotonic swelling test, and water test, the Eosin Y-water test method was developed to simultaneously detect the integrity of the sperm head and tail and sperm membrane structure and function. As a widely used method in clinical laboratories in China, the Eosin Y-water test is methodologically characterized by three advantages. Firstly, both the sperm head and tail can be detected at the same time, which allows easy and comprehensive assessment of membrane damage in different parts of sperm. Secondly, distilled water is used instead of the usual formula solution to simplify and standardize the test by eliminating any potential effects on the water molecules through the sperm membrane due to different osmotic pressure or different sugar proportions and electrolyte solutions. Thirdly, the test takes less time and thus can be repeated before and after treatment. This article focuses on the fundamental principles and modification of the Eosin Y-water test and its application in sperm function examination and routine semen analysis for male infertility, assessment of the quality of sperm retrieved by testicular fine needle aspiration, semen cryopreservation program development, and evaluation of sperm membrane integrity after microwave radiation.

  1. Intragastric acidification increases the sensitivity of 14C-urea breath test in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate if intragastric acidification at the ingestion of 14C-urea can decrease the likelihood of false-negative (FN) results of urea breath test (UBT) in patients taking a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Methods: Twenty-three patients with positive 14C-UBT (UBT-1) results underwent an acid suppression treatment with omeprazole 40 mg/d for 14 d. On day 13, patients underwent second standard UBT (YBT-2). On day 14, patients underwent a modified UBT (UBT-3), which included consuming 200 mL of 0.1 mol/L citric acid solution 30 min before and at the administration of 14C-urea. Mean 14CO2 expiration and the number of FN results were compared for the three UBTs. Results: Omeprazole caused a significant decrease in mean 14CO2 excretion between UBT-1[(5.57 +- 3.90) Bq/mmol] and UBT-2[(1.98 +- 1.42) Bq/mmol, t=5.867, P=0.000]. Omeprazole caused 10(43.5%) FN UBT-2 results. Mean 14CO2 expiration in UBT-3 [(4.93 +- 3.77) Bq/mmol] was greater than that in UBT-2 (t=-4.538, P=0.000). UBT-3 caused only 2 FN results (8.7%, x2=6.66, P14C-urea increases 14Co2 expiration and decreases FN 14C-UBT results in patients taking PPI

  2. Comparative diagnostic value of the breath test and the urine test with 14C-urea in the detection of the Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among 92 patients with chronic gastritis we conducted a synchronous diagnosis of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection using a culture and a serological test (IFP), in conjunction with breath and urine tests involving 14C-urea (BTU-C14 and UTU-C14). The infection was confirmed by isolation in 71 persons (77.2%), the presence of specific IgG in the blood serum was found in 75 (81.5%). In comparison, the BTU-C14 indicated a group of 77 people (83.7%) as infected, and the UTU-C14 a group of 76 (82.6%). In order to determine the diagnostic value (sensitivity, specificity and efficiency) of the latter tests, the results were compared with those of the culture and of the serological tests. It was found that the BTU-C14 test used showed a 100% sensitivity, a 89.5% specificity and a 97.9% efficiency. The UTU-C14 test showed a 100.0% sensitivity, a 94.4% specificity and a 98.9% efficiency in the detection of the H. pylori infection. (author)

  3. Where c-14 urea breath tests lie in nuclear medicine. The detection of H pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 20th century, ulcers have been believed to be caused by stress and dietary factors. Treatment had focussed on hospitalisation, bed rest, and prescription of special bland foods. Later on, gastric acid was blamed for ulcer disease. Antacids and medication that block acid production became the standard of therapy. Despite this treatment, there seemed to be a high recurrence of ulcers. In 1982 a pair of Australian physicians Robin Warren and Barry Marshall were first to identify a link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcers, concluding that bacterium, not stress or diet, causes ulcers. However, the medical community was slow to accept their findings. It was not until 1994 that a Health Consensus Development Conference concluded that there was a strong association between H. pylori and ulcer diseases also recommending ulcer patients with H. pylori infection be treated with antibiotics. The paper discusses several tests, which have become available to medical staff in the detection of H. pylori. Sensitivity, specificity, relatively inexpensive ease of use and patient compliance are factors of a good diagnostic test. Copyright (2000) ANZ Nuclear Medicine

  4. Water cooling system for an air-breathing hypersonic test vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides concepts for hypersonic experimental scramjet test vehicles which have low cost and low risk. Cryogenic hydrogen is used as the fuel and coolant. Secondary water cooling systems were designed. Three concepts are shown: an all hydrogen cooling system, a secondary open loop water cooled system, and a secondary closed loop water cooled system. The open loop concept uses high pressure helium (15,000 psi) to drive water through the cooling system while maintaining the pressure in the water tank. The water flows through the turbine side of the turbopump to pump hydrogen fuel. The water is then allowed to vent. In the closed loop concept high pressure, room temperature, compressed liquid water is circulated. In flight water pressure is limited to 6000 psi by venting some of the water. Water is circulated through cooling channels via an ejector which uses high pressure gas to drive a water jet. The cooling systems are presented along with finite difference steady-state and transient analysis results. The results from this study indicate that water used as a secondary coolant can be designed to increase experimental test time, produce minimum venting of fluid and reduce overall development cost.

  5. The Automated Hamolsky Test: Its Value in Thyroid Function Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interest aroused by the Hamolsky test is due essentially to the fact that this test, which is performed in vitro, does not involve irradiation of the patient and that it is in general the only test capable, in the presence of iodine saturation of exogenic origin, of providing information on the functional state of the thyroid. In the authors' method, the adsorbents used in classical manual techniques have been replaced by a dialysis membrane which effects continuous separation of the free radioactive T3 (l-tri-iodothyronine-131I) from the protein-bound hormone after incubation with the plasma for analysis. The automatic recording of a non-stop dialysis and the continuous comparison of the plasmas with a reference plasma enable variations to be detected in the analytical device, thus ensuring very great accuracy in the results. Critical examination of this method, which has been performed since 1966 on almost 400 patients, shows that the automated version of the Hamolsky test can be adopted as a routine technique in the functional investigation of the thyroid. The advantages and disadvantages of this test and of the manual tests using resins are studied in detail in the latter part of the paper. (author)

  6. The 14CO2 breath test: Facilities and limitations of a rapid and noninvasive method for in vivo evaluation of modified hepatic cytochrome P-450 - a critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of the breath test technique the cascade from O-demethylations to CO2 was investigated after pretreatment of mice with warfarin, phenobarbital, cobaltous chloride, sodium vanadate and metyrapone. It was the intention to examine the validity of the technique with respect to cytochrome P-450 activity. Therefore three different radioactive labeled substrates, i.e., hydrogen carbonate, formate and xenobiotics, were applied at three different levels of the one-carbon pathway and were utilized to demonstrate possible interference of the modifiers with the sequence from O-demethylation to CO2. Real in vivo information about a modified cytochrome P-450 system can be obtained using model substrates carefully selected with regard to the type of expected modification of the monooxygenase system. In addition, a parallel monitoring of the consecutive reaction sequence by measuring the conversion of formate to CO2 is necessary in order to guarantee the validity of the in vivo technique in visualizing the activity of the hepatic monooxygenase system. (orig.)

  7. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of {sup 14}C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    {sup 14}C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used {sup 14}C-breath tests: {sup 14}C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low {sup 14}C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform {sup 14}C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of {sup 14}C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and {sup 14}C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the {sup 14}C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  8. Discussion on test and application of Reilly breathing technique for self-contained breathing apparatus%自给正压式空气呼吸器R式呼吸法测试与应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晔

    2014-01-01

    Reilly emergency breathing technique,as one of basic skills of fireground survival for firefighters,can efficiently prolong the consumption time of self-contained breathing apparatus in case of disorientation,trauma or entrapment,and raise the success rate of rapid intervention. The values were tested,compared and analyzed be-tween the consumption time of 5 . 5 MPa air in cylinder with normal breathing model and Reilly emergency breathing technique in the state of running at 6 Km/h in treadmill and prone position in the field,and the proposal was put forward that the Reilly emergency breathing technique should be trained in the fire brigade and the rapid interven-tion system should be completed and implemented in order to improve the skills of breathing protection and the op-portunity of fireground survival.%对遇险消防员迅速实施二次救援是目前减少消防员火场伤亡的重要措施。当遭遇迷失、受伤、被困等意外而依靠自身的力量无法脱险、或空气呼吸器低压报警装置起鸣时,消防员如果能延长空气呼吸器的使用时间,就能够为外部救援力量的二次救援提供宝贵的时间,为成功获救创造条件。测试采用自由呼吸和R式呼吸法两种呼吸方式下、在跑步机上以6km/h的速度快步行走和俯卧状伏于地面两种运动状态下5.5MPa空气的使用时间。结果证明,采用R式呼吸法较之自由呼吸时空气的使用时间更长,采用R式呼吸法俯卧状伏于地面能更有效地延长空气的使用时间。为了提高火场遇险消防员的生存机率,应将R式呼吸法作为消防员基本生存技能纳入灭火救援业务训练大纲,规范消防员火场避险行动程序,并系统化地开展实战化专项训练。

  9. Breath-hold times in patients undergoing radiological examinations: comparison of expiration and inspiration with and without hyperventilation: primerjava časov po izdihu in po vdihu z ali brez hiperventilacije: Zadrževanje diha pri bolnikih, ki so radiološko preiskovani:

    OpenAIRE

    Groell, Reinhard; Schaffler, Gottfried J; Schloffer, Stephan

    2001-01-01

    Background: Breath-holding is necessary for imaging studies of the thorax and abdomen using computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this study was to compare the breath-hold times in expiration and inspiration and to evaluate the effects of hyperventilation.Patients and methods. Thirty patients and 19 healthy volunteers participated in this study after informed consent was obtained in all. The breath-hold times were measured in expiration and...

  10. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I Gallardo-Wong; S Morán; G Rodríguez-Leal; B Casta(n)eda-Romero; R Mera; J Poo; M Uribe; M Dehesa

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure.METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox.RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78,0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI:0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin,creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  11. Postirradiation examination results for the irradiation effects scoping test 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehner, A.S.; Quapp, W.J.; Goetzmann, O.; Hobbins, R.R.

    1976-09-01

    A zircaloy-clad UO/sub 2/ fuel rod was operated above its critical heat flux within the in-pile test loop of the Power Burst Facility and later examined in the hot cells. The results of the postirradiation examinations are presented in this report. A Zr-UO/sub 2/ reaction at the fuel-cladding interface embrittled nearly as much of the cladding wall thickness as the Zr-water reaction on the exterior. Data on both the internal and external reactions, and cladding and fuel microstructures, are presented. Cladding embrittlement and rod failure are compared with several rod fragmentation criteria, and conclusions concerning fuel rod failure propagation in a power reactor system are made.

  12. EFFECT OF DEEP BREATHING ON RESPIRATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Context: Breathing is the most vital function for maintenanc e of life. Slow and deep breathing is an integral part of Pranayama and it r educes dead space ventilation and renews air throughout the lungs. The reported beneficial effec ts of deep breathing as a part of either long term or short term practice of pranayama on pulmonary fu nctions are well documented. However our knowledge about the effects of deep breathing on hu man respiratory parameters is poor. In the present study, we examined the relationship between exposure to deep breathing and performance on Respiratory parameters before and after the deep breathing. Aim: The present study was done to evaluate the effect of deep breathing on respirator y parameters. S ettings & Design: The present study was a comparative prospective study consistin g of 30 male healthy subjects of 18-20 years age. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of physi ology, Adichunchanagiri institute of medical sciences, Man dya after the institutional ethical clearance and written consent from each participant. The particip ants were asked to perform deep breathing. The duration of the study was twelve weeks. Pre and pos t deep breathing respiratory functions were assessed by measuring respiratory rate, chest expan sion and breath holding time. The parameters were analyzed by Student‘t’ test and p<0.05 was con sidered the level of significance. Results: There was significant decrease in respiratory rate, and s ignificant increase in chest expansion and breath holding time compared to pre deep breathing practic e. Conclusions: This study showed beneficial effects of deep breathing on respiratory functions in normal healthy individuals

  13. Increased accuracy of the carbon-14 D-xylose breath test in detecting small-intestinal bacterial overgrowth by correction with the gastric emptying rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the accuracy of 14C-D-xylose breath test for detecting bacterial overgrowth can be increased by correction with the gastric emptying rate of 14C-D-xylose. Ten culture-positive patients and ten culture-negative controls were included in the study. Small-intestinal aspirates for bacteriological culture were obtained endoscopically. A liquid-phase gastric emptying study was performed simultaneously to assess the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. The results of the percentage of expired 14CO2 at 30 min were corrected with the amount of 14C-D-xylose that entered the small intestine. There were six patients in the culture-positive group with a 14CO2 concentration above the normal limit. Three out of four patients with initially negative results using the uncorrected method proved to be positive after correction. All these three patients had prolonged gastric emptying of 14C-D-xylose. When compared with cultures of small-intestine aspirates, the sensitivity and specificity of the uncorrected 14C-D-xylose breath test were 60% and 90%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity of the corrected 14C-D-xylose breath test improved to 90% and 100%, respectively. (orig./MG)

  14. Experience with the 14C-aminopyrine breath test in hepatic cirrhosis and under the influence of diclofenac-sodium (Voltaren/sup R/)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14C-aminopyrine breath test is a simple procedure for the non-invasive determination of the microsomal function of the liver. After oral administration of 74 kBq 14C-aminopyrine the 14CO2 activity of the expired breath air is determined in hourly intervals. There is a close correlation between its decrease and the elimination of aminopyrine from the plasma. Both the elimination constant of 14CO2 and the maximal specific 14CO2 activity are useful quantitative parameters of the test. They allow conclusions as to the hepatic demethylation capacity. Both parameters were significantly lower in 15 patients with liver cirrhosis than in 12 control patients. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac-sodium did not significantly influence the demethylation of 14C-aminopyrine in 5 patients with rheumatic diseases and in 2 healthy probands. Further experience with the breath test is necessary, especially with respect to its suitability for prospective investigation. (author)

  15. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging using a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE): clinical utility in the evaluation of renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare, in terms of technical feasibility, image quality and clinical efficacy, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) with two-dimensional gradient-echo MR imaging for the evaluation of renal messes. Twenty-three patients with 25 renal masses underwent dynamic MR imaging using a 1.5-T MR system and the 3D VIBE, 2D fast low angle shot (FLASH), and combined fat saturation techniques after the injection of 20 ml of Gd-DTPA. We compared postcontrast 2D FLASH and 3D VIBE images with precontrast 2D FLASH images. For quantitative analysis, the signal-to-noise and lesion to kidney contrast-to-noise ratio of the images were calculated using the three different techniques. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists analyzed the images in terms of artifacts, lesion conspicuity and delineation, and general image quality. Delineation of the anatomy of renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal systems on reconstructed 3D VIBE MIP images was also assessed. Quantitative analysis showed that the SNR of a renal mass was slightly higher at postcontrast 2D FLASG than at 3D VIBE imaging, and the SNR of renal cortex was higher at 3D VIBE than at postcontrast 2D FLASF imaging. The differences were, though, statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The CNR of al renal mass was, however, significantly higher at 3D VIBE than at 2D FLASH imaging (p<0.05). Qualitative analysis showed that general image quality was best at postcontrast 3D VIBE, followed by 2D FLASH and precontrast 2D FLASH imaging, and image artifacts were worst at post-contrast 2D FLASH image (p<0.05). In terms of lesion conspicuity and delineation, 3D VIBE gave the best results and postcontrast images were better than precontrast (p<0.05). Reconstructed angiographic and urographic images using the VIBE technique provided information about the anatomy of the renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system. 3D VIBE MR imaging offers comparable or

  16. Contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR imaging using a volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE): clinical utility in the evaluation of renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare, in terms of technical feasibility, image quality and clinical efficacy, contrast-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) MR imaging using volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) with two-dimensional gradient-echo MR imaging for the evaluation of renal masses. Twenty-three patients with 25 renal masses underwent dynamic MR imaging using a 1.5-T MR system and the 3D VIBE, 2D fast low angle shot (FLASH), and combined fat saturation techniques after the injection of 20 ml of Gd-DTPA. We compared postcontrast 2D FLASH and 3D VIBE images with precontrast 2D FLASH images. For quantitative analysis, the signal-to-noise and lesion to kidney contrast-to-noise ratio of the images were calculated using the three different techniques. For qualitative analysis, two experienced radiologists analyzed the images in terms of artifacts, lesion conspicuity and delineation, and general image quality. Delineation of the anatomy of renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system on reconstructed 3D VIBE MIP images was also assessed. Quantitative analysis showed that the SNR of a renal mass was slightly higher at postcontrast 2D FLASH than at 3D VIBE imaging, and the SNR of renal cortex was higher at 3D VIBE than at postcontrast 2D FLASH imaging. The differences were, though, statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The CNR of a renal mass was, however, significantly higher at 3D VIBE than at 2D FLASH imaging (p<0.05). Qualitative analysis showed that general image quality was best at postcontrast 3D VIBE, followed by 2D FLASH and precontrast 2D FLASH imaging, and image artifacts were worst at post-contrast 2D FLASH image (p<0.05). In terms of lesion conspicuity and delineation, 3D VIBE gave the best results and postcontrast images were better than precontrast (p<0.05). Reconstructed angiographic and urographic images using the VIBE technique provided information about the anatomy of the renal vasculature and pelvocalyceal system. 3D VIBE MR imaging offers comparable or

  17. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  18. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin4,sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability 2=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of tumor amplitude for a given peak pressure week-to-week. Film set-up reproducibility is adequate for detection of dosimetric errors resulting from motion of >3%. This work is funded by Swiss National Fund Grants 320030-127569 and 320030-1493942-1

  19. Validation of the string test for the recovery of Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions and correlation of its results with urea breath test results, serology, and gastric pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J; Camorlinga, M; Pérez-Peréz, G; Gonzalez, G; Muñoz, O

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the "gold standard," the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions.

  20. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions.

  1. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant steam generator: FEW tube test model post test examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) is part of an extensive testing program being carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. The problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination and the results of the post-test examination are described

  2. What Controls Your Breathing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To a limited degree, you can change your breathing rate, such as by breathing faster or holding your ... oxygen levels in your blood and change your breathing rate as needed. Sensors in the airways detect lung ...

  3. Comparison between the 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test for the diagnosis of childhood Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As noninvasive tests for Helicobacter pylori infection, the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen test have been widely used. In children, however, there are few studies reporting which test shows superior performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the 13C-UBT and stool antigen test for their accuracy in diagnosing. H. pylori infection in children. A total of 123 Japanese children, ages 2 to 17 years (mean, 12 years) who underwent gastric biopsies for H. pylori infection were studied. The diagnoses included gastritis (n=55), gastric ulcer (n=5), duodenal ulcer (n=20), iron-deficiency anemia (n=7), and other conditions (n=36). The cutoff value of the 13C-UBT was defined to be 3.5 per mille. The stool antigen test was performed using the H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Premier Platinum HpSA). In 16 patients who received eradication therapy, the 13C-UBT and HpSA were repeated 2 months after treatment. Based on biopsy tests, 60 children were infected with H. pylori and 63 children were not. For the 13C-UBT, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.1%-99.0%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.5%-100%), and 96.4% (95% CI, 93.6%-99.9%), respectively. For the HpSA, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 983.% (95% CI, 90.8%-100%), 98.4% (95% CI, 91.2%-100%), and 98.3% (95% CI, 96.0%-100%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the performance of these two tests. In the assessment of H. pylori eradication, the results of 13C-UBT and HpSA agreed with those of biopsy tests. The 13C-UBT and the HpSA are equally accurate for the diagnosis of active H. pylori infection in Japanese children. (author)

  4. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  5. Post-Service Examination of PWR Baffle Bolts, Part I. Examination and Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor plants, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating with Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, The Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, and ATI Consulting, the selective procurement of baffle bolts that were withdrawn from service in 2011 and currently stored on site at Ginna. The goal of this program is to perform detailed microstructural and mechanical property characterization of baffle former bolts following in-service exposures. This report outlines the selection criteria of the bolts and the techniques to be used in this study. The bolts available are the original alloy 347 steel fasteners used in holding the baffle plates to the baffle former structures within the lower portion of the pressurized water reactor vessel. Of the eleven possible bolts made available for this work, none were identified to have specific damage. The bolts, however, did show varying levels of breakaway torque required in their removal. The bolts available for this study varied in peak fluence (highest dose within the head of the bolt) between 9.9 and 27.8x1021 n/cm2 (E>1MeV). As no evidence for crack initiation was determined for the available bolts from preliminary visual examination, two bolts with the higher fluence values were selected for further post-irradiation examination. The two bolts showed different breakaway torque levels necessary in their removal. The information from these bolts will be integral to the LWRS program initiatives in evaluating end of life microstructure and properties. Furthermore, valuable data will be obtained that can be incorporated into model predictions of long-term irradiation behavior and compared to results obtained in high flux experimental reactor conditions. The two bolts selected for the ORNL study will be shipped to Westinghouse with bolts of

  6. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  7. Breathing exercises: influence on breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle S. R. Vieira; Mendes, Liliane P. S.; Nathália S. Elmiro; Marcelo Velloso; Raquel R. Britto; Verônica F. Parreira

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying breathing exercises have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of four on breathing exercises (diaphragmatic breathing, inspiratory sighs, sustained maximal inspiration and intercostal exercise) the on breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in healthy subjects. METHOD: Fifteen subjects of both sexes, aged 23±1.5 years old and with normal pulmonary function tests, participated in the study. The subjects were evaluated using t...

  8. Point-of-care continuous 13C-methacetin breath test improves decision making in acute liver disease: Results of a pilot clinical trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gadi Lalazar; Tomer Adar; Yaron Ilan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the role of the 13C-methacetin breath test (MBT) in patients with acute liver disease. METHODS: Fifteen patients with severe acute liver disease from diverse etiologies were followed-up with 13C-MBT during the acute phase of their illnesses (range 3-116 d after treatment). Patients fasted for 8 h and ingested 75 mg of methacetin prior to the MBT. We compared results from standard clinical assessment, serum liver enzymes, synthetic function, and breath test scores. RESULTS: Thirteen patients recovered and two patients died. In patients that recovered, MBT parameters improved in parallel with improvements in lab results. Evidence of consistent improvement began on day 3 for MBT parameters and between days 7 and 9 for blood tests. Later convergence to normality occurred at an average of 9 d for MBT parameters and from 13 to 28 d for blood tests. In both patients that died, MBT parameters remained low despite fluctuating laboratory values. CONCLUSION: The 13C-MBT provides a rapid, noninvasive assessment of liver function in acute severe liver disease of diverse etiologies. The results of this pilot clinical trial suggest that the MBT may offer greater sensitivity than standard clinical tests for managing patients with severe acute liver disease.

