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Sample records for breath tests examination

  1. Minimally invasive (13)C-breath test to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turki, Abrar; Murthy, Gayathri; Ueda, Keiko; Cheng, Barbara; Giezen, Alette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leading to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma. Phenylalanine levels and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity monitoring are currently limited to conventional blood dot testing. 1-(13)C-phenylalanine, a stable isotope can be used to examine phenylalanine metabolism, as the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine occurs in vivo via PAH and subsequently releases the carboxyl labeled (13)C as (13)CO2 in breath. Our objective was to examine phenylalanine metabolism in children with PKU using a minimally-invasive 1-(13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PBT). Nine children (7 M: 2 F, mean age 12.5 ± 2.87 y) with PKU participated in the study twice: once before and once after sapropterin supplementation. Children were provided 6 mg/kg oral dose of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine and breath samples were collected at 20 min intervals for a period of 2h. Rate of CO2 production was measured at 60 min post-oral dose using indirect calorimetry. The percentage of 1-(13)C-phenylalanine exhaled as (13)CO2 was measured over a 2h period. Prior to studying children with PKU, we tested the study protocol in healthy children (n = 6; 4M: 2F, mean age 10.2 ± 2.48 y) as proof of principle. Production of a peak enrichment (Cmax) of (13)CO2 (% of dose) in all healthy children occurred at 20 min ranging from 17-29% of dose, with a subsequent return to ~5% by the end of 2h. Production of (13)CO2 from 1-(13)C-phenylalanine in all children with PKU prior to sapropterin treatment remained low. Following sapropterin supplementation for a week, production of (13)CO2 significantly increased in five children with a subsequent decline in blood phenylalanine levels, suggesting improved PAH activity. Sapropterin treatment was not effective in three children whose (13)CO2 production remained unchanged, and did not show a reduction in blood phenylalanine levels and improvement

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection in southwest China: a study of health examination participants based on 13C-urea breath test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Yonghong; Zhao, Qinghua; Luo, Rong; Xiao, Mingzhao; Zhang, Mingjun; Xie, Weibo

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has a high prevalence in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the current prevalence of H. pylori, as well as its potential serum risk factors, in a population from southwest China.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 10,912 subjects who received medical examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in 2014. Data regarding physical examinations and biochemical measurements were collected, and H. pylori infection was diagnosed with a 13C-urea breath test. Logistic regression was conducted to identify the risk factors for H. pylori infection.Results: The infection rate of H. pylori was 34.4% (3750/10,912). Older age, lower albumin levels, and higher total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and fasting blood sugar were significantly associated with increased incidence of H. pylori infection. Moreover, logistic regression analysis showed that older age, low albumin, and hyperglycemia were independent risk factors for H. pylori infection after adjusting for other covariables.Conclusion: The results from our study showed that H. pylori was prevalent in southwest China. Older age, low albumin levels, and hyperglycemia were significant risk factors associated with H. pylori infection.

  3. Breath hydrogen test in children with giardiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Franco, L; Meza, C; Romero, J L; Alanis, S E; Meijerink, J

    1987-01-01

    Respiratory hydrogen excretion was measured in 50 children with giardiasis in order to study lactose absorption. Samples of expired air were collected before and after the children drank 250 ml of whole cow's milk. The test was repeated after successful elimination of Giardia lamblia following treatment with tinidazol. The number of children showing a rise in breath hydrogen excretion greater than 20 ppm decreased from 33 (72%) before treatment to 20 (44%) after treatment. This study permits the conclusion that the presence of G. lamblia in the intestine might interfere with optimum lactose absorption.

  4. Air-Breathing Rocket Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine that completed an hour or 3,600 seconds of testing at the General Applied Sciences Laboratory in Ronkonkoma, New York. Referred to as ARGO by its design team, the engine is named after the mythological Greek ship that bore Jason and the Argonauts on their epic voyage of discovery. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced SpaceTransportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  5. Breath testing and personal exposure--SIFT-MS detection of breath acetonitrile for exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Malina; Curry, Kirsty; Squire, Marie; Kingham, Simon; Epton, Michael

    2015-05-26

    Breath testing has potential for the rapid assessment of the source and impact of exposure to air pollutants. During the development of a breath test for acetonitrile using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) raised acetonitrile concentrations in the breath of volunteers were observed that could not be explained by known sources of exposure. Workplace/laboratory exposure to acetonitrile was proposed since this was common to the volunteers with increased breath concentrations. SIFT-MS measurements of acetonitrile in breath and air were used to confirm that an academic chemistry laboratory was the source of exposure to acetonitrile, and quantify the changes that occurred to exhaled acetonitrile after exposure. High concentrations of acetonitrile were detected in the air of the chemistry laboratory. However, concentrations in the offices were not significantly different across the campus. There was a significant difference in the exhaled acetonitrile concentrations of people who worked in the chemistry laboratories (exposed) and those who did not (non-exposed). SIFT-MS testing of air and breath made it possible to determine that occupational exposure to acetonitrile in the chemistry laboratory was the cause of increased exhaled acetonitrile. Additionally, the sensitivity was adequate to measure the changes to exhaled amounts and found that breath concentrations increased quickly with short exposure and remained increased even after periods of non-exposure. There is potential to add acetonitrile to a suite of VOCs to investigate source and impact of poor air quality.

  6. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  7. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rubio-Escudero

    Full Text Available Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production.Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients.Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test.Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  8. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  9. Examination of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) classification, and intended plans for getting home among bar-attending college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    The college student population is one of the heaviest drinking demographic groups in the US and impaired driving is a serious alcohol-related problem. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and "plans to get home" among a sample of college students. We conducted four anonymous field studies to examine associations between breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) classification, and plans for getting home among a sample of bar-attending college students (N = 713). The vast majority of participants in our sample (approximately 95%) were not intending to drive and the average BrAC% of those intending to drive was .041. Our one-way ANOVAs indicated that (1) participants classified by the AUDIT-C as not having an alcohol problem had a significantly lower BrAC% than those classified as having a potential problem and (2) participants planning to drive had a significantly lower BrAC% than those with a plan that did not involve them driving and those without a plan to get home. Although it is encouraging that most of our sample was not intending to drive, it is important to continue to attempt to reduce impaired driving in this population. This study helps college health professionals and administrators to better understand the relationship between alcohol-related behaviors and plans to get home among college students. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section 862.3080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  12. The Effectiveness of Daily Mindful Breathing Practices on Test Anxiety of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunju; Ryu, Seokjin; Noh, Jeeae; Lee, Jongsun

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of daily mindful breathing practices on test anxiety of university students. A total of 36 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a training mindful breathing condition (n = 12), a training cognitive reappraisal condition (contrast group, n = 12), and a non-training condition (control group, n = 12). Each of the participants trained by themselves for 6 days after they had taken one session of education for mindful or cognitive reappraisal practices. They wrote their experiences on daily worksheets and sent it by mobile with taking pictures that were confirmed by the researcher. Before and after training, each of the participants completed a questionnaire to assess: test anxiety, positive thought, and positive affect. The results of the study showed that both mindful breathing practice and cognitive reappraisal practice yielded large effect sizes in reducing test anxiety. In addition, the mindful breathing condition scored significantly higher on positive thoughts than the cognitive reappraisal and control conditions. The findings of this study suggest that both daily mindful breathing and cognitive reappraisal practices were effective in reducing test anxiety; however, mindful breathing increased positive automatic thoughts to a greater extent than cognitive reappraisal.

  13. Hydrogen and methane breath tests for evaluation of resistant carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J

    1992-01-01

    This review considers in detail the background, principles, techniques, limitations and advantages of the hydrogen and methane breath tests. Resistant food carbohydrates, defined as dietary carbohydrates partly or totally escaping small intestinal assimilation, are fermented in the human colon....... This results in production of H2, CH4 and volatile fatty acids. Increased colonic H2 production is a sensitive index of increased carbohydrate fermentation, and a rather constant fraction of the colonic H2 production is excreted by the lungs. It is therefore possible to assess mouth-to-caecum transit times...... as well as to estimate absorption capacities for several types of resistant carbohydrates by means of H2 breath tests. A prerequisite for correct interpretation is that procedures for determination of H2 concentrations and for breath sampling and storage are carefully validated and standardized. Due...

  14. Change of central hemodynamics of qualified athletes for testing the use of controlled breathing and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Romanchuk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Using spiroarteriocardiorhythmography surveyed 174 qualified athletes (121 male and 53 female. The examination consisted of three consecutive two-minute registrations - spontaneous, controlled breathing 6 and 15 breaths per minute. Found that the hemodynamic change substantially when the respiratory tests in the first place, cardiac output, cardiac index, total peripheral vascular resistance and specific peripheral vascular resistance. To develop criteria for evaluation of hemodynamic changes carried percentile variance analysis of all indicators in the performance tests. Testing of the evaluation criteria for different types of hemodynamics in athletes allowed to establish that eukinetic type characteristic is the reduction in heart rate and pulse blood pressure under test with controlled breathing 6 times per minute for hypokinetic – pronounced increase in systolic blood pressure and pulse blood pressure during the breath tests 6 and 15 times per minute for hyperkinetic – reducing end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, in vivo performance of both tests and an increase in systemic vascular resistance during test 15 breaths per minute.

  15. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  16. Diagnostic Limitations of 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test in Patients after Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    RUSYN V.I.; Ye.S. Sirchak; N.Yu. Kurchak

    2014-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive examination of 136 patients after cholecystectomy are provided. High efficiency and informativeness of the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test for determining exocrine pancreatic insufficiency at its early stages was noted in patients after cholecystectomy.

  17. Diagnostic Limitations of 13C-Mixed Triglyceride Breath Test in Patients after Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Rusyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a comprehensive examination of 136 patients after cholecystectomy are provided. High efficiency and informativeness of the 13C-mixed triglyceride breath test for determining exocrine pancreatic insufficiency at its early stages was noted in patients after cholecystectomy.

  18. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  19. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  20. [Breath tests in children with suspected lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, P Ángela; Furió, C Simone; Arancibia, A Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Up to 70% of the world population is lactose intolerance. However, there are no epidemiological studies among Chilean pediatric population affected by this condition. Clinical characterization of a series of children who underwent the lactose intolerance breath test for lactose intolerance study, establishing intolerance and malabsorption frequencies, the most frequent symptoms, and test performance depending on the origin. Patients under 18 years old who took the lactose intolerance breath test in the Gastroenterology Laboratory of the Catholic University of Chile, and who were admitted due to clinically suspected lactose intolerance. Malabsorption was considered when there was as an increase of ≥20ppm above the baseline (H2) or ≥34ppm of H2 and methane (CH4) combined. Intolerance was considered when the above was associated with a symptom intensity score ≥7 during registration. The analysis included194 patients aged 1 to17 years of age. Of these, 102 (53%) presented with malabsorption, and 53 (27%) were intolerant. The frequency of lactose intolerance varied from 7.1 to 45.4%, and it occurred more frequently at older ages. The most common reported symptoms were abdominal pain, bloating and rumbling. Lactose malabsorption and intolerance can be investigated from the first years of life using the lactose breath test plus a symptom questionnaire. An increase in the frequency of intolerance with age, and a greater number of positive tests, if they were requested by a gastroenterologist, were observed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Mathematical analysis of [13CO2]-expiration curves from human breath tests using [1-13C]-amino acids as oral substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Krawielitzki, K.

    2003-01-01

    A [13CO2]-breath test examines the expiration of [13CO2] as function of time after oral intake of a [13C]-labelled test substrate (single dose). In clinical settings, breath test studies are often used as a simple and non-invasive tool to diagnose the activity of metabolic functions. From a

  2. Training in multiple breath washout testing for respiratory physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Katherine; Elborn, J Stuart; Tunney, Michael M; O'Neill, Philip; Rowan, Stephen; Martin, Susan; Bradley, Judy M

    2018-03-01

    The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists. The respiratory Multidisciplinary Team in the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust (BHSCT) identified a need for MBW testing to be available to facilitate clinical research and assessment. A 2day training programme consisting of prereading preparation, self-directed learning, theory presentations, practical demonstrations and hands-on practice was developed and delivered. All participants underwent a certification process. We have demonstrated the successful training and certification of clinical and research physiotherapists and encourage other respiratory physiotherapists to consider MBW test training. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 13C Urea Breath Testing to Diagnose Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette Deslandres

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa and gastritis has been proven. Endoscopy and subsequent histological examination of antral biopsies have been regarded as the gold standard for diagnosing H pylori gastritis. The 13C urea breath test is a noninvasive test with a high specificity and sensitivity for H pylori colonization. Increasingly, it is becoming an important tool for use in diagnosing H pylori infection in paediatric populations. This test is particularly well suited for epidemiological studies evaluating reinfection rates, spontaneous clearance of infection and eradication rates after therapy. However, few groups have validated the test in the pediatric age group. The testing protocol has not yet been standardized. Variables include fasting state, dose of urea labelled with 13C, delta cutoff level of 13C carbon dioxide, choice of test meal and timing of collection of expired breath samples. Further studies are urgently needed to evaluate critically the impact of H pylori infection in children. The 13C urea breath test should prove very useful in such prospective studies.

  4. Reliability of symptom analysis during carbohydrate hydrogen-breath tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando

    2012-09-01

    Relevance of symptom analysis during hydrogen breath test (HBT) for establishing a clinical diagnosis of sugar intolerance is reviewed. Evaluation of symptoms developed in response to the ingestion of 50 g lactose could represent a simple screening test to select patients for lactose intolerance testing. Patients who do not develop symptoms do not need to be referred for HBT. In addition, symptoms reported by patients during a negative HBT cannot be at all times attributed to a false-negative test; instead, a 'nocebo' effect is likely to be implicated. On the other hand, in a double-blind randomized study, a dose of 25 g fructose was suggested as the most appropriate for testing individuals with suspected fructose malabsorption, whereas symptom reliability to diagnose fructose intolerance was inaccurate. Whereas the development of symptoms after a positive HBT may indicate sugar intolerance, it is still not clear whether the absence of symptoms after sugar malabsorption gives any indication as to the role of that sugar in the genesis of patient's complaints. Further studies should evaluate whether the disappearance of symptoms with a sugar-restricted diet after a positive HBT is a better diagnostic criterion of sugar intolerance than the development of symptoms.

  5. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M. J.; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H. G.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  6. Lactose Breath Test in Children: Relationship Between Symptoms During the Test and Test Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Reif, Shimon; Scolnik, Dennis; Rom, Liat; Yerushalmy-Feler, Anat; Dali-Levy, Margalit; Cohen, Shlomi

    2016-08-17

    Lactose malabsorption affects 70% of the world population. The hydrogen breath test (HBT) is used clinically to test for this condition. The aim of our study was to describe the relationship between symptoms experienced before and during the HBT and test results. We included children who underwent the HBT in the pediatric gastroenterology unit at Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital during a 6-month period. Previous symptoms and those experienced before and after the HBT were assessed using a questionnaire and a validated pain scale. Ninety-five children were included in the study, and 66.3% had a positive HBT. Diarrhea and flatulence during the test were significantly more frequent in the group with a positive HBT compared to those with a negative test (31.7% vs. 9.4%, P = 0.016 and 69.8% vs. 40.6%, P = 0.006, respectively). The frequency of abdominal pain and bloating was similar. Diarrhea and flatulence during the HBT are the most specific symptoms of lactose intolerance. Abdominal pain should not be automatically attributed to lactose intolerance even in the presence of lactose malabsorption. Coupling the HBT with a real-time questionnaire facilitates interpretation of results and subsequent recommendations.

  7. Long-term stability of ethanol solutions for breath-alcohol tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmanic, John

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous alcohol solutions in conjunction with a simulator are used commonly to calibrate and check the operation of breath-alcohol instruments. In Ohio, these solutions expire one year from the date of manufacture. This study was undertaken to review and report the stability of several batches of solution that had been manufactured from 2003 to 2007 and were statutorily expired. Eight batches of solution, each with a theoretical breath-alcohol target value of 0.100 g/210 L, were tested on paired Intoxilyzer 8000s using Guth model 590 simulators. This model of simulator required only 250 mL of solution per simulator. Therefore, each batch was evaluated by testing a single bottle of solution that had remained sealed since its manufacture. Five tests were performed on each instrument, and the acceptable criterion was limited to +/- 0.005 g/210 L of the established target value. A current batch of solution was also examined to verify the performance of the instrument before study sample testing commenced and at the completion of testing. All batches and bottles produced acceptable results within the acceptable limit for each target value. It can be concluded that the stability of the wet bath solution packaged in high-density polyethylene bottles with a theoretical concentration of 0.100 g/210 L is in excess of five years and surpasses the statutory expiration term of one year from the date of manufacture when stored at normal room temperatures.

  8. Clinical significance of the glucose breath test in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Min; Lee, Kang-Moon; Chung, Yoon Yung; Lee, Yang Woon; Kim, Dae Bum; Sung, Hea Jung; Chung, Woo Chul; Paik, Chang-Nyol

    2015-06-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth which has recently been diagnosed with the glucose breath test is characterized by excessive colonic bacteria in the small bowel, and results in gastrointestinal symptoms that mimic symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to estimate the positivity of the glucose breath test and investigate its clinical role in inflammatory bowel disease. Patients aged > 18 years with inflammatory bowel disease were enrolled. All patients completed symptom questionnaires. Fecal calprotectin level was measured to evaluate the disease activity. Thirty historical healthy controls were used to determine normal glucose breath test values. A total of 107 patients, 64 with ulcerative colitis and 43 with Crohn's disease, were included. Twenty-two patients (20.6%) were positive for the glucose breath test (30.2%, Crohn's disease; 14.1%, ulcerative colitis). Positive rate of the glucose breath test was significantly higher in patients with Crohn's disease than in healthy controls (30.2% vs 6.7%, P=0.014). Bloating, flatus, and satiety were higher in glucose breath test-positive patients than glucose breath test-negative patients (P=0.021, 0.014, and 0.049, respectively). The positivity was not correlated with the fecal calprotectin level. The positive rate of the glucose breath test was higher in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease than in healthy controls; gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease were correlated with this positivity. Glucose breath test can be used to manage intestinal symptoms of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Reliability of breath by breath spirometry and relative flow-time indices for pulmonary function testing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnheim, K; Hughes, K J; Evans, D L; Raidal, S L

    2016-11-28

    Respiratory problems are common in horses, and are often diagnosed as a cause of poor athletic performance. Reliable, accurate and sensitive spirometric tests of airway function in resting horses would assist with the diagnosis of limitations to breathing and facilitate investigations of the effects of various treatments on breathing capacity. The evaluation of respiratory function in horses is challenging and suitable procedures are not widely available to equine practitioners. The determination of relative flow or flow-time measures is used in paediatric patients where compliance may limit conventional pulmonary function techniques. The aim of the current study was to characterise absolute and relative indices of respiratory function in healthy horses during eupnoea (tidal breathing) and carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced hyperpnoea (rebreathing) using a modified mask pneumotrachographic technique well suited to equine practice, and to evaluate the reliability of this technique over three consecutive days. Coefficients of variation, intra-class correlations, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals across all days of testing were established for each parameter. The technique provided absolute measures of respiratory function (respiratory rate, tidal volume, peak inspiratory and expiratory flows, time to peak flow) consistent with previous studies and there was no significant effect of day on any measure of respiratory function. Variability of measurements was decreased during hyperpnea caused by rebreathing CO2, but a number of relative flow-time variables demonstrated good agreement during eupnoeic respiration. The technique was well tolerated by horses and study findings suggest the technique is suitable for evaluation of respiratory function in horses. The use of relative flow-time variables provided reproducible (consistent) results, suggesting the technique may be of use for repeated measures studies in horses during tidal breathing or rebreathing.

  10. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  11. A breath test for malignant mesothelioma using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Eleanor A; Thomas, Paul S; Stone, Emily; Lewis, Craig; Yates, Deborah H

    2012-08-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare tumour which is difficult to diagnose in its early stages. Earlier detection of MM could potentially improve survival. Exhaled breath sampling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a carbon polymer array (CPA) electronic nose recognises specific breath profiles characteristic of different diseases, and can distinguish between patients with lung cancer and controls. With MM, the potential confounding effect of other asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) needs to be considered. We hypothesised that as CPA electronic nose would distinguish patients with MM, patients with benign ARDs, and controls with high sensitivity and specificity. 20 MM, 18 ARD and 42 control subjects participated in a cross-sectional, case-control study. Breath samples were analysed using the Cyranose 320 (Smiths Detection, Pasadena, CA, USA), using canonical discriminant analysis and principal component reduction. 10 MM subjects created the training set. Smell prints from 10 new MM patients were distinguished from control subjects with an accuracy of 95%. Patients with MM, ARDs and control subjects were correctly identified in 88% of cases. Exhaled breath VOC profiling can accurately distinguish between patients with MM, ARDs and controls using a CPA electronic nose. This could eventually translate into a screening tool for high-risk populations.

  12. Almagate interference in breath test results for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Pons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is common and affects both genders at any age. The 13C-urea breath test is a widely used test for the diagnosis of this infection. However, multiple drugs used for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection symptoms have interactions with this breath test that generate false negative results. This observational study was to assess the potential interaction between almagate and the breath test. Methods: Thirty subjects on almagate therapy who underwent a breath test were included. If the result was negative, almagate was withdrawn for a month and the breath test was then repeated. Results: In general, 51.9 % of assessed subjects had a negative result after the first test, and 100 % of these also had a negative result after the second test. Conclusions: It was concluded that the use of almagate does not interfere in breath test results. These results provide a drug therapy option for the treatment of symptoms associated with Helicobacter pylori infection during the diagnostic process.

  13. BreathDx - molecular analysis of exhaled breath as a diagnostic test for ventilator-associated pneumonia: protocol for a European multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pouline M P; Nijsen, Tamara; Weda, Hans; Knobel, Hugo; Dark, Paul; Felton, Timothy; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Lawal, Oluwasola; Ahmed, Waqar; Portsmouth, Craig; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Artigas, Antonio; Povoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Fowler, Stephen J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2017-01-03

    The diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains time-consuming and costly, the clinical tools lack specificity and a bedside test to exclude infection in suspected patients is unavailable. Breath contains hundreds to thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that result from host and microbial metabolism as well as the environment. The present study aims to use breath VOC analysis to develop a model that can discriminate between patients who have positive cultures and who have negative cultures with a high sensitivity. The Molecular Analysis of Exhaled Breath as Diagnostic Test for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (BreathDx) study is a multicentre observational study. Breath and bronchial lavage samples will be collected from 100 and 53 intubated and ventilated patients suspected of VAP. Breath will be analysed using Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (TD-GC-MS). The primary endpoint is the accuracy of cross-validated prediction for positive respiratory cultures in patients that are suspected of VAP, with a sensitivity of at least 99% (high negative predictive value). To our knowledge, BreathDx is the first study powered to investigate whether molecular analysis of breath can be used to classify suspected VAP patients with and without positive microbiological cultures with 99% sensitivity. UKCRN ID number 19086, registered May 2015; as well as registration at www.trialregister.nl under the acronym 'BreathDx' with trial ID number NTR 6114 (retrospectively registered on 28 October 2016).

  14. Influence of short breathing stop on the cardiovascular system during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poderienė, Kristina; Trinkūnas, Eugenijus; Poderys, Jonas; Grūnovas, Albinas

    2011-01-01

    Breathing is both a voluntary and an involuntary action, and the changes in breathing intensity or breathing stops has an influence on vegetative functions of the body during exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the possible changes in cardiovascular parameters when patients shortly stopped to breath at the beginning of exercise testing. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Two series of investigation were performed. During the first investigation, the psychomotor tonus was assessed, and the breathing frequency during exercising was monitored in the cohort of 27 healthy adult males who were recruited for the first time to be participants of exercise testing. All the participants performed the Roufier exercise test (30 squats per 45 s). A 12-lead electrocardiogram was continuously recorded during exercise and first two minutes of recovery, and arterial blood pressure was measured at each minute of experiment. During the second investigation, the influence of short breathing stop for 15 s on the changes in cardiovascular functional parameters during exercise test was evaluated. RESULTS. The results obtained during the study showed that patients who had increased psychomotor tonus stopped the breathing involuntary more frequently at the beginning of exercise testing. An involuntary or voluntary breathing stop at the beginning of exercising had an influence on the dynamics of cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery: heart rate increased more slowly; lesser changes in the JT interval of electrocardiogram, a trend toward an increase in the arterial blood pressure, and a significantly slower recovery of cardiovascular parameters were documented. CONCLUSION. An involuntary breathing stop caused the changes in cardiovascular parameters during exercise and recovery; therefore, functional status might be assessed not so accurately.

  15. Calcium carbonate breath test for non-invasive estimation of gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Hirohiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Maejima, Ryuhei; Endo, Hiroyuki; Ara, Nobuyuki; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-04-01

    Gastric acid measurement is useful in assessing the effectiveness of antisecretory drugs, however, the conventional tests involve invasive nasogastric intubation. Orally administered ¹³C-labeled calcium carbonate (Ca¹³CO₃) reacts with gastric acid to produce ¹³C-labeled carbon dioxide (¹³CO₂), which is then excreted in the breath. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Ca¹³CO3 breath test for estimating gastric acid secretion in human noninvasively. First, the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test and the measurement of pooled gastric acid under a fasting condition were performed in 6 healthy volunteers to evaluate the correlation between the two parameters. Next, endoscopic gastric acid collection and the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test were performed on different days after pentagastrin injection in 20 subjects to evaluate the correlation between the tests and the reproducibility. Finally, the same studies were repeated in 4 subjects before and after 1-week rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administration. The maximum CO₂ concentration (Cmax) correlated very well with the amount of pooled gastric acid (r = 0.95), suggesting that Ca¹³CO₃ breath test values well reflected the fasting intragastric acidity. The ¹³CO₂ concentration after pentagastrin injection correlated well with pentagastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (r = 0.79 at 20 min). The reproducibility of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test under pentagastrin-stimulation was good (coefficient of variation = 0.11). Rabeprazole administration markedly reduced the values of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test, suggesting that it can sensitively assess the efficacy of rabeprazole. The Ca¹³CO₃ breath test can potentially be a useful method for non-invasive estimation for gastric acid secretion in human.

  16. Breath testing as a method for detecting lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taivans, Immanuels; Bukovskis, Maris; Strazda, Gunta; Jurka, Normunds

    2014-02-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer is important due to high mortality in late stages of the disease. An ideal approach for population screening could be the breath analysis, due to its non-invasiveness, simplicity and cheapness. Using sensitive methods of analysis like gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in exhaled air of cancer patients were discovered some volatile organic compounds - possible candidates for cancer markers. However, these compounds were not specific for cancer cells. At the same time, integrative approaches used to analyze the exhaled breath have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this method for lung cancer diagnosis. Such integrative approaches include detection of smell prints by electronic nose or integrated analysis of wide range of volatile organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or related methods. Modern statistical pattern recognition systems like logistic regression analysis, support vector machine or analysis by artificial neuronal network may improve diagnostic accuracy.

  17. Triple sugar screen breath hydrogen test for sugar intolerance in children with functional abdominal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Jonathan E; Ubhrani, Dolly

    2010-09-01

    Sugar intolerance and functional gastrointestinal disorders are both common in school age children. Both may present with similar complaints such as abdominal pain, diarrhea and bloating. Lactose, fructose and sucrose hydrogen breath tests are widely used to detect sugar malabsorption. To determine the proportion of children with symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) that have sugar intolerance as determined by using a breath hydrogen test. We prospectively enrolled subjects with chronic abdominal pain, bloating and/or chronic diarrhea. All subjects underwent triple sugar screen hydrogen breath test (TSST) using the combined sugar solution. Breath hydrogen concentration ≥ 20 ppm above baseline was interpreted a positive test for sugar malabsorption. A positive hydrogen breath test consistent with sugar malabsorption was found in 5 out of 31 (16%) subjects. Three of these subjects were confirmed to have lactose malabsorption based on small bowel lactase enzyme analysis or subsequent lactose hydrogen breath test. One subject with positive TSST was diagnosed with fructose malabsorption based on dietary history; he improved on a limited fructose diet, and one was diagnosed to have gastric Crohn's disease. Approximately one in six children with symptoms of FGID had sugar intolerance as determined by the TSST.

  18. (13)C-Breath testing in animals: theory, applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Welch, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    The carbon isotope values in the exhaled breath of an animal mirror the carbon isotope values of the metabolic fuels being oxidized. The measurement of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide is called (13)C-breath testing and offers a minimally invasive method to study substrate oxidation in vivo. (13)C-breath testing has been broadly used to study human exercise, nutrition, and pathologies since the 1970s. Owing to reduced use of radioactive isotopes and the increased convenience and affordability of (13)C-analyzers, the past decade has witnessed a sharp increase in the use of breath testing throughout comparative physiology--especially to answer questions about how and when animals oxidize particular nutrients. Here, we review the practical aspects of (13)C-breath testing and identify the strengths and weaknesses of different methodological approaches including the use of natural abundance versus artificially-enriched (13)C tracers. We critically compare the information that can be obtained using different experimental protocols such as diet-switching versus fuel-switching. We also discuss several factors that should be considered when designing breath testing experiments including extrinsic versus intrinsic (13)C-labelling and different approaches to model nutrient oxidation. We use case studies to highlight the myriad applications of (13)C-breath testing in basic and clinical human studies as well as comparative studies of fuel use, energetics, and carbon turnover in multiple vertebrate and invertebrate groups. Lastly, we call for increased and rigorous use of (13)C-breath testing to explore a variety of new research areas and potentially answer long standing questions related to thermobiology, locomotion, and nutrition.

  19. Gravitational independence of single-breath washout tests in recumbent dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Shinichi; Kubo, Susumu; Guy, Harold J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of gravitational orientation in the mechanism of lung filling and emptying in dogs was examined by conducting simultaneously Ar-bolus and N2 single-breath washout tests (SBWTs) in 10 anesthetized dogs (prone and supine), with three of the dogs subjected to body rotation. Transpulmonary pressure was measured simultaneously, allowing identification of the lung volume above residual volume at which there was an inflection point in the pressure-volume curve. Combined resident gas and bolus SBWTs in recumbent dogs were found to be different from such tests in humans; in dogs, the regional distribution of ventilation was not primarily determined by gravity. The measurements did not make it possible to discern exact mechanisms of filling and emptying, but both processes appear to be related to lung, thorax, and mediastinum interactions and/or differences in regional mechanical properties of the lungs.

  20. Methodological aspects of breath hydrogen (H2) analysis. Evaluation of a H2 monitor and interpretation of the breath H2 test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Kokholm, G; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of end-expiratory hydrogen (H2) breath tests were assessed and the significance of some important pitfalls were studied, using a compact, rapid H2-monitor with electrochemical cells. The H2 response was shown to be linear and stable. The reproducibility of the breath collection...... were studied in 10 healthy adults during a 4-month period and they showed very marked inter- and intra-individual variability (16% above 40 p.p.m.). Initial peaks (early, short-lived H2 rises unrelated to carbohydrate malabsorption) were identified in 25% of the breath tests (in 4% above 20 p.......p.m). It is concluded that the technique used for interval sampling of end-expiratory breath samples for H2 concentration gives reliable results. The biological significance of H2 concentration increments can only be evaluated if the limitations of the technical procedures and the individual ability to produce H2...

  1. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  2. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.

  3. First-time urea breath tests performed at home by 36,629 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlerup, Søren; Andersen, Rikke Charlotte; Nielsen, Birgitte Sperling Wilms

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was (1) to describe the use of a (13) C-urea breath test (UBT) that was performed by patients at their homes as a part of a test-and-treat strategy in primary care and (2) to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients taking a first...

  4. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  5. FEV manoeuvre induced changes in breath VOC compositions: an unconventional view on lung function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Schubert, Jochen K.; Oertel, Peter; Kamysek, Svend; Taunk, Khushman; Trefz, Phillip; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2016-06-01

    Breath volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis can open a non-invasive window onto pathological and metabolic processes in the body. Decades of clinical breath-gas analysis have revealed that changes in exhaled VOC concentrations are important rather than disease specific biomarkers. As physiological parameters, such as respiratory rate or cardiac output, have profound effects on exhaled VOCs, here we investigated VOC exhalation under respiratory manoeuvres. Breath VOCs were monitored by means of real-time mass-spectrometry during conventional FEV manoeuvres in 50 healthy humans. Simultaneously, we measured respiratory and hemodynamic parameters noninvasively. Tidal volume and minute ventilation increased by 292 and 171% during the manoeuvre. FEV manoeuvre induced substance specific changes in VOC concentrations. pET-CO2 and alveolar isoprene increased by 6 and 21% during maximum exhalation. Then they decreased by 18 and 37% at forced expiration mirroring cardiac output. Acetone concentrations rose by 4.5% despite increasing minute ventilation. Blood-borne furan and dimethyl-sulphide mimicked isoprene profile. Exogenous acetonitrile, sulphides, and most aliphatic and aromatic VOCs changed minimally. Reliable breath tests must avoid forced breathing. As isoprene exhalations mirrored FEV performances, endogenous VOCs might assure quality of lung function tests. Analysis of exhaled VOC concentrations can provide additional information on physiology of respiration and gas exchange.

  6. Significance of hydrogen breath tests in children with suspected carbohydrate malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen breath tests are noninvasive procedures frequently applied in the diagnostic workup of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we review hydrogen breath test results and the occurrence of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption in pediatric patients; and determine the significance of the findings and the outcome of patients with carbohydrate malabsorption. Methods We included 206 children (88 male, 118 female, median age 10.7 years, range 3–18 years) with a total of 449 hydrogen breath tests (lactose, n = 161; fructose, n = 142; sorbitol, n = 146) into a retrospective analysis. Apart from test results, we documented symptoms, the therapeutic consequences of the test, the outcome and the overall satisfaction of the patients and families. Results In total, 204 (46%) of all breath tests were positive. Long-term follow-up data could be collected from 118 patients. Of 79 patients (67%) who were put on a diet reduced in lactose, fructose and/or sorbitol, the majority (92%, n = 73) reported the diet to be strict and only 13% (n = 10) had no response to diet. Most families (96%, n = 113) were satisfied by the test and the therapy. There were only 21 tests (5%) with a borderline result because the criteria for a positive result were only partially met. Conclusions Hydrogen breath tests can be helpful in the evaluation of children with gastrointestinal symptoms including functional intestinal disorders. If applied for a variety of carbohydrates but only where indicated, around two-third of all children have positive results. The therapeutic consequences are successfully relieving symptoms in the vast majority of patients. PMID:24575947

  7. Breath Ketone Testing: A New Biomarker for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Diabetic Ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid are three types of ketone body that may be found in the breath, blood, and urine. Detecting altered concentrations of ketones in the breath, blood, and urine is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of different detection methods for ketones, and to establish whether detection of the concentration of ketones in the breath is an effective and practical technique. Methods. We measured the concentrations of acetone in the breath using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and β-hydroxybutyrate in fingertip blood collected from 99 patients with diabetes assigned to groups 1 (−, 2 (±, 3 (+, 4 (++, or 5 (+++ according to urinary ketone concentrations. Results. There were strong relationships between fasting blood glucose, age, and diabetic ketosis. Exhaled acetone concentration significantly correlated with concentrations of fasting blood glucose, ketones in the blood and urine, LDL-C, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. Conclusions. Breath testing for ketones has a high sensitivity and specificity and appears to be a noninvasive, convenient, and repeatable method for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of diabetic ketosis.

  8. Diabetes and the metabolic syndrome: possibilities of a new breath test in a dolphin model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchivo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes type-2 and the metabolic syndrome are prevalent in epidemic proportions and result in significant co-morbid disease. Limitations in understanding of dietary effects and cholesterol metabolism exist. Current methods to assess diabetes are essential, though many are invasive; for example, blood glucose and lipid monitoring require regular finger sticks and blood draws. A novel method to study these diseases may be non-invasive breath testing of exhaled compounds. Currently, acetone and lipid peroxidation products have been seen in small scale studies, though other compounds may be significant. As Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been proposed as a good model for human diabetes, applications of dietary manipulations and breath testing in this population may shed important light on how to design human clinical studies. In addition, ongoing studies indicate that breath testing in dolphins is feasible, humane, and yields relevant metabolites. By studying the metabolic and cholesterol responses of dolphins to dietary modifications, researchers may gain insight into human diabetes, improve the design of costly human clinical trials, and potentially discover biomarkers for non-invasive breath monitoring.

  9. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori infection by examination of human breath odor using electronic nose Bloodhound-214ST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnayder, E. P.; Moshkin, M. P.; Petrovskii, D. V.; Shevela, A. I.; Babko, A. N.; Kulikov, V. G.

    2009-05-01

    Our aim was to examine the possibility of use e-nose Bloodhound-214ST to determine presence or absence of H. pylori infection using exhalation samples of patients. Breath samples were collected twice: at baseline and after oral administration of 500 mg of urea. H. pylori status of patients was confirmed by antral biopsy. Using two approaches for the data analysis we showed the possibility to distinguish H. pylori free and infected patients.

  11. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlates with hepatic cytochrome P4503A activity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L E; Olsen, A K; Stentoft, K

    2001-01-01

    , but the method has never been directly validated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether an early postoperative erythromycin breath test correlated with the hepatic CYP3A protein level and catalytic activity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 18 liver transplant recipients, the erythromycin...... breath test was performed within 2 hours after transplantation. A graft biopsy was obtained during surgery and analyzed for the CYP3A protein level by Western blotting and for CYP3A activity with erythromycin demethylation and testosterone 6beta- hydroxylation assays. RESULTS: The erythromycin breath......). CONCLUSION: Our data support the erythromycin breath test as a specific in vivo assay of CYP3A activity in humans. The test is applicable in liver transplant recipients in the early postoperative phase. Future studies should evaluate the clinical usefulness of an early postoperative erythromycin breath test...

  12. A 13CO2 breath test for liver glycogen oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Tanis

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn conclusion we developed a model to monitor the oxidation of liver glycogen. Our studies showed that it was possible to label the liver glycogen with naturally 13C-enriched carbohydrate and to monitor its oxidation. 13C-enriched muscle glycogen did not interfere with the test within

  13. Role of Breathing Conditions During Exercise Testing on Training Prescription in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Bergamin, Marco; Weiss, Gertraud; Ermolao, Andrea; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether different breathing conditions during exercise testing will influence measures of exercise capacity commonly used for training prescription in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty-seven patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec = 45.6 [9.4]%) performed three maximal exercise tests within 8 days, but at least 48 hrs apart. Subjects were thereby breathing either room air through a tightly fitting face mask like during any cardiopulmonary exercise test (MASK), room air without mask (No-MASK), or 10 l/min of oxygen via nasal cannula (No-MASK + O2). Cycling protocols were identical for all tests (start = 20 watts, increment = 10 males/5 females watts/min). Maximal work rate (90.4 [33.8], 100.3 [34.8], 107.4 [35.9] watts, P exercise testing resulted in an 18.8% difference in maximal work rate, likely causing underdosing or overdosing of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Face masks reduced whereas supplemental oxygen increased patients' exercise capacity. For accurate prescription of exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breathing conditions during testing should closely match training conditions.

  14. Panic disorder in a breath-holding challenge test: a simple tool for a better diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Antonio E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to observe if anxiety disorder patients - DSM-IV - respond in a similar way to the induction of panic attacks by a breath-holding challenge test. METHOD: We randomly selected 29 panic disorder (PD patients, 27 social anxiety disorder (SAD patients, 21 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD patients. They were induced to breath-hold for as long as possible four times with two-minute interval between them. Anxiety scales were applied before and after the test. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% (n=13 PD patients, 14.8% (n=4 SAD patients, 9.5% (n=2 GAD patients had a panic attack after the test (c²= 21.44, df= 2, p=0.001. There was no heart rate or anxiety levels difference among the groups before and after the test. CONCLUSION: In this breath-holding challenge test the panic disorder patients were more sensitive than other anxiety disorder patients.