  9. Shoulder and hip roll differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharakis, Stelios G; McCabe, Carla

    2011-06-01

    The effects of breathing on body roll have been previously investigated for the roll of the whole trunk only. The purposes of this study were: to calculate separately the shoulder roll (SR) and hip roll (HR) of swimmers during front crawl for non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; to assess the differences in the magnitude and temporal characteristics of these variables between non-breathing and preferred-side breathing conditions; and to examine their association with swimming performance (indicated by swimming speed). Twelve male swimmers who competed at national and international level performed two maximum 25 m front crawl trials: one non-breathing and one with breathing to their preferred side. Performance was recorded with four below and two above water synchronised cameras. SR and HR in both trials were calculated for the breathing and non-breathing sides. The timings of SR and HR peaks to each side and at the positions of neutral roll were also calculated. Swimming speed was significantly slower in the breathing trial (p rolled their shoulders and hips to the breathing side significantly more in the breathing than in the non-breathing trial (SR: p side (p < 0.01) but HR was not significantly different (p = 0.07). There was no evidence to suggest that temporal characteristics of SR or HR were associated with swimming performance.

  10. A monitoring of breathing using a hetero-core optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, S.; Seki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-04-01

    A monitoring human breath has been seen as an important source of factor for vital status for emergency medical service. The monitoring of breathing has been tested and evaluated in a possible breath condition of a person to be monitored. A hetero-core optical fiber humidity sensor was developed for in order to monitor relative humidity in a medial mask. Elements for determent breath condition were extracted from the light intensity changing at some human breath condition, which were Breath depth, Breath cycle, Breath time and Check breathing. It is found that the elements had differences relative to normal breathing.

  11. Oxygen breathing regularity of eggs in storage period monitoring by non-invasive micro-test technique%基于非损伤微测技术监测贮期鸡蛋氧呼吸规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巧华; 张涛; 马美湖

    2014-01-01

    Breathing is an important physiological activity of egg as a living organism, and it has a great influence on its storage, conveyance and incubation. Therefore, it is of great significance to study egg’s breathing regularity and respiration intensity in a day and during its storage time in a month. In this paper, non-invasive micro-test technique (NMT) was used to real-time monitor O2 flux passing in and out the eggs through the eggshell and study the breathing regularity and the respiration intensity of the eggs. With this method, gas exchange (O2) was measured and it was confirmed that breathing indeed exists. In order to study egg’s respiration in a day, a customized micro-testing examination platform was constructed for the real-time monitoring of the intensity and rate of oxygen exchange between an egg and its external environment at 4 time points (6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00). On the other hand, egg’s O2 flux was measured at the same time in a day during a month as to seeking for breathing regularity in its storage time. It was indicated that the optimal distance of probe towards the egg surface was 50μm and the blunt end of the egg was selected as the optimum measurement location via the pre-experiment. The results show that there are three breathing patterns of eggs, consuming O2, exhaust O2, and both including consuming and exhausting O2. After group A testing, it is concluded that both fertilized and non-fertilized eggs breathe strong at dawn and weak at noon regularly in a day and the respiration intensity of the two types of eggs perform difference at different time points. Fertilized eggs have more active physical activity and the process of metabolism than those of non-fertilized ones. Fertilized egg respiration shows significant difference (P<0.05) at noon and dawn in a day, but non-fertilized egg does not. In addition, after group B testing, it is intended that during storage time in a month, there exists two breathing peaks in its storage

  12. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjaer Arne; Remvig Lars; Kjaer Per; Enoch Flemming; Juul-Kristensen Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC) and low back pain (LBP). However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practi...

  13. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  14. SU-D-BRE-01: A Realistic Breathing Phantom of the Thorax for Testing New Motion Mitigation Techniques with Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R; Peroni, M; Bernatowicz, K; Zakova, M; Knopf, A; Safai, S [Paul Scherrer Institut, Psi-villigen, Aargau (Switzerland); Parkel, T [CSEM, Swiss Centre of Electronics and Microtechnology, Landquart, Graubunden (Switzerland)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A prototype breathing phantom (named LuCa) has been developed which simulates the anatomy and motion of a patient thorax.In this work, we describe the results of the first commissioning tests with LuCa. Methods: The phantom provides a close representation of the human thorax. The lungs,contained within a tissue-equivalent ribcage and skin,are made from a polymer foam,which is inflated and deflated using a custommade ventilator. A tumor is simulated using a wooden ball with cutplanes for placing GafChromic films. The ventilator,controlled with Labview software,simulates a full range of breathing motion types.Commissioning tests were performed to assess its performance using imaging (CT and radiographic) and film dosimetry as follows:i)maximum Tumor excursion at acceptable pressure ranges, ii)tumor Motion repeatability between breathing periods,iii)reproducibility between measurement days,iv)tumor-to-surface motion correlation and v)reproducibility of film positioning in phantom. Results: The phantom can generate repeatable motion patterns with sin{sup 4},sin,breath-hold (tumor amplitude repeatability <0.5mm over 10min),aswell as patient-specific motion types. Maximum excursions of the tumor are 20mm and 14mm for the large and small tumor inserts respectively. Amplitude reproducibility (Coefficient of Variation) averaged at 16% for the workable pressure range over 2 months. Good correlation between tumor and surface motion was found with R{sup 2}=0.92. Reproducibility of film positioning within the thorax was within 0.9mm, and maximum 3° error from the coronal plane. Film measurements revealed that the film repositioning error yields relative errors in the mean dose over the planned target volume (PTV) of up to 2.5% and 4.5% for films at the center and on the edge of the PTV respectively. Conclusion: Commissioning tests have shown that the LuCa phantom can produce tumor motion with excellent repeatability. However,a poorer performance in reproducibility of

  15. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. This paper describes the problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination, and the results of the post-test examination. Conditions of tube bowing and significant tube and tube support gouging was observed. An interpretation of the visual and metallurgical observations is also presented. The CRBRP steam generator has undergone design evaluations to resolve observed deficiences found in the FFTM

  16. [Diagnosis and examination for COPD. Pulmonary function tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masaru

    2016-05-01

    Pulmonary function tests are essential for the diagnosis and management of COPD. It is important to understand the inspection method of tests and the interpretation of test results. The presence of a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVChyperinflation occurs. These changes can be documented by lung volume measurement as increases in functional residual capacity, residual volume and total lung capacity. Measurement of diffusing capacity (DLco) provides information on the functional impact of emphysema in COPD. PMID:27254943

  17. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe

    2010-01-01

    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  18. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  19. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, B. A.

    1977-09-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  20. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Liver Function of Piglets as Evaluated by the 13C-Methacetin and 13C-α-Ketoisocaproic Acid Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Diers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ergot alkaloids (the sum of individual ergot alkaloids are termed as total alkaloids, TA are produced by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, which infests cereal grains commonly used as feedstuffs. Ergot alkaloids potentially modulate microsomal and mitochondrial hepatic enzymes. Thus, the aim of the present experiment was to assess their effects on microsomal and mitochondrial liver function using the 13C-Methacetin (MC and 13C-α-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA breath test, respectively. Two ergot batches were mixed into piglet diets, resulting in 11 and 22 mg (Ergot 5-low and Ergot 5-high, 9 and 14 mg TA/kg (Ergot 15-low and Ergot 15-high and compared to an ergot-free control group. Feed intake and live weight gain decreased significantly with the TA content (p < 0.001. Feeding the Ergot 5-high diet tended to decrease the 60-min-cumulative 13CO2 percentage of the dose recovery (cPDR60 by 26% and 28% in the MC and KICA breath test, respectively, compared to the control group (p = 0.065. Therefore, both microsomal and mitochondrial liver function was slightly affected by ergot alkaloids.

  1. Comparative performance of capsulated Vs non-capsulated 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventionally, 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) is employed as a 'gold standard' technique for the detection of active Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection, to follow up the patients after its eradication and for epidemiological evaluations. Due to high accuracy of this test and other benefits it is recommended as the best option for 'test-and-treat' strategy in primary health care centers. So far no appropriate study has been done to compare the performance of 14C-UBT using capsulated versus non-capsulated protocol. In this study, we employed a novel technique of performing capsulated 14C-UBT with simultaneous monitoring the dynamic movement of capsule and compared the results with non-capsulated protocol. (author)

  2. Post-Test Examination of the Hydrogen Distribution in Zirconium Claddings After Loca Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the posttest examinations of the large scale LOCA simulation tests on fuel rod bundle scale, the hydrogen distributions in specimens prepared from the QUENCH-L0 and –L1 tests were determined by means of neutron imaging. The hydrogen distributions in samples prepared from the two tests differ significantly. Whereas clearly visible hydrogen bands were found in the inner rods of the QUENCH-L0 test; the hydrogen enrichments in no specimen prepared from the inner rods of the QUENCH-L1 test are more blurred. The reasons for these different behaviors can be the different times between reaching the temperature maxima and the quenching. In the QUENCH-L0 test the bundle was quenched immediately after reaching the maximal temperature. In QUENCH-L1 the hydrogen has about 130 s to diffuse and reach more homogeneous distributions without very pronounced contrasts between the hydrogen bands and the neighboring regions in the neutron images. In outer rods of both tests no hydrogen enrichments were found except two rods (#14 and #17) of test QUENCH-L0. The reason for it is the slightly lower temperature of the outer rods compared to the inner rods. (author)

  3. Use of the Biphasic 13C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesh, Albert M.; Shelby, Harold T.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase 13C-sucrose/13C-glucose breath test (13C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When 13C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to 13CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, 13C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). 13CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from 13C-sucrose and secondary 13C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, 13C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing 13CO2-breath enrichment with plasma 13C-glucose enrichment. 13C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. 13CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of 13C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r2 = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60′, 0.92 at 75′, and 0.96 at mean 60′–75′ with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60′, 0.77 at 75′, and 0.76 at mean 60′–75′ (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  4. Use of the Biphasic (13)C-Sucrose/Glucose Breath Test to Assess Sucrose Maldigestion in Adults with Functional Bowel Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekun, Antone R; Balesh, Albert M; Shelby, Harold T

    2016-01-01

    Sucrase insufficiency has been observed in children with of functional bowel disorders (FBD) and symptoms of dietary carbohydrate intolerance may be indistinguishable from those of FBD. A two-phase (13)C-sucrose/(13)C-glucose breath test ((13)C-S/GBT) was used to assess sucrase activity because disaccharidase assays are seldom performed in adults. When (13)C-sucrose is hydrolyzed to liberate monosaccharides, oxidation to (13)CO2 is a proportional indicator of sucrase activity. Subsequently, (13)C-glucose oxidation rate was determined after a secondary substrate ingestion (superdose) to adjust for individual habitus effects (Phase II). (13)CO2 enrichment recovery ratio from (13)C-sucrose and secondary (13)C-glucose loads reflect the individualized sucrase activity [Coefficient of Glucose Oxidation for Sucrose (CGO-S)]. To determine if sucrase insufficiency could be a factor in FBD, (13)C-S/GBT was validated using subjects with known sucrase gene mutation status by comparing (13)CO2-breath enrichment with plasma (13)C-glucose enrichment. (13)C-S/GBT was used to assess sucrose digestion in FBD patients and asymptomatic controls. (13)CO2-breath enrichment correlated with the appearance of (13)C-sucrose-derived glucose in plasma (r (2) = 0.80). Mean, control group CGO-S-enrichment outcomes were 1.01 at 60', 0.92 at 75', and 0.96 at mean 60'-75' with normal CGO-S defined as >0.85 (95% C.I.). In contrast, FBD patients demonstrated lower CGO-S values of 0.77 at 60', 0.77 at 75', and 0.76 at mean 60'-75' (Chi Square: 6.55; p < 0.01), which points to sucrose maldigestion as a cause of FBD. PMID:27579322

  5. CO2呼气试验和 H2呼气试验的临床应用%Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵思倩; 陈宝军; 罗志福

    2016-01-01

    呼气试验简单无创、灵敏度高、特异性较强,受到研究者的关注。本文介绍了CO2呼气试验和 H2呼气试验的临床应用。CO2呼气试验的主要应用有胃幽门螺杆菌检测、肝功能检测、胃排空检测、胰岛素抵抗检测和胰腺外分泌测定等。 H2呼气试验可用于诊断乳糖吸收不良和检测小肠细菌过度生长。随着进一步的研究,呼气试验因其高灵敏度,非侵入性,有望应用于更多疾病的诊断。%Breath test is non‐invasive ,high sensitivity and high specificity .In this arti‐cle ,CO2 breath test ,H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated .The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test , liver function detection ,gastric emptying test ,insulin resistance test ,pancreatic exocrine secretion test ,etc .H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrow th .With further research ,the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis .

  6. A methodological aspect of the {sup 14}C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis; Wybrany aspekt metodologiczny testu oddechowego z mocznikiem znakowanym stosowanego w diagnostyce zakazenia Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author) 38 refs, 2 tabs, 1 fig

  7. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis. (orig.)

  8. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S.; Putkonen, M.; Puranen, J.; Raatikainen, T.

    1988-11-01

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis.

  9. Examinations of samples of Bell Canyon Test 1-FF grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portland cement grout identified as BCT-1-FF (Bell Canyon Test 1-FF) was used in borehole plugging experiments of the Bell Canyon Tests in Holl AEC-7 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in New Mexico during September 1979 and February 1980. This grout was made with fresh water. A study of this grout was begun in August 1979 in the laboratory to evauate the possible effects of temperature, pressure, and storage in fresh water or simulated groundwater (brine) on its phase composition and compressive strength at early ages. Phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction. Temperatures ranged up to about 1500F and included elevation at a few hours age after mixing; pressure was as high as 1500 psi; specimens were stored in simulated groundwater (brine) or in fresh water. Data from 1 to 90 days showed: (a) Higher temperature accelerated early strength gain. These differences essentially vanished by 90 days age. (b) Hydration products as identified by X-ray diffraction were normal; this indicated that a temperature range of 78 to 1530F was not significant. (c) Pressure did not affect composition. (d) Storage in simulated groundwater (brine) or fresh water had no detectable effect. (e) Since the BCT-1-FF grout mixture contained added sulfate, it formed more ettringite as judged by X-ray diffraction than comparable portland cement mixtures without added sulfate

  10. Rapid CO breath test screening of drugs for protective effects on ribavirin-induced hemolysis in a rabbit model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Hou-De; Wu, Chuang-Hong; Zhu, Guo-Liang; Ji, Yong-Qiang; Huang, Jia-Liang; Du, Li-Tao; Cao, Ping; Zang, De-Yue; Ji, Kun-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia is a major side effect of ribavirin antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Ribavirin dose reduction may compromise the antiviral response and erythropoietin can take several weeks to alleviate anemia. The purpose of the present study was to screen potentially protective drugs against ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia in a rabbit model, using our modified CO breath test for measuring erythrocyte (RBC) lifespan, the gold standard diagnostic index of hemolysis. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into five groups (N  =  3/group): one vehicle control group, one ribavirin (only)-treated (RBV) group, and three groups initially treated with ribavirin only, followed by a combination of ribavirin with prednisone (RBV  +  Pred), polyene phosphatidyl choline (RBV  +  PPC), or reduced glutathione (RBV  +  GSH). RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO measured in a closed rebreath apparatus, blood volume measured by the Evan's blue dye (EBD) dilution test, and hemoglobin concentration data. The RBC lifespan was normal in the vehicle control group (44-60 d), but reduced significantly in all of the ribavirin-treated groups before the addition of screened drugs (17-35 d). RBC lifespan rebounded significantly with the addition of glutathione, but not with the addition of prednisone or polyene phosphatidyl choline. A similar overall drug effect pattern was seen in the hemoglobin concentration and reticulocyte count data. In conclusion, the results of this pilot study indicate that reduced glutathione can attenuate ribavirin-induced hemolytic anemia, and that the RBC lifespan measured with our modified rapid CO breath test is feasible and reliable for use in animal studies. PMID:27506143

  11. Clinical utility of breath ammonia for evaluation of ammonia physiology in healthy and cirrhotic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, Lisa A; Mudalel, Matthew; Tittel, Frank; Risby, Terence H; Solga, Steven F

    2015-12-01

    Blood ammonia is routinely used in clinical settings to assess systemic ammonia in hepatic encephalopathy and urea cycle disorders. Despite its drawbacks, blood measurement is often used as a comparator in breath studies because it is a standard clinical test. We sought to evaluate sources of measurement error and potential clinical utility of breath ammonia compared to blood ammonia. We measured breath ammonia in real time by quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectrometry and blood ammonia in 10 healthy and 10 cirrhotic participants. Each participant contributed 5 breath samples and blood for ammonia measurement within 1 h. We calculated the coefficient of variation (CV) for 5 breath ammonia values, reported medians of healthy and cirrhotic participants, and used scatterplots to display breath and blood ammonia. For healthy participants, mean age was 22 years (±4), 70% were men, and body mass index (BMI) was 27 (±5). For cirrhotic participants, mean age was 61 years (±8), 60% were men, and BMI was 31 (±7). Median blood ammonia for healthy participants was within normal range, 10 μmol L(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 3-18) versus 46 μmol L(-1) (IQR, 23-66) for cirrhotic participants. Median breath ammonia was 379 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 265-765) for healthy versus 350 pmol mL(-1) CO2 (IQR, 180-1013) for cirrhotic participants. CV was 17  ±  6%. There remains an important unmet need in the evaluation of systemic ammonia, and breath measurement continues to demonstrate promise to fulfill this need. Given the many differences between breath and blood ammonia measurement, we examined biological explanations for our findings in healthy and cirrhotic participants. We conclude that based upon these preliminary data breath may offer clinically important information this is not provided by blood ammonia.

  12. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  13. The interest of the {sup 13}C urea breath test for the diagnostic and monitoring of chronic duodenal ulcer; Interet du test respiratoire a l`uree {sup 13}C dans le diagnostic et le suivi de l`ulcere duodenal chronique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau-Tsangaris, M. [INBIOMED, 69 - Lyon (France); Centarti, M.; Mion, F.; Minaire, Y. [Hopital Edouard-Herriot, 69 - Lyon (France); Brazier, J.L. [Faculte de Pharmacie, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-12-31

    Duodenal ulcer is very frequently associated with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) present in the gastric mucous membrane. Breath tests with {sup 13}C-labelled urea have been carried out for the detection of Hp; these tests could be more sensitive than gastric biopsies, because of the heterogenous distribution of the bacteria in the mucous membrane. This breath test may be used repetitively and allows for a non-intrusive monitoring of the Hp eradication after treatment. 12 refs.

  14. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, especially ...

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  16. Active breathing control (ABC): Determination and reduction of breathing-induced organ motion in the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Extensive radiotherapy volumes for tumors of the chest are partly caused by interfractional organ motion. We evaluated the feasibility of respiratory observation tools using the active breathing control (ABC) system and the effect on breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with unresectable tumors of the chest were selected for evaluation of the ABC system. Computed tomography scans were performed at various respiratory phases starting at the same couch position without patient movement. Threshold levels were set at minimum and maximum volume during normal breathing cycles and at a volume defined as shallow breathing, reflecting the subjective maximal tolerable reduction of breath volume. To evaluate the extent of organ movement, 13 landmarks were considering using commercial software for image coregistration. In 4 patients, second examinations were performed during therapy. Results: Investigating the differences in a normal breathing cycle versus shallow breathing, a statistically significant reduction of respiratory motion in the upper, middle, and lower regions of the chest could be detected, representing potential movement reduction achieved through reduced breath volume. Evaluating interfraction reproducibility, the mean displacement ranged between 0.24 mm (chest wall/tracheal bifurcation) to 3.5 mm (diaphragm) for expiration and shallow breathing and 0.24 mm (chest wall) to 5.25 mm (diaphragm) for normal inspiration. Conclusions: By modifying regularity of the respiratory cycle through reduction of breath volume, a significant and reproducible reduction of chest and diaphragm motion is possible, enabling reduction of treatment planning margins

  17. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...... to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...

  18. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  19. Estimation of a personal orientation by manufacture of judicial-psychological examinations (tests)

    OpenAIRE

    Polynskay, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    In the article the questions of study of personality orientation are examined at the feasance of illegal actions of a person, in the case of setting and leading through the judicialpsychological examinations (tests).

  20. Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Cohen, Keira; Baya, Bocar; Srikrishna, Geetha; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sanogo, Moumine; Somboro, Anou M; Diarra, Bassirou; Diallo, Mariam H; Mazumdar, Varun; Yoder, Christian; Orsega, Susan; Belson, Michael; Kassambara, Hamadoun; Goita, Drissa; Murphy, Robert L; Dao, Sounkalo; Polis, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane; Timmins, Graham S; Dodd, Lori; Earl, Ashlee M; Bishai, William R

    2016-01-01

    Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa.

  1. Stool microbiome reveals diverse bacterial ureases as confounders of oral urea breath testing for Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, Mamoudou; Cohen, Keira; Baya, Bocar; Srikrishna, Geetha; Siddiqui, Sophia; Sanogo, Moumine; Somboro, Anou M; Diarra, Bassirou; Diallo, Mariam H; Mazumdar, Varun; Yoder, Christian; Orsega, Susan; Belson, Michael; Kassambara, Hamadoun; Goita, Drissa; Murphy, Robert L; Dao, Sounkalo; Polis, Michael; Diallo, Souleymane; Timmins, Graham S; Dodd, Lori; Earl, Ashlee M; Bishai, William R

    2016-01-01

    Detection of bacterial urease activity has been utilized successfully to diagnose Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) also possesses an active urease, it is unknown whether detection of mycobacterial urease activity by oral urease breath test (UBT) can be exploited as a rapid point of care biomarker for tuberculosis (TB) in humans. We enrolled 34 individuals newly diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 46 healthy subjects in Bamako, Mali and performed oral UBT, mycobacterial sputum culture and H. pylori testing. Oral UBT had a sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of 70% (46-88%) and 11% (3-26%), respectively, to diagnose culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis disease among patients without H. pylori, and 100% sensitivity (69-100%) and 11% specificity (3-26%) to diagnose H. pylori among patients without pulmonary TB. Stool microbiome analysis of controls without TB or H. pylori but with positive oral UBT detected high levels of non-H. pylori urease producing organisms, which likely explains the low specificity of oral UBT in this setting and in other reports of oral UBT studies in Africa. PMID:27532494

  2. Breath and string test: A diagnostic package for the identification of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori without the necessity of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Leodolter; Kathlen Wolle; Ulrike von Arnim; Stefan Kahl; Gerhard Treiber; Matthias P. Ebert; Ulrich Peitz; Peter Malfertheiner

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori ( H pylofi) resistance after failed eradication has a major impact on the outcome of a further treatment regimen. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of a non-invasive strategy using the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) and the gastric string test in identifying post-treatment resistance of Hpylori.METHODS: The UBT was routinely performed 4 to 6 wk after H pylorieradication therapy. Forty-two patients (24 females, 18 males, mean age 48 years) with a positive UBT were included in the study. A gastric string test using a capsule containing a 90 cm-long nylon fiber was performed.Before the capsule was swallowed, the free end of the string was taped to the cheek. After one hour in the stomach, the string was withdrawn. The distal 20 cm of the string was inoculated onto an agar plate and processed under microaerophilic conditions. Following the string test, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to obtain gastric biopsies for conventional culture.RESULTS: H pyloriwas successfully cultured from the gastric string in 34 patients (81%), but not in 5 patients due to contamination with oropharyngeal flora. Hpyloriwas cultured from the gastric biopsies obtained at endoscopy in 39 patients (93%).CONCLUSION: The UBT followed by the gastric string test in the case of treatment failure is a valid diagnostic strategy with the aim of determining the post-therapeutic antibiotic resistance of Hpyloriwith little inconvenience to the patient.Upper GI-endoscopy can be avoided in several cases by applying consequently this diagnostic package.