  15. Validation of {sup 14} C-urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattar, Rejane; Silva, Fernando Marcuz; Alexandrino, Ana Maria; Laudanna, Antonio Atilio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Gastroenterologia]. E-mail: shiroineko@uol.com.br

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the {sup 14} C-urea breath test for use in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Thirty H. pylori positive patients, based on histologic test and thirty H. pylori negative patients by histology and anti-H pylori IgG entered the study. Fasting patients drank 5 uCi of {sup 14} C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath samples were collected at O, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min. The difference of cpm values between the two groups was significant at all the time intervals, besides time 0 (p < 0.0001). At 20 min, the test gave 100% sensitivity and specificity with a cut-off value of 562 cpm. Females were higher expirers than males (p=0.005). {sup 14} C-urea breath test is highly accurate for Helicobacter pylori diagnosis. It is fast, simple and should be the non-invasive test used after treating Helicobacter pylori infection. (author)

  16. Corpus-predominant gastritis as a risk factor for false-negative 13C-urea breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, G; Carnuccio, A; Lahner, E; Panzuto, F; Baccini, F; Delle Fave, G; Annibale, B

    2006-11-15

    Urea breath test sensitivity seems affected by increased intragastric acidity during therapy with antisecretory drugs. Intragastric pH is increased in patients with corpus gastritis with/without atrophy. To test the hypothesis that urea breath test results may also be affected by this gastritis phenotype. 123 untreated patients underwent gastroscopy plus biopsies and intragastric pH measurement. The study included 82 endoscopically proven Helicobacter pylori-positive patients who were offered urea breath test with an acidic meal. Histological findings, urea breath test results and intragastric pH were compared in 66 of the subjects. 21 of 66 (31.8%) patients had a false-negative urea breath test. In these patients corpus-predominant gastritis (85.7% vs. 37.7%; P = 0.0004) and fundic atrophy (66.6% vs. 17.7%; P = 0.0001) were more frequent than in patients with true-positive urea breath test. Intragastric pH was higher in false-negative patients (mean 6.3 vs. 4.4; P = 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, the only risk factor for a false-negative urea breath test was the presence of corpus-predominant gastritis (OR = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.1-27). There was a negative correlation between the intragastric pH and the delta over baseline values (r = -0.378; P = 0.0023). Our results support the hypothesis that the pattern of gastritis can affect the sensitivity of urea breath test, and suggest that patients with corpus-predominant gastritis have a high risk of false-negative urea breath test results.

  17. 13CO2 breath test to measure the hydrolysis of various starch formulations in healthy subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiele, M; Ghoos, Y.; Rutgeerts, P; Vantrappen, G; de Buyser, K

    1990-01-01

    13CO2 starch breath test was used to study the effect of physicochemical characteristics of starch digestion. As starch is hydrolysed to glucose, which is subsequently oxidised to CO2, differences in 13CO2 excretion after ingestion of different starch products must be caused by differences in hydrolysis rate. To study the effect of the degree of chain branching, waxy starch, containing 98% amylopectin, was compared with high amylose starch, containing 30% amylopectin, and normal crystalline s...

  18. A Modified Carbon Monoxide Breath Test for Measuring Erythrocyte Lifespan in Small Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jian Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop a CO breath test for RBC lifespan estimation of small animals. The ribavirin induced hemolysis rabbit models were placed individually in a closed rebreath cage and air samples were collected for measurement of CO concentration. RBC lifespan was calculated from accumulated CO, blood volume, and hemoglobin concentration data. RBC lifespan was determined in the same animals with the standard biotin-labeling method. RBC lifespan data obtained by the CO breath test method for control (CON, 49.0±5.9 d rabbits, rabbits given 10 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB10, 31.0±4.0 d, and rabbits given 20 mg/kg·d−1 of ribavirin (RIB20, 25.0±2.9 d were statistically similar (all p>0.05 to and linearly correlated (r=0.96, p<0.01 with the RBC lifespan data obtained for the same rabbits by the standard biotin-labeling method (CON, 51.0±2.7 d; RIB10, 33.0±1.3 d; and RIB20, 27.0±0.8 d. The CO breath test method takes less than 3 h to complete, whereas the standard method requires at least several weeks. In conclusion, the CO breath test method provides a simple and rapid means of estimating RBC lifespan and is feasible for use with small animal models.

  19. Does postprandial itopride intake affect the rate of gastric emptying? A crossover study using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takashi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Shogo; Shiba, Tadahiko; Sahaguchi, Takashi; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hisao; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tokoro, Chikako; Abe, Yasunobu; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Inamori, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether oral Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) intake might have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying, using a novel non-invasive technique for measuring the rate of gastric emptying, namely, the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system: Exalenz Bioscience Ltd., Israel). Eight healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive 50mg itopride following a test meal (200 kcal per 200mL, containing 100mg 13C acetate), or the test meal alone. Under both conditions, gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time required for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters measured under the two conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, the T 1/2, T lag, GEC, beta or kappa, were observed between the two test conditions, namely, administration of a test meal+itopride and administration of the test meal alone. The present study revealed that postprandial itopride intake had no significant influence on the rate of gastric emptying. Recently, several studies have shown that itopride may be effective in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. Our results suggest that the efficacy of itopride in patients with functional dyspepsia may be based on its effect of improving functions other than the rate of gastric emptying, such as the activities at neuronal sites, brain-gut correlation, visceral hypersensitivity, gastric accommodation and distension

  20. Diagnosing lactose malabsorption in children: difficulties in interpreting hydrogen breath test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzsanyi, Veronika; Heinz-Erian, Peter; Entenmann, Andreas; Karall, Daniela; Müller, Thomas; Schimkowitsch, Alexander; Amann, Anton; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2016-03-02

    Lactose malabsorption (LM) is caused by insufficient enzymatic degradation of the disaccharide by intestinal lactase. Although hydrogen (H2) breath tests (HBTs) are routinely applied to diagnose LM, false-negative results are not uncommon. Thirty-two pediatric patients (19 females, 13 males) were included in this prospective study. After oral lactose administration (1 g kg(-1) bodyweight to a maximum of 25 g), breath H2 was measured by electrochemical detection. HBT was considered positive if H2 concentration exceeded an increase of  ⩾20 ppm from baseline. In addition to H2, exhaled methane (CH4), blood glucose concentrations and clinical symptoms (flatulence, abdominal pain, diarrhea) were monitored. A positive HBT indicating LM was found in 12/32 (37.5%) patients. Only five (41.7%, 5/12) of these had clinical symptoms during HBT indicating lactose intolerance (LI). Decreased blood glucose concentration increments (⩽20 mg dL(-1) (⩽1.1 mmol L(-1))) were found in 3/5 of these patients. CH4 concentrations  ⩾10 ppm at any time during the test were observed in 5/32 (15.6%) patients and in 9/32 (28.1%) between 1 ppm and 9 ppm above baseline after lactose ingestion. In patients with positive HBT 10/12 (83.3%) showed elevated CH4 (>1 ppm) above baseline in breath gas, whereas in patients with negative HBT this figure was only 4/17 (23.5%). In addition to determining H2 in exhaled air, documentation of clinical symptoms, measurement of blood glucose and breath CH4 concentrations may be helpful in deciding whether in a given case an HBT correctly identifies patients with clinically relevant LM.

  1. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  2. Spontaneous breathing test in the prediction of extubation failure in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Milena Siciliano; Rebello, Celso Moura; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Santos, Érica; Prado, Cristiane do

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test. A total of 95 children were enrolled in the study, 71 in the Test Group and 24 in the Control Group. A direct comparison was made between the two groups regarding sex, age, mechanical ventilation time, indication to start mechanical ventilation and respiratory parameters before extubation in the Control Group, and before the spontaneous breathing test in the Test Group. There was no difference between the parameters evaluated. According to the analysis of probability of extubation failure between the two groups, the likelihood of extubation failure in the Control Group was 1,412 higher than in the Test Group, nevertheless, this range did not reach significance (p=0.706). This model was considered well-adjusted according to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p=0.758). The spontaneous breathing test was not able to predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Avaliar se o teste de respiração espontânea pode ser utilizado para predizer falha da extubação na população pediátrica. Estudo prospectivo, observacional, no qual foram avaliados todos os pacientes internados no Centro de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, no período de maio de 2011 a agosto de 2013, que utilizaram ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas e que foram extubados. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: Grupo Teste, que incluiu os pacientes extubados depois do teste de respiração espontânea; e Grupo Controle, pacientes foram sem teste de respiração espont

  3. Microdose 14C urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: a survey in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Dowlatabadi Bazaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon -14 urea breath test (UBTis a non-invasive and simple method for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Attempts have been made to use lower doses of 14C-urea in the UBT in order to reduce the radiation risk of the test. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of a microdose (1 µCi [37 KBq] 14C-UBT in Iranian population for validation of its diagnostic accuracy against gold standard methods. Eighty and two patients were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as 14C-UBT in one week. Rapid urease test and histological examinations were used as gold standard. Breath samples were collected 10, 20 and 30 minute after ingestion of 1 µCi of 14C- urea solution and their activities were measured using a scintillation counter and expressed as counts per minute (cpm and disintegration per minute (dpm. Good agreement was observed between the 14C-UBT and gold standard for samples which were collected 20 minutes after 14C-urea administration. The 14CUBT showed 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 95.45% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 97.50% accuracy. The results of this study showed good concordance between the 14C-UBT and invasive methods.

  4. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Dinesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test.

  5. Predicting outcome of paracetamol poisoning by use 14C-aminopyrine breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, J B; Wright, N; Lewis, K O

    1980-01-01

    The 14C-aminopyrine (14C-amidopyrine) breath test, carried out within 24-36 hours of an overdosage of paracetamol, was used to predict the extent of liver damage in 30 seriously poisoned patients. Mean 14CO2 excretion was 4.4% in 20 healthy control subjects; 5.5% in six patients who escaped injury; and 2.9%, 1.5%, and 0.2% in those with mild to moderate (12 patients), severe (eight patients), and fatal (four patients) liver damage respectively. This test proved to be a more reliable predictor...

  6. Virginity Testing Beyond a Medical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatjazi, Mehri; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Vedadhir, Abou-Ali; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Apart from religious values, virginity is important in different communities because of its prominent role in reducing sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies. Even though virginity testing has been proclaimed an example of violence against women by the World Health Organization, it is still conducted in many countries, including Iran. 16 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 32 to 60 years to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of Iranian examiners of virginity testing. The perception and experience of examiners were reflected in five main themes. The result of this study indicated that virginity testing is more than a medical examination, considering the cultural factors involved and its overt and covert consequences. In Iran, testing is performed for both formal and informal reasons, and examiners view such testing with ambiguity about the accuracy and certainty of the diagnosis and uncertainty about ethics and reproductive rights. Examiners are affected by the overt and covert consequences of virginity testing, beliefs and cultural values underlying virginity testing, and informal and formal reasons for virginity testing. PMID:26925894

  7. Virginity Testing Beyond a Medical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatjazi, Mehri; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nahidi, Fatemeh; Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Vedadhir, Abou-Ali; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2015-11-18

    Apart from religious values, virginity is important in different communities because of its prominent role in reducing sexually transmitted diseases and teen pregnancies. Even though virginity testing has been proclaimed an example of violence against women by the World Health Organization, it is still conducted in many countries, including Iran. 16 in-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants aged 32 to 60 years to elucidate the perceptions and experiences of Iranian examiners of virginity testing.The perception and experience of examiners were reflected in five main themes. The result of this study indicated that virginity testing is more than a medical examination, considering the cultural factors involved and its overt and covert consequences. In Iran, testing is performed for both formal and informal reasons, and examiners view such testing with ambiguity about the accuracy and certainty of the diagnosis and uncertainty about ethics and reproductive rights. Examiners are affected by the overt and covert consequences of virginity testing, beliefs and cultural values underlying virginity testing, and informal and formal reasons for virginity testing.

  8. [Breath hydrogen test to evaluate lactose absorption and small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, J C; de Morais, M B; Fagundes Neto, U

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the lactose absorption capacity and possible existence of bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel in asymptomatic school children of low social economic level in Marilia, a city located in the interior of São Paulo state. Eighty three children aging 7 to 15 years old without any gastrointestinal manifestations at least 30 days prior to the tests were studied. All the patients had fasted for at least 8 hours before the tests were performed. Lactose absorption was evaluated by breath hidrogen test after an overload of lactose 18 g in 10% aquous solution. Lactose intolerance was determined by the occurrence of clinical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, etc in the following 24 hours after the test was performed. Bacterial overgrowth was evaluated by the breath hidrogen test after a 10 g lactulose load in aqueous solution. Lactose malabsorption was detected in 19 (22.9%) children and lactose intolerance was observed in 10 (12%) children. Lactose intolerance was more frequently observed in children who showed lactose malabsorption (6/19; 31.6%) than in those who presented a normal test (4/64; 6.3%) (P = 0.008). Bacterial overgrowth was detected in six (7.2%) children and showed no statistical relationship with lactose malabsorption. Ontogenetic lactose malabsorption verified in this group of school children is similar to the reported for Caucasian populations. Presence of bacterial overgrowth confirms the existence of asymptomatic environmental enteropathy in children of low social economic level.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of the Carbon-13 Urea Breath Test for the Detection of Helicobacter Pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, L; Blackhouse, G; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This analysis aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various testing strategies for Helicobacter pylori in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and to calculate the budgetary impact of these tests for the province of Ontario. Data Sources Data on the sensitivity and specificity were obtained from the clinical evidence-based analysis. Resource items were obtained from expert opinion, and costs were applied on the basis of published sources as well as expert opinion. Review Methods A decision analytic model was constructed to compare the costs and outcomes (false-positive results, false-negative results, and misdiagnoses avoided) of the carbon-13 (13C) urea breath test (UBT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology test, and a 2-step strategy of an ELISA serology test and a confirmatory 13C UBT based on the sensitivity and specificity of the tests and prevalence estimates. Results The 2-step strategy is more costly and more effective than the ELISA serology test and results in $210 per misdiagnosis case avoided. The 13C UBT is dominated by the 2-step strategy, i.e., it is more costly and less effective. The budget impact analysis indicates that it will cost $7.9 million more to test a volume of 129,307 patients with the 13C UBT than with ELISA serology, and $4.7 million more to test these patients with the 2-step strategy. Limitations The clinical studies that were pooled varied in the technique used to perform the breath test and in reference standards used to make comparisons with the breath test. However, these parameters were varied in a sensitivity analysis. The economic model was designed to consider intermediate outcomes only (i.e., misdiagnosed cases) and was not a complete model with final patient outcomes (e.g., quality-adjusted life years). Conclusions Results indicate that the 2-step strategy could be economically attractive for the testing of H. pylori. However, testing with the 2-step strategy will cost the Ministry of

  10. Examining Test Speededness by Native Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Guo, Fanmin; Han, Kyung T.

    2013-01-01

    When power tests include a time limit, it is important to assess the possibility of speededness for examinees. Past research on differential speededness has examined gender and ethnic subgroups in the United States on paper and pencil tests. When considering the needs of a global audience, research regarding different native language speakers is…

  11. Abbreviation modalities of nitrogen multiple-breath washout tests in school children with obstructed lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Kent; Ejlertsen, Jacob S; Madsen, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Nitrogen multiple-breath washout (N2 MBW) is a promising tool for assessing early lung damage in children with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but it can be a time-consuming procedure. We compared alternative test-shortening endpoints with the most commonly reported N2 MBW outcome...... tested alternative endpoints exhibited increasing disagreement with increasing LCI2.5 . With an average reduction in test duration of 40%, LCI2.5 derived from two runs exhibited good agreement in all children. CONCLUSIONS: Cn@TO6 may be suggested as a potential test-shortening endpoint in school children...... with PCD. In CF, early test termination may reduce measurement power with advancing pulmonary disease, suggesting differences in underlying pathophysiology. Two technically acceptable N2 MBW runs may be sufficient in school children irrespective of diagnosis with CF or PCD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016...

  12. Evaluation of small intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with functional dyspepsia through H2 breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Bafutto Gomes Costa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Functional dyspepsia is a condition in which symptoms are not related to organic underlying disease; its pathogenesis is not well known. The small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO is characterized by the increase in the number and/or type of colonic bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The hypothesis of SIBO being associated to functional dyspepsia must be considered, since the impaired motility of the gastrointestinal tract is one of the main etiologic factors involved on both pathologies. OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is SIBO in patients with functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Case-control study, evaluating 34 patients: 23 functional dyspeptic and 11 non-dyspeptic (control group. Questionnaire applied based on Rome III criteria. The patients underwent H2-lactulose breath test, considered positive when: H2 peak exceeding 20 ppm, in relation to fasting, or two peaks exceeding 10 ppm sustained until 60 minutes. RESULTS: Of the 23 dyspeptic patients, 13 (56.5% obtained positive results for SIBO trough the H2-lactulose breath test. On control group, SIBO was not observed. The association between the dyspeptic group and the control group regarding SIBO was statistically significant, with P = 0.0052. In the group of dyspeptic patients, 12 (52.2% were using proton pump inhibitor; of these 9 (75% were positive for SIBO. In the control group, none of the 11 patients used proton pump inhibitors and SIBO was not observed. The association of the dyspeptic group using proton pump inhibitor that were positive for SIBO and the control group was statistically significant, with P = 0.0011. CONCLUSION: It was found that, patients with functional dyspepsia presented SIBO, when they underwent to H2-lactulose breath test, compared to the non-dyspeptic. In addition, it was observed a higher prevalence of SIBO in dyspeptic patients that were using proton pump inhibitors, compared to control group.

  13. Variations in colonic H-2 and CO2 production as a cause of inadequate diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion in breath tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Vonk, RJ; Pasterkamp, S; de Bruijn, S; Stellaard, F

    Background: Lactose maldigestion is usually diagnosed by means of the H-2 breath test. When C-13-lactose is used as substrate, a (CO2)-C-13 breath rest can be performed simultaneously. In an earlier publication we described the relation between both the H2 and (CO2)-C-13 exhalation in breath and the

  14. Liver involvement in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: can breath test unmask impaired hepatic first-pass effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelli, Marcello; Pompili, Maurizio; Suppressa, Patrizia; Lenato, Gennaro M; Bosco, Giulia; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Scardapane, Arnaldo; Sabbà, Carlo

    2012-08-01

    Hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs) in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have long been considered to have scarce clinical significance in most cases. Nevertheless, data are lacking regarding the influence of HAVMs on the liver first-pass effect on drugs in HHT patients. To gain insight into the effect of HAVMs on hepatic drug clearance by means of two specific (13)C-labeled probes, namely the (13)C-methacetin and (13)C-aminopyrine, 46 HHT patients and 44-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The liver first-pass effect was studied by the (13)C-based breath test using methacetin and aminopyrine. The methacetin breath test showed statistically significant reduced metabolism rates (p test values are significantly lower than those found in normal subjects, probably due to the effect of hepatic shunts. A reduced perfusion and an impaired hepatic metabolism might affect hepatic drug clearance in HHT. Therefore, an appropriate dosage adjustments should be considered when high-hepatic-metabolism drugs are administered to HHT patients.

  15. Hypersonic propulsion flight tests as essential to air-breathing aerospace plane development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, U.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric acclerators for transportation from low Earth orbits (LEOs). The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. Near-full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computation-design technology that can be used in designing that system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  16. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1994-01-01

    Hypersonic air-breathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can fundamentally change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitations of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing a prototype hypersonic propulsion system and for developing computational-design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests. A road map for achieving these objectives is also presented.

  17. Calcium [¹³C]carbonate breath test for quantitative measurement of total gastric acid in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Makoto; Kunizaki, Jun-ichi; Tobita, Kazuki; Akamatsu, Suguru; Sato, Hitoshi

    2012-02-01

    A traditional measurement of gastric acid, involving nasogastric intubation of stomach and acid suction, has been suggested as a gold standard. However, this causes the patient discomfort and cost increase, and is 'time-consuming'. A calcium [(13)C]carbonate (Ca(13)CO(3)) breath test was carried out in rats without or with concomitant drugs omeprazole (OMP) and pentagastrin (PG) known as an inhibitor and an inducer of acid, respectively. This test was aimed at evaluating a correlation between the breath response and the total amount of gastric acid. To search for an absorption pathway of (13)CO(2) gas produced by the reaction of Ca(13)CO(3) with hydrochloric acid in the stomach of rats, we compared the breath responses after intra-gastric administration of (13)CO(2) gas and sodium [(13)C]bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). A linear relationship of the breath parameter (breath-C(max)) with the dose of Ca(13)CO(3) was obtained in the range of 4-200 µmol/kg. However, theses parameters were saturated at >200 µmol/kg. The direct correlation between the breath-C(max) and the total amount of gastric acid in rats with or without OMPs or PG (r = 0.994) demonstrated that the change in breath response is an accurate or sensitive indicator of the total amount of gastric acid. (13)CO(2) gas generated in the rat stomach was likely to diffuse across the stomach wall as (13)CO(2) gas directly into the blood plasma. The present study showed that Ca(13)CO(3) breath test is a good tool to accurately predict the total amount of gastric acid.