  3. Měření dechové frekvence z EKG signálu s ohledem na vyšetření aktivit autonomního nervového systému Measurement of breathing frequency from ECG in the examination of autonomous nervous system activities: Suggested methods and their verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2005-02-01

    pertaining to breathing frequency measurement we opted for the less frequent method of breathing frequency diagnosis originating from the assessment of changes in ECG signal parameters pursuant to changes in thoracic volume during expiration and inspiration. The principal reason for selecting this method was in the fact that in the assessment of autonomous nervous system (ANS activity the ECG signal is monitored and this can also be used for diagnosing breathing frequency. Changes in ECG signal parameters were analysed by the method of spectral analysis of heart rate frequency (BFrr, the method of spectral analysis of variability amplitudes of QRS complexes (BFqrs and time analysis of periodicity in amplitudes changes of QRS complexes (BFv in order to suggest the optimal method of measuring breathing frequency. Monitoring of the ECG signal and calculation of ECG parameters, including the mentioned analysis, were processed by the VarCor PF6 system with modified programme equipment. Statistical verification of the selected method and recommendation of the optimal method for breathing frequency measurement was carried out with the help of reference values of breathing frequency at 9 and 12 cycles/min that were via acoustic signals transmitted to the tested subjects. Characteristics of the sample set: 55 men and women aged 22.7 ± 2.4 years, measurement was done in the positions supine 1 – standing – supine 2, the total number of statistically processed sets was n = 118. Based on the statistical results where the significance of differences between average values regarding reference values were tested by t-test and furthermore, based on the calculation of values based on absolute differences between breathing frequencies, the BFqrs method was recommended since it allows for diagnosing breathing frequency in the range of 6–25 cycles/min. The designed method will be applied to the existing algorithm of the diagnostic system VarCor PF6, thereby helping to specify the

  4. CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-volume-interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) for dynamic liver imaging: Comparison of gadoterate meglumine, gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budjan, Johannes, E-mail: Johannes.Budjan@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Ong, Melissa; Riffel, Philipp [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Morelli, John N. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Haneder, Stefan [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim—Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We examined the influence of different clinically used contrast agents on the image quality of a new sequence called CDT-VIBE for dynamic MRI of the liver. • CDT-VIBE is a robust sequence for clinical routine as it provides good image quality regardless of the utilized contrast agent. • In average, more than 3 hepatic arterial dominant phases are acquired with the CDT-VIBE sequence regardless of the contrast agent. - Abstract: Purpose: CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWIST (CDT)-VIBE is a robust method for abdominal magnetic resonance imaging providing both high spatial and high temporal resolution. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) on image quality (IQ) with CDT-VIBE. Materials and methods: In this IRB-approved, retrospective, inter-individual comparison study, 86 patients scanned at 3T were included. Within 28 s, 14 high-resolution 3D datasets were acquired using CDT-VIBE. 37 patients received 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine, 28 patients 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol, and 19 patients 0.1 mL/kg gadoxetic acid. Two blinded, board-certified radiologists assessed the image quality on a 5 point scale, as well as the number of hepatic arterial dominant (HAD) phases. Results: Regardless of the GBCA utilized, CDT-VIBE resulted in good IQ in terms of best IQ achieved among all 14 datasets (gadobutrol 4.3, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.7). With respect to worst IQ, the three groups showed statistically significant differences with gadobutrol receiving the highest rating (3.6) and gadoxetic acid the lowest (2.4) (gadoterate meglumine 3.0; 0.0014 < p < 0.0485). No statistically significant differences were found in the mean number of acquired HAD phases (gadobutrol 3.4, gadoterate meglumine 3.9, gadoxetic acid 3.1; 0.18 < p < 0.57). Conclusion: Different gadolinium-based contrast agents can be utilized for dynamic liver imaging with CDT-VIBE resulting in good image quality.

  5. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health conditions that may cause breathing problems are: Anemia (low red blood cell count) Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sometimes called emphysema or chronic bronchitis Heart ...

  6. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  7. Evaluation of Computer Based Testing in lieu of Regular Examinations in Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Koichi

    Because computer based testing (CBT) has many advantages compared with the conventional paper and pencil testing (PPT) examination method, CBT has begun to be used in various situations in Japan, such as in qualifying examinations and in the TOEFL. This paper describes the usefulness and the problems of CBT applied to a regular college examination. The regular computer literacy examinations for first year students were held using CBT, and the results were analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire indicated many students accepted CBT with no unpleasantness and considered CBT a positive factor, improving their motivation to study. CBT also decreased the work of faculty in terms of marking tests and reducing data.

  8. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P. Ostwal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized further in acute, sub-acute and chronic low back pain patients. The breathing pattern was evaluated at rest (standing and supine position during both relaxed breathing and deep breathing and while performing clinical motor control tasks, i.e. bent knee fall out, knee lift abdominal test and active straight leg raise. Breathing patterns in patients with LBP were assessed by therapist both visually and via palpation and observational findings were noted. Costo-diaphragmatic breathing was considered as normal breathing pattern. Result: Observational findings of this study demonstrates altered breathing pattern in patients with LBP during motor control tasks. Conclusion: At rest, no significant differences were observed in breathing patterns of LBP patients, whereas around 71% patients revealed abnormal breathing pattern during motor control tests.

  9. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  10. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yung-Chih Lai; Jyh-Chin Yang; Shih-Hung Huang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pyloridensity and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers.METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pyloriinfection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low (<16%o),intermediate (16-35%o), and high (>35%o) UBT groups.RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results andHpyloridensity (P<0.001).H pylorieradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6%in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P=0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤35%o and >35%o),the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P=0.04).CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy.

  11. Cost effectiveness analysis of population-based serology screening and 13C-Urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori to prevent gastric cancer: A markov model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xie; Nan Luo; Hin-Peng Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the costs and effectiveness of no screening and no eradication therapy, the populationbased Hdlicobacter pylori (H pylori) serology screening with eradication therapy and 13C-Urea breath test (UBT)with eradication therapy.METHODS: A tarkov model simulation was carried out in all 237900 Chinese males with age between 35 and 44 from the perspective of the public healthcare provider in Singapore. The main outcome measures were the costs, number of gastric cancer cases prevented, life years saved, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)gained from screening age to death. The uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness ratio was addressed by one-way sensitivity analyses.RESULTS: Compared to no screening, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $16166 per life year saved or $13571 per QALY gained for the serology screening, and $38792 per life year saved and $32525 per QALY gained for the UBT. The ICER was $477079 per life year saved or $390337 per QALY gained for the UBT compared to the serology screening. The costeffectiveness of serology screening over the UBT was robust to most parameters in the model.CONCLUSION: The population-based serology screening for H pylori was more cost-effective than the UBT in prevention of gastric cancer in Singapore Chinese males.

  12. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs. PMID:25532022

  13. Radiotherapy of lung cancer: the inspiration breath hold with a spirometric monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CT acquisition during a free breathing examination generates images of poor quality. It creates an uncertainty on the reconstructed gross tumour volume and dose distribution. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of a breath hold method applied in all preparation and treatment days. Five patients received a thoracic radiotherapy with the benefit of this procedure. The breathing of the patient was measured with a spirometer. The patient was coached to reproduce a constant level of breath-hold in a deep inspiration. Video glasses helped the patients to fix the breath-hold at the reference level. The patients followed the coaching during preparation and treatment, without any difficulty. The better quality of the CT reconstructed images resulted in an easier contouring. No movements of the gross tumour volume lead to a better coverage. The deep breath hold decreased the volume of irradiated lung. This method improves the reproducibility of the thoracic irradiation. The decrease of irradiated lung volume offers prospects in dose escalation and intensity modulation radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  15. Contamination by Helicobacter pylori measured by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test and nutritional status of children with chronic diarrhoea syndrome in Havana City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diarrhoea morbidity shows a slow increasing tendency during the last 10 years in Cuba. In young children the compromise of the gastric acid barrier after a chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is discussed in pathogenic relation to gastritis, duodenal ulcer, chronic diarrhoea, short stature, malabsorption of the B-complex vitamins and malnutrition. The Hp contamination level of the population of the developing world is estimated to be considerably high. Endoscopic studies carried out in Cuban subjects with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of 60 to 100%. The current treatment of chronic diarrhoea does not include the elimination of Hp. Cuban children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms show contamination values of more than 60%. There are not available data on the contamination level in apparently healthy Cuban children or those with chronic diarrhoea. In March-April 2000 the prevalence of Hp infection measured in serum by chromatographic immunoassay for detection of Hp IgG antibodies was found to be 94 % in 20 infants and young children with persistent chronic diarrhoea and 100% in 11 apparently healthy children in Havana City. Children with diarrhoea showed a more evident affection of their nutritional status and a higher percentage of positive personal or familiar history of parasitism, giardiasis, gastritis, ulcer, stomatitis and glositis. The validity of the immunological tests in infants is discussed from the point of view of the antibody transference with breast milk. In a sample of 16 different children studied by the 13C-Urea-Breath-Test the contamination level was 50% of the children not affected by diarrhoea and only one of the 6 children with diarrhoea showed positive values

  16. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    , with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses. Our results show that these two behaviours overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C...... by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...

  17. Neurophysiological testing correlates with clinical examination according to fibre type involvement and severity in sensory neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Lefaucheur, J.; Creange, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate a comprehensive battery of neurophysiological tests for objective evaluation of sensory neuropathies including fibre type involvement and severity, and to determine the relation between neurophysiological data and clinical examination.

  18. The Importance of Test Validity: An Examination of Measurement Invariance across Subgroups on a Reading Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Anita Michelle Wilson

    2009-01-01

    The study discussed the importance of test validity, often established when making decisions that may affect a student's future. The decisions made by policymakers and educators must not adversely affect any particular subgroups of students (i.e., year of administration, gender, ethnicity, level English proficiency, socioeconomic status, and…

  19. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat Heru Setianto; Turkhan Ali Abdul Manap

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996) test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003) and Kruse (2011). The non...

  20. Results of metallographical diagnostic examination of Navy half-watt thermoelectric converters degraded by accelerated tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, F. E., Jr.; Rouklove, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    To verify the 15-year reliability of the Navy half-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG), bismuth-telluride thermoelectric converters were submitted to testing at high temperatures which accelerated the degradation and caused failure of the converters. Metallographic diagnostic examination of failed units verified failure mechanisms. Results of diagnostic examinations are presented.

  1. Severe Fuel-Damage Scoping Test post-irradiation examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fuel bundle from the Severe Fuel Damage Scoping Test, conducted in the Power Burst Facility as part of the international Severe Fuel Damage Research Program, was examined posttest. This paper presents the results of the nondestructive portion of the examination, including gross gamma scanning, neutron radiography, and tomographic reconstruction of cross sections through the bundle using the neutron radiographs

  2. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  3. An introduction to the psychophysiology of breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R

    1994-06-01

    Breathing can be viewed as an independent variable which affects emotion, cognition, and behavior as well as a dependent variable which reflects changes in emotion, cognition, and behavior. This bidirectional interaction is basic to an appreciation of the significance of breathing in terms of its relevance in research and application. The underlying premise of the present article is that since breathing is a behavior that is under voluntary as well as reflexive control, it can be modified according to the principles of both instrumental training (operant conditioning) and Pavlovian (classical) conditioning. The implications of this premise are relevant to theory, diagnosis, and treatment of stress and anxiety-related disorders (e.g., panic disorder, phobias, test anxiety, occupational strain, and related psychosomatic disorders), and to basic and applied research in the psychophysiology of breathing.

  4. Shortness-of-Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead to shortness of breath include anxiety, panic attacks, anemia and even constipation. The experience of shortness ... are used to treat patients with anxiety or panic attacks. Other commonly used drugs include bronchodilators to widen ...

  5. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  6. Test-retest, inter-assessor and intra-assessor reliability of the modified Touwen examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Kouw, Eva; Hamming, Marjolein; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2008-01-01

    Interest in the Touwen examination (1979) for the assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is growing. However, information on psychometric properties of this assessment is scarce. Therefore the present study aimed at assessing the test's test-retest, inter- and intra-assessor reliability.

  7. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing... RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.4 Protection of students' privacy in..., anti-social, self-incriminating and demeaning behavior; (5) Critical appraisals of other...

  8. The examination system for Japanese WOL and DMW PD qualification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the 1st Performance Demonstration (PD) qualification examination started in March of 2006 and was operated by the Performance Demonstration (PD) center of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). The first application of Japanese PD system is crack depth sizing on stainless steel piping welds. PD center is planning to start weld overlay (WOL) PD examination as a second step, and dissimilar weld (DMW) PD examination as third step. In particular, WOL PD examination includes crack detection and length / depth sizing because it is necessary to detect the crack tip on detection and length sizing test. In the detection test, it is difficult to judge miss call or false call. Therefore ASME code and NDIS0603 introduced the idea of 'Grading Unit'. This paper reports the readiness of WOL-PD and DMW-PD test and explains grading unit and acceptance criteria. (author)

  9. A simple test of one minute heart rate variability during deep breathing for evaluation of sympathovagal imbalance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart rate variability (HRV) refers to the magnitude of the fluctuation in the number of heart beats per minute in conjunction with respiration. HRV with deep breathing (HRVdb) has recently become a popular non-invasive research tool in cardiology. This study was carried out to determine and compare the HRV in patients with Type 2 DM with those of Non diabetic controls. Methods: Sixty diabetic patients attending out patient department in Karnataka Institute of Diabetology, Bangalore and 60 age-matched controls were enrolled. HRV was performed on all the subjects and the results obtained were compared between the groups. The One minute HRV was analysed during deep breathing and defined as the difference in beats/minute between the shortest and the longest heart rate interval measured by lead II electrocardiographic recording during six cycles of deep breathing. Results: Statistically significant decrease in mean minimal heart rate and 1 minute HRV (16.30 +- 6.42 vs 29.33 +- 8.39) was observed during deep breathing among Type 2 Diabetic patients on comparison with that of healthy controls. There was no significant difference in mean maximal heart rate between the groups. Conclusion: Significant decrease in HRV in Type 2 DM patients is suggestive of reduced parasympathetic activity or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity in them. Hence HRVdb provides a sensitive screening measure for parasympathetic dysfunction in many autonomic disorders. (author)

  10. Is This Reliable Enough? Examining Classification Consistency and Accuracy in a Criterion-Referenced Test

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Alger

    2016-01-01

    One important step for assessing the quality of a test is to examine the reliability of test score interpretation. Which aspect of reliability is the most relevant depends on what type of test it is and how the scores are to be used. For criterion-referenced tests, and in particular certification tests, where students are classified into performance categories, primary focus need not be on the size of error but on the impact of this error on classification. This impact can be described in ter...

  11. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations With a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Raskin, Cody; Owen, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorp...

  12. Breath-holding Test Evaluation of Smoking on Brain Vascular Function%吸烟对大脑中动脉血流速度及搏动指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 杨雪霞

    2016-01-01

    目的:吸烟对大脑中动脉( MCA)血流速度及搏动指数( PI)的影响。方法:入住神经内科的男性患者60例,根据吸烟情况分为吸烟组(n=30)和对照组(不吸烟,n=30);采用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)技术结合屏气试验检测2组受试者屏气前、屏气20 s后双侧MCA的平均血流速度( Vm)、PI、收缩期与舒张期血流速度比值( S/D),同时计算3项指标的变化率以及屏气指数( BHI),评价吸烟对患者脑血管功能的影响。结果:屏气前,吸烟组Vm明显低于对照组,PI、S/D均显著高于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);屏气后2组患者MCA的Vm均显著高于屏气前,PI、S/D 均显著低于屏气前,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组屏气后MCA的Vm、PI及S/D3项指标的变化率均显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01);吸烟组BHI显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论:长期吸烟可使脑血管反应性及顺应性降低。%Objective:To explore the ihfluehce of smokihg oh middle cerebral artery(MCA)ahd pulsatility ihdex( PI). Method:60 cases of male patiehts hospitalized ih heurology departmeht were ehrolled ih this study ahd divided ihto smokihg group( n=30 )ahd cohtrol group( ho smokihg,n=30). TCD by trahscrahial combihed with breath holdihg test was adopted to detect average blood flow velocity( Vm),PI ahd systolic/diastolic ratio( S/D)ih bilateral MCA 20 secohds before breath ahd 20 secohds after breath. Meahwhile,the rate of chahge of the above three ihdexes ahd breath holdihg ihdex( BHI)were calculated ahd the ihfluehce of smokihg oh cerebrovascular fuhctioh of patiehts was evaluated. Results:Before breath,the MCA Vm ih smokihg group was sighificahtly lower thah that of cohtrol group while PI ahd S/D ih smokihg group were sighificahtly higher thah their couhterparts ih cohtrol group,ahd the differehces were statistically

  13. Investigation of Metabolism of Exogenous Glucose at the Early Stage and Onset of Diabetes Mellitus in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty Rats Using [1, 2, 3-13C]Glucose Breath Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Sho; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism at the early stage and onset of diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Specifically, after the oral administration of [1, 2, 3-13C]glucose, the levels of exhaled 13CO2, which most likely originated from pyruvate decarboxylation and tricarboxylic acid, were measured. Eight OLETF rats and eight control rats (Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) were administered 13C-glucose. Three types of 13C-glucose breath tests were performed thrice in each period at 2-week intervals. [3-13C]glucose results in a 13C isotope at position 1 in the pyruvate molecule, which provides 13CO2. The 13C at carbons 1 and 2 of glucose is converted to 13C at carbons 2 and 1 of acetate, respectively, which produce 13CO2. Based on metabolic differences of the labeled sites, glucose metabolism was evaluated using the results of three breath tests. The increase in 13CO2 excretion in OLETF rats was delayed in all three breath tests compared to that in control rats, suggesting that OLETF rats had a lower glucose metabolism than control rats. In addition, overall glucose metabolism increased with age in both groups. The utilization of [2-13C]glucose was suppressed in OLETF rats at 6–12 weeks of age, but they showed higher [3-13C]glucose oxidation than control rats at 22–25 weeks of age. In the [1-13C]glucose breath test, no significant differences in the area under the curve until 180 minutes (AUC180) were observed between OLETF and LETO rats of any age. Glucose metabolism kinetics were different between the age groups and two groups of rats; however, these differences were not significant based on the overall AUC180 of [1-13C]glucose. We conclude that breath 13CO2 excretion is reduced in OLETF rats at the primary stage of prediabetes, indicating differences in glucose oxidation kinetics between OLETF and LETO rats. PMID:27483133

  14. Clinical application of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain%13C呼气试验在儿科腹痛症状疾病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹莹

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨13C 呼气试验对儿科腹痛疾病的诊断价值。方法:收治腹痛患儿446例,采用13C 呼气试验法检测,主要检测幽门螺杆菌感染。对确诊幽门螺杆菌感染的患者实施针对性治疗,于治疗后2个月进行回访调查,统计治疗前后感染症状的差异性。结果:本次13C呼气试验检测阳性169例,阳性率37.9%。患儿感染症状表现反酸、胃灼热、胃痛、口臭、上腹部不适等症状。结论:13C呼气试验是临床检测幽门螺杆菌的有效方法,对儿科腹痛诊断具有较高价值。%Objective:To explore the diagnostic value of 13C breath test in pediatric abdominal pain.Methods:446 patients with abdominal pain were selected.They were given 13C breath test for detection of helicobacter pylori infection.Patients diagnosed with helicobacter pylori infection were given targeted therapy.After 2 months of treatment,all patients received a return visit survey.We compared the differences of symptoms before and after treatment.Results:In this 13C breath test,169 cases were positive,and the positive rate was 37.9%.Symptoms of infection were mainly acid reflux,heartburn,stomach pain,bad breath,abdominal discomfort and other symptoms.Conclusion: 13C breath test was an effective method for clinical detection of helicobacter pylori,and it was of high value in the diagnosis of pediatric abdominal pain.

  15. Lung Function Measurement with Multiple-Breath-Helium Washout System

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Suddards, Matt; Owers-Bradley, John; Mellor, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multi-breath-nitrogen (MBNW) washout tests. In this work, instead of using nitrogen, helium is used as the tracer gas and a multiple-helium-breath-washout (MBHW) system has been developed for the lung function study. A commercial quartz tuning fork with a resonan...

  16. Fiber content of diet affects exhaled breath volatiles in fasting and postprandial state in a pilot crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Kaisa J; Lappi, Jenni E; Mukkala, Maria L; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Poutanen, Kaisa S; Raatikainen, Olavi J

    2016-06-01

    Our pilot study examined the potential of exhaled breath analysis in studying the metabolic effects of dietary fiber (DF). We hypothesized that a high-fiber diet (HFD) containing whole grain rye changes volatile organic compound (VOC) levels in exhaled breath and that consuming a single meal affects these levels. Seven healthy men followed a week-long low-fiber diet (17 g/d) and HFD (44 g/d) in a randomized crossover design. A test meal containing 50 g of the available carbohydrates from wheat bread was served as breakfast after each week. Alveolar exhaled breath samples were analyzed at fasting state and 30, 60, and 120 minutes after this meal parallel to plasma glucose, insulin, and serum lipids. We used solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for detecting changes in 15 VOCs. These VOCs were acetone, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, 2-methylbutyric acid, hexanoic acid, acetoin, diacetyl, and phenol. Exhaled breath 2-methylbutyric acid in the fasting state and 1-propanol at 120 minutes decreased (P = .091 for both) after an HFD. Ingestion of the test meal increased ethanol, 1-propanol, acetoin, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels while reducing acetone, 1-butanol, diacetyl, and phenol levels. Both DF diet content and having a single meal affected breathVOCs. Exploring exhaled breath further could help to develop tools for monitoring the metabolic effects of DF. PMID:27188907

  17. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-01-01

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education. PMID:20046457

  18. Testing osteopathic medical school graduates for licensure: is COMLEX-USA the most appropriate examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graneto, J

    2001-01-01

    Osteopathic and allopathic physicians receive authority to practice medicine through the licensing boards of the states in which they practice. Each state has the responsibility to operate a licensing board for physicians and other medical professionals. These boards choose which examinations are acceptable to establish that a physician is licensable to practice medicine. The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) administers the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (COMLEX-USA). To determine the views of the educational leaders of the osteopathic profession regarding licensure testing, a survey was mailed to leaders in the profession. Of the 799 surveys mailed, 341 (43%) were returned. Respondents were asked 19 questions, using a Likert scale to record responses (strongly disagree, 1; strongly agree, 5). Eighty-eight percent of respondents believed that osteopathic medicine is a distinct profession. Seventy percent of respondents felt that COMLEX-USA is the standard for testing osteopathic trainees, while 70% believed trainees should continue to be tested by a unique process. According to 72% of the respondents, the NBOME, through its testing procedures, continues to be the organization best suited to test the knowledge of osteopathic students and graduates. These results indicate that among the practicing leadership of the osteopathic profession, overwhelming support exists for the profession to retain the ability and the right to examine its own trainees from within.