  18. Expanding analytical options in sports drug testing: Mass spectrometric detection of prohibited substances in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-08-15

    Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls. A multi-analyte sports drug testing approach configured for a subset of 12 model compounds that represent specific classes of substances prohibited in sports (anabolic agents, hormone and metabolic modulators, stimulants, and beta-blockers) was established using unispray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and applied to spiked and elimination study EB samples. The test method was characterized concerning specificity, assay imprecision, and limits of detection. The EB collection device allowed for retaining and extracting all selected model compounds from the EB aerosol. Following elution and concentration, LC/MS/MS analysis enabled detection limits between 5 and 100 pg/filter and imprecisions ranging from 3% to 20% for the 12 selected model compounds. By means of EB samples from patients and participants of administration studies, the elimination of relevant compounds and, thus, their traceability in EB for doping control purposes, was investigated. Besides stimulants such as methylhexaneamine and pseudoephedrine, also the anabolic-androgenic steroid dehydrochloromethyltestosterone, the metabolic modulator meldonium, and the beta-blocker bisoprolol was detected in exhaled breath. The EB aerosol has provided a promising proof-of-concept suggesting the expansion of this testing strategy as a complement to currently utilized sports drug

  19. Maximal stress test performance while wearing a self-contained breathing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, P.B.; Davis, T.O.; Shafer, C.L.; Linnebur, A.C.

    1977-12-01

    Fifteen adult male volunteers (mean age = 31.0 years; eight non-smokers and seven smokers) carried out a Bruce protocol maximal treadmill stress test under four separate conditions. These four conditions were (1) without Scott Air Pak (SAP) respirator; (2) with SAP respirator apparatus but not wearing face mask; (3) with SAP apparatus, wearing face mask in ''demand'' breathing mode; and (4) with SAP respirator apparatus, wearing face mask in ''pressure-demand'' breathing mode. The data indicate that the overriding factor in the approximately 20% decrement in work performance during conditions 2, 3, and 4 was related to the weight of the SAP respirator (15.8 kg), P < 0.05. Only during condition 3 did eight of 15 subjects report lack of air as one reason for termination. Conditions 3 and 4 resulted in a significant decrease in T/sub Fore/ (2.5/sup 0/C) and was primarily related to the decreased T/sub insp/ which reached a maximum decrement of 9.7/sup 0/C. Under all conditions the smokers' work time was significantly less than nonsmokers, P < 0.05.

  20. Does low dose13C-urea breath test maintain a satisfactory accuracy in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Vaz Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The standard doses of 13C-urea in 13C-urea breath test is 75 mg. OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 13C-urea breath test containing 25 mg of 13C-urea comparing with the standard doses of 75 mg in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Two hundred seventy adult patients (96 males, 174 females, median age 41 years performed the standard 13C-urea breath test (75 mg 13C-urea and repeated the 13C-urea breath test using only 25 mg of 13C-urea within a 2 week interval. The test was performed using an infrared isotope analyzer. Patients were considered positive if delta over baseline was >4.0‰ at the gold standard test. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one (59.6% patients were H. pylori negative and 109 (40.4% were positive by the gold standard test. Using receiver operating characteristic analysis we established a cut-off value of 3.4% as the best value of 25 mg 13C-urea breath test to discriminate positive and negative patients, considering the H. pylori prevalence (95% CI: 23.9-37.3 at our setting. Therefore, we obtained to 25 mg 13C-urea breath test a diagnostic accuracy of 92.9% (95% CI: 88.1-97.9, sensitivity 83.5% (95% CI: 75.4-89.3, specificity 99.4% (95% CI: 96.6-99.9, positive predictive value 98.3% (95% CI: 92.4-99.4, and negative predictive value 93.0% (95% CI: 88.6-96.1. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose 13C-urea breath test (25 mg 13C-urea does not reach accuracy sufficient to be recommended in clinical setting where a 30% prevalence of H. pylori infection is observed. Further studies should be done to determine the diagnostic accuracy of low doses of 13C-urea in the urea breath test.

  1. [13C] phenylalanine breath test and hepatic phenylalanine metabolism enzymes in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W; Sun, D; Lin, X; Jiang, Y; Sun, X

    2005-10-01

    Stable isotope 13C-labelled phenylalanine breath test has been applied to enable the quantitative evaluation of hepatic functional reserve, but the mechanism underlying the changes in function has not been resolved. This study evaluated the correlation between expression of the mRNA of key enzymes mediating phenylalanine metabolism and the metabolism of L-[1-13C] phenylalanine (13C-phe) assessed by the excretion of 13C-CO2 in the breath of rats with, and without, chronic hepatic injury induced by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n = 29) were given subcutaneous injections of CCl4 to induce chronic hepatic injury. L-[1-13C] phenylalanine breath tests (PheBT) were then applied to the rats to assess hepatic function. Expression of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PHH) and tyrosine transaminase (TYT) mRNA in liver was detected by real-time fluorescence quantification RT-PCR, using TaqMan as the probe. It was then determined whether the PheBT results correlated with PHH and/or TYT mRNA expression. In addition, immunohistochemical labelling was used to visualize PHH protein expression in the control and injured liver tissue. There were significant decreases in PheBT and PHH mRNA expression in the cirrhotic rats relative to the uninjured controls and these two measures of liver function were correlated. However, TYT mRNA expression was not changed by CCl4-induced liver injury. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PHH protein was expressed predominantly in the cytoplasm of liver cells. The results of the PheBT were consistent with the changes in PHH gene expression following liver injury. The present findings indicate that decreased expression of the rate-limiting enzyme PHH, but not of TYT, might underlie the functional deficits detected as decreased PheBT. The 13C excretion rate constant per mass liver (PheBT-k/LW) was the most sensitive index that could be used to evaluate the PHH mRNA expression in the liver.

  2. Usefulness of 13C-methacetin breath test in liver function testing in Amanita phalloides poisoning; breast feeding woman case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydzik, Piotr; Bielañski, Władysław; Ponka, Małgorzata; Wójcicki, Maciej; Lubikowski, Jerzy; Pach, Janusz; Pawlik, Wiesłan

    2008-12-01

    Mortality from ingestion of the mushroom Amanita phalloides still remains as high as 8-10%. In critical patients, liver dialysis can bridge the patient to liver transplantation, which may be a lifesaving procedure. We report the use of 13C-methacetin breath test (13C-MBT) in monitoring hepatic function in a case of A. phalloides poisoning. A 33-year-old woman ate mushrooms that she had picked. After 8 h, she developed nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea, which lasted for another 24 h. On the third day, features of liver injury were seen. Pharmacologic therapy failed and she underwent liver dialysis on days 4 and 5. A 13C-MBT was used to evaluate hepatic functional reserve before the first and after the second dialysis. A liver transplantation on day 6 was successful. The breath test results showed that at 40 min after substrate ingestion the mean 13C-MBT cumulative oxidation percentage was 10.5 +/- 3.8% in healthy controls, whereas in our patient this parameter decreased from 0.09% on the fourth day to 0.02% on the fifth day. 13C-MBT is a simple, non-invasive diagnostic tool which may be useful as a predictor of outcome and as a marker of the severity of liver damage.

  3. Evaluation of a simple non-invasive 13C breath test to evaluate diet effects on gastric emptying in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2010-01-01

    A study was carried out to validate gastric emptying using non-invasive 13C breath test against total evacuation of the stomach content through a gastric cannulae. Three different diets were used; a high soluble fibre diet based on sugar beet pulp, a high insoluble fibre diet based on wheat bran ...... of the gastric content. Thus, the breath test is applicable for evaluating dietary effects on gastric emptying and potentially improves the behaviour and well being of gestating sows and lends confidence to applicability in clinical human trials....

  4. Relationship between postoperative erythromycin breath test and early morbidity in liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Rasmussen, Allan; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interindividual variability in dosage requirements of the calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressive agents cyclosporine and tacrolimus after liver transplantation may result from differences in the CYP3A activity of the liver graft. Early postoperative erythromycin breath test (ERMBT......) is an in vivo measure of graft CYP3A activity. This study evaluates the usefulness of an early postoperative ERMBT in predicting early morbidity in liver transplant recipients. METHODS: In 26 liver transplant recipients, ERMBT was performed within 2 hr after transplantation. Main end points were the occurrence...... with low postoperative ERMBT values (0.21%+/-0.15% 14C/hr vs. 1.09%+/-0.72% 14C/hr, P=0.002). CONCLUSION: An early postoperative ERMBT may be useful in predicting the development of cyclosporine and tacrolimus nephrotoxicity, severe graft dysfunction, or even graft loss in liver transplant recipients when...

  5. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori by carbon-13 urea breath test using a portable mass spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sreekumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the non-invasive detection of markers of disease, mass spectrometry is able to detect small quantities of volatile markers in exhaled air. However, the problem of size, expense and immobility of conventional mass spectrometry equipment has restricted its use. Now, a smaller, less expensive, portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system has been developed. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in the development of chronic gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. Objectives: To compare the results obtained from the presence of H. pylori by a carbon-13 urea test using a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer system with those from a fixed mass spectrometer in a hospital-based clinical trial. Methods: Following ethical approval, 45 patients attending a gastroenterology clinic at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital exhaled a breath sample into a Tedlar gas sampling bag. They then drank an orange juice containing urea radiolabelled with carbon and 30 min later gave a second breath sample. The carbon-13 content of both samples was measured using both quadrupole mass spectrometer systems. If the post-drink level exceeded the pre-drink level by 3% or more, a positive diagnosis for the presence of H. pylori was made. Results: The findings were compared to the results using conventional isotope ratio mass spectrometry using a laboratory-based magnetic sector instrument off-site. The results showed agreement in 39 of the 45 patients. Conclusions: This study suggests that a portable quadrupole mass spectrometer is a potential alternative to the conventional centralised testing equipment. Future development of the portable quadrupole mass spectrometer to reduce further its size and cost is indicated, together with further work to validate this new equipment and to enhance its use in mass spectrometry diagnosis of other medical conditions.

  6. Breath test measurements in combination with indirect calorimetry for estimation of 13C-leucine oxidation in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla; Kanska, Katarzyna

    2000-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements by means of indirect calorimetry can be used to calculate quantitative substrate oxidation. The results represents average net oxidation values (substrate disappearance rate), but they cannot describe the dynamics of the oxidation processes. Breath test measurements...... to feeding and fasting. Twelve 1-year-old male mink (Mustela vison) were measured in each five consecutive periods by means of indirect calorimetry and simultaneous breath test. In Periods 1, 3 and 5, each lasting 3 days, the animals were fed ad libitum and Periods 2 and 4 were fasting periods, each of 48 h...... before measurements started and expired air was then sucked out of the respiration chamber and collected into breath bags at frequent intervals until 5.5 h after the start of measurements. The ratio of 13C/12C was measured by means of an IRIS infrared analyser and results are reported in terms of delta...

  7. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the saliva...

  8. "VALIDATION OF 13C-UREA BREATH TEST WITH NON DISPERSIVE ISOTOPE SELECTIVE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION: A SURVEY IN IRANIAN POPULATION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Davood Beiki

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The urea breath test (UBT which is carried out with 13C or 14C labeled urea is one of the most important non invasive methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. Application of 13C-UBT is becoming increasingly popular because of its non radioactive nature which makes it suitable for diagnostic purposes in children and women of child bearing ages. While isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS is generally used to detect 13C in expired breath, this instrument is expensive and recently non dispersive isotope selective infrared (NDIR spectroscopy which is a lower cost technique has been employed as a reliable counterpart for IRMS in small clinics. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of NDIR spectroscopy technique in Iranian population in comparison with histological examination, rapid urease test and 14C-urea breath test as gold standard. Seventy six patients with dyspepsia were underwent 13CUBT for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Good agreements were found between the 13C-UBT and gold standard methods. The 13C-UBT showed 100% sensitivity, 97.3% specificity, 97.56% positive predictive value, 100% negative predictive value and 98.65% accuracy. On the basis of these results it could be concluded that 13C-UBT performed with NDIR spectroscopy is a reliable, accurate and non invasive diagnostic tool for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the Iranian population.

  9. Assessment of hepatic detoxification activity: proposal of an improved variant of the (13c-methacetin breath test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann-Georg Holzhütter

    Full Text Available Breath tests based on the administration of a (13C-labeled drug and subsequent monitoring of (13CO2 in the breath (quantified as DOB - delta over baseline liberated from the drug during hepatic CPY-dependent detoxification are important tools in liver function diagnostics. The capability of such breath tests to reliably indicate hepatic CYP performance is limited by the fact that (13CO2 is not exclusively exhaled but also exchanged with other compartments of the body. In order to assess this bias caused by variations of individual systemic CO2 kinetics we administered intravenously the test drug (13C-methacetin to 25 clinically liver-healthy individuals and monitored progress curves of DOB and the plasma concentration of (13C-methacetin. Applying compartment modelling we estimated for each individual a set of kinetic parameters characterizing the time-dependent exchange of the drug and of CO2 with the liver and non-hepatic body compartments. This analysis revealed that individual variations in the kinetics of CO2 may account for up to 30% deviation of DOB curve parameters from their mean at otherwise identical (13C-methacetin metabolization rates. In order to correct for this bias we introduced a novel detoxification score which ideally should be assessed from the DOB curve of a 2-step test ("2DOB" which is initialized with the injection of a standard dose of (13C-labeled bicarbonate (in order to provide information on the actual CO2 status of the individual followed by injection of the (13C-labeled test drug (the common procedure. Computer simulations suggest that the predictive power of the proposed 2DOB breath test to reliably quantity the CYP-specific hepatic detoxification activity should be significantly higher compared to the conventional breath test.

  10. A geochemical examination of humidity cell tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maest, Ann; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Humidity cell tests (HCTs) are long-term (20 to >300 weeks) leach tests that are considered by some to be the among the most reliable geochemical characterization methods for estimating the leachate quality of mined materials. A number of modifications have been added to the original HCT method, but the interpretation of test results varies widely. We suggest that the HCTs represent an underutilized source of geochemical data, with a year-long test generating approximately 2500 individual chemical data points. The HCT concentration peaks and valleys can be thought of as a “chromatogram” of reactions that may occur in the field, whereby peaks in concentrations are associated with different geochemical processes, including sulfate salt dissolution, sulfide oxidation, and dissolution of rock-forming minerals, some of which can neutralize acid. Some of these reactions occur simultaneously, some do not, and geochemical modeling can be used to help distinguish the dominant processes. Our detailed examination, including speciation and inverse modeling, of HCTs from three projects with different geology and mineralization shows that rapid sulfide oxidation dominates over a limited period of time that starts between 40 and 200 weeks of testing. The applicability of laboratory tests results to predicting field leachate concentrations, loads, or rates of reaction has not been adequately demonstrated, although early flush releases and rapid sulfide oxidation rates in HCTs should have some relevance to field conditions. Knowledge of possible maximum solute concentrations is needed to design effective treatment and mitigation approaches. Early flush and maximum sulfide oxidation results from HCTs should be retained and used in environmental models. Factors that complicate the use of HCTs include: sample representation, time for microbial oxidizers to grow, sample storage before testing, geochemical reactions that add or remove constituents, and the HCT results chosen for use

  11. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L. [Radiation Safety Engineering, Inc., Chandler, AZ (United States)

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS{reg_sign}) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. Profiles developed for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills.

  12. The 13carbon urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in subjects with atrophic gastritis: evaluation in a primary care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for

  13. Comparison of an increased waist circumference with a positive hydrogen breath test as a clinical predictor of lactose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Castilleja, Carlos A; Montes-Tapia, Fernando F; Treviño-Garza, Consuelo; Martínez-Cobos, María C; García-Cantú, Jesús; Arenas-Fabbri, Vincenzo; de la O-Escamilla, Norma; de la O-Cavazos, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Lactose intolerance is a common disease in pediatrics, and its wrong diagnosis will lead to morbidity. The primary objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of an increased waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test as a predictor of lactose intolerance. The secondary objective was to analyze the impact of body mass index, waist circumference measurement, and age on the abdominal distension of patients with lactose intolerance. A total of 138 subjects aged 3 to 15 years were included. They underwent serial measurements of the waist circumference and hydrogen levels in the breath every 30 minutes over 3 hours during the hydrogen breath test. Out of the entire sample, 35 (25.4%) patients had lactose intolerance. An increase of 0.85 cm in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference results in a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 85% to predict lactose intolerance (odds ratio: 42.14, 95% confidence interval: 13.08-135.75, p ≤ 0.001). The body mass index and waist circumference measurement did not affect abdominal distension (p= not significant); however, age modified the time of distension. A 0.85 cm increase in waist circumference compared to the baseline waist circumference during the hydrogen breath test is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of lactose intolerance in pediatrics. Variations in relation to body mass index and waist circumference did not affect the usefulness of an increased waist circumference, unlike age.

  14. Stable isotope biomarker breath tests for human metabolic and infectious diseases: a review of recent patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Graham S

    2016-12-01

    Stable isotope breath tests can rapidly and quantitatively report metabolic phenotypes and disease in both humans and microbes in situ. The labelled compound is administered and acted upon by human or microbial metabolism, producing a labelled gas that is detected in exhaled breath. Areas covered: This review details the unique advantages (and disadvantages) of phenotypic stable isotope based breath tests. A review of recent US patent applications and prosecutions since 2010 is conducted. Finally, current clinical trials, product pipelines and approved products are discussed. Expert opinion: Stable isotope breath tests offer new approaches for rapid and minimally invasive detection and study of metabolic phenotypes, both human and microbial. The patent literature has developed considerably in the last 6 years, with over 30 patent applications made. Rates of issuance remain high, although rejections citing 35 U.S.C. §101(subject matter eligibility), §102 (novelty), §103 (obviousness) and §112 (description, enablement and best mode) have occurred. The prior art is significantly greater for human metabolism than microbial, and may drive differing rates of future issuance. These biomarker and diagnostic tools can enable optimization of drug doses, diagnosis of metabolic disease and its progression, and detection of infectious disease and optimize its treatment.

  15. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  16. Deep breathing: A simple test for white coat effect detection in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomičić, Marion; Petric, Dragomir; Rumboldt, Mirjana; Carević, Vedran; Rumboldt, Zvonko

    2015-06-01

    White coat hypertension (WCH) is hard to differentiate from sustained hypertension without the use of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). This invaluable procedure is nevertheless cumbersome and expensive. A simple test of deep breathing over 30 s (DBT) was proposed as a method to unveil WCH. Two hundred and fourteen outpatients referred for the evaluation of uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure, BP > 140/90 mmHg despite therapy) were enrolled in a controlled clinical trial. The examinees were randomly divided in two groups: control (n = 108; sequential standard BP measurement only) and intervention (n = 106; the same+DBT), using ABPM as the reference standard. The relative decrease in BP was significantly larger in the intervention group than in the control group, by 15/4 mmHg (p = 0.005). The best detection of WCH was obtained at ≥ 15% systolic BP reduction following DBT, with a positive predictive value of 94.0% (95% CI 72.0-100.0). BP reduction of ≤ 8% may rule WCH out with a negative predictive value of 78.4% (95% CI 64.0 - 85.9). DBT is a reliable, inexpensive and fast test for the detection of WCH in primary care.

  17. An innovative lung model for multiple breath washout testing in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Pinelopi; Vomsattel, Sarah; Kentgens, Anne-Christiane; Guidi, Marisa; Binggeli, Severin; Kohler, Lena; Singer, Florian; Latzin, Philipp; Obrist, Dominik

    2017-11-10

    Multiple breath washout (MBW) is a lung function test that identifies the degree of ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) in the lungs. In vitro validation of MBW devices is recommended. So far, plastic lung models for MBW validation ignored variable degrees of VI. Our primary aim was to create a plastic lung model applicable for physiological lung volumes and variable VI. A plastic box divided in two chambers was filled with water and ventilated in various lung volumes and respiratory rates. A ventilator was used for efficient gas distribution (model with low VI). An additional divider was inserted to create a model with high VI. The model was connected to commercial MBW devices and measurements were performed using different tracer gases and conditions. Primary outcome was the precision of generated functional residual capacity (FRC) and the ability to generate variable VI. The latter was estimated by lung clearance index (LCI) and expiratory phase III slopes (SIII). LCI was also compared to a mathematical model. The intra-test variability for FRC was minimal, mean(SD) coefficient of variation 0.96(0.63)%, using different tracer gases under different conditions. Compared to the model with low VI, in the model with high VI LCI and washout SIII were significantly increased. LCI compared well to the mathematical model. This novel lung model shows excellent precision in lung volumes and VI estimates independent of tracer gases and conditions. The model can mimic the lungs of patients with uneven gas distribution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Additional Value of CH4 Measurement in a Combined 13C/H2 Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H2) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined 13C/H2 lactose breath test that measures breath 13CO2 as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H2 and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 13C/H2 lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH4 in addition to H2 and 13CO2. Based on the 13C/H2 breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH4 further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H2-excretion were found to excrete CH4. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH4-concentrations has an added value to the 13C/H2 breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. PMID:26371034

  19. [Clinical and experimental studies on gastrointestinal motility following total colectomy: direct measurement (strain gauge force transducer method, barium method) and indirect measurement (hydrogen breath test, acetaminophen method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, H; Koh, K

    1991-04-01

    In a clinical study, we examined the clinical assessment of bowel function and lactulose hydrogen breath test in 14 patients after total colectomy. All patients within one year after ileostomy closure had 'poor' function and showed no increase of hydrogen breath gas concentration. 10 of 12 patients more than one year showed increase of hydrogen breath gas concentration, and 8 of them had 'fair' function. The oro-neorectal transit time (ONTT) in 'poor' group was shorter than in 'fair' group and control (p less than 0.05). The increase of hydrogen breath gas suggests changes of bacterial flora and colonization of the remained ileum. In an experimental study, we performed subtotal colectomy with the J-pouch reservoir in 11 dogs. We examined ONTT with barium method, gastric emptying with acetaminophen method, and gastrointestinal motility with strain gauge force transducers. Although ONTT at one month after operation had been shorter than control, ONTT at 3 and 6 months became longer than at one month. The gastric emptying after subtotal colectomy was significantly slower than control. Although the propagation velocity of interdigestive migrating complex (IMC) in the jejunum and ileum at 2 weeks had been faster than control, the velocity at 4 weeks and 3 months became slower than at 2 weeks. The frequency of IMC and prolonged propagated contraction in the J-pouch reservoir decreased. The specimen of J-pouch reservoir resected at 6 months showed villous atrophy, crypt elongation, decrease of muscle layers thickness and disappearance of solitary follicles. Therefore, the suppressed motility in each sites of the gastrointestinal tract, increase of anaerobic and colonization of the ileum implied 'adaptation' after total colectomy.

  20. Applicability of a short/rapid 13C-urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori: retrospective multicenter chart review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmilovitz-Weiss Hemda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon labeled urea breath tests usually entail a two point sampling with a 20 to 30-minute gap. Our aim was to evaluate the duration of time needed for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori by the BreathID® System. Methods This is a retrospective multicenter chart review study. Test location, date, delta over baseline, and duration of the entire test were recorded. Consecutively 13C urea breath tests results were extracted from the files over a nine year period. Results Of the 12,791 tests results, 35.1% were positively diagnosed and only 0.1% were inconclusive. A statistically significant difference in prevalence among the countries was found: Germany showing the lowest, 13.3%, and Israel the highest, 44.1%. Significant differences were found in time to diagnosis: a positive diagnosis had the shortest and an inconclusive result had the longest. Overall test duration averaged 15.1 minutes in Germany versus approximately 13 minutes in other countries. Diagnosis was achieved after approximately 9 minutes in Israel, Italy and Switzerland, but after 10 on average in the others. The mean delta over baseline value for a negative diagnosis was 1.03 ± 0.86, (range, 0.9 - 5, versus 20.2 ± 18.9, (range, 5.1 - 159.4 for a positive one. Conclusions The BreathID® System used in diagnosing Helicobacter pylori can safely shorten test duration on average of 10-13 minutes without any loss of sensitivity or specificity and with no test lasting more than 21 minutes.

  1. 13C-Urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Ralf; Becker, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background The 13C-urea breath test (UBT) is performed in adults and children with epigastric pain for non-invasively diagnosing a suspected H. pylori infection. Criteria for UBT interpretation have not been generally agreed on and test reliability has not been established in children of different ages. This study aimed at identifying reliable UBT thresholds in children by using 251 UBTs in conjunction with reference histology and by analyzing 1232 UBTs. Methods At baseline and 30 an...

  2. The impact of daily evaluation and spontaneous breathing test on the duration of pediatric mechanical ventilation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Flávia K; Troster, Eduardo J; Farias, Julio A; Barbas, Carmen S; Ferraro, Alexandre A; Faria, Lucília S; Bousso, Albert; Panico, Flávia F; Delgado, Artur F

    2011-11-01

    To assess whether the combination of daily evaluation and use of a spontaneous breathing test could shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with weaning based on our standard of care. Secondary outcome measures included extubation failure rate and the need for noninvasive ventilation. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Two pediatric intensive care units at university hospitals in Brazil. The trial involved children between 28 days and 15 yrs of age who were receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hrs. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two weaning protocols. In the test group, the children underwent a daily evaluation to check readiness for weaning with a spontaneous breathing test with 10 cm H2O pressure support and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O for 2 hrs. The spontaneous breathing test was repeated the next day for children who failed it. In the control group, weaning was performed according to standard care procedures. A total of 294 eligible children were randomized, with 155 to the test group and 139 to the control group. The time to extubation was shorter in the test group, where the median mechanical ventilation duration was 3.5 days (95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 4.0) as compared to 4.7 days (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 5.3) in the control group (p = .0127). This significant reduction in the mechanical ventilation duration for the intervention group was not associated with increased rates of extubation failure or noninvasive ventilation. It represents a 30% reduction in the risk of remaining on mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio: 0.70). A daily evaluation to check readiness for weaning combined with a spontaneous breathing test reduced the mechanical ventilation duration for children on mechanical ventilation for >24 hrs, without increasing the extubation failure rate or the need for noninvasive ventilation.

  3. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD? 40.243 Section 40.243 Transportation Office of the...-evidential breath ASD? As the BAT or STT, you must take the following steps: (a) Select, or allow the...

  4. Electrocardiogram Testing During Athletic Preparticipation Physical Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel P.; Knoblauch, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a relatively rare yet unfortunate risk of athletic participation. To reduce the incidence of SCD, electrocardiogram (ECG) use during athletic preparticipation examinations (PPEs) has been proposed to detect underlying cardiac abnormalities. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of ECG use during athletic PPEs. Design: Epidemiologic modeling. Populations: Public high school athletes. Data Collection and Analysis: Estimates of ECG sensitivity (70%) and specificity (84%) were drawn from the literature, as was the estimate of overall prevalence of cardiac conditions relevant to SCD (0.3%). Participation rate by sex was determined from National Federation of State High School Associations data. Participation by ethnicity was assumed to be proportionate to the public high school attendance rates for grades 9 through 12 (18.4% African American). Population-specific ECG effectiveness (positive predictive value), estimated total costs, cost per year of life saved, and cost to identify 1 additional case were computed. Total annual PPE screening costs reflected a cardiologist's office visit, including echocardiogram for those athletes with a positive ECG screen. Results: The model predicted that 16% of all athletes would be expected to have a positive ECG, but only 1.3% of athletes with a positive ECG would have a cardiac abnormality capable of causing SCD, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, structural defects, and various conduction abnormalities. Total annual cost estimates for ECG screening and follow-up exceeded $126 million. Average cost per year of life saved across groups was $2693, and the cost to identify 1 additional case averaged $100 827. Compared with females, males had both lower cost per year of life saved and lower cost to identify 1 true case. Similarly, black males exhibited lower costs than white males. Across groups, false-positive ECG screening exams accounted for 98.8% of follow-up costs

  5. CLAD/BCLAD Examinations. Test Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Commission on Teacher Credentialing, Sacramento.

    This draft handbook provides descriptions and summaries of the six tests that California elementary and secondary teachers must pass to earn the Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development (CLAD) or Bilingual, Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development (BCLAD) certificates. The six tests include: (1) "Language Structure and…

  6. DYNAMIC CHANGES IN SPECTRAL HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PACED BREATHING TEST IN PATIENT WITH UNCONTROLLED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND POLYMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oyeleye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of a patient with uncontrolled hypertension and polymorbidity. The paced breathing test was made, was found prevalence of low frequency influences at the initial stage and its intensification at the resting stage, growth of the total power of heart rate variability spectrum (TP with respiratory modulation. The course of the disease worsened the appearance of new-onset atrial fibrillation (registered paroxysm on Holter monitoring; the general deterioration of the patient’s state reflected HRV changes on sinus rhythm tracing - significantly reduced TP growth in response to paced breathing, an increase in LF/HF (ratio of low frequency to high frequency waves, as well as switching to the neurohormonal level of heart rate regulation at the resting stage. After the treatment the growth of TP in response to the test has increased and LF/HF level has decreased.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of the 14C-urea breath test in Helicobacter pylori infections: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiaohui; Li, Ling; Ai, Yaowei; Pan, Zhihong; Guo, Mingwen; Han, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    To summarize and appraise the available literature regarding the use of the 14C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections in adult patients with dyspepsia and to calculate pooled diagnostic accuracy measures. We systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Chinese Journals Full-text (CNKI) and CBMDisc databases to identify published data regarding the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of diagnostic accuracy of the 14C-urea breath test in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infections in adult patients with dyspeptic symptoms. Risk of bias was assessed using the QUADAS (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies)-2 tool. Statistical analyses were performed using Meta-Disc 1.4 software and STATA. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled results indicated that the 14C-urea breath test showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 0.96 (95% CI 0.95 to 0.96) and specificity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.94). The positive like ratio (PLR) was 12.27 (95% CI 8.17 to 18.44), the negative like ratio (NLR) was 0.05 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.07), and the area under the curve was 0.985. The DOR was 294.95 (95% CI 178.37 to 487.70). The 14C-urea breath test showed sufficient sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection, but unexplained heterogeneity after meta-regression and several subgroup analyses remained. The UBT has high accuracy for diagnosing H. pylori infections in adult patients with dyspepsia. However, the reliability of these diagnostic meta-analytic estimates is limited by significant heterogeneity due to unknown factors.

  8. Polysomnography test and sleep disordered breathing in Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea- Iulia Dobrescu1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Prader Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare condition and represents the most frequent cause of syndromic obesity. Sleep apnea is a life-threatening affection and is documented as the main cause of sudden death in PWS. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of our study was to evaluate sleep disorders in PWS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS We used a portable monitor that recorded time in bed (TIB, the air flow in the upper airways, oxygen saturation, heart rate and snoring. The included patients had a positive clinical and molecular diagnosis of PWS. RESULTS The mean of TIB was 439.3±117.19 minutes. We recorded obstructive, central and mixed apnea, hypopnea and short wakes caused by respiratory events that were variable number and duration, in all patients. cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improved life quality. Moreover, small doses of these drugs proved to be effective even in patients where hemodialysis alone was enough to control blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Sleep disorders are present in most PWS patients, not only obese ones according to their anatomical particularities. These events prevent the use of growth hormone therapy, the only available treatment that decreases the adipose mass and increase both prognosis and life quality in PWS patients. Graphical abstract: Polysomnography Test in a PWS patient. REFERENCES 1. Vandeleur M, Davey MJ, Nixon GM. Are sleep studies helpful in children with Prader-Willi syndrome prior to commencement of growth hormone therapy? J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49:238–41. 2. Giordano L, Toma S, Palonta F, Teggi R, Zucconi M, Candia SD, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in Prader-Willi syndrome: risks and advantages of adenotonsillectomy. Pediatr Med Chir. 2015;37(2. 3. Pavone M, Caldarelli V, Khirani S, Colella M, Ramirez A, Aubertin G, et al. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome: A multicenter study. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2015;50:1354–9

  9. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  11. Advantages of breath testing for the early diagnosis of lung cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Sule-Suso, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 255-257 ISSN 1473-7159 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * breath analysis * lung cancer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2010

  12. Evaluation of (CO2)-C-13 breath tests for the detection of fructose malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, JH; VandenAker, JHL; Kneepkens, CMF; Stellaard, F; Geypens, B; Ghoos, YF

    Breath hydrogen (H-2) studies have made clear that small intestinal absorption of fructose is limited, especially in toddlers. Malabsorption of fructose may be a cause of recurrent abdominal pain and chronic nonspecific diarrhea (toddler's diarrhea). Fructose absorption is facilitated by equimolar

  13. Masking of 13C urea breath test by proton pump inhibitors is dependent on type of medication: comparison between omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, A; Shevah, O; Shabat-Sehayek, V; Aeed, H; Boaz, M; Moss, S F; Niv, Y; Avni, Y; Shirin, H

    2004-07-01

    The need to withhold acid suppression therapy while awaiting urea breath test results is a common clinical problem in symptomatic patients. It is unclear at present if the dose or type of proton pump inhibitor or the type of test meal govern the apparent masking effect of proton pump inhibitors on the urea breath test. To prospectively evaluate Helicobacter pylori detection rates during treatment with four different proton pump inhibitors, utilizing a high-dose citric acid-based 13C urea breath test. Patients positive for Helicobacter pylori by urea breath test were randomized to receive either omeprazole 20 mg/day, pantoprazole 40 mg/day, lansoprazole 30 mg/day or esomeprazole 40 mg/day for 14 days. A repeat breath test was performed on day 14 of treatment. One hundred and seventy-nine patients, mean age 45.8 +/- 16.8, completed the study. Treatment with omeprazole or pantoprazole prior to urea breath test (UBT) was associated with low false negative results, while lansoprazole and esomeprazole caused clinically unacceptable high false negative rates (pantoprazole 2.2% vs. lansoprazole 16.6%, P = 0.02, vs. esomeprazole 13.6%, P = 0.05; omeprazole 4.1% vs. lansoprazole 16.6%, P = 0.05). Proton pump inhibitor-induced false negative results on high-dose citric acid based urea breath test vary with the type of proton pump inhibitor used. Selection of the appropriate test meal and proton pump inhibitor may allow symptomatic individuals to continue their proton pump inhibitors prior to performing a urea breath test.

  14. Does smoking abstinence influence distress tolerance? An experimental study comparing the response to a breath-holding test of smokers under tobacco withdrawal and under nicotine replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Anna Aldi, Giulia; Nardi, Antonio Egidio

    2015-09-30

    Distress tolerance has been operationalized as task persistence in stressful behavioral laboratory tasks. According to the distress tolerance perspective, how an individual responds to discomfort/distress predicts early smoking lapses. This theory seems weakly supported by experimental studies since they are limited in number, show inconsistent results, do not include control conditions. We tested the response to a stressful task in smokers under abstinence and under no abstinence to verify if tobacco abstinence reduces task persistence, thus distress tolerance. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used. Twenty smokers underwent a breath holding test after the administration of nicotine on one test day and a placebo on another test day. Physiological and psychological variables were assessed at baseline and directly before and after each challenge. Abstinence induced a statistically significant shorter breath holding duration relative to the nicotine condition. No different response to the breath holding test was observed when nicotine and placebo conditions were compared. No response to the breath holding test was found when pre- and post-test values of heart rate, blood pressure, Visual Analogue Scale for fear or discomfort were compared. In brief, tobacco abstinence reduces breath holding duration but breath holding test does not influence discomfort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abdominal adiposity and obstructive airway disease: testing insulin resistance and sleep disordered breathing mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haren Matthew T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined associations of abdominal adiposity with lung function, asthma symptoms and current doctor-diagnosed asthma and mediation by insulin resistance (IR and sleep disordered breathing (SDB. Methods A random sample of 2500 households was drawn from the community of Whyalla, South Australia (The Whyalla Intergenerational Study of Health, WISH February 2008 - July 2009. Seven-hundred twenty-two randomly selected adults (≥18 years completed clinical protocols (32.2% response rate. Lung function was measured by spirometry. Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC was used to measure airway obstruction and reversibility of FEV1 was calculated. Current asthma was defined by self-reported doctor-diagnosis and evidence of currently active asthma. Symptom scores for asthma (CASS and SDB were calculated. Intra-abdominal fat (IAF was estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. IR was calculated from fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results The prevalence of current doctor-diagnosed asthma was 19.9% (95% CI 16.7 – 23.5%. The ratio of observed to expected cases given the age and sex distribution of the population was 2.4 (95%CI 2.1, 2.9. IAF was not associated with current doctor-diagnosed asthma, FEV1/FVC or FEV1 reversibility in men or women but was positively associated with CASS independent of IR and SDB in women. A 1% increase in IAF was associated with decreases of 12 mL and 20 mL in FEV1 and FVC respectively in men, and 4 mL and 7 mL respectively in women. SDB mediated 12% and 26% of these associations respectively in men but had minimal effects in women. Conclusions In this population with an excess of doctor-diagnosed asthma, IAF was not a major factor in airway obstruction or doctor-diagnosed asthma, although women with higher IAF perceived more severe asthma symptoms which did not correlate with lower FEV1. Higher IAF was significantly associated with lower FEV1 and FVC and in men SDB

  16. Tidal volume single breath washout of two tracer gases--a practical and promising lung function test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Singer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small airway disease frequently occurs in chronic lung diseases and may cause ventilation inhomogeneity (VI, which can be assessed by washout tests of inert tracer gas. Using two tracer gases with unequal molar mass (MM and diffusivity increases specificity for VI in different lung zones. Currently washout tests are underutilised due to the time and effort required for measurements. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple technique for a new tidal single breath washout test (SBW of sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6 and helium (He using an ultrasonic flowmeter (USFM. METHODS: The tracer gas mixture contained 5% SF(6 and 26.3% He, had similar total MM as air, and was applied for a single tidal breath in 13 healthy adults. The USFM measured MM, which was then plotted against expired volume. USFM and mass spectrometer signals were compared in six subjects performing three SBW. Repeatability and reproducibility of SBW, i.e., area under the MM curve (AUC, were determined in seven subjects performing three SBW 24 hours apart. RESULTS: USFM reliably measured MM during all SBW tests (n = 60. MM from USFM reflected SF(6 and He washout patterns measured by mass spectrometer. USFM signals were highly associated with mass spectrometer signals, e.g., for MM, linear regression r-squared was 0.98. Intra-subject coefficient of variation of AUC was 6.8%, and coefficient of repeatability was 11.8%. CONCLUSION: The USFM accurately measured relative changes in SF(6 and He washout. SBW tests were repeatable and reproducible in healthy adults. We have developed a fast, reliable, and straightforward USFM based SBW method, which provides valid information on SF(6 and He washout patterns during tidal breathing.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of the carbon-13 urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, L; Blackhouse, G; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    This analysis aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of various testing strategies for Helicobacter pylori in patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia and to calculate the budgetary impact of these tests for the province of Ontario. Data on the sensitivity and specificity were obtained from the clinical evidence-based analysis. Resource items were obtained from expert opinion, and costs were applied on the basis of published sources as well as expert opinion. A decision analytic model was constructed to compare the costs and outcomes (false-positive results, false-negative results, and misdiagnoses avoided) of the carbon-13 (¹³C) urea breath test (UBT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology test, and a 2-step strategy of an ELISA serology test and a confirmatory ¹³C UBT based on the sensitivity and specificity of the tests and prevalence estimates. The 2-step strategy is more costly and more effective than the ELISA serology test and results in $210 per misdiagnosis case avoided. The ¹³C UBT is dominated by the 2-step strategy, i.e., it is more costly and less effective. The budget impact analysis indicates that it will cost $7.9 million more to test a volume of 129,307 patients with the ¹³C UBT than with ELISA serology, and $4.7 million more to test these patients with the 2-step strategy. The clinical studies that were pooled varied in the technique used to perform the breath test and in reference standards used to make comparisons with the breath test. However, these parameters were varied in a sensitivity analysis. The economic model was designed to consider intermediate outcomes only (i.e., misdiagnosed cases) and was not a complete model with final patient outcomes (e.g., quality-adjusted life years). Results indicate that the 2-step strategy could be economically attractive for the testing of H. pylori. However, testing with the 2-step strategy will cost the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care $4.7 million more than with the ELISA

  18. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  19. Validation of 13C-acetic acid breath test by measuring effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tashima, Kimihito; Uchida, Masayuki; Horie, Syunji

    2008-10-01

    Several methods are used to evaluate gastric motility in rodents, but they all have technical limitations. Recent technical developments enable a convenient method to evaluate gastric motility. The (13)C-acetic acid breath test in rodents is a non-invasive and repeatable method that can be used without physical restraints. The present study aimed to validate the (13)C-acetic acid breath test by measuring the effects of loperamide, morphine, mosapride, and itopride on gastric emptying in mice. Loperamide (1-10 mg/kg) and morphine (1.25-10 mg/kg) slowed gastric emptying and decreased the maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve (AUC(90 min)) value in a dose-dependent manner. Mosapride (0.2-5 mg/kg) accelerated gastric emptying and increased C(max) value. Mosapride (20 mg/kg) did not accelerate gastric emptying on the (13)C-breath test. Itopride (30 mg/kg, per os) significantly accelerated gastric emptying compared with the vehicle group. In a comparison with the conventional phenol red test, there was a correlation between the C(max) value of breath test and gastric emptying (%) of phenol red tests in treatment with loperamide or mosapride. These results indicate that the (13)C-acetic acid breath test is an accurate, noninvasive, and simple method for monitoring gastric emptying in mice. This method is useful to assess the effect of drugs and gut function pharmacologically.