  19. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  20. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  1. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula;

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  2. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  3. Effect of slow deep breathing (6 breaths/min) on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Shravya Keerthi G, Hari Krishna Bandi, Suresh M, Mallikarjuna Reddy N

    2013-01-01

    We designed this study to test the hypothesis that whether 10 minutes of slow deep breathing have any effect on pulmonary function in healthy volunteers. The main objective was to study the immediate effect of slow deep breathing on Forced vital capacity (FVC), Forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), Forced expiratory volume percent (FEV1/FVC%), Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), Forced expiratory flow 25-75%(FEF25-75%), Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), Slow vital capacity (SV...

  4. Signal shape feature for automatic snore and breathing sounds classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snore analysis techniques have recently been developed for sleep studies. Most snore analysis techniques require reliable methods for the automatic classification of snore and breathing sounds in the sound recording. In this study we focus on this problem and propose an automated method to classify snore and breathing sounds based on the novel feature, ‘positive/negative amplitude ratio (PNAR)’, to measure the shape of the sound signal. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using snore and breathing recordings (snore: 22 643 episodes and breathing: 4664 episodes) from 40 subjects. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the proposed method achieved 0.923 sensitivity with 0.918 specificity for snore and breathing sound classification on test data. PNAR has substantial potential as a feature in the front end of a non-contact snore/breathing-based technology for sleep studies. (paper)

  5. Examination and testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Standard provides the examination and testing requirements that will apply to the work of any organization participating in the construction, installation, and fabrication of parts or components of concrete containment structures, or both, that are defined as class containment. 2 tabs

  6. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

  7. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  8. An item-level examination of the Flynn effect on the National Intelligence Test in Estonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shiu; A.A. Beaujean; O. Must; J. te Nijenhuis; A. Must

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the Flynn effect (FE; i.e., the rise in IQ scores over time) in Estonia using the Estonian version of the National Intelligence Tests (NIT; Haggerty et al., 1919 and National Research Council, 1920). Using secondary data from two cohorts (1934, n = 890 and 2006, n = 913) of stude

  9. Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Memmott, Jenny E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. Relationships between elementary (third- or fourth-grade) students' academic achievement at comparable schools, but with contrasting music programs as to instructional quality, were…

  10. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to minimize breathing motion during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    or during deep inspiration; and one ABC scan near the end of normal expiration. For two patients, the ABC scans were repeated 1 week later. Contours of the lungs, liver, and kidneys were outlined when applicable. The positions and volumes of the organs in the different scans were quantified and compared. Results. The ABC procedure was tolerated well by all patients. When ABC was applied near the end of normal expiration, the minimal duration of active breath-hold was 15 seconds for a lung patient, and 20 seconds or more for all other patients. Two patients maintained 50 seconds of breath-hold when ABC was applied during deep inspiration. The usual scan artifacts associated with breathing motion were not observed in the ABC scans. The volumes of soft tissue organs were similar for the ABC scans. The positions of the liver and kidney varied by about 1.5 cm and 0.5 cm respectively between the end of normal inspiration and expiration. Organ positions were highly reproducible for identical points in the breathing cycle. Lung volumes varied by less than 5% in ABC scans that were acquired during the same CT session and when they were separated by 1 week. Figure 1 shows an example of the almost identical diaphragm positions of a normal subject in 2 ABC 'scout-view' profiles taken 5 minutes apart. Conclusions. The results are promising. ABC provides a simple means to reproducibly minimize breathing motion. When applied for treatment, the ABC procedure requires no more than normal operation of the treatment machine. The minimal variation in organ position with repeated application of ABC indicates that it is possible to complete, piece-meal, a treatment that might require extended beam-on time. Research is being conducted to examine the variation of breathing motion during the course of treatment and to incorporate the information in treatment planning

  11. The transition of the national certification examination from paper and pencil to computer adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1996-02-01

    The Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists (CCNA) has been exploring computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the national certification examination (NCE) over the past several years. CCNA representatives have consulted with experts in testing and with individuals from professional associations who use CAT for certification or licensure testing. This article will provide an overview of CAT and discuss how the CCNA plans to implement CAT for the NCE beginning April 8, 1996. A future article that explains the theoretical concepts of CAT will be published in the April 1996 AANA Journal. It is important to note that the NCE will not be a new test, the current content outline and item bank will remain the same. It is only the method of test administration that is changed--from paper and pencil to CAT. Each candidate will answer questions and take a test that is individualized to his or her ability or competence level and meets the specifications of the test outline. All candidates must achieve the same passing score. The implementation of CAT for the NCE will be advantageous for the candidates and provide a more efficient competency assessment. The last paper and pencil examination was administered on December 9, 1995. The transition is a significant event in nurse anesthesia history, just as nurse anesthesia was the first advanced practice nursing specialty to implement the certification credential, the CCNA will be the first to introduce CAT. PMID:8928607

  12. The transition of the national certification examination from paper and pencil to computer adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1996-02-01

    The Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists (CCNA) has been exploring computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the national certification examination (NCE) over the past several years. CCNA representatives have consulted with experts in testing and with individuals from professional associations who use CAT for certification or licensure testing. This article will provide an overview of CAT and discuss how the CCNA plans to implement CAT for the NCE beginning April 8, 1996. A future article that explains the theoretical concepts of CAT will be published in the April 1996 AANA Journal. It is important to note that the NCE will not be a new test, the current content outline and item bank will remain the same. It is only the method of test administration that is changed--from paper and pencil to CAT. Each candidate will answer questions and take a test that is individualized to his or her ability or competence level and meets the specifications of the test outline. All candidates must achieve the same passing score. The implementation of CAT for the NCE will be advantageous for the candidates and provide a more efficient competency assessment. The last paper and pencil examination was administered on December 9, 1995. The transition is a significant event in nurse anesthesia history, just as nurse anesthesia was the first advanced practice nursing specialty to implement the certification credential, the CCNA will be the first to introduce CAT.

  13. Examination of repeatability in reflood phenomena under forced flooding in SCTF core-I tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slab core test program is a part of the large scale reflood test program together with the cylindrical core test program and the major purpose is to investigate the two dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the core and the effect of fluid communication between the core and the upper plenum on the reflood phenomena. In order to check repeatability in tested phenomena, two pairs of repetition tests were performed and compared. Repeated thermo-hydraulic phenomena were identified. Peculiar behavior of some data was examined. As the result, it was found that thermo-hydraulic behavior such as core cooling from the bottom had satisfactory repeatability and that most of the peculiar behavior also had repeatability. Reliability of some advanced instruments was also checked with the use of repeatable phenomena. Some of the instruments showed poor repeatability and are required improvement. (author)

  14. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.-H. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Jin, E.-H., E-mail: erhujin1@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China); Shen, H. [GE China Company Ltd, Healthcare, General Electric Company, Beijing (China); Zhang, Y.; He, W. [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yong-An Road, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=-2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=-2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9-4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p < 0.05). In the breath-holding spectra, there were significant positive correlations between Lip peak height, area, and age (r = 0.491 and 0.521, p = 0.007 and 0.004), but not between Lip peak area and BMI. There was no statistical difference in Cho resonances between males and females. The Lip peak height and area were significantly higher in the Cho peak invisible group than in the Cho peak visible group (t = 2.661 and 2.353, p = 0.030 and 0.043). Conclusion: In vivo{sup 1}H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. {sup 1}H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing

  15. Improved breath alcohol analysis with use of carbon dioxide as the tracer gas

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisdotter Andersson, Annika

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art breath analysers require a prolonged expiration into a mouthpiece to obtain the accuracy required for evidential testing and screening of the alcohol concentration. This requirement is unsuitable for breath analysers used as alcolock owing to their frequent use and the fact that the majority of users are sober drivers; as well as for breath testing in uncooperative persons. This thesis presents a method by which breath alcohol analysis can be improved, using carbon dioxide (C...

  16. Breath by breath analysis of breathing pattern in health and disease: a potential outcome measure for breathing retraining?

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Wai

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of breathing pattern can quantify parameters of breathing such as rate, volume, timing and regularity/rhythmicity. This information can be useful to compare breathing patterns in those healthy and with disease, under different experiment conditions (such as rest versus activity) and to monitor changes over time. In this research, respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) was used to record breathing patterns in a group of healthy subjects and a group of severe asthma patients. ...

  17. Oronasal breathing during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saibene, F; Mognoni, P; Lafortuna, C L; Mostardi, R

    1978-12-15

    The shift from nasal to oronasal breathing (ONBS) has been observed on 73 subjects with two independent methods. A first group of 63 subjects exercising on a bicycle ergometer at increasing work load (98--196 W) has been observed. On 35 subjects the highest value of ventilation attained with nasal breathing was 40.2 +/- 9.41 . min-1 S.D. Ten subjects breathed through the mouth at all loads, while 5 never opened the mouth. On 13 subjects it was not possible to make reliable measurements. On a second group of 10 subjects utilizing a different techniques which did not need a face mask, the ventilation at which one changes the pattern of breathing was found to be 44.2 +/- 13.51 . min-1 S.D. On the same subjects nasal resistance did not show any correlation with ONBS. It is concluded that ONBS is not solely determined by nasal resistance, though an indirect effect due to hypoventilation and hence to changes in alveolar air composition cannot be ruled out. It is likely that ONBS is also influenced by psychological factors. PMID:569826

  18. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  19. Boundary oscillations at Geotail: Windsock, breathing, and wrenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shodhan, S.; Siscoe, G. L.; Frank, L. A.; Ackerson, K. L.; Paterson, W. R.

    1996-02-01

    On March 18-19, 1993, when Geotail was beyond 150 RE down the tail, for about 30 hours it frequently transited between magnetosheath-like plasma and lobe-like plasma. The transitions take the form of smooth variation by about a factor of 10 in both density and speed. Some of the transitions are distinctly asymmetric with a fast rise to sheath-like values and a slow decline to lobe-like values. We have suggested that these transitional regions are the plasma mantle, but this raises the question of why the mantle crossed Geotail many times in 30 hours. Three possible causes are flapping of the tail in response to solar wind flow changes (the windsock mechanism), intrinsic expansions and contractions of the tail boundary, perhaps in response to substorm phases (the breathing mechanism), and an IMF-squeezed elliptical tail cross section changing its orientation to follow the IMF (the wrenching mechanism). We test these possibilities here by examining simultaneous solar wind velocity and magnetic field data from IMP 8. For the cases studied, both the windsock and the breathing mechanisms appear to contribute to the motions that cause the transitions, whereas the wrenching mechanism seems less effective. Breathing dominates on a timescale of tens of minutes, and windsock dominates on a scale of hours. Since the windsock mechanism is unavoidable, the important finding here is that the breathing mechanism appears also to operate. We use the windsock variation to estimate the thickness of the mantle at Geotail's position and find that the density drops by a factor of 10 in 9 RE. We model the mantle as a one-dimensional slow-mode expansion fan and use the model to predict the change in plasma parameters that occurs from the outer edge of the mantle to its inner edge. A comparison of the predicted profile with the observed profile shows that the model simulates the observed changes reasonably well.

  20. Shutdown and post-test examination plan for the small steam generator model (SSGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, J.W.; Sessions, C.E.

    1975-12-01

    A detailed working plan to terminate and to examine the Westinghouse duplex tube small steam generator model (SSGM) is defined and presented. Following completion of the current phase (DNB Corrosion Testing in Off-Normal Water Chemistry) of testing, the Advanced Reactors Division GPL-1/SWL-1 Loops will be shut down on both the water side and the sodium side. The SSGM will be cleaned prior to removal of the model from the test silo. During disassembly and following removal of the model to a dissection area at ARD, visual and photographic records of SSGM will be made. Secondary cleaning and initial dissection into seven sections will be conducted with protective oils and plastic bags used to inert the outer shell and duplex tube samples. The major sampling and detailed microscopic examination of the duplex tubing, tube-to-tubesheet welds and tube-support pads will be made following shipment of the dissected model to Tampa. A 72-inch section containing the region over which the DNB interface moved during the SSGM testing will be inerted and shipped to General Electric Company for their examination.

  1. Examining the Accuracy of Astrophysical Disk Simulations With a Generalized Hydrodynamical Test Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Raskin, Cody

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of the classic Keplerian disk test problem allowing for both pressure and rotational support, as a method of testing astrophysical codes incorporating both gravitation and hydrodynamics. We argue for the inclusion of pressure in rotating disk simulations on the grounds that realistic, astrophysical disks exhibit non-negligible pressure support. We then apply this test problem to examine the performance of various smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods incorporating a number of improvements proposed over the years to help SPH better address problems noted in modeling the classical gravitation only Keplerian disk. We also apply this test to a newly developed extension of SPH based on reproducing kernels called CRKSPH. Counterintuitively, we find that pressure support worsens the performance of traditional SPH on this problem, causing unphysical collapse away from the steady-state disk solution even more rapidly than the purely gravitational problem, whereas CRKSPH greatly redu...

  2. Clinical and para-clinical tests in the routine examination of headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Sandrini, G; Jänig, W;

    2000-01-01

    Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a consensus that some common procedures and recommendations should be created. In the Fall of 1998......) autonomic nervous system and clinical tests and 3) imaging and cerebrovascular tests (X-ray, CT, MR, fMRI, PET, SPECT and transcranial Doppler). The literature was carefully evaluated with respect to validity and strength of the data. The task was to reach conclusions about each technique in the form...

  3. Joining techniques development for neutron irradiation tests and post irradiation examinations in JMTR-HL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot laboratory (JMTR-HL) associated with the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor) was founded to examine the material and fuel specimens irradiated mainly in the JMTR. Through the post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) have been developed and performed, the JMTR-HL contributes not only to research of materials for light water reactors, fast reactors, high temperature gas reactor, and fusion reactor, but also to production of domestic industrial radio isotopes like 192Ir. As the part of PIE technology development, several kinds of welding techniques have been systematically developed. These research and development of welding techniques such as circumference and sealing for irradiation capsules and rewelding with irradiated materials were implemented under the remote-controlled conditions in the hot cells. These techniques are very indispensable for the neutron irradiation tests and PIEs to be conducted in the JMTR. (author)

  4. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine. PMID:17153053

  5. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Mason; Matteo Vandoni; Giacomo deBarbieri; Erwan Codrons; Veena Ugargol; Luciano Bernardi

    2013-01-01

    Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/...

  6. Upper limb kinematic differences between breathing and non-breathing conditions in front crawl sprint swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Carla B; Sanders, Ross H; Psycharakis, Stelios G

    2015-11-26

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of pswim performance is compromised by the inclusion of taking a breath in sprint FC swimming. It was proposed that swimmers aim to orient their ipsilateral shoulder into a stronger position by stretching and rolling the shoulders more in the entry phase whilst preparing to take a breath. Swimmers should focus on lengthening the push phase by extending the elbow more and not accelerating the hand too quickly upwards when preparing to inhale.

  7. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) is a cognitive screening test developed to detect dementia. It has been validated in several countries. Validation studies have predominantly included patients with various degrees of dementia and healthy controls. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD......-off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented...

  8. The Advanced Placement Physics Examinations: Test Development and Free-Response Section Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Terri; Cain, L. S.

    2003-11-01

    The Advanced Placement Physics B and C Examinations are developed by a Test Development Committee consisting of both high school and college teachers appointed by The College Board. We will discuss the creation of the tests from their conception to their administration to more than 60,000 high school students each year. We will also discuss the reading of the free response sections for each exam. A group of readers, consisting of interested and motivated high school AP physics teachers and college instructors who teach comparable courses, is appointed to read the free response sections during June of each year. Two experienced readers, one of whom is a member of the Test Development Committee, will share information in this talk on becoming involved with the AP program as a reader.

  9. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  10. Introduction and Administration of the Clinical Skill Test of the Medical Licensing Examination, Republic of Korea (2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Kun Sang Kim

    2010-01-01

    The first trial of the clinical skill test as part of the Korean Medical Licensing Examination was done from September 23 to December 1, 2009, in the clinical skill test center located in the National Health Personnel Licensing Examination Board (NHPLEB) building, Seoul. Korea is the first country to introduce the clinical skill test as part of the medical licensing examination in Asia. It is a report on the introduction and administration of the test. The NHPLEB launched researches on the va...

  11. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  12. TFTR D&D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving J. Zatz

    2003-01-31

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR D&D (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the D&D effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well.

  13. TFTR D and D Project: Final Examination and Testing of the TFTR TF-Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In operation for nearly 15 years, TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) was not only a fusion science milestone, but a milestone of achievement in engineering as well. The TFTR DandD (Decommissioning and Decontamination) program provided a rare opportunity to examine machine components that had been exposed to a unique performance environment of greater than 100,000 mechanical and thermal load cycles. In particular, the possible examination of the TFTR toroidal-field (TF) coils, which met, then exceeded, the 5.2 Tesla magnetic field machine specification, could supply the answers to many questions that have been asked and debated since the coils were originally designed and built. A test program conducted in parallel with the DandD effort was the chance to look inside and examine, in detail, the TFTR TF coils for the first time since they were delivered encased to PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory). The results from such a program would provide data and insight that would not only be nefit PPPL and the fusion community, but the broader scientific community as well

  14. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  15. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  16. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  17. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)

  18. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  19. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  20. Non-Destructive Testing: Sample Questions for Conduct of Examinations at Levels 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports industrial applications of radiation technology which include non-destructive testing (NDT) under its various programmes such as individual country Technical Co-operation (TC) projects, Regional Projects and Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs). NDT technology is essentially needed for the improvement of the quality of industrial products, equipment and plants all over the world, especially in developing Member States. Trained and certified personnel is one of the essential requirements for applying this technology in industry. With this in view, the IAEA first played an important role in cooperation with the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) for the development of a standard for training and certification of NDT personnel, namely ISO 9712, 'Non-Destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel'. Subsequently the syllabi and needed training materials were identified and developed for the creation of, in each of the Member States, a core group of personnel who are trained and qualified to establish the training and certification process in their respective countries. One of the important requirements for such a process is to have the examination questions for conducting the certification examinations. A need had been felt to compile the appropriate questions firstly for conducting these examinations at the national and regional levels and secondly to provide these to the certification bodies of the Member States so that they could initiate their own level 1 and 2 certification examinations. For this purpose, Experts' Task Force Meetings were convened first in Accra, Ghana and then in Vienna, Austria under the AFRA regional projects on NDT. The experts examined and discussed in detail the ISO 9712 (1999 and 2005 versions) requirements for general, specific and practical examinations for level 1 and 2 personnel. After that a set of questions has been established which are

  1. Metallurgical examinations of Dampierre 1 steam generator. Comparison with non destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990, EDF replaced the steam generators (SG) in DAMPIERRE 1 PWR unit (900 MW). One SG was installed in a special building in order to expertise its components, to perform inspections and to test maintenance processes. On site investigations are currently followed by metallurgical examination of removed tubes and samples in hot laboratory. One of the phases of the programme was the non destructive testing of tubes and shells, including the inspection of internal supports structure, shell welded joints and Inconel 182 tubesheet to separation plate weld. The programme results will be useful for the validation of in-service inspection techniques and maintenance tools. In particular, efficiency and innocuity of chemical cleaning have been evaluated. (authors). 9 figs., 3 refs

  2. [Mycological examination and the taste disorder test for the tongues of diabetes mellitus patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Takuro

    2008-12-01

    The mycological examination by the cotton swab method and the taste disorder test using the filter-paper method were taken for the tongues of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Candida albicans was isolated from 29 out of 81 patients. The mean serum HbA1c level of patients with C. albicans was significantly higher than that of patients without it. DM patients demonstrated significantly higher incidences of taste disorders than healthy controls, but there was no relationship between C. albicans of the tongue and taste disorders. The taste disorders tended to occur in the DM patients who had nerve complications. The results suggested the taste disorder test using the filter-paper methods contributes to easy detection of the nerve complications in DM patients.

  3. Irradiation programme MANITU: Results of pre-examinations and Charpy tests with unirradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation project MANITU was planned in the frame of the European Long-term Fusion Materials Development Programme. The results of MANITU will have a lasting influence on the future actions within the materials development programme. The problem of the irradiation induced embrittlement of possible martensitic alloy candidates is still unsolved. But after the evaluation of sub-size Charpy tests with the unirradiated refrence specimens of MANITU a first tendency is recognizable. The Charpy properties of the newly developed low activation 7-10% Cr-WVTa alloys are clearly better compared with the modified commerical 10-11% Cr-NiMoVNb steels. In the present report the pre-examinations are documented and the Charpy test results with unirradiated reference specimens are analysed and assessed. (orig.)

  4. Results of mechanical tests and supplementary microstructural examinations of the TMI-2 lower head samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallographic examinations and mechanical tests have been completed on specimens from 15 prism-shaped samples cut from the lower head of the TMI-2 pressure vessel as a part of the TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project (VIP). The results of these examinations and tests are summarized here. Four samples were found to have attained temperatures as high as 1,100 C during the accident, with an estimated cooling rate of 10--100 C/min from the maximum temperature. Tensile tests were conducted on the lower head material at room temperature and at temperatures of 600--1,200 C. A strong dependence of yield and tensile strengths on temperature was observed, and the data generally matched well with literature data on A533, Grade B steel. However, the observed strengths of material from the hot spot in the as-received condition lay well above the remaining data, reflecting the heat treatment received during the accident. Creep tests were conducted on the lower head material over the temperature range of 600--1,200 C at stress levels resulting in failure times of 1--100 h. The data from the lower head material compared well with similar data obtained earlier on archive material from the Midland reactor 600 C. However, at higher temperatures, the TMI-2 lower head data fell increasingly above data from the Midland material. The TMI-2 data were fit using both Larson-Miller and Manson-Haferd time-temperature parameters. Cracks were found in the stainless steel cladding of boat samples from the hot spot. The cracks appeared to be the result of hot-tearing, probably assisted by intergranular penetration of liquid Ag-Cd. Materials in the cracks suggest the presence of control-assembly debris on the lower head before the massive fuel flow arrived

  5. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T 800 degrees C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B4C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B4C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs

  6. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi;

    2005-01-01

    , and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath...