  20. Simultaneous assessments of exocrine pancreatic function by cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and measurement of plasma p-aminobenzoic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruno, M. J.; Hoek, F. J.; Delzenne, B.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schteingart, C. D.; Hofmann, A. F.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1995-01-01

    Two noninvasive tests for assessing pancreatic exocrine function, the cholesteryl-[14C]octanoate breath test and the HPLCN-benzoyl-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid/p-aminosalicylic acid (NBT-PABA/PAS) test, were simultaneously performed in nine patients with pancreatic exocrine insufficiency due to

  1. An analysis of the mathematics school examination test quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sutrisno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe: (1 the quality of mathematics school examination test of the Junior High School for the academic year 2015/2016 in Kabupaten Bangkalan based on qualitative analysis of tests item, (2 the quality of mathematics school examination test of Junior High School for the academic year 2015/2016 in Kabupaten Bangkalan based on quantitative analysis of test items, and (3 the test equating on mathematics school examination test for the academic year of 2015/2016 of Junior High School in Kabupaten Bangkalan. A test is said to be quality if it fulfills validity, reliability, and it has good characteristic. A test is said to be equivalent to another if the test scores of one test can be exchanged with the scores of another test. The data is taken from school examination script accompanied with the answer sheets of students. Qualitative data analysis was conducted with the help of experts judgement. Quantitative data analysis was conducted with Classical Test Theory by Iteman and Item Response Theory by BilogMG. These programs are used to find out the test quality quantitatively. In order to analyze the equivalence between series of tests, item-characteristic curves were used. These curves were drawn by Geogebra. The research result shows: (1 qualitatively, the test plan quality of mathematics school examination test is quite good. Meanwhile, the school exam quality is quite good and not so good, (2 quantitatively, the school examination test quality is good, and (3 equating, based on the item-characteristic curves, the school examination tests is equal.

  2. L-[1-13C]phenylalanine breath test in patients with chronic liver disease of different etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Segundo; Gallardo-Wong, Irazu; Rodriguez-Leal, Gustavo; McCollough, Paulina; Mendez, Jorge; Castaneda, Beatriz; Milke, Pilar; Jacobo, Janet; Dehesa, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the oxidation of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine ((13)C-PheOx) in patients with chronic liver failure due to different etiologies using L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine breath test. Breath samples were collected before the administration of 100 mg L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine, and every 10 min thereafter until completion of 1 h. Control subjects (n=9) presented a larger cumulative percentage of (13)C dose recovery (CPDR) than patients (n=124) with chronic liver disease, regardless of the etiology (7.5+/-0.7 vs. 4.2+/-0.2, p=0.001). No differences in CPDR were found considering the Child-Pugh (CP) class or etiology: alcoholic (CP A=7.7+/-0.7, CP B=4.1+/-0.5, CP C=2.0+/-0.3), hepatitis C virus (CP A=5.4+/-0.5, CP B=4.0+/-0.2, CP C=2.2+/-0.3), hepatocellular carcinoma (CP A=5.5+/-1.6, CP B=3.6+/-1.8, CP C=2.2+/-1.0); or cryptogenic cirrhotic patients (CP A=7.4+/-1.5, CP B=4.4+/-0.4, CP C=2.1+/-0.7). Results confirm that (13)C-PheOx decreases in patients with cirrhosis with respect to controls, notwithstanding the etiology.

  3. [Test using vapourated expired nasal breathing in medicine 100 years ago and in paestum 2 300 years ago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsig, W

    2014-11-01

    This historical sketch follows the traces of a mirror, once used to test the last breath of a dying woman. It was found on the fresco of a tomb in Paestum dated about 320 BC. In 1889, Hendrik Zwaardemaker (Utrecht) was the first to present a hygrometric functional test using a cold mirror placed under the nose to estimate the degree of airflow obstruction during exhalation. In 1901, Ernst Glatzel (Berlin) modified Zwaardemaker's concept by engraving a series of equidistant arcs into his metallic mirror to further quantify the amounts of condensed vapour in the expired air. The Glatzel-mirror was used in Germany until after the Second World War. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Development of a 14C-urea breath test in ferrets colonised with Helicobacter mustelae: effects of treatment with bismuth, antibiotics, and urease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColm, A A; Bagshaw, J A; O'Malley, C F

    1993-01-01

    A 14C-urea breath test analogous to its clinical counterpart is described for use in ferrets naturally or experimentally infected with Helicobacter mustelae. The test is performed within a sealed glass metabolism chamber through which air is drawn at a constant rate and expired breath collected into sodium hydroxide. Peak 14CO2 production occurred approximately 1 hour after substrate administration. Both inter- and intra-animal responses were highly reproducible, with mean coefficients of variation less than 10%. Other than enhancing peak 14CO2 levels very slightly, fasting had little influence on the response. In infant animals challenged with H mustelae, breath test activity increased linearly with the total count of culturable bacteria isolated from the antrum. Treatment of established infections with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (DeNol) for 4 weeks resulted in clearance of all detectable bacteria but retention of some breath test activity. Subsequent regrowth of bacteria was parallelled by an increase in the breath test response. Inclusion of amoxycillin and metronidazole in the treatment regimen, however, eradicated all the bacteria and almost totally eliminated 14CO2 production. This response parallels the clinically observed suppressive effect on H pylori achieved with bismuth alone relative to the total eradication seen with triple therapy. A single oral dose of the urease inhibitor, flurofamide, inhibited over 90% of the response for at least 24 hours. Acetohydroxamic acid was less effective. These findings suggest that in the ferret H mustelae model, breath test analysis can be a useful, non-invasive alternative to endoscopy for evaluation of agents affecting either growth of the organism or urease activity. PMID:8432469

  5. Application of a [13CO2] breath test to study short-term amino acid catabolism during the postprandial phase of a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujko, J.; Schreurs, V.V.A.M.; Nolles, J.A.; Verreijen, A.M.; Koopmanschap, R.E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    A [13CO2] breath test was applied as a non-invasive method to study the catabolism of ingested amino acids shortly after a meal. This test requires the ingestion of a [1-13C]-labelled amino acid and the analysis of expired air for [13C] enrichment and CO2. The recovery of label as [13CO2] reflects

  6. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  7. Selection of a cut-off for high- and low-methane producers using a spot-methane breath test: results from a large north American dataset of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measurements in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Klaus; Le, Chenxiong; Wacher, Vince; Sliman, Joe; Cruz, Christine; Porter, Tyler; Carter, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    Levels of breath methane, together with breath hydrogen, are determined by means of repeated collections of both, following ingestion of a carbohydrate substrate, at 15-20 minutes intervals, until 10 samples have been obtained. The frequent sampling is required to capture a rise of hydrogen emissions, which typically occur later in the test: in contrast, methane levels are typically elevated at baseline. If methane emissions represent the principal objective of the test, a spot methane test (i.e. a single-time-point sample taken after an overnight fast without administration of substrate) may be sufficient. We analysed 10-sample lactulose breath test data from 11 674 consecutive unique subjects who submitted samples to Commonwealth Laboratories (Salem, MA, USA) from sites in all of the states of the USA over a one-year period. The North American Consensus (NAC) guidelines criteria for breath testing served as a reference standard. The overall prevalence of methane-positive subjects (by NAC criteria) was 20.4%, based on corrected methane results, and 18.9% based on raw data. In our USA dataset, the optimal cut-off level to maximize sensitivity and specificity was ≥4 ppm CH4, 94.5% [confidential interval (CI): 93.5-95.4%] and 95.0% (CI: 94.6-95.5%), respectively. The use of a correction factor (CF) (5% CO2 as numerator) led to reclassifications CH4-high to CH4-low in 0.7 % and CH4-low to CH4-high in 2.1%. A cut-off value for methane at baseline of either ≥4 ppm, as in our USA dataset, or ≥ 5 ppm, as described in a single institution study, are both highly accurate in identifying subjects at baseline that would be diagnosed as 'methane-positive' in a 10-sample lactulose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

  8. The non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test detects hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction as a marker of disease activity in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasch M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the general pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, increasing the risk of developing steatosis and subsequent hepatocellular inflammation. We aimed to assess hepatic mitochondrial function by a non-invasive 13C-methionine breath test (MeBT in patients with histologically proven NAFLD. Methods 118 NAFLD-patients and 18 healthy controls were examined by MeBT. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated according to the NASH scoring system. Results Higher grades of NASH activity and fibrosis were independently associated with a significant decrease in cumulative 13C-exhalation (expressed as cPDR(%. cPDR1.5h was markedly declined in patients with NASH and NASH cirrhosis compared to patients with simple steatosis or borderline diagnosis (cPDR1.5h: 3.24 ± 1.12% and 1.32 ± 0.94% vs. 6.36 ± 0.56% and 4.80 ± 0.88% respectively; p 13C-exhalation further declined in the presence of advanced fibrosis which was correlated with NASH activity (r = 0.36. The area under the ROC curve (AUROC for NASH diagnosis was estimated to be 0.87 in the total cohort and 0.83 in patients with no or mild fibrosis (F0-1. Conclusion The 13C-methionine breath test indicates mitochondrial dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and predicts higher stages of disease activity. It may, therefore, be a valuable diagnostic addition for longitudinal monitoring of hepatic (mitochondrial function in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  9. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the {sup 14}C-urea breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglioglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan, E-mail: drayhant@hotmail.com [Medical Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: to investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Methods: Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. Results: the 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: according to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection. (author)

  10. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the 14C-urea breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzcu, Esra Ayhan; Aydogan, Fusun; Motor, Vicdan Koksaldi; Ilhan, Ozgur; Daglıoglu, Mutlu Cihan; Coskun, Mesut; Parlakfikirer, Nihan; Keskin, Ugurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry. The 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42%) out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85%) out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05). According to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection.

  11. Investigation of the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection using the 14C-urea breath test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Ayhan Tuzcu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To investigate the association between glaucoma and Helicobacter pylori infection by evaluating for the presence of H. pylori infection in patients with glaucoma using the 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT.Methods:Using 14C-UBT, H. pylori infection positivity was compared between a group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and a control group with normal intraocular pressure and a normal optic disc or normal perimetry.Results:The 14C-UBT was positive in 18 (51.42% out of 35 patients in the glaucoma group and in 15 (42.85% out of 35 patients in the control group. H. pylori infection positivity rates were similar between the glaucoma and control groups (p>0.05.Conclusion:According to the 14C-UBT, there is no association between primary open-angle glaucoma and H. pylori infection.

  12. Perceptions and experiences of random breath testing in Queensland and the self-reported deterrent impact on drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barry; Freeman, James

    2007-03-01

    The present study explored the impact of random breath testing (RBT) on the attitudes, perceptions, and self-reported behavior of motorists in the Australian state of Queensland. Particular attention was given to how exposure to RBT impacted motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and self-reported behavior, relative to other variables of interest such as alcohol consumption. The study involved a telephone survey of 780 motorists drawn from throughout the state of Queensland. Participants were volunteers recruited from a random sample of all listed telephone numbers in the state, adjusted according to district population figures. The survey questionnaire collected information relating to the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, drinking and drunk driving behaviors, attitudes toward drunk driving and RBT, and experiences and perceptions of RBT. The analysis indicated that a large proportion of the sample had both observed RBT and been breath tested within the last six months and believed the practice served an important role in improving road safety. However, a considerable percentage also reported drunk driving at least once in the last six months without being detected, with further analysis indicating that the threat of apprehension associated with RBT did not appear to greatly influence their offending behavior. Rather, a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, combined with more favorable attitudes to drunk driving and lower levels of support for RBT, appeared to be associated with offending behavior. While the results confirm the high levels of exposure to RBT achieved in Queensland, the direct impact of recent exposure on drunk driving behavior appears less important than other factors such as alcohol consumption and attitudes to drunk driving and RBT. Further research is required to better understand how recent and lifetime exposure to RBT impacts on motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and subsequent drunk driving behavior.

  13. Cardiogenic oscillation phase relationships during single-breath tests performed in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, A. M.; Elliott, A. R.; Paiva, M.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the phase relationships of the cardiogenic oscillations in the phase III portion of single-breath washouts (SBW) in normal gravity (1 G) and in sustained microgravity (microG). The SBW consisted of a vital capacity inspiration of 5% He-1.25% sulfurhexafluoride-balance O2, preceded at residual volume by a 150-ml Ar bolus. Pairs of gas signals, all of which still showed cardiogenic oscillations, were cross-correlated, and their phase difference was expressed as an angle. Phase relationships between inspired gases (e.g., He) and resident gas (n2) showed no change from 1 G (211 +/- 9 degrees) to microG (163 +/- 7 degrees). Ar bolus and He were unaltered between 1 G (173 +/- 15 degrees) and microG (211 +/- 25 degrees), showing that airway closure in microG remains in regions of high specific ventilation and suggesting that airway closure results from lung regions reaching low regional volume near residual volume. In contrast, CO2 reversed phase with He between 1 G (332 +/- 6 degrees) and microG (263 +/- 27 degrees), strongly suggesting that, in microG, areas of high ventilation are associated with high ventilation-perfusion ratio (VA/Q). This widening of the range of VA/Q in microG may explain previous measurements (G.K. Prisk, A.R. Elliott, H.J.B. Guy, J.M. Kosonen, and J.B. West J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1290-1298, 1995) of an overall unaltered range of VA/Q in microG, despite more homogeneous distributions of both ventilation and perfusion.

  14. Use of exhaled breath condensate endpoints for examination of Body Mass Index as a susceptibility factor to diesel exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    High and low Body Mass Index (BMI) is a risk factor for effects (e.g., premature mortality) induced by exposure to common air pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Diesel exhaust contributes to particulate matter levels. We examined lung responses using the exhaled bre...

  15. Test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael; Angoff, Nancy; Encandela, John

    2016-04-01

    Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations. We examined the relationship between test anxiety and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step-1 scores and determined the effect of a test-taking course on anxiety and USMLE scores. We randomly chose second-year students to take a test-taking strategies course (cases) from among volunteers. The remainder of the class served as controls. We measured test anxiety with the Westside Test Anxiety Scale (with possible scores of 1-5). The cases completed the Westside Test Anxiety scale at baseline, after completing the course (4 weeks) and again after taking the USLME step 1 (10 weeks). The controls completed the instrument at baseline and after taking the USMLE step 1 (10 weeks). Ninety-three of 101 (92%) students participated in the study. The baseline test anxiety score for all students was 2.48 (SD 0.63). Test anxiety was inversely correlated with USMLE step 1 (β = -0.24, p = 0.01), adjusting for Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores. The test anxiety score of the participants decreased from 2.79 to 2.61 after the course (p = 0.09), and decreased further to 2.53 after the USMLE (p = 0.02), whereas the scores of the controls increased. The mean USMLE step-1 score was 234 for the cases and 243 for the controls (p = 0.03). Many medical students experience test anxiety, which may impair their performance in examinations Test anxiety is modestly inversely correlated with USMLE step-1 scores. A test-taking strategy course modestly reduced anxiety, but did not improve USMLE scores. More robust interventions that achieve greater reductions in text anxiety may improve test scores. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Breath odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the abdomen X-ray of the chest Antibiotics may be prescribed for some conditions. For an object in the nose, your provider will use an instrument to remove it. Alternative Names Bad breath; Halitosis References Murr AH. Approach ...

  17. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense exercise. ... Lung conditions such as asthma, emphysema, or pneumonia Problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  18. Breathing difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003075.htm Breathing difficulty To use the sharing features on this page, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  19. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh Kumar, K K; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2-8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer ( P insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion ( P insertion ( P = 0.03). Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test.

  20. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  1. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Pastrana, Erika; Candia Plata, Maria del Carmen; Alvarez, Gerardo; Valencia, Mauro E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ 13CO2 (‰), r = −0.41 (P = 0.001). After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ 13CO2 (‰) and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ 13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7) and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9). Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention. PMID:22848216

  2. On Further Examination of "On Further Examination." Quick Reference: Testing/SAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Discussions of any test must focus on reliability, content validity, and interpretation of results. In this critique of On Further Examination--the report of the Advisory Panel on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) Score Decline--the National Education Association (NEA) finds no fault with the reliability of the SAT. Its content validity, however,…

  3. Effects of test stress during an objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Niu; Rabatsky, Ali

    2015-10-01

    The existence of test stress has been widely reported among professional students. To our knowledge, no studies exist that explore student stress response to objective structured clinical examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible correlations between stress and objective structured clinical examination performance in a sample of chiropractic students. A total of 116 students completed a 2-part questionnaire to assess test stress and the physiological symptoms and signs of stress. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic were measured during the physical examination laboratory class within the first 3 weeks and then again just prior to their objective structured clinical examination in week 5. Statistical tests were then performed for questionnaire data, heart rate and blood pressure differences, and correlation between the objective structured clinical examination grade and symptoms and signs. Questionnaire results showed that 5.1%-22.4% of students sometimes or often felt a certain degree of stress. More than 50% had 1 or more physiological symptoms and signs of stress. The objective structured clinical examination heart rate (75.23 ± 11.20 vs 68.16 ± 8.82, p examination grades and physiological symptoms and signs and between objective structured clinical examination grades and feeling statement score. The results support our hypothesis that chiropractic students experience stress when performing the objective structured clinical examination and that high levels of stress had a negative impact on performance.

  4. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E

    1985-01-01

    Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients...

  5. Turnover of carbon in the {sup 13}C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Vladimir E.; Andreazzi, Mariana; Cury, Caio S.; Bassetto Junior, Carlos A.Z.; Rodrigues, Maria A.M.; Ducatti, Carlos, E-mail: vladimir@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: ducatti@ibb.unesp.br, E-mail: mariana.andreazazi@gmail.com, E-mail: caiocury@hotmail.com, E-mail: juniorbassett@hotmail.com, E-mail: mariar@fmb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To obtain a standard protocol for the application of {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) analyzed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS) to detect helicobacter pylori infection in the population is necessary to know the behavior of the turnover of {sup 13}C during the test in different individuals. The aims of this study was to find out a pattern for the turnover of the {sup 13}C in the {sup 13}C-UBT, analyzed by IRMS, in patients infected with H. pylori, in a Brazilian population, to define a protocol test application. We found that the isotopic ratio {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C in expired CO{sub 2} from patients infected with H. pylori and subjected to {sup 13}C-UBT does not follow a single pattern of behavior. However this behavior can be similar in subjects having the same maximum values following an inverse proportional relationship between the maximum value and the time of appearance in the curve. (author)

  6. The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

    2013-03-01

    This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human

  7. Air-breathing aerospace plane development essential: Hypersonic propulsion flight tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Unmeel B.