  7. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu{sub 2}O, and malachite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding

  8. Xylitol improves compliance of patients to 13C- urea breath test%木糖醇改善13C-尿素呼气试验患者的依从性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园; 吴本俨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of xylitol on the texture of reagents used in 13C- urea breath test and the value of DOB test. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were randomly divided into 0.05g or 0.10g xylitol group and non xylitol group. Texture of reagents used in 13C-urea breath test was assessed by the patients themselves in the xylitol group. DOB value was detected twice by paired test. Results The acceptable texture was significantly higher in 0.05g and 0.11g xylitol group than in non xylitol group(43.3% and 66.7% vs 20.0% and 33.3%, P<0.05) and in patients receiving 0.10g xylitol than in those receiving 0.05g xylitol(P<0.05). However, no difference was observed in DOB value between patients receiving 0.05g or 0.l0g xylitol(P>0.05). Conclusion Adding an appropriate amount of xylitol can improve the texture and compliance of patients to 13C-urea breath test. The best result can be achieved by adding 0.10g xylitol with no effect on the DOB value in 13C-urea breath test.%目的 观察木糖醇对13C-尿素呼气试验检测试剂的口感及DOB检测值的影响.方法 120例病人同时进行不添加和添加木糖醇0.05g和0.10g组,自评检测的试剂口感,并配对检验两次检测的DOB值变化.结果 木糖醇0.05g组和0.10g组,口感可接受百分比分别为43.3%和66.7%,显著高于未添加木糖醇时检测(分别为20.0%和33.3%,P<0.05),添加木糖醇0.10g口感可耐受百分比显著高于添加0.05g组(P<0.05).两种剂量木糖醇对DOB检测值均无显著性影响(P>0.05).结论 在13C-尿素呼气试验检查试剂中加入适量木糖醇可改善口感、提高病人依从性、其中添加0.10g木糖醇效果最优,对13C-尿素呼气试验的DOB值无影响.

  9. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  10. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  11. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  13. Coordination-related changes in the rhythms of breathing and walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassler, B; Kohl, J

    2000-07-01

    Coordination of the respiratory rhythm with the rhythm of limb movements has often been observed during rhythmical exercise (e.g. in locomotion). It is usually associated with changes in the respiratory time course, but not in the locomotor rhythm. Therefore, we hypothesised that in walking, the extent of coordination-related changes (CRC) in respiratory parameters would increase with closer coordination. With respect to the controversially discussed question of a possible energetic advantage due to coordination, we devoted particular interest to the CRC in oxygen uptake (VO2). In addition, we investigated the incidence and the extent of CRC in the stepping rhythm. We examined 18 volunteers walking on a treadmill at three different workload levels, which were adjusted by altering either the velocity or slope of the treadmill. Each walking test was carried out twice, once with spontaneous breathing and once with breathing paced by a step-related acoustic signal to enhance the coordination between breathing and walking. No correlation was found between the CRC in the analysed parameters and the degree of coordination. However, the extent of CRC of ventilation and VO2 decreased with increasing workload. With the transition to coordination, increases and decreases of VO2 occurred about equally often. From this we conclude that energetic economisation in walking, as reflected by a reduction in VO2, is rather a side-effect of coordination, and is probably due to a more precise regulation of the breathing pattern. The economisation was more pronounced at higher work loads than at lower work loads. Our results revealed that coordination is also associated with changes in the stepping rate, which occurred more frequently when the variability of breathing was restricted by acoustic pacing of the breathing rhythm. This finding suggests that the choice of walking rhythm is not completely free, but can be influenced by the breathing rhythm. CRC in the walking rhythm might

  14. Breath-by-breath measurement of particle deposition in the lung of spontaneously breathing rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. Karrasch; Eder, G.; Bolle, I.; Tsuda, A.; Schulz, H

    2009-01-01

    A number of deposition models for humans, as well as experimental animals, have been described. However, no breath-by-breath deposition measurement in rats has been reported to date. The objective of this study is to determine lung deposition of micrometer-sized particles as a function of breathing parameters in the adult rat lung. A new aerosol photometry system was designed to measure deposition of nonhygroscopic, 2-μm sebacate particles in anesthetized, intubated, and spontaneously breathi...

  15. An examination of gender-moderated test bias on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Brandee E; Sellbom, Martin

    2011-05-01

    In this investigation, we examined the validity of Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 403). Utilizing a step-down hierarchical multiple regression procedure (e.g., Arbisi, Ben-Porath, & McNulty, 2002), we used LSRP scores to predict psychopathic personality traits to determine the presence of gender-moderated test bias. Results indicate similar correlational magnitudes for men and women. However, systematic over- and underprediction of scores (i.e., differential intercepts) was found for external criteria measuring key affective (i.e., low empathy) and behavioral (i.e., aggression, antisocial behavior) components of the psychopathic personality, although these effects were generally small.

  16. Estado nutricional e teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado com lactose e lactulose em crianças indígenas terenas Nutritional status and breath hydrogen test with lactose and lactulose in Terena Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildney Maria dos Santos Alves

    2002-04-01

    ão Verde and Córrego Seco in Mato Grosso do Sul. The nutritional status was assessed based upon weight and height, using NCHS data as reference. The breath hydrogen test after an oral lactose (18g administration was used for evaluation of lactose absorption and tolerance. The occurrence of bacterial overgrowth was evaluated using the breath hydrogen test after the administration of lactulose (5g. Results: the median z scores of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age were, respectively, in infants under 1 year (n=34: -0.66, +0.60 and -0.85. Between 1 and 5 years (n=111, the values were: -0.50, +0.28 and -1.17. Between 5 and 10 years (n=119, these anthropometric values were, respectively: -0.09, +0.50 and -0.60. Deficient lactose absorption or malabsorption was verified only after the fourth year of age in 89.3% of the 197 evaluated children. Lactose intolerance was found in 37.1% of them. Small-bowel overgrowth was detected in 11.5% of the Terena Indian children (n=252. Conclusions: the prevalence of recent malnutrition was low, but the median height-for-age was lower than the NCHS reference. The prevalence of ontogenetic lactase deficiency was high. Bacterial overgrowth may be considered as evidence of the occurrence of nonsymptomatic environmental enteropathy in Terena Indian children.

  17. Teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na doença hepática crônica pelo vírus C 13C-methacetin breath test in hepatitis C chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    óticos (19,2 ± 7,1% para cirróticos compensados e 14,7 ± 4,0% para os cirróticos descompensados que nos grupos controle (29,9 ± 4,5% e com hepatite crônica (27,8 ± 6,1%. A melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de cirrose entre os portadores de hepatite crônica C foi encontrada para o teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min com 81% de sensibilidade e 77% de especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: O teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina se correlaciona com alterações estruturais encontradas na hepatite crônica pelo vírus C e o percentual de recuperação de 13CO2 aos 120 minutos é um sensível parâmetro para identificar a presença de cirrose nesses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The 13C-methacetin breath test is a non-invasive method to evaluate hepatic microssomal function that allows a quantitative assessment of the functional hepatic mass. AIM: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the 13C-methacetin breath test in patients with hepatitis C chronic liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and 13 matched healthy controls were studied. HCV patients were classified as having chronic hepatitis (n = 51, cirrhosis (n = 27, being seven with decompensated disease (presence of ascite, jaundice and/or encephalopathy. HbsAg/HIV co-infected patients, chronic alcohol drinker, having other chronic diseases and those using drugs that could interfere with hepatic cytochrome P450, were excluded. The disease stage and activity in biopsy fragments were determined according the Brazilian Society of Hepatology criteria. Breath test was performed with 75 mg of 13C-methacetin, and the 13CO2 in the expired air was measured through a nondispersive infra red spectrometry. The delta over baseline, and the cumulative recovery of 13CO2 at 40 (13C-methacetin breath test 40 min and 120 minutes (13C-methacetin breath test 120 min were calculated. RESULTS: 13C-methacetin breath test parameters correlate only with hepatic staging but not with necroinflammatory

  18. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  19. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation. PMID:26465334

  20. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  1. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  2. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  3. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) II. Module 32-3, Fundamentals of Magnetic Particle Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This third in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II explains the principles of magnets and magnetic fields and how they are applied in magnetic particle testing, describes the theory and methods of magnetizing test specimens, describes the test equipment used, discusses the principles and…

  4. One-year follow-up study of Helicobacter pylori eradication rate with 13C-urea breath test after 3-d and 7-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hwang-Huei Wang; Jen-Wei Chou; Kuan-Fu Liao; Zong-Yi Lin; Hsueh-Chou Lai; Chang-Hu Hsu; Chih-Bin Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term role of a 3-d rabeprazole based triple therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori(H pylori)-infected active peptic ulcers.METHODS: We prospectively studied 115 consecutive patients with H pylori-infected active peptic ulcers. H pylori infection was confirmed if any two of H pylori DNA,histology, and rapid urease test were positive. Patients were assigned to either an open-labeled 3-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or 7-d course of oral amoxicillin 1 000 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.,and rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. Subsequently, all patients received oral rabeprazole 20 mg once daily until the 8th wk. Three months after therapy, all patients were followed-up endoscopically for the peptic ulcer, H pylori DNA, histology, and rapid urease test. One year after therapy, Hpyioriinfection was tested using the 13C-urea breath test.RESULTS: The ulcer healing rates 3 mo after therapy were 81.0% vs 75.4% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, P = 0.47] respectively,and 90.4% vs 89.6% for the 3-d and 7-d groups [perprotocol (PP) analysis, P= 0.89] respectively. The eradication rates 3 mo after therapy were 75.9% vs 73.7% for the 3-dand 7-d groups (ITT, P = 0.79) respectively, and 84.6%vs 87.5% for the 3-d and 7-d groups (PP, P = 0.68)respectively. One year after therapy, seventy-five patients returned to receive the 13C-urea breath test, and the eradication rates were 78.4% vs 81.6% in 3-d and 7-dgroups (PP, P = 0.73) respectively.CONCLUSION: Our study showed the eradication rates against H pyloriinfection 3 and 12 mo after triple therapy were not different between the 3-d and 7-d rabeprazolebased groups. Therefore, the 3-d rabeprazole-based triple therapy may be an alternative treatment for peptic ulcers with H pylori infection.

  5. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  6. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Jansiski Motta; Joanna Carolina Bachiega; Carolina Cardoso Guedes; Lorena Tristão Laranja; Sandra Kalil Bussadori

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with th...

  7. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  8. Experimental setup and analytical methods for the non-invasive determination of volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde and NOx in exhaled human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different analytical devices were tested and evaluated for their suitability of breath gas analysis by examining the physiological parameters and chemical substances in the exhaled breath of ten healthy probands during light cycling in dependence of methanol-rich nutrition. The probands exercised under normal breathing conditions on a bicycle ergometer. Breath air was exhaled into a glass cylinder and collected under steady-state conditions. Non-invasively measured parameters were pulse rate, breath frequency, temperature, relative humidity, NOx, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCPAS), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde, methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, isoprene and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Methanol rich food and beverages strongly influenced the concentration of methanol and other organic substances in human breath. On the other hand, nutrition and smoking had no clear effect on the physical conditions of the probands. The proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) method was found to be very suitable for the analysis of breath gas but the m/z 31, if assigned to formaldehyde, is sensitive to interferences. The time vs. concentration curves of nitric oxide showed sudden peaks up to 120 ppb in most of the measurements. In one case a strong interference of the NOx signal was observed. The time resolved analysis of exhaled breath gas is of high capability and significance for different applications if reliable analytical techniques are used. Some compounds like nitric oxide (NO), methanol, different VOCs as well as sum parameters like TVOCPAS are especially suitable as markers. Formaldehyde, which is rapidly metabolized in the human body, could be measured reliably as a trace component by the acetylacetone (acac) method but not by PTR-MS.

  9. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  10. Strategies for laboratory HIV testing: an examination of alternative approaches not requiring Western blot.

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, P. A.; Maskill, W. J.; Tamashiro, H.; Heymann, D L

    1994-01-01

    Advances in laboratory tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have permitted the development of alternative HIV testing strategies that do not require use of the Western blot approach. Three strategies are proposed. In strategy I, sera are tested for HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/rapid/simple (ERS) test; in strategy II, sera reactive in an initial ERS test are retested using a second ERS test; strategy III involves retesting with a third E...

  11. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  12. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  13. Examining students' understanding of electrical circuits through multiple-choice testing and interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Paula Vetter

    Research has shown that both high school and university students have misconceptions about direct current resistive electric circuits. At present, there are no standard diagnostic examinations in electric circuits. Such an instrument would be useful in determining what conceptual problems students have either before or after instruction. The information provided by the exam can be used by classroom instructors to evaluate their instructional methods and the progress and conceptual problems of their students. It can be used to evaluate curricular packages and/or other supplemental materials for their effectiveness in overcoming students' conceptual difficulties. Two versions of a diagnostic instrument known as Determining and Interpreting Resistive Electric circuits Concepts Tests (DIRECT) were developed, each consisting of 29 questions. DIRECT was administered to groups of high school and university students in the United States, Canada and Germany. The students had completed their study of electrostatics and direct current electric circuits prior to taking the exam. Individual interviews were conducted after the administration of version 1.0 to determine how students were interpreting the questions and to uncover their reasoning behind their selections. The analyses indicate that students, especially females, tend to hold multiple misconceptions, even after instruction. The idea that the battery is a constant source of current was used most often in answering the questions. Although students tend to use different misconceptions for each question presented, they do use misconceptions associated with the global objective of the question. Students' definitions of terms used on the exam and their misconceptions were examined. Students tended to confuse terms, especially current. They assigned the properties of current to voltage and/or resistance. One of the major findings from the study was that students were able to translate easily from a "realistic" representation

  14. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  15. Performance testing of a system for remote ultrasonic examination of the Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mobile robotic inspection system is being developed for remote ultrasonic examination of the double wall waste storage tanks at Hanford. Performance testing of the system includes demonstrating robot mobility within the tank annulus, evaluating the accuracy of the vision based navigation process, and verifying ultrasonic and video system performance. This paper briefly describes the system and presents a summary of the plan for performance testing of the ultrasonic testing system. Performance test results will be presented at the conference

  16. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, A; Collins, J. S.; Watson, P. R.; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing.

  17. General practitioners' habits and knowledge in relation to the management of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia and their views about a locally available 13-carbon urea breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, A; Collins, J S; Watson, P R; Kalin, R M

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of general practitioners' views on Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia and use of screening tests in the community. The use of office serology tests in screening is of concern as independent validation in specialist units has been disappointing. PMID:10750235

  18. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup

  19. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H.; Oho, W. U.; Kim, B. K

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup.

  20. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined...

  1. Effect of Breath Holding on Spleen Volume Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Yusuke; Nakajima, Ai; Mizukami, Shinya; Hata, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ultrasonographic studies have demonstrated transient reduction in spleen volume in relation to apnea diving. We measured spleen volume under various respiratory conditions by MR imaging to accurately determine the influence of ordinary breath holding on spleen volumetry. Materials and Methods Twelve healthy adult volunteers were examined. Contiguous MR images of the spleen were acquired during free breathing and during respiratory manipulations, including breath holding at the end o...

  2. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  3. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Li; LIN Xiang-Tong; JIANG Yi-Bin; SUN Su; SUN Da-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects.Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CER, (%13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application. The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C:3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9;Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7;Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5;Child B: 102.0±17.3;Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C);T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure.

  4. Study on parameters of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test for quantitative assessment of liver function in healthy subjects and patients with hepatitis B virus-related liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study are to investigate the feasibility and validity of the L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) which has been used to measure hepatocyte functional capacity in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease patients and to propose validity parameters of the test in 12 healthy volunteer, 8 chronic hepatitis and 26 liver cirrhotic patients. 100mg/body nonradiative L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-Phe) was administered orally to all subjects. Breath samples were taken before and different intervals within 360 min after administration. The 13CO2/12CO2 enrichment was assessed by isotope ratio mass spectrometer( The parameter percentage 13C excretion rate 13CERt (% 13C dose/h) all peaked within 10-30 min after oral 13C-Phe application)The parameters such as maximum value of 13C excretion rate, 13CERmax (% 13C dose/h) (controls: 18.0±3.3; Child A: 11.0±3.8; Child B: 5.0±0.5; Child C: 3.6±1.2), 13C excretion rate at 30 min, 13CER30 (% dose/h) (controls: 11.9±2.1; Child A: 8.1±0.4; Child B: 6.1±0.9; Child C: 3.2±1.2), 13C cumulative excretion of first 60 min, 13Ccum60 (% 13C dose) (controls: 9.3±1.4; Child A: 6.6±0.7; Child B: 4.1±0.3; Child C: 2.6±0.9) and half time of 13C excretion rate, T1/2 (minutes) (controls: 40.4±4.4; chronic hepatitis: 53.4±4.4; Child A: 59.8±4.5; Child B: 102.0±17.3; Child C: 212.1±87.9) were effective indexes which could be employed to stage hepatocyte impairment and liver functional reserve of advanced HBV-related cirrhotic patients (i.e. healthy subjects, Child A, B, C); T1/2 was also useful for distinguishing mild HBV-related liver injure. (authors)

  5. Prevalence of the absence of palmaris longus muscle assessed by a new examination test (Hiz-Ediz Test in the population residing in the area of Van, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Erden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary goal of this trial was to show the compatibility between a new test technique (Hiz-Ediz test for detection of palmaris longus muscle (PLM agenesis, which we recently developed, and the former tests, the Schaeffer and Mishra’s second tests.Materials and methods: One thousand cases were enrolled in this trial. Schaeffer’s test, Mishra’s second test and Hiz-Ediz tests were applied to all cases. Examinations were performed to determine differences between genders and both hands. Consistency between all three tests was investigated.Results: In the Hiz-Ediz test, PLM agenesis was determined in 15.1%. No significant difference was found between the rates of unilateral and bilateral tendon agenesis determined by three tests (p>0.05. When the consistency of the three tests was evaluated using the kappa test, full consistency was determined between Mishra’s second and the Hiz-Ediz test; however, full consistency was not determined between the Schaffer’s and the other two tests. But, no statistical difference was found between the three tests.Conclusion: Our results indicate that the prevalence of PLM agenesis is consistent with the available data. The Hiz-Ediz test can be applied easily and safely to determine and to visualize the PLM agenesis, when compared to the Mishra’s second test and the Schaeffer’s test. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 254-259.

  6. The "In-Training Examination" of the American Board of Pediatrics: does it test for "new" or "old" information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, F A; Oski, F A

    1979-07-01

    The American Board of Pediatrics In-Training Examination or "Pre-Test" is not in widespread use as a means of evaluating the cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills of hourse officers. The examination is modeled after the certifying examination of the American Board of Pediatrics. The 1977 Pre-Test was analyzed in an attempt to determine whether awareness of recent medical knowledge was required to pass this examination. The 7th through 10th editions of the Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics were used as a reference source. These editions represent information that is from 5 to at least 20 years of age. Analysis of the 190 items revealed that the correct answer was known for 148 or 78% of the questions at least 20 years ago. These results suggest that the Pre-Test, and presumably the American Board of Pediatrics certifying exam, measures the candidates' knowledge of long-standing core information.

  7. 毛细支气管炎患儿单次潮气肺功能测定的临床意义%Clinical significance of single tidal breathing testing in bronchiolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 王吉安; 许家增; 杨慧敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨毛细支气管炎患儿测定单次潮气肺功能的临床意义。方法检测和比较住院且<1岁的756例初次喘息毛细支气管炎患儿和115例支气管肺炎患儿的单次潮气肺功能。部分达峰时间比≤第20百分位和≥第80百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿出院1年后电话随访其喘息情况。结果毛细支气管炎患儿与支气管肺炎患儿比较,达峰时间比,达峰容积比,吸气时间,吸呼比,呼出25%、50%潮气容积时的呼气流速的差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05)。达峰时间比≤第20百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿1年内再喘息的比例为37.5%;达峰时间比≥第80百分位的毛细支气管炎患儿1年内再喘息比例为11.3%,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论单次潮气肺功能测定提示,阻塞程度较重的毛细支气管炎患儿再次喘息的可能性较大。%Objective To study clinical signiifcance of single tidal breathing testing in bronchiolitis. Methods Infants with bronchiolitis at ifrst wheezing (bronchiolitis group, n=756), and 115 infants with bronchopneumonia (bronchopneumonia group) hospitalized were enrolled. Tidal breathing parameters were analyzed in two groups. Bronchiolitis group was divided according to percentiles of the fraction of exhaled time at peak tidal expiratory lfow to total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE). The episodes of recurrent wheezing of infants below the 20th or above the 80th percentile of TPTEF/TE were followed up by phone calls within 1 year after discharge from the hospital. Results There were signiifcant differences in TPTEF/TE, VPEF/VE, Ti, Ti/Te, TEF75 and TEF50 between bronchiolitis group and bronchopneumonia group. The recurrent wheezing rate of infants with bronchiolitis below the 20th percentile of TPTEF/TE was signiifcantly higher than that above the 80th percentile of TPTEF/TE (37.5%vs 11.3%). Conclusions There is the greater possibility of recurrent wheezing in the infants with the

  8. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  9. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,

  10. High-pitch coronary CT angiography in dual-source CT during free breathing vs. breath holding in patients with low heart rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.bischoff@med.uni-muenchen.de [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Meinel, Felix G. [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany); Del Prete, Alessandra [Department of Radiology Magrassi-Lanzara, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Hans-Christoph [Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich (Germany); DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is usually performed during breath holding to reduce motion artifacts caused by respiration. However, some patients are not able to follow the breathing commands adequately due to deafness, hearing impairment, agitation or pulmonary diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of high-pitch CCTA in free breathing patients when compared to breath holding patients. Methods: In this study we evaluated 40 patients (20 free breathing and 20 breath holding patients) with a heart rate of 60 bpm or below referred for CCTA who were examined on a 2nd generation dual-source CT system. Image quality of each coronary artery segment was rated using a 4-point grading scale (1: non diagnostic–4: excellent). Results: Mean heart rate during image acquisition was 52 ±5 bpm in both groups. There was no significant difference in mean image quality, slightly favoring image acquisition during breath holding (mean image quality score 3.76 ± 0.32 in breath holding patients vs. 3.61 ± 0.45 in free breathing patients; p = 0.411). Due to a smaller amount of injected contrast medium, there was a trend for signal intensity to be slightly lower in free breathing patients, but this was not statistically significant (435 ± 123 HU vs. 473 ± 117 HU; p = 0.648). Conclusion: In patients with a low heart rate who are not able to hold their breath adequately, CCTA can also be acquired during free breathing without substantial loss of image quality when using a high pitch scan mode in 2nd generation dual-source CT.