    1995-01-01

    Hypersonic airbreathing propulsion utilizing scramjets can change transatmospheric accelerators for low earth-to-orbit and return transportation. The value and limitation of ground tests, of flight tests, and of computations are presented, and scramjet development requirements are discussed. It is proposed that near full-scale hypersonic propulsion flight tests are essential for developing computational design technology so that it can be used for designing this system. In order to determine how these objectives should be achieved, some lessons learned from past programs are presented. A conceptual two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) prototype/experimental aerospace plane is recommended as a means of providing access-to-space and for conducting flight tests.

  8. Design, fabrication and testing of an air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell with compound anode flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luwen; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhao, Youran; An, Zijiang; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Xiaowei

    2011-10-01

    An air-breathing micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) with a compound anode flow field structure (composed of the parallel flow field and the perforated flow field) is designed, fabricated and tested. To better analyze the effect of the compound anode flow field on the mass transfer of methanol, the compound flow field with different open ratios (ratio of exposure area to total area) and thicknesses of current collectors is modeled and simulated. Micro process technologies are employed to fabricate the end plates and current collectors. The performances of the μDMFC with a compound anode flow field are measured under various operating parameters. Both the modeled and the experimental results show that, comparing the conventional parallel flow field, the compound one can enhance the mass transfer resistance of methanol from the flow field to the anode diffusion layer. The results also indicate that the μDMFC with an anode open ratio of 40% and a thickness of 300 µm has the optimal performance under the 7 M methanol which is three to four times higher than conventional flow fields. Finally, a 2 h stability test of the μDMFC is performed with a methanol concentration of 7 M and a flow velocity of 0.1 ml min-1. The results indicate that the μDMFC can work steadily with high methanol concentration.

  9. 32 CFR 634.37 - Voluntary breath and bodily fluid testing based on implied consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to or complete a requested chemical test. The person does not have the right to have an attorney... part may be used as evidence in courts-martial, nonjudicial proceedings under Article 15 of the UCMJ, administrative actions, and civilian courts. (d) Special rules exist for persons who have hemophilia, other blood...

  10. Just Breathe: The Effects of Emotional Dysregulation and Test Anxiety on GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Samantha D.; Wasieleski, David T.; Whatley, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    College is considered to be one of the most evaluative and stressful times during a student's academic career. A student's inability to regulate emotions may be correlated with an increased level of test anxiety. Previous research has indicated significant relationships between emotional dysregulation and generalized anxiety disorders (e.g.,…

  11. Liver breath tests non-invasively predict higher stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portincasa, Piero; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Stellaard, Frans

    Effectively assessing subtle hepatic metabolic functions by novel non-invasive tests might be of clinical utility in scoring NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and in identifying altered metabolic pathways. The present study was conducted on 39 (20 lean and 19 obese) hypertransaminasemic

  12. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  13. Should Dictionaries Be Used in Translation Tests and Examinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulmoneim

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the conflicting views regarding the use of the dictionary in translation tests and examinations this study was intended to verify the dictionary-free vs dictionary-based translation hypotheses. The subjects were 135 Arabic-speaking male and female EFL third-year university students. A group consisting of 62 students translated a text…

  14. 19 CFR 115.66 - Examination, inspection, and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination, inspection, and testing. 115.66 Section 115.66 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  15. 19 CFR 115.31 - Examination, inspection, and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination, inspection, and testing. 115.31 Section 115.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL CUSTOMS...

  16. Inter-examiner reproducibility of tests for lumbar motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkjaer Arne

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies show a relation between reduced lumbar motor control (LMC and low back pain (LBP. However, test circumstances vary and during test performance, subjects may change position. In other words, the reliability - i.e. reproducibility and validity - of tests for LMC should be based on quantitative data. This has not been considered before. The aim was to analyse the reproducibility of five different quantitative tests for LMC commonly used in daily clinical practice. Methods The five tests for LMC were: repositioning (RPS, sitting forward lean (SFL, sitting knee extension (SKE, and bent knee fall out (BKFO, all measured in cm, and leg lowering (LL, measured in mm Hg. A total of 40 subjects (14 males, 26 females 25 with and 15 without LBP, with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD 14.8, were examined independently and in random order by two examiners on the same day. LBP subjects were recruited from three physiotherapy clinics with a connection to the clinic's gym or back-school. Non-LBP subjects were recruited from the clinic's staff acquaintances, and from patients without LBP. Results The means and standard deviations for each of the tests were 0.36 (0.27 cm for RPS, 1.01 (0.62 cm for SFL, 0.40 (0.29 cm for SKE, 1.07 (0.52 cm for BKFO, and 32.9 (7.1 mm Hg for LL. All five tests for LMC had reproducibility with the following ICCs: 0.90 for RPS, 0.96 for SFL, 0.96 for SKE, 0.94 for BKFO, and 0.98 for LL. Bland and Altman plots showed that most of the differences between examiners A and B were less than 0.20 cm. Conclusion These five tests for LMC displayed excellent reproducibility. However, the diagnostic accuracy of these tests needs to be addressed in larger cohorts of subjects, establishing values for the normal population. Also cut-points between subjects with and without LBP must be determined, taking into account age, level of activity, degree of impairment and participation in sports. Whether reproducibility of these

  17. An anthropomorphic breathing phantom of the thorax for testing new motion mitigation techniques for pencil beam scanning proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R L; Zakova, M; Peroni, M; Bernatowicz, K; Bikis, C; Knopf, A K; Safai, S; Fernandez-Carmona, P; Tscharner, N; Weber, D C; Parkel, T C; Lomax, A J

    2017-03-21

    Motion-induced range changes and incorrectly placed dose spots strongly affect the quality of pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, especially in thoracic tumour sites, where density changes are large. Thus motion-mitigation techniques are necessary, which must be validated in a realistic patient-like geometry. We report on the development and characterisation of a dynamic, anthropomorphic, thorax phantom that can realistically mimic thoracic motions and anatomical features for verifications of proton and photon 4D treatments. The presented phantom is of an average thorax size, and consists of inflatable, deformable lungs surrounded by a skeleton and skin. A mobile 'tumour' is embedded in the lungs in which dosimetry devices (such as radiochromic films) can be inserted. Motion of the tumour and deformation of the thorax is controlled via a custom made pump system driving air into and out of the lungs. Comprehensive commissioning tests have been performed to evaluate the mechanical performance of the phantom, its visibility on CT and MR imaging and its feasibility for dosimetric validation of 4D proton treatments. The phantom performed well on both regular and irregular pre-programmed breathing curves, reaching peak-to-peak amplitudes in the tumour of  90% in the central planes of the target. The results of this study demonstrate that this anthropomorphic thorax phantom is suitable for imaging and dosimetric studies in a thoracic geometry closely-matched to lung cancer patients under realistic motion conditions.

  18. Intestinal transport and fermentation of resistant starch evaluated by the hydrogen breath test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M; Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    To study fermentability of different samples of resistant starch (RS), compared to one another and to lactulose, and to study the effect on gastric emptying of addition of RS to test meal. Finally to study if adaptation to RS results in a measurable change in fermentation pattern, (H2/CH4...... production). Sources of RS: Raw potato starch (RPS), 58% RS; corn flakes (CF), 5% RS; hylon VII high amylomaize starch, extrusion cooked and cooled (HAS) 30% RS; highly retrograded hylon VII high amylomaize starch (HRA) 89% RS....

  19. U.S. Navy Unmanned Test Methods and Performance Limits for Underwater Breathing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    REFERENCES 1. Principe, J.C. and J.R. Smith, “SAMICOS- A sleep analyzing microcomputer system”. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol...typically 3.0 L, and minimal BPM, typically 10. This minimizes the inertia of the system and evaluates the piston seals at a constant Figure 5-5 Tissot...and interacts with the UBA. A UBA should be tested at the depths and in the attitudes where it is intended to be used. Static lung load Inertia

  20. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  1. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF UREA BREATH TEST FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH DYSPEPSIA IN COMPARISON TO HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HONAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Helicobacter pylori infection is the gram negative bacillus with the close association with chronic antral gastritis. Objective - In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of urea breath test (UBT with carbon isotope 13 in comparison with histopathology of gastric antrum for detection of H. pylori infection in children with dyspepsia. Methods - This cross-sectional study was performed at specialized laboratory of Shiraz Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and Nemazee Hospital, Iran, during a 12-months period. This study investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of UBT in comparison with biopsy-based tests. We included a consecutive selection of 60 children who fulfilled Rome III criteria for dyspepsia. All children were referred for performing UBT with carbon isotope 13 (C13 as well as endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from antrum of stomach and duodenum. The pathologic diagnosis was considered as the standard test. Results - The mean age of the participants was 10.1±2.6 (range 7-17 years. From our total 60 patients, 28 (46.7% had positive UBT results and 32 (53.3% had negative UBT results. Pathologic report of 16 (57.1% out of 28 patients who had positive UBT were positive for H. pylori and 12 (42.9% ones were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Conclusion - Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Another multicenter study from our country is recommended.

  2. 13C-Urea breath test threshold calculation and evaluation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Michael

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 13C-urea breath test (UBT is performed in adults and children with epigastric pain for non-invasively diagnosing a suspected H. pylori infection. Criteria for UBT interpretation have not been generally agreed on and test reliability has not been established in children of different ages. This study aimed at identifying reliable UBT thresholds in children by using 251 UBTs in conjunction with reference histology and by analyzing 1232 UBTs. Methods At baseline and 30 and 60 minutes after the administration of 75 mg 13C-urea to children and adolescents (0.25 to 18 years of age, the differences (Δ of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air (δ were determined by mass spectrometry. UBT Δδ value thresholds were calculated in random subgroups and evaluated in complementary subgroups using logistic regressions on reference histology or bimodal distribution analyses of Δδ values from UBTs alone. Results Δδ values were higher (median, 15.4‰ in positive (133/251, 53 % than in negative histology (2.4‰. At 30 minutes, the calculated cut-off was 5.3‰ (mean regression determination R2 = 0.91, and sensitivity (0.95, specificity (0.97, positive (0.97 and negative predictive values (0.95 were higher than at 60 minutes (threshold 6.8‰, R2 = 0.85. Similar thresholds resulted from UBTs analysis (5.8‰ and 6.2‰ when sensitivity and specificity were maximized (concordance probabilities, 0.99 and 0.99. There was no systematic age effect. Conclusions In children, 13C UBT cut-offs were obtained and specially validated, entailing high accuracy of non-invasively testing for gastric H. pylori infection.

  3. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fresh and healthy. Tips for preventing bad breath: Brush your teeth (and tongue!) for at least two minutes twice ... and drinks. This helps prevent damage to your teeth and is great for your overall health. Brush after sweets. If you eat or drink sugary ...

  4. Assessment of insulin resistance by a 13C glucose breath test: a new tool for early diagnosis and follow-up of high-risk patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raz Itamar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Insulin resistance (IR plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Current methods for insulin resistance detection are cumbersome, or not sensitive enough for early detection and follow-up. The BreathID® system can continuously analyse breath samples in real-time at the point-of-care. Here we determined the efficacy of the BreathID® using the 13C-Glucose breath test (GBT for evaluation of insulin resistance. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers were orally administered 75 mg of 13C-glucose 1-13C. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed immediately; followed by serum glucose and insulin level determinations using GBT. GBT and OGTT were repeated following exercise, which alters insulin resistance levels. Results Within-subject correlations of GBT parameters with serum glucose and serum insulin levels were high. Before and after exercise, between-subjects correlations were high between the relative insulin levels and the % dose recoveries at 90 min (PDR 90, and the cumulative PDRs at 60 min (CPDR 60. Pairwise correlations were identified between pre-exercise Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA IR at 90 min and PDR 90; HOMA B (for beta cell function 120 and CPDR 30; HOMA IR 60 and peak time post-exercise; and HOMA B 150 with PDR 150. Conclusions The non-invasive real-time BreathID® GBT reliably assesses changes in liver glucose metabolism, and the degree of insulin resistance. It may serve as a non-invasive tool for early diagnosis and follow up of patients in high-risk groups.

  5. Prognostic value of (13)C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-09-14

    To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of (13)C-phenylalanine oxidation ((13)C-PheOx) obtained by (13)C-phenylalanine breath test ((13)C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of (13)C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. Percentage of (13)C-PheOx obtained by (13)C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease.

  6. Prognostic value of 13C-phenylalanine breath test on predicting survival in patients with chronic liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Wong, I; Morán, S; Rodríguez-Leal, G; Castañeda-Romero, B; Mera, R; Poo, J; Uribe, M; Dehesa, M

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of percentage of 13C-phenylalanine oxidation (13C-PheOx) obtained by 13C-phenylalanine breath test (13C-PheBT) on the survival of patients with chronic liver failure. METHODS: The hepatic function was determined by standard liver blood tests and the percentage of 13C-PheOx in 118 chronic liver failure patients. The follow-up period was of 64 mo. Survival analysis was performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and variables that were significant (P < 0.10) in univariate analysis and subsequently introduced in a multivariate analysis according to the hazard model proposed by Cox. RESULTS: Forty-one patients died due to progressive liver failure during the follow-up period. The probability of survival at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 64 mo was 0.88, 0.78, 0.66, 0.57 and 0.19, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Child-Pugh classes, age, creatinine and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.338, 95% CI: 0.150-0.762, P = 0.009) were independent predictors of survival. When Child-Pugh classes were replaced by all the parameters of the score, only albumin, bilirubin, creatinine, age and the percentage of 13C-PheOx (HR 0.449, 95% CI: 0.206-0.979, P = 0.034) were found to be independent predictors of survival. CONCLUSION: Percentage of 13C-PheOx obtained by 13C-PheBT is a strong predictor of survival in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:17729409

  7. [Reference Intervals of Standard Test Items in Ningen Dock Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakado, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) were derived from records of 1,499,288 individuals who underwent ningen dock examination in 188 institutes which belong to Japan Society of Ningen Dock in 2012. Targets were 27 basic laboratory tests, including the body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP). Individuals fulfilling strict criteria were chosen: SBP dock results will enable the appropriate interpretation of test results in health screening, and promote the effective application of CDLs for therapeutic intervention, taking into account the sex, age, and other health attributes.

  8. Biokinetics and radiation dosimetry of {sup 14}C-labelled triolein, urea, glycocholic acid and xylose in man. Studies related to nuclear medicine 'breath tests' using accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Mikael

    2002-08-01

    {sup 14}C-labelled substances have been used in biomedical research and clinical medicine for over 50 years. Physicians and scientists however, often hesitate to use these substances in patients and volunteers because the radiation dosimetry is unclear. In this work detailed long-term biokinetic and dosimetric estimation have been carried out for four clinically used {sup 14}C-breath tests: {sup 14}C-triolein (examination of fat malabsorption), urea (detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), glycocholic acid and xylose (examination of bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine) by using the highly sensitive accelerator mass-spectrometry (AMS) technique. The AMS technique has been used to measure low {sup 14}C concentrations in small samples of exhaled air, urine, faeces and tissue samples and has improved the base for the estimation of the absorbed dose to various organs and tissues and the effective dose to man. The high sensitivity of the AMS system has also made it possible to perform {sup 14}C breath tests on patient groups which were earlier subject for restriction (e.g. small children). In summary, our results show that for adult patients - and in the case of {sup 14}C-urea breath test also for children down to 3 years of age - the dose contributions are comparatively low, both described as organ doses and as effective doses. For adults, the latter is: {sup 14}C-glycocholic acid - 0.4 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-triolein - 0.3 mSv/MBq, {sup 14}C-xylose - 0.1 mSv/MBq and {sup 14}C-urea - 0.04 mSv/MBq. Thus, from a radiation protection point of view there is no reason for restrictions in using any of the {sup 14}C-labelled radiopharmaceutical included in this work in the activities normally used (0.07-0.2 MBq for a 70 kg patient)

  9. Characterization of gastric volume responses and liquid emptying in functional dyspepsia and health by MRI or barostat and simultaneous 13C-acetate breath test

    OpenAIRE

    Frühauf, H; Steingoetter, A; Fox, M R; Kwiatek, M. A.; Boesiger, P.; Schwizer, W; Fried, M; Thumshirn, M; Goetze, O.

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gastric accommodation and emptying by different methodologies provides inconsistent results. We aimed to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), barostat and 13C-acetate breath test (BT) for the assessment of gastric volume responses and emptying in healthy controls (HC) and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Eight HC and eight FD patients underwent: (i) continuous BT with simultaneous MRI in the upright position after ingestion of isocaloric, 300 kcal, 200 and 800 m...

  10. Characterization of gastric volume responses and liquid emptying in functional dyspepsia and health by MRI or barostat and simultaneous C-13-acetate breath test

    OpenAIRE

    Fruehauf H.; Steingoetter A.; Fox M. R.; Kwiatek M. A.; Boesiger P; Schwizer W.; Fried M.; Thumshirn M.; Goetze O

    2009-01-01

    The assessment of gastric accommodation and emptying by different methodologies provides inconsistent results. We aimed to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) barostat and 13C acetate breath test (BT) for the assessment of gastric volume responses and emptying in healthy controls (HC) and patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). Eight HC and eight FD patients underwent: (i) continuous BT with simultaneous MRI in the upright position after ingestion of isocaloric 300 kcal 200 and 800 mL m...

  11. An anthropomorphic breathing phantom of the thorax for testing new motion mitigation techniques for pencil beam scanning proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R. L.; Zakova, M.; Peroni, M.; Bernatowicz, K.; Bikis, C.; Knopf, A. K.; Safai, S.; Fernandez-Carmona, P.; Tscharner, N.; Weber, D. C.; Parkel, T. C.; Lomax, A. J.

    2017-03-01

    Motion-induced range changes and incorrectly placed dose spots strongly affect the quality of pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, especially in thoracic tumour sites, where density changes are large. Thus motion-mitigation techniques are necessary, which must be validated in a realistic patient-like geometry. We report on the development and characterisation of a dynamic, anthropomorphic, thorax phantom that can realistically mimic thoracic motions and anatomical features for verifications of proton and photon 4D treatments. The presented phantom is of an average thorax size, and consists of inflatable, deformable lungs surrounded by a skeleton and skin. A mobile ‘tumour’ is embedded in the lungs in which dosimetry devices (such as radiochromic films) can be inserted. Motion of the tumour and deformation of the thorax is controlled via a custom made pump system driving air into and out of the lungs. Comprehensive commissioning tests have been performed to evaluate the mechanical performance of the phantom, its visibility on CT and MR imaging and its feasibility for dosimetric validation of 4D proton treatments. The phantom performed well on both regular and irregular pre-programmed breathing curves, reaching peak-to-peak amplitudes in the tumour of  materials were clearly visualised in CT scans, and all, except the bone and lung components, were MRI visible. Radiochromic film measurements in the phantom showed that imaging for repositioning was required (as for a patient treatment). Dosimetry was feasible with Gamma Index agreements (4%/4 mm) between film dose and planned dose  >90% in the central planes of the target. The results of this study demonstrate that this anthropomorphic thorax phantom is suitable for imaging and dosimetric studies in a thoracic geometry closely-matched to lung cancer patients under realistic motion conditions.

  12. Examining bias in a test of academic literacy: Does the Test of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining bias in a test of academic literacy: Does the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) treat students from English and African language backgrounds ... then articulating this in detailed specifications for subtests and item types, and subsequently setting benchmarks for both test reliability and item productivity, there ...