  11. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (PMouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  12. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Ghiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term alternate nostril breathing (ANB has been shown to enhance autonomic control of the heart by increasing parasympathetic modulation. However, there is no information on the immediate effects of ANB on autonomic control compared to paced breathing (PB at the same rate in individuals who are inexperienced with yogic breathing. Aim: To examine cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB in comparison to that following PB in individuals who were inexperienced in ANB. Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (22.3 ± 2.9 years with no prior experience with ANB engaged in 30 min of both ANB and PB which were preceded and followed by 5 min of normal breathing (PRE, post-ANB, and post-PB, respectively. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate variability (HRV were assessed during all conditions. HRV was reported as spectral power in the total (lnTP, low-(lnLF, and high-frequency (lnHF ranges and were natural log (ln transformed. Results: Analysis of covariance revealed lnTP, lnLF and lnHF were greater during both post-ANB and post-PB compared to PRE (P<0.05. MAP and lnLF/lnHF did not significantly differ between conditions. Conclusions: These data suggest that there was an immediate increase in cardiac autonomic modulation following ANB and PB without a shift in autonomic balance in individuals inexperienced with yogic breathing. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to investigate the autonomic effects of ANB in this population and also to compare the effects of ANB and PB at the same respiratory rate.

  13. The effects of slow breathing on affective responses to pain stimuli: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautra, Alex J; Fasman, Robert; Davis, Mary C; Craig, Arthur D Bud

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether breathing rate affected self-reported pain and emotion following thermal pain stimuli in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM: n=27) or age-matched healthy control women (HC: n=25). FM and HC were exposed to low and moderate thermal pain pulses during paced breathing at their normal rate and one-half their normal rate. Thermal pain pulses were presented in four blocks of four trials. Each block included exposure to both mild and moderate pain trials, and periods of both normal and slow paced breathing. Pain intensity and unpleasantness were recorded immediately following each pain trial, and positive and negative affect were assessed at the end of each block of trials. Compared to normal breathing, slow breathing reduced ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness, particularly for moderately versus mildly painful thermal stimuli. The effects of slow breathing on pain ratings were less reliable for FM patients than for HCs. Slow versus normal breathing decreased negative affect ratings following thermal pain pulses for both groups, and increased positive affect reports, but only for healthy controls with high trait negative affect. Participants who reported higher levels of trait positive affect prior to the experiment showed greater decreases in negative affect as a result of slow versus normal breathing. These experimental findings provide support for prior reports on the benefits of yogic breathing and mindful Zen meditation for pain and depressed affect. However, chronic pain patients may require more guidance to obtain therapeutic benefit from reduced breathing rates.

  14. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  15. Communicative Language Testing (CLT): Reflections on the "Issues Revisited" from the Perspective of an Examinations Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Taylor, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we first summarise the main points raised by Morrow (1979) in the publication that formed the core of the Communicative Language Testing discussions at the original Language Testing Forum (1980). We take into consideration issues raised by the 1980 Forum participants when appropriate. We apply Morrow's ideas and issues…

  16. Breathe Analysis in Tuberculosis Disease Recognition in New Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Pal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To control the tuberculosis pandemic we need rapid, inexpensive finding tool. To assess the worth of exhaled breath analysis in tuberculosis case detection. A wide-ranging exploration of documents was done in indexed literatures and website-based research reports. Thirty-eight studies were identified on more than 200 potentially relevant articles related to breath analysis on tuberculosis. A broad criterion was formed in the absence of universally accepted method by the researchers on exhaled breathe analysis, irrespective of their criteria for diagnosis of tuberculosis. Wide differences in samples, primary outcome variables, lack of uniformity in criteria for positive diagnosis, and study instruments confounded the outcome variables. These non-invasive breathe tests of tuberculosis and exploring factual and surrogate markers in primary bacterial activity as well as during interventions. Prospective utility of breath analysis by varied methods deserve their proportional weightage. The study reviewed non-judgmentally on the ongoing work in the field of breath analysis that may be worth developing and evaluating as a cost-effective entrant in diagnostic and prognostic algorithms of tuberculosis. Time has come to explore this to the fullest extent for a superior conceptual design of the factors for a futuristic model of non-invasive direct point-of-care diagnostic understanding of the factors influencing diagnosis and prognosis.

  17. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisatio...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  18. Bad Tests or Bad Test Use? A Case of SAT Use to Examine Why We Need Stakeholder Conversations on Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, Madhabi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Much is still unknown or unclear about how and where validity issues arise in high stakes testing situations in education, and ways by which we can rectify validity problems in practice and policy contexts. Purpose: This paper is the Foreword to the Special Section in the "Teachers College Record," titled, "When…

  19. [Analysis with the Combur-Test--special aspects in forensic trace examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberke, Patrick J; Hausmann, Roland; Wiprächtiger, Nadine; Briellmann, Thomas; Balitzki, Beate

    2012-01-01

    The Combur Test is a ready-made and easy-to-use pretest for blood. It is based on the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), which is catalysed by haemoglobin and its derivatives. Despite its high sensitivity, there are many known substances which are responsible for false positive and false negative test results. On the basis of experiments of our own, case reports and the pertinent literature special aspects of the application of the Combur Test in the forensic routine case work are discussed.

  20. TCD breath-holding test for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity in smoking men%TCD屏气试验评价男性吸烟者的脑血管反应性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To apply transcranial doppler (TCD) combined with breath-holding test for evaluat ing cerebrovascular reactivity in healthy smoking men. Methods Thirty healthy smoking men were selected as the smoking group, and 40 healthy non-smoking men were selected as the control group. All the subjects received the ex amination before and after breath-holding test. The velocity of flow and Doppler spectra of bilateral MCA were moni tored by TCD. Then the change rates of mean flow velocity of MCA and pulsatiity index (PI) were calculated to ana lyze the cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Results Before breath-holding test, the peak velocity (Vp), end of diastol ic velocity (Vd) and mean flow velocity (Vm) of MCA of the smoking group was significantly slower than those of the control group (P<0.05). Pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of the smoking group was significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). After breath-holding test, the peak velocity, end of diastolic velocity and mean flow velocity of MCA of all the subjects all have varying degrees of increase (P<0.01), with the spectrum in creased slowly, pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) significantly decreased (P<0.01). The change rate of mean flow velocity of MCA in the smoking group [(25.60±3.53)%] was significantly lower than that in the control group (28.54±4.57)%], P<0.01. The change rate of PI in the smoking group [(19.02±4.20)%] was significantly lower than that of the control group [(21.10±4.63)%], P<0.01. Conclusion The cerebrovascular reactivity of healthy men with long-term smoking shows a decreasing trend.%目的 应用经颅多普勒超声(TCD)结合屏气试验评价健康吸烟者的脑血管反应性.方法 应用TCD检查70例健康男性(其中30例吸烟者为吸烟组,40例不吸烟者为对照组)静息状态下及屏气30s后双侧大脑中动脉(MCA)血流速度及频谱形态,计算MCA平均血流速度增加率及搏

  1. Testing and examination of TMI-2 electrical components and discrete devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the approach and results of the in situ test conducted on TMI-2 reactor building electrical components and discrete devices. Also included are the necessary presumptions and assumptions to correlate observed anomalies to the accident

  2. The examination of the heart rate regulation in healthy people with the stochastic tests methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The determination of relations between the complexity of the cardiovascular system regulation and the com-plexity of the test signal is not a fully solved problem. The elimination of this uncertainty can be done using stochastic test signals and power value which changes are random. Aim of research: To compare the reaction of cardio - vascular system during the deterministic and random loads. Material and methods:In the research,h two types of physical loads were used: the traditional bicycle ergometer test with stepwise increasing load and 3 minutes steps duration and test with a stochastic pseudonormal load values distribution and 30 seconds steps duration. Results: It is established that the average load required to achieve a submaximal heart rate was 509 W for the traditional and 445 W for the stochastic test, respectively. The time of obtained submaximal heart rate during stepwise-increasing load was 7 min., whereas during the stochastic load significantly less - 5min. The results show that the limit of efficiency of the cardio-vascular system during stochastic load test is achieved faster than during deterministic load test. Conclusions: Stress tests using random loads can be useful for the athletes training. Supposedly, the use of stochastic loads must be effective during rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular diseases, for instance the increasing of the physical load time in each stage can be used in order to reach steady state. Also, the proposed study confirms the perspectives of non-linear and stochastic methods in the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system diseases.

  3. Research on Micro- and Macroskills for Reading Tested in College Entrance Examination of Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玲

    2016-01-01

    Through doing a systematic contrastive research on the part of reading comprehension of the recent five years’ English papers of College Entrance examination, the author attempted to find some teaching and learning guidance on the usage of micro- and macroskills for reading assessment.

  4. An Examination of the Test Scores of the Folger and Konovsky Measure of Procedural Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeConinck, James B.; King, Wesley C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the validity of the measure of procedural justice developed by R. Folger and M. Konovsky (1989) through confirmatory factor analysis of data from 416 bank employees and 221 marketing managers. Results indicate that an underlying construct for the feedback and planning subscales is the communication relationship between manager and…

  5. Communicating hope with one breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Edwards

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The central thesis of this article was that the phenomenon of hope involves states and stages of consciousness development, which can be enhanced through breath control, meditation, prayer and related practices that have formed the essence of various spiritual healing traditions for millennia. In particular, it was argued that breath control can provide a vital foundation for consciousness transformation and the development of hope. Whilst breath control alone may lead to a state of pure, transcendent and/or cosmic consciousness, the practical theological implications are that its effect of enhancing states and stages of consciousness may be anchored and amplified. This process can take place through further contemplative and intercessory meditation, prayer and related behaviour and will differ between people, groups, contexts, religious and/or spiritual traditions. A particular method of breath control called One Breath, which is associated with pure consciousness and the experience of hope was described. Such an experience typically leads to further spiritual practice, healing and transformation. It was concluded that such ongoing spiritual practice is crucial for improving consciousness development, healing and hope for individuals, societies, planet Earth and the cosmos.

  6. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...

  7. Examination of Mutagenic Effects of GAL-57 Herbicide (Bentazone+Dicamba Using Mouse Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Karan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A micronucleus test was run to investigate mutagenic potential of the herbicide GAL-57, a formulated mixture of bentazone and dicamba.The test was applied to mice of both sexes (strain: CRL: NMRI BR and the herbicide (product was administered by gavage at 2000 mg/kg rate, twice within 24 hs. Cyclophosphamide (positive control was administered at 60 mg/kg, while distilled water as a solvent was negative control. The animals were sacrificed 24 hs after second treatment, their bone marrow cells isolated from femur, and effects evaluated.The data acquired showed that repeated treatment of mice with GAL-57 caused neither biological nor significant statistical increase in the number of micronuclei in treated animals. At the same time, the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of animals treated with cyclophosphamide (positive control showed a significant statistical increase. The results suggest that the herbicide product tested did not show any mutagenic activity under the conditions of mouse micronucleus test.

  8. Distributed Leadership and High-Stakes Testing: Examining the Relationship between Distributed Leadership and LEAP Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Wilbert

    2011-01-01

    Educational stakeholders are aware that school administration has become an incredibly intricate dynamic that is too complex for principals to handle alone. Test-driven accountability has made the already daunting task of school administration even more challenging. Distributed leadership presents an opportunity to explore increased leadership…

  9. A re-examination of the use of ethnicity in prenatal carrier testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (formerly the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG]), updated its policy on carrier screening for cystic fibrosis and proposed that because of the increasing difficulty in assigning a single ethnicity to individuals, "It is reasonable, therefore to offer CF carrier screening to all patients." However, ACOG continues to use ethnicity in its guidelines about carrier testing for autosomal recessive disorders like sickle cell disease (SCD) and Tay-Sachs disease (TSD). This practice is in marked contrast with newborn screening (NBS) which is universally provided for all conditions. In this manuscript, I evaluate the discrepant role of ethnicity in NBS and carrier screening. I argue that ACOG needs to adopt the position it now takes for CF regarding prenatal carrier testing for all conditions. To promote equity in prenatal testing decision making, health care policies must acknowledge the diversity of the populations that we serve and empower all women and couples to make more fully informed reproductive decisions by offering prenatal carrier testing to all. PMID:22106058

  10. Antioxidant activity of BHA, BHT and TBHQ examined with Miller's test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamac, M.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In model experiments with the use of Miller's test to 5 ml emulsion 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13µg BHA, BHT and TBHQ was added. Inhibitory ratios (IR for BHA and BHT were similar. At addition level of 6.25 and 3.13 IR for TBHQ was lower than for BHA and BHT. It is suggested that in the model studies with the use of Miller's test 25 µg BHA, BHT or TBHQ should be added to 5 ml of control sample.

    En experimentos modelos usando el test de Miller, a 5ml de emulsión se añadió 25, 12.5, 6.25 y 3.13µg de BHA, BHT y TBHQ. Las relaciones inhibitorias (IR para el BHA y BHT fueron similares. IR para TBHQ fue más baja que para BHA y BHT con niveles de adición del 6.25 y 3.13. Esto sugiere que en estudios modelos usando el test de Miller 25µg de BHA, BHT, o TBHQ deben ser añadidos a 5 ml de muestra control.

  11. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  12. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the

  13. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  14. Breath-holding Test by Transcranial Doppler in Mild Cognitive Impairment with Qi-deficiency and Blood-stasis Syndrome%气虚血瘀型轻度认知障碍患者脑血管反应性与认知功能的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 张如青

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the relationship between cognitive function and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) by transcranial Doppler in mild cognitive impairment(MCI) patients with qi - deficiency and blood - stasis syndrome. Methods Breath - holding test were studied with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in 75 patients. CVR to apnea was calculated by means of the breath - holding index (BHD in the middle cerebral arteries. Cognitive function and parameter of cerebral hemodynamics were observed under different CVR status, and the effect of vascular risk factor on BHI was analyzed. Results There was correlation between mini - mental state examination (MMSE) with latency of P300 in visual and auditory event - related potentials (ERP) among those patients (r=—0. 512, P<0. 01;r= —0. 547,P<0. 01). Between score of MMSE,P2 - P3 of auditory ERP and latency of P300 in visual ERP,there was positive and negative correlation with BHI respectively. Of all the variables considered, the score of MMSE change had the highest correlation with BHI (r=0. 306,P = 0. 008). Cerebral arteriosclerosis had a remarkable effect on BHI. Conclusion The BHI could provide valuable information included individual patient cognitive state,vascular risk factor to influence the disease progression in MCI with qi - deficiency and blood - stasis syndrome.%目的 观察气虚血瘀型轻度认知障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者的脑血管反应性(cerebrovascular reactivity,CVR)与认知功能的关系.方法 应用经颅多普勒超声对75例符合诊断标准的患者进行屏气试验检测,观察不同CVR状态下认知功能及脑血流动力学指标的特点,分析血管性危险因素对屏气指数(breath-holding index,BHI)的影响.结果 简易智能量表(mini-mental state examination,MMSE)分值与听觉、视觉事件相关电位(event-related potentials,ERP)的P300潜伏期有显著相关性(r=-0.512,P<0.01;r=-0.547,P<0.01);BHI与MMSE分值、听觉ERP的P2-P3

  15. Examination of thermally polluted water for free living amoebae and testing for their possible pathogenic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janitschke, K.; Lichy, S.; Westphal, C.

    1982-05-01

    Water and mud samples were collected from canals and rivers which were adjacent to outlets discharging warm water of 3 power plants in Berlin. Downstream samples from 1 bathing resort were also collected. Free living amoebae were isolated from 138 water and 69 mud samples. From these respectively 156 and 73 strains could be cultured and were administered intranasally to mice for pathogenicity tests. Two Acanthamoeba strains from water and 7 from mud could be reisolated from mouse brain and or lungs, although no pathological disorders could be observed. Five Naegleria strains were negative in mouse inoculation tests. Four Acanthamoeba strains which were positive in mice were cultured at + 45 degrees C; no cytopathogenic effects were observed in tissue cultures. Acanthamoeba infective for mice could also be isolated from samples at low water temperatures. Further investigations have to show, whether changes in virulence of amoebic strains are of significance and therefore for epidemiology and pathogenicity in man.

  16. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  17. Analysis on the Validity of the English Test Paper of College Entrance Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宝宽

    2010-01-01

    Based on the advanced theories of foreign experts and some specific examples of domestic testing paper and through the analysis of the advantages and disadvantages and washback effect of multiple-choice questions,the author concludes that the negative side of the multiple-choice question outweighs the positive side and it produces a extreme negative washback on English teaching and learning,and it is of low validity.

  18. Submicrometer tomographic resolution examined using a micro-fabricated test object

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Osamura, R. Yoshiyuki; Takekoshi, Susumu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the spatial resolution of microtomographs, a test object on the submicrometer scale was prepared by focused ion beam milling and subjected to microtomographic analysis. Since human tissues are composed of cells and extracellular matrices with micrometer and submicrometer structures, it is important to investigate the three-dimensional spatial resolution of microtomographs used to visualize microstructures of human tissues. The resolutions along the direction within the tomographic...

  19. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  20. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  1. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  2. Probabilistic Approaches to Examining Linguistic Features of Test Items and Their Effect on the Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…

  3. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  4. Testing Cross's Revised Racial Identity Model: An Examination of the Relationship between Racial Identity and Internalized Racialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin O.

    2002-01-01

    Study tests Cross's revised racial identity model. The relationship between racial identity attitudes and internalized racialism was examined in 153 African American college students attending a historically Black university. Findings indicated that the pre-encounter racial identity attitudes of miseducation and self-hatred, and immersion-emersion…

  5. MICROSTRUCTURAL EXAMINATION AND DEUTERIUM PERMEATION TESTING OF ADVANCED COATINGS FOR TRITIUM SERVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2004-01-24

    A plant directed research and development task to develop and study new, improved, and low cost tritium permeation barriers was initiated in FY02. The project was intended to determine the permeation rate and permeation reduction factor of substrate materials and coated materials. The samples were characterized for microstructural and microchemical consistency. Permeation tests were also run. The sample geometry and sample sealing method selected for the coatings posed significant schedule and technical challenges. Diffusivity were consistent with published values but permeation data exhibited an unexpected sample to sample variation. The effort has lead to an improved sample design that will be used to support a Process Development task.

  6. Practice makes perfect, even for breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Jack L.; Kam, Kaiwen; Janczewski, Wiktor A.

    2009-01-01

    Breathing relies on a respiratory rhythm generator. A study characterizes an early emerging oscillatory group of Phox2b-expressing parafacial cells that entrain and couple with the preBötzinger Complex at the onset of fetal breathing.

  7. Imposed work of breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation : a bench study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, Marc; van Genderingen, Huib R.; Leenhoven, Tom; Roubik, Karel; Ploetz, Frans B.; Markhorst, Dick G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The ventilator and the endotracheal tube impose additional workload in mechanically ventilated patients breathing spontaneously. The total work of breathing (WOB) includes elastic and resistive work. In a bench test we assessed the imposed WOB using 3100 A/3100 B SensorMedics high-frequ

  8. Engineering task plan for determining breathing rates in single shell tanks using tracer gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing of single shell tanks to determine breathing rates. Inert tracer gases helium, and sulfur hexafluoride will be injected into the tanks AX-103, BY-105, C-107 and U-103. Periodic samples will be taken over a three month interval to determine actual headspace breathing rates

  9. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J. G.; Kohl, M.; Powell, N. E.; Smith, M. E.; White, M. D.; Wilson, H. R.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  10. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: Examining cross-linguistic generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDilley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /stərʌ'na/ side vs. /strʌ'na/ country. In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010 extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  11. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J.; Kohl, M.; Powell, N. E.; Smith, M. E.; White, M. D.; Wilson, H. R.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  12. Bacterial contamination of anesthesia machines’ internal breathing-circuit-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spertini, Verena; Borsoi, Livia; Berger, Jutta; Blacky, Alexander; Dieb-Elschahawi, Magda; Assadian, Ojan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bacterial contamination of anesthesia breathing machines and their potential hazard for pulmonary infection and cross-infection among anesthetized patients has been an infection control issue since the 1950s. Disposable equipment and bacterial filters have been introduced to minimize this risk. However, the machines’ internal breathing-circuit-system has been considered to be free of micro-organisms without providing adequate data supporting this view. The aim of the study was to investigate if any micro-organisms can be yielded from used internal machines’ breathing-circuit-system. Based on such results objective reprocessing intervals could be defined. Methods: The internal parts of 40 anesthesia machines’ breathing-circuit-system were investigated. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. An on-site process observation of the re-processing sequence was conducted. Results: Bacterial growth was found in 17 of 40 machines (43%). No significant difference was ascertained between the contamination and the processing intervals. The most common contaminants retrieved were coagulase negative Staphylococci, aerobe spore forming bacteria and Micrococcus species. In one breathing-circuit-system, Escherichia coli, and in one further Staphylococcus aureus were yielded. Conclusion: Considering the availability of bacterial filters installed on the outlet of the breathing-circuit-systems, the type of bacteria retrieved and the on-site process observation, we conclude that the contamination found is best explained by a lack of adherence to hygienic measures during and after re-processing of the internal breathing-circuit-system. These results support an extension of the re-processing interval of the anesthesia apparatus longer than the manufacturer’s recommendation of one week. However, the importance of adherence to standard hygienic measures during re-processing needs to be emphasized. PMID:22242095

  13. Fractographic examination of Charpy impact specimens from the HFIR-MFE-RB2 test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine the effect of low temperature irradiation in HFIR on the properties of ferritic stainless steels in order to determine the applicability of these alloys as first wall materials. Selected fracture surfaces of miniature Charpy specimens of HT-9 in base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) metal conditions, and 9Cr-1Mo in base metal and weld metal conditions have been examined by scanning electron microscopy following irradiation in High Flux Isotope Reactor-Magnetic Fusion Energy-RB2 at 550C to 10 dpa. Hardness measurements have also been made. Comparison of results with results on specimens irradiated to low dose demonstrates only minor changes in fracture behavior, but continued increases in hardness due to irradiation. Therefore, the mechanism controlling the degradation of impact properties does not affect the fracture path but does affect strength. A mechanism is proposed to explain the behavior based on microchemical segregation of carbide forming elements. 5 references, 10 figures, 1 table

  14. Regulation of Breathing under Different Pulmonary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther

    2004-01-01

    The breathing pattern of preterm infants is immature and is associated with a variety of reflexes. In a patient on the ventilator these reflexes interfere with spontaneous breathing. A better understanding of the immature control of breathing could lead to further improvements in ventilatory techniques. This thesis concerns studies of pulmonary stretch receptor (PSR) and phrenic nerve activity as part of the regulation of breathing in an animal model. During assist/control ventilation with th...

  15. Realistic glottal motion and airflow rate during human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinherr, Adam; Bailly, Lucie; Boiron, Olivier; Lagier, Aude; Legou, Thierry; Pichelin, Marine; Caillibotte, Georges; Giovanni, Antoine

    2015-09-01

    The glottal geometry is a key factor in the aerosol delivery efficiency for treatment of lung diseases. However, while glottal vibrations were extensively studied during human phonation, the realistic glottal motion during breathing is poorly understood. Therefore, most current studies assume an idealized steady glottis in the context of respiratory dynamics, and thus neglect the flow unsteadiness related to this motion. This is particularly important to assess the aerosol transport mechanisms in upper airways. This article presents a clinical study conducted on 20 volunteers, to examine the realistic glottal motion during several breathing tasks. Nasofibroscopy was used to investigate the glottal geometrical variations simultaneously with accurate airflow rate measurements. In total, 144 breathing sequences of 30s were recorded. Regarding the whole database, two cases of glottal time-variations were found: "static" or "dynamic" ones. Typically, the peak value of glottal area during slow breathing narrowed from 217 ± 54 mm(2) (mean ± STD) during inspiration, to 178 ± 35 mm(2) during expiration. Considering flow unsteadiness, it is shown that the harmonic approximation of the airflow rate underevaluates the inertial effects as compared to realistic patterns, especially at the onset of the breathing cycle. These measurements provide input data to conduct realistic numerical simulations of laryngeal airflow and particle deposition. PMID:26159687

  16. 口臭患者14C呼气试验检测的结果分析%Analysis of 14C-Urea Breath Test in Patients with Halitosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建中; 张旭峰; 张斌; 李黎; 童妙春; 陈驰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between halitosis and the infection of helicobacter pylori (HP). Methods The results of l4C-urea breath test of 59 normal people, 50 patients with halitosis only and 56 patients infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were analyzed. Results It showed that the 14C content and HP positive rate in group infected by both halitosis and digestive diseases were much higher than that of halitosis only group and normal people group (P <0.05). Conclusion The infection of Helicobacter pylori is an important factor but not only factor of halitosis.%目的 探讨口臭与幽门螺旋杆菌及其它因素的关系.方法 对59名正常组、50例单纯口臭组患者、56例口臭伴消化道疾病组患者14C 呼气试验的结果进行分析.结果 分析结果表明,口臭伴消化道疾病组14C呼气试验含量明显高于单纯口臭组和正常组(P<0.05),阳性率也明显高于单纯口臭组和正常组(P<0.05).结论 幽门螺旋杆菌感染是口臭的重要原因,但不是唯一原因.

  17. 13C-美沙西丁呼气试验对儿童肝脏疾病的诊断价值%13C-methacetin breath test for evaluating of children's liver disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔桂萍; 刘志峰; 金玉

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨13C-美沙西丁呼气试验对儿童肝脏疾病的诊断价值,并进一步分析其对儿童肝脏功能损害程度的预测价值.方法 连续入组40例病因和病情严重程度不同的肝病患儿作为病例组,并将其分为Child-PughA级和B级以下(包括1例C级)两级,分别为28、12例,按随机数字表法选取18例健康体检儿童作为健康对照组.所有受试者口服13C-美沙西丁2 mg/kg进行呼气试验肝功能检测,同时常规检测肝功能指标,如血清转氨酶、胆红素、清蛋白和凝血酶原时间等,采用SPSS 17.0软件进行统计分析.结果 1.病例组13C-美沙西丁呼气试验指标30 min前代谢速率峰值(MVmax30)(46.64±27.93)和120 min累积丰度(CUM120) (59.29±30.73)显著低于健康对照组(73.56±26.03和102.97±41.80,t=2.450、3.165,P均<0.05);2.MVmax30和CUM120与清蛋白、总胆红素、直接胆红素、凝血酶原时间有明显相关性(P<0.05);3.MVmax30和CUM120可以很好地预测儿童肝病,CUM120的预测作用更明显,当CUM120=85.80时,约登指数达最大值0.578,此时敏感度为77.8%,特异度为80.0%;4.B级及以下肝病患儿CUM120显著低于A级肝病患儿(P <0.001);5.CUM120可以很好地预测肝病患儿肝功能的严重程度,当CUM120 =56.15时,约登指数达最大值0.857,此时敏感度为85.7%,特异度为100.0%.结论 13C-美沙西丁呼气试验指标CUM120对儿童肝病具有一定的诊断价值,并可以很好地评估肝功能的损害程度.%Objective To explore the clinical value of 13C-methacetin breath test for the assessment of liver disorder and to analyze its predictive value to the severity of liver function injury in children.Methods Eighteen healthy children served as healthy control group,and 40 patients with different etiology and severity served as experimental group,and then the latter were divided into 2 subgroups,28 patients in Child-Pugh classification A,and 12 cases in below B(11 cases in B and 1 case

  18. Operation and postirradiation examination of ORR capsule OF-2: accelerated testing of HTGR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation capsule OF-2 was a test of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuel types under accelerated irradiation conditions in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The results showed good irradiation performance of Triso-coated weak-acid-resin fissile particles and Biso-coated fertile particles. These particles had been coated by a fritted gas distributor in the 0.13-m-diam furnace. Fast-neutron damage (E > 0.18 MeV) and matrix-particle interaction caused the outer pyrocarbon coating on the Triso-coated particles to fail. Such failure depended on the optical anisotropy, density, and open porosity of the outer pyrocarbon coating, as well as on the coke yield of the matrix. Irradiation of specimens with values outside prescribed limits for these properties increased the failure rate of their outer pyrocarbon coating. Good irradiation performance was observed for weak-acid-resin particles with conversions in the range from 15 to 75% UC2

  19. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Kristy L; Onorato, Morgan E; Gottesman, Alan J; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science. PMID:26931399

  20. Submicrometer tomographic resolution examined using a micro-fabricated test object

    CERN Document Server

    Mizutani, Ryuta; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Takekoshi, Susumu; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the spatial resolution of microtomographs, a test object on the submicrometer scale was prepared by focused ion beam milling and subjected to microtomographic analysis. Since human tissues are composed of cells and extracellular matrices with micrometer and submicrometer structures, it is important to investigate the three-dimensional spatial resolution of microtomographs used to visualize microstructures of human tissues. The resolutions along the direction within the tomographic slice plane (in-plane resolution) and perpendicular to it (through-plane resolution) were determined from the modulation transfer function of square-wave patterns. The in-plane resolution was estimated to be 1.2 um from the modulation transfer function of the non-zoom image. In contrast, the zoom image gave the in-plane resolution of 0.8 um. This in-plane resolution is comparable to the through-plane resolution, which was estimated to be 0.8 um. Although the two-dimensional radiographs were taken with the pixel width of ...

  1. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  2. Effect of Level and Downhill Running on Breathing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0% and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%, matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen ( and carbon dioxide (. Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest, one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1 and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9% were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6 and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9 were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05 than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.

  3. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eRochet-Capellan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000, Brain Research, 862(1-2, p. 194. The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers or slow speech (female only. These recordings were then played back to forty-eight female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialogue, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  4. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  5. Guidelines on Training, Examination and Certification in Digital Industrial Radiology Testing (RT-D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of non-destructive testing (NDT) technologies. NDT methods are primarily used for the detection, location and sizing of surface and internal defects in, for example, welds, castings, forging, composite materials and concrete. Various NDT methods are also used in the preventive maintenance of nuclear power plants, aircraft and bridges. Thus, NDT technology contributes significantly to the improvement of the quality of industrial products and the integrity of equipment and plants. The introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on traditional, nuclear based NDT methods. During the introduction phase in digital industrial radiography (DIR), the digitization of films provided economy of storage, efficiency of communication and accuracy of dimensional measurement. NDT laboratories are progressing rapidly with the digitalization of NDT data. New radiologic imaging techniques in DIR, using image intensifier systems, computed radiography with phosphor imaging plates and digital detector arrays, have increased the capacity for visualization of defects and have revealed new potential for accurate evaluation and measurement. The development of DIR has been of continuing interest to the IAEA and national NDT societies in recent years. This has led to the formation of projects on the development and application of advanced industrial radiography and tomography techniques under the IAEA Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology. This publication is intended to provide resource material to support vocational training to NDT radiographers on digital industrial radiography and to help NDT training centres and certification bodies in Member States to establish their own courses, curricula and certification systems in this technology

  6. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Adhana

    2016-04-01

    Results: After three months of practicing slow breathing there was statistically significant reduction in heart rate and spontaneous respiratory rate. Shifting of pattern of breathing from thoracic pattern to abdominal pattern of breathing was also very highly significant. Conclusions: The study showed that slow breathing technique causes comprehensive change in body physiology by controlling autonomic nervous system. It regularizes rate and pattern of breathing. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1027-1030

  7. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate, spontaneous respiratory rate and pattern of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Ritu Adhana; Moneet Agarwal; Rani Gupta; Jyoti Dvivedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was performed to see the effect of slow breathing (6 breaths/minute) training on spontaneous respiratory rate, heart rate and pattern of breathing. Methods: Sixty subjects between the ages 20-50 years were included in the study. After the rest of 10-15 minutes in a comfortable sitting posture their baseline heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pattern of breathing were recorded on digital polygraph. Then they were guided to do slow breathing maintaining rate of...

  8. Effect of breathing on the radiotherapy of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the breathing and his effect on accuracy of treatment dose delivery into treated volume. We focused on a special technique - extracranial stereotactic radiotherapy (ESRT), which is characterized by high precision of patient setup and fixation. However, since the respiration causes movements of the tumor in the range of several millimeters to centimeters, the tumor volume have to be extended by safety margins. In our work, we focused on the introduction of noninvasive respiratory control system using ExacTrac. Breathing was represented by a special marker placed on the patient's body. With 35 patients we had together 157 breathing exercises, in which we investigated the range of motion of the markers during a relaxed breathing, in a deep inspiration, and in a deep expiration. We have created a software that allows to display the movement of the markers as well as the reference values of relaxed breathing and inspiration. The patients were able to track the signal on a small screen and base on this feedback to regulate their breathing. The average reproducibility of the inspiration was 93.0 % with the feedback and 74.5 % without the feedback. For 16 patients we used dynamic CT scan to study the correlation between tumor motion and the movements of the markers (0.83 ± 0.17) and as a result we estimated the required internal margins for irradiation at shallow breathing and deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) with and without feedback. In DIBH treatment situation the internal margin could be theoretically reduced by 3 mm with the feedback device. The standard deviation was rather large, and therefore the amount of margin reduction varies from patient to patient. We compared different irradiation techniques in terms of DVH and the consequent risk of complications (NTCP). Compared with the standard irradiation technique at shallow breathing, irradiation in DIBH without respiratory control reduced the volume of lung irradiated with 12 , 15 and 18 Gy and

  9. Metallographic examinations of Type 304 stainless steel (heat 9T2796) tested in high-temperature uniaxial and multiaxial experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained from a number of metallographic examinations of Type 304 stainless steel specimens were compiled. Samples were obtained from uniaxial and multiaxial tests covering a very broad span of temperatures and times. Special emphasis was on the identification of failure modes, cracking patterns, grain distortion, and grain-boundary microstructures. Uniaxial specimens exhibited the following sequence of failure modes with increasing temperature and time: ductile plastic tearing, ductile plastic shear, wedge cracking, and microvoid cracking. Over most of the temperature range examined (482 to 8710C), M23C6 precipitated on grain boundaries at long times. Sigma phase and possibly ferrite were often present in the stressed areas at temperatures as low as 4820C (9000F). These metallurgical features promoted a severe loss in creep ductility at long times and low temperatures. Most multiaxial tests were performed under conditions that promoted wedge cracking. Stress gradients also favored surface crack initiation rather than bulk damage. Testing times for multiaxial tests were less than 10,000 h; hence, there was insufficient time for the development of embrittling features such as microvoids, sigma, and ferrite. Long-time multiaxial tests to failure are recommended

  10. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  11. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior. PMID:25120046

  12. The effects of aquatic hypercapnia on air-breathing fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jew, Corey James; Thomsen, Mikkel; Bayley, Mark;

    The notion that bimodal breathers (animals that breathe both air and water) obtain O2 from the air and exhale CO2 into the water has been well established in the literature. However, while the majority of supporting experiments tested animals maintained in hypoxic water, the freshwater systems that...... bimodal breathers inhabit have been reported to be hypercapnic as well. Using a biomodal respirometer, data from three air-breathing fishes show that when in hypercapnic water, excretion of CO2 into the air signicantly increases and can account for 10% to 70% of metabolically produced CO2 depending on...

  13. Clinical features of panic patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods for inducing panic attacks

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Nardi; A.M. Valença; F.L. Lopes; Nascimento, I.; M.A. Mezzasalma; W.A. Zin

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the clinical features of panic disorder (PD) patients sensitive to hyperventilation or breath-holding methods of inducing panic attacks. Eighty-five PD patients were submitted to both a hyperventilation challenge test and a breath-holding test. They were asked to hyperventilate (30 breaths/min) for 4 min and a week later to hold their breath for as long as possible, four times with a 2-min interval. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the tests. We selected the...

  14. EXAMINATION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT STUDENTS' APPROACH TO LEARNING AND STUDYING AND TEST ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the aim of this study was to examine the relation between school of physical education and sport students' approach to learning and studying and test anxiety. Students in departments of physical education and sport teacher (n=103, coaching education (n=155 and sport management (n=110 at Mugla Sıtkı Koçman University participated in the study (n=368. 145 of participant were female, 223 of them were male. Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI, developed by Speilberger (1980 and adapted to Turkish by Öner and Albayrak-Kaymak (1993 (cited in Erözkan, 2004, was used to identify students' test anxiety levels. Approaches to Learning and Studying Inventory (ALSI, developed by Hounsell, Entwistle, Anderson et al. (2002 and adapted to Turkish by Topyaka, Yaka and Öğretmen (2011, was used to identify students' approaches to learning and studying. ALSI consists of 18 items with 5 Likert. TAI consists of 20 items with 4 likert. One-Way ANOVA and Independent T-Test in SPSS 16.0 were used to analyze the collected data. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was used to find out whether used inventories were suitable for the sample. When the differences about approaches to learning and studying between departments were examined, while no significant difference was found in surface and deep approaches, significant difference was found in strategic approaches. No significant difference was found between grades. Significant gender differences were found in emotionality, worry and total test anxiety. Positive correlation was found between surface approach and emotionality, worry and total test anxiety. Consequently, it was found that students who adopt surface approach have high-test anxiety, because it was found that while adopting surface approach, students could have high-level of emotionality and worry. It is important to create learning environment that discourage students to adopt surface approach.

  15. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the [(13)C]-pantoprazole breath test after co-administration of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following percutaneous coronary intervention and correlation to platelet reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Adrien; Modak, Anil; Déry, Ugo; Roy, Mélanie; Rinfret, Stéphane; Bertrand, Olivier F; Larose, Éric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Barbeau, Gérald; Gleeton, Onil; Nguyen, Can Manh; Proulx, Guy; Noël, Bernard; Roy, Louis; Paradis, Jean-Michel; De Larochellière, Robert; Déry, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin is used for the prevention of cardiovascular events following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These agents increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. To prevent these events, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are routinely prescribed. It has been reported that with the exception of pantoprazole and dexlanzoprazole, PPIs can impede conversion of clopidogrel by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) to its active metabolite, a critical step required for clopidogrel efficacy. Changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenotype) and its correlation with platelet reactivity following PPI therapy has not yet been fully described. In this study we attempted to determine if the [ (13)C]-pantoprazole breath test (Ptz-BT) can evaluate changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (phenoconversion) following the administration of PPI in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients treated with DAPT after PCI. Thirty (30) days after successful PCI with stent placement, 59 patients enrolled in the Evaluation of the Influence of Statins and Proton Pump Inhibitors on Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Effects (SPICE) trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930670) were recruited to participate in this sub study. Patients were randomized to one of 4 antacid therapies (omeprazole, esomeprazole. pantoprazole or ranitidine). Subjects were administered the Ptz-BT and platelet function was evaluated by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation and light transmittance aggregometry before and 30 d after treatment with antacid therapy. Patients randomized to esomeprazole and omeprazole had greater high on-treatment platelet reactivity and lowering of CYP2C19 enzyme activity at Day 60 after 30 d of PPI therapy. Patients randomized to ranitidine and pantoprazole did not show any changes in platelet activity or CYP 2C19 enzyme activity. In patients treated with esomeprazole and omeprazole, changes in CYP2C19 enzyme activity

  16. Intrasubject variability of pulmonary function testing in healthy children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, A A; Erben, A; McLennan, L A; Landau, L I; Phelan, P D

    1981-01-01

    The intrasubject variability of repeat pulmonary function testing was examined in 20 healthy children aged 10 to 16 years. The children were tested a maximum of 11 times over a period of two months. The tests examined were spirometry, maximum expiratory flow-volume curves, body plethysmograph determination of lung volumes, and single breath nitrogen washout. The time of day or the length of the re-test interval, up to a period of two months, did not significantly affect the variability. Stand...

  17. The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Alheid, George F.; McCrimmon, Donald R.

    2008-01-01

    The chemical neuroanatomy of breathing must ultimately encompass all the various neuronal elements physiologically identified in brainstem respiratory circuits and their apparent aggregation into “compartments” within the medulla and pons. These functionally defined respiratory compartments in the brainstem provide the major source of input to cranial motoneurons controlling the airways, and to spinal motoneurons activating inspiratory and expiratory pump muscles. This review provides an over...

  18. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  19. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  20. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.;

    2015-01-01

    acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis...... that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn...

  1. 13C-辛酸呼气试验测定肝硬化胃固体排空功能研究%Measurement of solid gastric emptying by 13C-octanoic acid breath test in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    泽塔多吉; 吕洪敏; 向慧玲; 李凤惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of gastric emptying functions in patients with cirrhosis with 13C-octanoic acid breath test. Methods: Select 43 cases of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver cirrhosis and 10 healthy controls. The gastric emptying time of solid food was then measured in both groups and the gastric half-emptying time was compared. Results: The GETm and Tlag of HBV related liver cirrhosis were prolonged significantly than those of healthy control group (P0.05). Compared with control group, the GET1/2 of Child-pugh grade B and C was prolonged significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: There is delayed gastric emptying in patients with cirrhosis,which displays the higher of Child-pugh scores, the weaker of gastric emptying ability .There are not delayed significantly in gastric emptying time in Child-pugh class A patients of HBV related cirrhosis compared with control group.%目的:观察13C-辛酸呼气试验测定肝硬化患者胃固体排空功能变化特点.方法:选取43例乙肝肝硬化患者测定胃固体食物排空时间并与10例健康对照者的胃固体食物排空时间进行比较,按Child-pugh分级进行A、B、C3级之间胃固体排空时间的比较.结果:乙肝肝硬化患者GET1/2和Tlag较健康对照组明显延长(P<0.05);乙肝肝硬化组Child-pugh分级A级与健康对照组GET1/2无统计学差异(P>0.05),B级、C级患者GET1/2较健康对照组明显延长(P<0.05).结论:肝硬化患者存在胃排空延迟,表现为肝功能Child-pugh评分越高胃排空能力越弱;肝硬化患者Child-pugh A级患者与健康正常者比较胃排空无明显延迟.

  2. Comparison of Multiple-Choice Questions in Quality Parameters of Pediatric Residency Tests between the Pre-Board Examination of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and National Board Examination in 2007 and 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Barzegar; Nemat Bilan; Mohammad Hassan Karegar Maher; Siamak Shiva; Manizheh Sayyah Melli; Aydin Tabrizi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) quality parameters of pediatric residency tests between the pre-board examinations of Tabriz University of Medical Science (TUMS), Tabriz, Iran and the national board examination in 2007 and 2011. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the format of 300 MCQs in the pre-board examination of TUMS and the format of 300 MCQs of the national board examination in pediatric residency. Individual M...

  3. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  4. 13C-octanoic acid breath test for measurement of solid gastric emptying: reproducibility in normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus%13C-辛酸呼吸试验测定糖尿病胃固体排空功能的重复性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the intraindividual reproducibility of the octanoic acid breath test in normal subjects and diabetics and to investigate whether cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying influence the intraindividual reproducibility.Methods Nine normal subjects (six men, three women,mean age 38 years) and 15 diabetics with insulin treatment [nine men, six women; mean age 47 years; six had cardiovascular autonomic diabetic neuropathy (CADN) and/or delayed gastric emptying time] were, after a nocturnal fasting period, given a standard test meal (labeled with 13C-octanoic acid, 1 046 kJ). Breath samples were taken at ten minute intervals over first one hour and at fifteen minute intervals over the following three hours and examined for 13CO2 by isotope ratio infrared spectrometry. Using a regression method gastric emptying half times (t1/2) and lag phase (tlag) were determined.Results There was not a significant difference of t1/2 and tlag between two measurements in normal subjects and diabetics. The coefficients of variation of day-to-day reproducibility were 11.7% for t1/2, 19.4% for tlag in normal subjects and 17.8% for t1/2, 28.2% for tlag in diabetics, but there was not significant difference between normal subjects and diabetics. There was not significant difference of intraindividual coefficient of variation of t1/2 and tlag between diabetics with/without CADN and between diabetics with normal gastric emptying time and diabetics with delayed gastric emptying time.Conclusions  The 13C-octanoic acid breath test has a high intraindividual reproducibility which is not affected by the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and delayed gastric emptying. It can be recommended as a non-invasive test for assessing gastric emptying time after a solid test meal in diabetics.%目的观察13C-辛酸呼吸试验测定糖尿病患者胃固体排空时间及其变异性,以及心自主神经病变和病理性胃排空

  5. Tracheal sound parameters of respiratory cycle phases show differences between flow-limited and normal breathing during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present work was to develop new computational parameters to examine the characteristics of respiratory cycle phases from the tracheal breathing sound signal during sleep. Tracheal sound data from 14 patients (10 males and 4 females) were examined. From each patient, a 10 min long section of normal and a 10 min section of flow-limited breathing during sleep were analysed. The computationally determined proportional durations of the respiratory phases were first investigated. Moreover, the phase durations and breathing sound amplitude levels were used to calculate the area under the breathing sound envelope signal during inspiration and expiration phases. An inspiratory sound index was then developed to provide the percentage of this type of area during the inspiratory phase with respect to the combined area of inspiratory and expiratory phases. The proportional duration of the inspiratory phase showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing and inspiratory pause displayed an opposite difference. The inspiratory sound index showed statistically significantly higher values during flow-limited breathing than during normal breathing. The presented novel computational parameters could contribute to the examination of sleep-disordered breathing or as a screening tool

  6. Variability in the blood/breath alcohol ratio and implications for evidentiary purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dena H; Siman-Tov, Maya; Gopher, Asher; Peleg, Kobi

    2013-09-01

    The breath analyzer is an indispensable tool for identifying alcohol levels among drivers. While numerous studies have shown high correlations between blood and breath alcohol concentrations, most are limited by the study design. This study seeks to assess this relationship by minimizing potential measurement bias, document time from alcohol consumption to testing, and adjusting for potential confounders. A blinded study was performed using conditions closely resembling those in the field. The Draeger 7110 MKIII IL breath analyzer was used to assess breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). Participants were 61 healthy volunteers aged 21-37 years with body mass index ≤30 and no history of alcoholism. A total of 242 valid blood/breath tests were performed in four test sets. The study results showed a high correlation coefficient between BrAC and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels (r = 0.983) with high sensitivity (97%) and specificity (93%). This strong association between the breath analyzer and BAC persisted even after adjustment for various stages of alcohol absorption. These results illustrate the high diagnostic sensitivity of the breath analyzer in field-tested conditions.

  7. Improving procedure and results of diagnostic roentgenologic examination of pulmonary emphysema by methods based on lung function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports a comparative evaluation of examinations in 225 patients intended to show the achievements of a novel procedure based on lung function tests for optimisation of the roentgenologic diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. The improvements are quantified by discrimination analyses. The approach introduces a novel, additional roentgenological criterion indicating emphysema, called 'Anlagemass', which supplements the usual qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the chest radiograph. A suitable computer code developed for data processing adds advantages in terms of processing time and improved objectiveness of diagnostic evaluation, as compared to existing techniques. The screening results obtained with the method reported ought to be verified by other methods such as bodyplethysmography or CT. (orig.)

  8. Fast Flux Test Facility interim examination and maintenance cell contaminated sodium recovery system: Remote handling design consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company is installing a remotely operated Contaminated Sodium Recovery System (CSRS) at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) located in Richland, Washington. The CSRS will recover activated sodium that accumulates in fuel transfer machines during core component transfer operations. Drip pots from the FFTF fuel handling machines will be delivered to the shielded, argon-inerted Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell, a hot cell located in the FFTF containment structure. Installation of the CSRS replaces a previously manual operation that required disposal of radioactive sodium with a completely remote operation that will return sodium to service in the plant. The CSRS will minimize the accumulation of hazardous waste and reduce personnel exposure to radioactive materials. Equipment for the CSRS is currently being fabricated and tested before installation in the IEM Cell. 6 figs

  9. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools.RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction.CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  10. Breathing Air Purification for Hyperbaric Purposes, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Arkadiusz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the efficiency of breathing air purification for hyperbaric purposes with the use of filtration systems is of a crucial importance. However, when the Polish Navy took samples of breathing air from their own filtration plant for quality purposes, these were found to not meet the required standard. The identification of this problem imposed the need to undertake actions aimed at the elimination of the identified disruptions in the process of breathing air production, with the objective of assuring its proper quality. This study presents the results of the initial tests on the air supply sources utilised by the Polish Navy, which were carried out for the purpose of setting a proper direction of future works and implementing corrective measures in order to optimise the breathing air production process. The obtained test results will be used in a subsequent publication devoted to the assessment of the level of efficiency of air purification with the use of a multifaceted approach consisting in the utilisation of various types of air supply sources and different configurations of purification systems.

  11. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  12. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stam, Mette K.; van Vulpen, Marco; Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P. M.; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Raaymakers, Bas W.

    2013-04-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney.

  13. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile in a Room with three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Ines; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  14. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  15. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the b...

  16. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer A Zope; Zope, Rakesh A

    2013-01-01

    Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind–body connection, and the benefit...

  17. TEST PLAN AND PROCEDURE FOR THE EXAMINATION OF TANK 241-AY-101 MULTI-PROBE CORROSION MONITORING SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WYRWAS RB; PAGE JS; COOKE GS

    2012-04-19

    This test plan describes the methods to be used in the forensic examination of the Multi-probe Corrosion Monitoring System (MPCMS) installed in the double-shell tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). The probe was designed by Applied Research and Engineering Sciences (ARES) Corporation. The probe contains four sections, each of which can be removed from the tank independently (H-14-107634, AY-101 MPCMS Removable Probe Assembly) and one fixed center assembly. Each removable section contains three types of passive corrosion coupons: bar coupons, round coupons, and stressed C-rings (H-14-l07635, AY-101 MPCMS Details). Photographs and weights of each coupon were recorded and reported on drawing H-14-107634 and in RPP-RPT-40629, 241-AY-101 MPCMS C-Ring Coupon Photographs. The coupons will be the subject of the forensic analyses. The purpose of this examination will be to document the nature and extent of corrosion of the 29 coupons. This documentation will consist of photographs and photomicrographs of the C-rings and round coupons, as well as the weights of the bar and round coupons during corrosion removal. The total weight loss of the cleaned coupons will be used in conjunction with the surface area of each to calculate corrosion rates in mils per year. The bar coupons were presumably placed to investigate the liquid-air-interface. An analysis of the waste level heights in the waste tank will be investigated as part of this examination.

  18. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  19. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takuya; Akinori, Ebihara; Yogo, Yurika; Sakamaki, Fumio; Suzuki, Yukio; Suemasu, Keiichi

    2005-06-01

    Sleep-related disordered breathing (SDB) and its influence on desaturation were examined in stable COPD patients with waking SpO2 > 90%. With respiratory inductance plethysmography, thoracic-abdominal respiratory movements for all events with more than 4% desaturation were analyzed in 26 patients. Types of SDB were confirmed by full polysomnography. Irregular breathing induced desaturation, while stable respiration continued during some desaturation events. Three types of altered ventilation were observed: hypoventilation, paradoxical movement and periodic breathing. An unusual type of paradoxical movement, with normal airflow despite progressive desaturation, was observed in REM sleep. Patients were divided into desaturation (15 patients) and non-desaturation (11 patients) groups. Daytime arterial blood gas, lung function values, and 6-min walking distance did not differ. Awake, mode, maximum and minimum nocturnal SpO2 were lower in the desaturation group. SDB-induced desaturation events in the desaturation group were more frequent (9.2+/-3.5 vs. 1.8+/-2.2 times), a greater SpO2 decrease (11.4+/-7.1% vs. 5.2+/-2.1%) and longer duration (73.2+/-34.8 vs. 18.8+/-39.0 min). Patterns of SDB in the desaturation group were hypoventilation (74.4+/-23.4%), paradoxical movement (10.2+/-14.5%), periodic breathing (12.1+/-18.3%) and unclassified (5.8+/-11.2%). These results reveal that lower SpO2 and SDB influence nocturnal desaturation in stable COPD patients. PMID:17136951

  20. Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effect of Yogic Slow Breathing in the Yoga Beginner: What Is the Best Approach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mason

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slow breathing increases cardiac-vagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, improves oxygen saturation, lowers blood pressure, and reduces anxiety. Within the yoga tradition slow breathing is often paired with a contraction of the glottis muscles. This resistance breath “ujjayi” is performed at various rates and ratios of inspiration/expiration. To test whether ujjayi had additional positive effects to slow breathing, we compared BRS and ventilatory control under different breathing patterns (equal/unequal inspiration/expiration at 6 breath/min, with/without ujjayi, in 17 yoga-naive young healthy participants. BRS increased with slow breathing techniques with or without expiratory ujjayi ( or higher except with inspiratory + expiratory ujjayi. The maximal increase in BRS and decrease in blood pressure were found in slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration. This corresponded with a significant improvement in oxygen saturation without increase in heart rate and ventilation. Ujjayi showed similar increase in oxygen saturation but slightly lesser improvement in baroreflex sensitivity with no change in blood pressure. The slow breathing with equal inspiration and expiration seems the best technique for improving baroreflex sensitivity in yoga-naive subjects. The effects of ujjayi seems dependent on increased intrathoracic pressure that requires greater effort than normal slow breathing.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  2. Breathe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taylor Swift; 侯茂荣

    2010-01-01

    @@ I see your face in my mind as I drive away Cause none of us thought tt was gonna end that way People are people, and sometimes we change our minds But it's killing me to see you go after all this time

  3. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  4. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists. PMID:27516736

  5. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  6. Relationship between Musical Characteristics and Temporal Breathing Pattern in Piano Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Aiba, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing evidence that breathing is modulated by various motor and cognitive activities, the nature of breathing in musical performance has been little explored. The present study examined the temporal breath pattern in piano performance, aiming to elucidate how breath timing is related to musical organization/events and performance. In the experiments, the respiration of 15 professional and amateur pianists, playing 10 music excerpts in total (from four-octave C major scale, Hanon's exercise, J. S. Bach's Invention, Mozart's Sonatas, and Debussy's Clair de lune), was monitored by capnography. The relationship between breathing and musical characteristics was analyzed. Five major results were obtained. (1) Mean breath interval was shortened for excerpts in faster tempi. (2) Fluctuation of breath intervals was reduced for the pieces for finger exercise and those in faster tempi. Pianists showing large within-trial fluctuation also exhibited large inter-excerpt difference. (3) Inter-trial consistency of the breath patterns depended on the excerpts. Consistency was generally reduced for the excerpts that could be performed mechanically (i.e., pieces for finger exercise), but interestingly, one third of the participant showed consistent patterns for the simple scale, correlated with the ascending/descending sequences. (4) Pianists tended to exhale just after the music onsets, inhale at the rests, and inhibit inhale during the slur parts. There was correlation between breathing pattern and two-voice polyphonic structure for several participants. (5) Respiratory patterns were notably different among the pianists. Every pianist showed his or her own characteristic features commonly for various musical works. These findings suggest that breathing in piano performance depends not only on musical parameters and organization written in the score but also some pianist-dependent factors which might be ingrained to individual pianists.

  7. [Nasal breath recovery and rhinoplasty in cleft lip and palate patient with unilateral choanal atresia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkadua, T Z; Ivanova, M D; Daminov, R O; Brusova, L A; Savvateeva, D M

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of clinical case of endoscopic nasal breath restoration and elimination of the secondary cleft lip nasal deformity in 27 years old patient with unilateral choanal atresia and secondary nasal deformity after rhinocheiloplasty. Preoperative examination revealed the absence of nasal breathing on collateral side due to complete bone choanal atresia. Surgical treatment included endoscopic choanal repair, elimination of the secondary nasal deformity, septoplasty, conchotomy and lateroposition of the inferior conchae. The treatment resulted in nasal breath restoration and elimination of nasal deformity. Long-term follow-up at 1 and 12 months post-operatively proved stable positive aesthetic and functional results. PMID:26925564

  8. An Examination of Sources of Variability Across the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant Test in Cochlear Implant Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Arenberg Bierer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 10 consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC word lists are considered the gold standard in the testing of cochlear implant (CI users. However, variance in scores across lists could degrade the sensitivity and reliability of them to identify deficits in speech perception. This study examined the relationship between variability in performance among lists and the lexical characteristics of the words. Data are from 28 adult CI users. Each subject was tested on all 10 CNC word lists. Data were analyzed in terms of lexical characteristics, lexical frequency, neighborhood density, bi-, and tri-phonemic probabilities. To determine whether individual performance variability across lists can be reduced, the standard set of 10 phonetically balanced 50-word lists was redistributed into a new set of lists using two sampling strategies: (a balancing with respect to word lexical frequency or (b selecting words with equal probability. The mean performance on the CNC lists varied from 53.1% to 62.4% correct. The average difference between the highest and lowest scores within individuals across the lists was 20.9% (from 12% to 28%. Lexical frequency and bi-phonemic probabilities were correlated with word recognition performance. The range of scores was not significantly reduced for all individuals when responses were simulated with 1,000 sets of redistributed lists, using both types of sampling methods. These results indicate that resampling of words does not affect the test–retest reliability and diagnostic value of the CNC word test.

  9. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. PMID:22835436

  10. Breath analysis of 13CO2 following N-demethylation of 13C-aminopyrine: a measure of liver microsomal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase enzyme activity has been measured by N-demethylation of 4-dimethyl-14C-aminopyrine (DAP). Analysis of 14CO2 in expired breath has recently been validated in the rat and man as a measure of this function. In the present study we examine the use of DAP labeled with the stable isotope carbon-13, in order to permit broader clinical application of this test by avoiding radiation exposure. Two mg/kg of 86% enriched 13C-DAP were given orally to 4 normal subjects and 5 patients with cholestatic liver disease. All subjects were fasted overnight and studied at rest. Breath samples were collected at 1/2 hour intervals for 3 hours. In all samples the excess of 13CO2 was significantly greater than the variation in baseline after ingestion of unlabeled DAP. In normal subjects the peak production of 13CO2 occurred in the first 1/2 hour sample. Unlabeled DAP (8 mg/kg) clearance from serum correlated with excess 13CO2 production measured in exhaled breath confirming the 14CO2 results. When phenobarbital (180 mg/day) was administered, an increase in exhaled 13CO2 was observed. Measurement of 13CO2 in breath following DAP provides a reproducible clinical measure of microsomal function and drug induction. The use of stable carbon-13 labeled DAP permits measurement of liver microsomal function in patients who cannot receive radioactive labeled DAP

  11. Breath isoprene concentrations in persons undergoing general anesthesia and in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornuss, Cyrill; Zagler, Armin; Dolch, Michael E; Wiepcke, Dirk; Praun, Siegfried; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Weis, Florian; Apfel, Christian C; Schelling, Gustav

    2012-12-01

    Human breath contains an abundance of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Analysis of breath VOC may be used for diagnosis of various diseases or for on-line monitoring in anesthesia and intensive care. However, VOC concentrations largely depend on the breath sampling method and have a large inter-individual variability. For the development of breath tests, the influence of breath sampling methods and study subject characteristics on VOC concentrations has to be known. Therefore, we investigated the VOC isoprene in 62 study subjects during anesthesia and 16 spontaneously breathing healthy volunteers to determine (a) the influence of artificial and spontaneous ventilation and (b) the influence of study subject characteristics on breath isoprene concentrations. We used ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry for high-resolution breath-by-breath analysis of isoprene. We found that persons during anesthesia had significantly increased inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene breath concentrations. Measured isoprene concentrations (median [first quartile-third quartile]) were in the anesthesia group: 54 [40-79] ppb (inspiratory) and 224 [171-309] ppb (end-expiratory), volunteer group: 14 [11-17] ppb (inspiratory) and 174 [124-202] ppb (end-expiratory). Higher end-tidal CO(2) concentrations in ventilated subjects were associated with higher expiratory isoprene levels. Furthermore, inspiratory and end-expiratory isoprene concentrations were correlated during anesthesia (r = 0.603, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that men had significantly higher end-expiratory isoprene concentrations than women. Rebreathing of isoprene from the anesthesia machine possibly accounts for the observed increase in isoprene in the anesthesia group.

  12. Acute hypoxic gas breathing severely impairs cognition and task learning in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Clare E; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Connell, Charlotte J W; Gant, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Impairments in neural function are common when oxygen supply to the brain is reduced. This study examined neurocognitive processes that are vulnerable to oxygen deprivation. We induced moderate-to-severe hypoxia in healthy adults, thereby inducing impairments caused by low brain oxygen availability. 22 healthy adults participated in this matched-pairs study with a single-blind, randomised design. Baseline neurocognitive function was examined during a familiarisation trial and participants were assigned to hypoxia (10% O2) or sham (21% O2) groups. Neurocognitive performance was assessed via computerised test battery after 50 min of breathing a gas mixture that reduced arterial oxygen saturation by 20% (pexecutive function (-20%), psychomotor speed (-24%), reaction time (-10%), complex attention (-19%) and cognitive flexibility (-18%; all pexecutive function (+14%), psychomotor speed (+18%), reaction time (+5%), cognitive flexibility (+14%), and overall cognitive functioning (+9%; all ptraumatic brain injury. PMID:25660759

  13. Quantum Spin Liquid in a Breathing Kagome Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Robert; Huh, Yejin; Hwang, Kyusung; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on the vanadium oxyfluoride material DQVOF, we examine possible spin liquid phases on a breathing kagome lattice of S=1/2 spins. By performing a projective symmetry group analysis, we determine the possible phases for both fermionic and bosonic $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ spin liquids on this lattice, and establish the correspondence between the two. The nature of the ground state of the Heisenberg model on the isotropic kagome lattice is a hotly debated topic, with both $\\...

  14. Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO{sub 3} gas sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righettoni, Marco; Tricoli, Antonio; Gass, Samuel [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Schmid, Alex; Amann, Anton [Univ.-Clinic for Anesthesia, Innsbruck Medical University, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Breath Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-6850 Dornbirn (Austria); Pratsinis, Sotiris E., E-mail: sotiris.pratsinis@ptl.mavt.ethz.ch [Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-08-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Portable sensors were developed and tested for monitoring acetone in the human breath. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone concentrations down to 20 ppb were measured with short response times (<30 s). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present sensors were highly selective to acetone over ethanol and water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sensors were applied to human breath: good agreement with highly sensitive PTR-MS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests with people at rest and during physical activity showed the sensor robustness. - Abstract: Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical diagnostic costs and improve the quality of life of patients suffering from chronic illnesses. In particular, the detection of acetone in the human breath is promising for non-invasive diagnosis and painless monitoring of diabetes (no finger pricking). Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO{sub 3} nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized while reaction-limited and transport-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in a low detection limit of acetone ({approx}20 ppb) with short response (10-15 s) and recovery times (35-70 s). Furthermore, the sensor signal (response) was robust against variations of the exhaled breath flow rate facilitating application of these sensors at realistic relative humidities (80-90%) as in the human breath. The acetone content in the breath of test persons was monitored continuously and compared to that of state-of-the-art proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Such portable devices can accurately track breath acetone concentration to become an alternative to more elaborate breath analysis techniques.

  15. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of <19 and a MMSE cut-off score of <24, a total of 69 DEM cases were identified. Risk factors, such as advanced age (≥68 years, low education (no or primary level, self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects.

  16. Risk Factors for Possible Dementia Using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

    2015-01-01

    Using a combination of the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), we investigated the prevalence of possible dementia (DEM) in community-dwelling elderly in Shanghai. Subsequently, we investigated significant risk factors for DEM and generated a DEM self-checklist for early DEM detection and case management. We found that among a total of 521 participants using a HVLT cut-off score of education (no or primary level), self-reported history of hypertension, and self-reported subjective memory complaints (SMC) were significantly predictive of DEM. The presence of ≥3 out of four of the above mentioned risk factors can effectively discriminate DEM cases from non-DEM subjects. PMID:26854166

  17. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  18. Post-irradiation examinations and high-temperature tests on undoped large-grain UO2 discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirot, J.; Pontillon, Y.; Yagnik, S.; Turnbull, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    Within the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) programme, several fuel variants -in the form of thin circular discs - were irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) at burn-ups up to ∼100 GWd/tHM. The design of the fuel assembly was similar to that used in other HBWR programmes: the assembly contained several rods with fuel discs sandwiched between Mo discs, which limited temperature differences within each fuel disc. One such variant was made of large-grain UO2 discs (3D grain size = ∼45 μm) which were subjected to three burn-ups: 42, 72 and 96 GWd/tHM. Detailed characterizations of some of these irradiated large-grain UO2 discs were performed in the CEA Cadarache LECA-STAR hot laboratory. The techniques used included electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Comparisons were then carried out with more standard grain size UO2 discs irradiated under the same conditions. Examination of the high burn-up large-grain UO2 discs revealed the limited formation of a high burn-up structure (HBS) when compared with the standard-grain UO2 discs at similar burn-up. High burn-up discs were submitted to temperature transients up to 1200 °C in the heating test device called Merarg at a relatively low temperature ramp rate (0.2 °C/s). In addition to the total gas release during these tests, the release peaks throughout the temperature ramp were monitored. Tests at 1600 °C were also conducted on the 42 GWd/tHM discs. The fuels were then characterized with the same microanalysis techniques as those used before the tests, to investigate the effects of these tests on the fuel's microstructure and on the fission gas behaviour. This paper outlines the high resistance of this fuel to gas precipitation at high temperature and to HBS formation at high burn-up. It also shows the similarity of the positions, within the grains, where HBS forms at high burn-up and where bubbles appear during the low

  19. Post-irradiation examinations and high-temperature tests on undoped large-grain UO2 discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Nuclear Fuel Industry Research (NFIR) programme, several fuel variants –in the form of thin circular discs – were irradiated in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) at burn-ups up to ∼100 GWd/tHM. The design of the fuel assembly was similar to that used in other HBWR programmes: the assembly contained several rods with fuel discs sandwiched between Mo discs, which limited temperature differences within each fuel disc. One such variant was made of large-grain UO2 discs (3D grain size = ∼45 μm) which were subjected to three burn-ups: 42, 72 and 96 GWd/tHM. Detailed characterizations of some of these irradiated large-grain UO2 discs were performed in the CEA Cadarache LECA-STAR hot laboratory. The techniques used included electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Comparisons were then carried out with more standard grain size UO2 discs irradiated under the same conditions. Examination of the high burn-up large-grain UO2 discs revealed the limited formation of a high burn-up structure (HBS) when compared with the standard-grain UO2 discs at similar burn-up. High burn-up discs were submitted to temperature transients up to 1200 °C in the heating test device called Merarg at a relatively low temperature ramp rate (0.2 °C/s). In addition to the total gas release during these tests, the release peaks throughout the temperature ramp were monitored. Tests at 1600 °C were also conducted on the 42 GWd/tHM discs. The fuels were then characterized with the same microanalysis techniques as those used before the tests, to investigate the effects of these tests on the fuel’s microstructure and on the fission gas behaviour. This paper outlines the high resistance of this fuel to gas precipitation at high temperature and to HBS formation at high burn-up. It also shows the similarity of the positions, within the grains, where HBS forms at high burn-up and where bubbles appear during

  20. The effect of body temperature on the dynamic respiratory system compliance-breathing frequency relationship in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Alessandro; Bosco, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    The mechanical inhomogeneity of the respiratory system is frequently investigated by measuring the frequency dependence of dynamic compliance, but no data are currently available describing the effects of body temperature variations. The aim of the present report was to study those effects in vivo. Peak airway pressure was measured during positive pressure ventilation in eight anesthetized rats while breathing frequency (but not tidal volume) was altered. Dynamic compliance was calculated as the tidal volume/peak airway pressure, and measurements were taken in basal conditions (mean rectal temperature 37.3 °C) as well as after total body warming (mean rectal temperature 39.7 °C). Due to parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation-linked effects, the normal rat respiratory system exhibited frequency dependence of dynamic lung compliance. Even moderate body temperature increments significantly reduced the decrements in dynamic compliance linked to breathing rate increments. The results were analyzed using Student's and Wilcoxon's tests, which yielded the same results (p temperature variations are known to influence respiratory mechanics. The frequency dependence of dynamic compliance was found, in the experiments described, to be temperature-dependent as temperature variations affected parenchymal mechanical inhomogeneity and stress relaxation. These results suggest that body temperature variations should be taken into consideration when the dynamic compliance-breathing frequency relationship is being examined during clinical assessment of inhomogeneity of lung parenchyma in patients.