  13. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  14. Comparison of three stool antigen assays with the 13C- urea breath test for the primary diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection and monitoring treatment outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooton, Carmel

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The urea breath test (UBT) is the gold-standard non-invasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection, however, the lack of availability of the UBT due to the high cost of the test, and in particular the need for expensive analytical instrumentation, limits the usefulness of this method. Stool antigen assays may offer an alternative non-invasive method for the diagnosis of infection. OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of three stool antigen assays (HpSA, IDEIA HpStAR, and ImmunoCard STAT) against the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome. METHODS: A total of 102 patients attending two gastroenterology day-case clinics for the investigation of dyspepsia were included. Each patient provided breath and stool samples for analysis. Patients who tested positive for H. pylori by the validated UBT were prescribed triple therapy and invited to return for repeat breath and stool sample analysis 6 weeks post-treatment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients tested, 48 were diagnosed with H. pylori infection by the UBT. The HpSA assay interpreted 38 of these as positive (79% sensitive). Of the 54 UBT-negative patients the HpSA assay interpreted all 54 as negative (100% specific). The IDEIA HpStAR assay correctly identified 44 patients as positive (92% sensitive) and 50 as negative (92.5% specific). The ImmunoCard STAT assay interpreted 38 patients as positive (79% sensitive) and 52 as negative (96.3% specific). CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that the IDEIA HpStAR stool antigen kit is the most accurate assay of the three assays evaluated, and possibly represents a viable alternative to the UBT for the primary diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for monitoring treatment outcome.

  15. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing that ...

  16. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  17. Post-Service Examination of PWR Baffle Bolts, Part I. Examination and Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-30

    In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor plants, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating with Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, The Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, and ATI Consulting, the selective procurement of baffle bolts that were withdrawn from service in 2011 and currently stored on site at Ginna. The goal of this program is to perform detailed microstructural and mechanical property characterization of baffle former bolts following in-service exposures. This report outlines the selection criteria of the bolts and the techniques to be used in this study. The bolts available are the original alloy 347 steel fasteners used in holding the baffle plates to the baffle former structures within the lower portion of the pressurized water reactor vessel. Of the eleven possible bolts made available for this work, none were identified to have specific damage. The bolts, however, did show varying levels of breakaway torque required in their removal. The bolts available for this study varied in peak fluence (highest dose within the head of the bolt) between 9.9 and 27.8x1021 n/cm2 (E>1MeV). As no evidence for crack initiation was determined for the available bolts from preliminary visual examination, two bolts with the higher fluence values were selected for further post-irradiation examination. The two bolts showed different breakaway torque levels necessary in their removal. The information from these bolts will be integral to the LWRS program initiatives in evaluating end of life microstructure and properties. Furthermore, valuable data will be obtained that can be incorporated into model predictions of long-term irradiation behavior and compared to results obtained in high flux experimental reactor conditions. The two bolts selected for the ORNL study will be shipped to Westinghouse with bolts of

  18. Inside anesthesia breathing circuits: time to reach a set sevoflurane concentration in toddlers and newborns: simulation using a test lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Delphine; Larcher, Claire; Basset, Bertrand; Alacoque, Xavier; Fesseau, Rose; Samii, Kamran; Minville, Vincent; Fourcade, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    We measured the time it takes to reach the desired inspired anesthetic concentration using the Primus (Drägerwerk, AG, Lübeck, Germany) and the Avance (GE Datex-Ohmeda, Munich, Germany) anesthesia machines with toddler and newborn ventilation settings. The time to reach 95% of inspired target sevoflurane concentration was measured during wash-in from 0 to 6 vol% sevoflurane and during wash-out from 6 to 0 vol% with fresh gas flows equal to 1 and 2 times the minute ventilation. The Avance was faster than the Primus (65 seconds [95% confidence interval (CI): 55 to 78] vs 310 seconds [95% CI: 261 to 359]) at 1.5 L/min fresh gas flow, tidal volume of 50 mL, and 30 breaths/min. Times were shorter by the same magnitude at higher fresh gas flows and higher minute ventilation rates. The effect of doubling fresh gas flow was variable and less than expected. The Primus is slower during newborn than toddler ventilation, whereas the Avance's response time was the same for newborn and toddler ventilation. Our data confirm that the time to reach the target-inspired anesthetic concentration depends on breathing circuit volume, fresh gas flow, and minute ventilation.

  19. An Examination of Three Tests of Visual-Motor Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Schmidt, Steven

    1986-01-01

    Kindergarten children (N=103) were administered three tests of visual-motor integration: Bender Gestalt Test, Beery Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration and Geometric Design subtest of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Issues discussed include interscorer reliabilities, correlations among scores, correlations…

  20. Creating a Database for Test Items in National Examinations (pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    vested on computer programmers and the labour turnover of programming staff was usually very high. The implication of this ..... test items banking; skills in test development, test moderation, item analysis with a good programming practice are ..... “A Web-based System for Automatic Language Skill. Assessment: EVALING”.

  1. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Layman's summary: It is necessary to screen for the development of diabetes during pregnancy. The standard test with 75 g of glucose is unpalatable and is sometimes replaced by a meal test. However, when this meal test is provided by the women themselves without standardisation, the sugar and starch quantities are too ...

  2. Acute effects of long-acting bronchodilators on small airways detected in COPD patients by single-breath N2 test and lung P-V curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecchiari, Matteo; Santus, Pierachille; Radovanovic, Dejan; DʼAngelo, Edgardo

    2017-11-01

    Small airways represent the key factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathophysiology. The effect of different classes of bronchodilators on small airways is still poorly understood and difficult to assess. Hence the acute effects of tiotropium (18 µg) and indacaterol (150 µg) on closing volume (CV) and ventilation inhomogeneity were investigated and compared in 51 stable patients (aged 70 ± 7 yr, mean ± SD; 82% men) with moderate to very severe COPD. Patients underwent body plethysmography, arterial blood gas analysis, tidal expiratory flow limitation (EFL), dyspnea assessment, and simultaneous recording of single-breath N2 test and transpulmonary pressure-volume curve (PL-V), before and 1 h after drug administration. The effects produced by indacaterol on each variable did not differ from those caused by tiotropium, independent of the severity of disease, assessed according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) scale and the presence of EFL. Bronchodilators significantly decreased the slope of phase III and CV (-5 ± 4 and -2.5 ± 2.1%, respectively, both P lung pressure-volume curve and single-breath N2 test. By lessening airway mechanical property heterogeneity, both drugs similarly reduced ventilation inhomogeneity and extent of small-airway closure, as indicated by the decrease of phase III slope, increased oxygen saturation, and fall of closing volume, often below expiratory reserve volume. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. 13C-tryptophan breath test detects increased catabolic turnover of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraishi, Toshiya; Hori, Hiroaki; Sasayama, Daimei; Matsuo, Junko; Ogawa, Shintaro; Ota, Miho; Hattori, Kotaro; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Altered tryptophan–kynurenine (KYN) metabolism has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD). The l-[1-13C]tryptophan breath test (13C-TBT) is a noninvasive, stable-isotope tracer method in which exhaled 13CO2 is attributable to tryptophan catabolism via the KYN pathway. We included 18 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls. 13C-tryptophan (150 mg) was orally administered and the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in the breath was monitored for 180 min. The cumulative recovery rate during the 180-min test (CRR0–180; %), area under the Δ13CO2-time curve (AUC; %*min), and the maximal Δ13CO2 (Cmax; %) were significantly higher in patients with MDD than in the controls (p = 0.004, p = 0.008, and p = 0.002, respectively). Plasma tryptophan concentrations correlated negatively with Cmax in both the patients and controls (p = 0.020 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our results suggest that the 13C-TBT could be a novel biomarker for detecting a subgroup of MDD with increased tryptophan–KYN metabolism. PMID:26524975

  4. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Steam Generator Few Tube Test model post-test examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impellezzeri, J.R.; Camaret, T.L.; Friske, W.H.

    1981-03-11

    The Steam Generator Few Tube Test (FTT) was part of an extensive testing program carried out in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) steam generator design. The testing of full-length seven-tube evaporator and three-tube superheater models of the CRBRP design was conducted to provide steady-state thermal/hydraulic performance data to full power per tube and to verify the absence of multi-year endurance problems. This paper describes the problems encountered with the mechanical features of the FTT model design which led to premature test termination, and the results of the post-test examination. Conditions of tube bowing and significant tube and tube support gouging was observed. An interpretation of the visual and metallurgical observations is also presented. The CRBRP steam generator has undergone design evaluations to resolve observed deficiences found in the FFTM.

  5. Post-deformation examination of specimens subjected to SCC testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Field, Kevin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Busby, Jeremy T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Leonard, Keith J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report details the results of post-radiation and post-deformation characterizations performed during FY 2015–FY 2016 on a subset of specimens that had previously been irradiated at high displacement per atom (dpa) damage doses. The specimens, made of commercial austenitic stainless steels and alloys, were subjected to stress-corrosion cracking tests (constant extension rate testing and crack growth testing) at the University of Michigan under conditions typical of nuclear power plants. After testing, the specimens were returned to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for further analysis and evaluation.

  6. Experiment data report: Gap Conductance Test Series, Test GC 1-3 postirradiation examination. [BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murdock, B. A.

    1977-09-01

    The results of the postirradiation examination of four boiling water reactor type, zircaloy-clad, UO/sub 2/-fueled rods tested as part of the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program are discussed. These rods were employed in Gap Conductance Test GC 1-3 which was conducted to obtain experimental data from which test rod gap conductance values could be determined by both the steady state integral kdT and the power oscillation methods. The postirradiation examination results provided will aid in interpreting and understanding the experimental data obtained during Test GC 1-3 and in evaluating the effect of fuel behavior on the fuel rod thermal response and interpreted gap conductances. Fuel rod fill gas composition and pressure and rod power profiles are discussed. Evidence is presented showing that significant amounts of water had been present in two of the four fuel rods during testing. For the two fuel rods that remained intact during the test, measurements of fuel pellet-to-cladding gap, as well as the surface area of the fuel cracks at several axial locations are presented. A total effective radial gap is calculated and the fuel structure and porosity are analyzed.

  7. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  8. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a meal test is to be used instead of the formal OGTT a carefully measured, prepared, palatable, readily available product would need to be sourced and provided. Layman's summary: It is necessary to screen for the development of diabetes during pregnancy. The standard test with 75 g of glucose is unpalatable and is ...

  9. A methodological aspect of the {sup 14}C-urea breath test used in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis; Wybrany aspekt metodologiczny testu oddechowego z mocznikiem znakowanym stosowanego w diagnostyce zakazenia Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanski, Z.; Niziol, J.; Micherdzinski, J.; Wasilewska-Radwanska, M.; Cienciala, A.; Lasa, J.; Witkowska, B. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow (Poland)]|[Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The main purpose of those investigations was optimisation of the performing time of the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea which reveals Helicobacter pylori infection. It was analysed 117 species, preselected according to endoscopy and histopathology results, 56 of them have suffered from chronic gastritis and 61 from gastric ulcer disease. Using microbiology diagnosis (culture + IFP test) it was found that 86 species were H. pylori infected. This group of patients were next subject to investigations with the breath test with {sup 14}C-labelled urea. Measurements of radioactivity of breathe air have been carried out for 30 minutes. The obtained results allow us to maintain that the optimal time of duration of the test described above is 30 minutes. (author) 38 refs, 2 tabs, 1 fig

  10. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  11. An Examination of Cooper's Test for Monotonic Trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Louis

    1977-01-01

    A statistic for testing monotonic trend that has been presented in the literature is shown not to be the binomial random variable it is contended to be, but rather it is linearly related to Kendall's tau statistic. (JKS)

  12. Creating a Database for Test Items in National Examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at how to generate questions for national and local examinations without putting such questions (Items) at risk of leakage; reduce cost and time taken for such activities like time consuming items analysis and moderation; and improve on the poor selection which often characterized manually generated ...

  13. Breath sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... notice them. The following tests may be done: Analysis of a sputum sample ( sputum culture , sputum Gram stain ) Blood tests (including an arterial blood gas ) Chest x-ray CT scan of the chest ...

  14. Academic Examinations and Anxiety: The Interaction Model Empirically Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. Bryan; Endler, Norman S.

    1982-01-01

    Tested the person-by-situation interaction model of anxiety. Male (N=28) and female (N=79) university students served as subjects. Results were interpreted as providing support for the multidimensionality of A-Trait and further validation of the interaction model of anxiety. (Author)

  15. Examining the Effect of Proctoring on Online Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio, Helaine M.; Malay, Nancy; Maurer, Karsten; Bailer, A. John; Rubin, Beth

    2017-01-01

    Online education continues to grow, bringing opportunities and challenges for students and instructors. One challenge is the perception that academic integrity associated with online tests is compromised due to undetected cheating that yields artificially higher grades. To address these concerns, proctoring software has been developed to address…

  16. 13C-urea breath test in Helicobacter pylori diagnosis and eradication. Correlation to histology, origin of 'false' results, and influence of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, H J; Kirstein, F W; Bojarski, C; Frege, J; Fromm, M; Riecken, E O; Schulzke, J D

    1997-04-01

    Which protocol is optimal for the 13C-urea breath test (UBT) for Helicobacter pylori detection is controversial. This study aimed to characterize a very simple UBT protocol for the clinical routine (two-point-analysis performed with 75 mg 13C-urea and citric acid) with special consideration of 'false' UBT results. RESULTS; UBT was evaluated in reference to histology (Warthin-Starry). In mismatching results re-gastroscopy was performed. By UBT, 74 of 77 patients with H. pylori-positive histology were detected (sensitivity, 96%). The false-negative UBTs were due to low colonization densities during spontaneous H. pylori elimination or pyloric obstruction. Seven of 49 patients with negative histology had a positive UBT, but re-gastroscopy showed that all of them had a positive histology when multiple antral biopsy specimens were taken (UBT specificity, 100%). UBT correlated only weakly with H. pylori colonization density. No correlation was found between UBT and gastric neutrophil and lymphocyte infiltration. UBT reproducibility was excellent (93 of 94 in a 6-month period). Non-fasting conditions induced a shift to lower UBT results in H. pylori-positive and to higher UBT results in negative patients, resulting in 2 of 10 false-positive and 1 of 10 false-negative UBTs. This simple version of the urea breath test combines the highest sensitivity with excellent reproducibility. It is superior to histologic detection of H. pylori in the clinical routine and an optimal tool for monitoring H. pylori eradication. Fasting conditions are required for the test.

  17. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of ¹³C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Meir; Almogy, Gideon; Adar, Tomer; Lysy, Joseph

    2011-09-19

    Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  18. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome. PMID:21929798

  19. Dumping syndrome following nissen fundoplication in an adult patient diagnosed by continuous online 13C/12C monitoring of 13C-Octanoic acid breath test "a case report"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adar Tomer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nissen Fundoplication is a common surgical procedure performed in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Complications include dysphagia, gastric hypersensitivity, abnormal gastric motility, gas bloat syndrome and GERD relapse. Dumping syndrome may occur when a large volume of gastric content is delivered to the duodenum or jejunum, resulting in both gastrointestinal and vasomotor symptoms. Occasionally, dumping syndrome may be a complication in patients that have undergone nissen Fundoplication, especially in adults. The BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoicoctanoic acid breath test detects variations of less than 1/100,000 in the 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air. Case presentation We report a case of a 38 year old male who was admitted and diagnosed with dumping syndrome following nissen Fundoplication, who was diagnosed using the BreathID® continuous online 13C-Octanoic acid breath test. Conclusions Early performance of a gastric emptying rate breath test in symptomatic patients, following upper GI tract surgery may help in the prediction or diagnosis of nissen Fundoplication complications such as dumping syndrome.

  20. Examination of the sprained ankle: Anterior drawer test or arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S.; Putkonen, M.; Puranen, J.; Raatikainen, T.

    1988-11-01

    The accuracy of the anterior drawer test for the diagnosis of recent lateral ligament tears in the ankle was evaluated in a series of 192 patients using surgical or arthrographic findings for reference. Considerable overlapping of results was obtained in ankles with and without ligament tear. Twenty-eight per cent of the anterior talofibular ligament tears, and 38% of the combined anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular tears were not detected, and single and combined tears could not be differentiated. It is concluded that the anterior drawer test is too unreliable as a basis for any decision regarding surgical treatment of a recent sprain. Therefore, arthrography is recommended as the method of choice in such cases of recent ankle sprain, where the need of surgery has to be supported by X-ray analysis.

  1. Breathe Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstien, Barb

    1999-01-01

    Examines the different indoor air pollutants that can be found in schools and tips for controlling them. Also discussed is building analysis for monitoring biocontaminants including allergens and molds. (GR)

  2. [Examination of urogenital tract microorganism infection and antibiotic susceptibility test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yan, Zu-wei; Dai, Gan

    2003-06-01

    To isolate bacteria, mycoplasma and chlamydia from the urogenital tract, and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility. Bacteria, mycoplasma and chlamydia were isolated from the urogenital tract secretion by artifical culture, and their antibiotic susceptibility was detected by disk diffusion. The common microorganisms were S. epidermidis and corynebacberium, and the minority microorganisms were G- bacteria or E. coli. Bacteria were susceptible to amikacin, cephazolin V, rifampin, gentamycin, and docycyclin. S. epidermidis and corynebacterium are important pathogens of the urogenital tract infection. Disk susceptibility test can be used to screen the susceptible antibiotic.

  3. Breath Methane Levels Are Increased Among Patients with Diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Cemal; Arslan, Deniz Cagil; Abraham, Rana; Cushing, Kelly; Keshavarzian, Ali; Mutlu, Ece A

    2016-09-01

    Diverticulosis and its complications are important healthcare problems in the USA and throughout the Western world. While mechanisms as to how diverticulosis occurs have partially been explored, few studies examined the relationship between colonic gases such as methane and diverticulosis in humans. This study aimed to demonstrate a significant relationship between methanogenic Archaea and development of diverticulosis. Subjects who consecutively underwent hydrogen breath test at Rush University Medical Center between 2003 and 2010 were identified retrospectively through a database. Medical records were reviewed for presence of a colonoscopy report. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects were identified who had both a breath methane level measurement and a colonoscopy result. Additional demographic and clinical data were obtained with chart review. Mean breath methane levels were higher in subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (7.89 vs. 4.94 ppm, p = 0.04). Methane producers (defined as those with baseline fasting breath methane level >5 ppm) were more frequent among subjects with diverticulosis compared to those without diverticulosis (50.9 vs. 34 %, p = 0.0025). When adjusted for confounders, breath methane levels and age were the two independent predictors of diverticulosis on colonoscopy with logistic regression modeling. Methanogenesis is associated with the presence of diverticulosis. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and prospectively evaluate a possible etiological role of methanogenesis and methanogenic archaea in diverticulosis.

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  5. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea; PND; Difficulty breathing while lying down; Orthopnea; Heart failure - orthopnea ... does not directly cause difficulty breathing while lying down but often worsens other conditions that lead to ...

  6. Examination of an optical transmittance test for photovoltaic encapsulation materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Bengoechea, Jaione; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Köhl, Michael; Powell, Nick E.; Smith, Michael E.; White, Michael D.; Wilson, Helen Rose; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Lynn, Kevin W.

    2013-09-24

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  7. NASA firefighters breathing system program report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the rising incidence of respiratory injury to firefighters, local governments expressed the need for improved breathing apparatus. A review of the NASA firefighters breathing system program, including concept definition, design, development, regulatory agency approval, in-house testing, and program conclusion is presented.

  8. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  9. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Sickle David

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male. Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86 and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification.

  10. Breathing retraining: a rational placebo?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garssen, B.; de Ruiter, C.; van Dyck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Breathing retraining of patients with Hyperventilation Syndrome (HVS) and/or panic disorder is discussed to evaluate its clinical effectiveness and to examine the mechanism that mediates its effect. In relation to this theoretical question, the validity of HVS as a scientific model is discussed and

  11. Abdominal breathing increases tear secretion in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kokoro; Kawashima, Motoko; Ikeura, Kazuhiro; Arita, Reiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the relationship between abdominal breathing and tear meniscus volume in healthy women, we investigated the change in tear meniscus volume in two groups: normal breathing and abdominal breathing. We used a crossover experimental model and examined 20 healthy women aged 20-54 years (mean ± SD, 32.7 ± 11.1 years). The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. During the first visit, the normal breathing group was subjected to normal breathing for 3 min, whereas the abdominal breathing group was subjected to abdominal breathing (4-second inhalation and 6-second exhalation) for 3 min. During the second visit, the protocols were swapped between the two groups. We estimated the R wave to R wave (R-R) interval, tear meniscus volume, salivary amylase activity, pulse, and blood pressure before and immediately after, 15 min after, and 30 min after completion of the breathing activity. After abdominal breathing, compared to that before breathing, the tear meniscus volume increased significantly 15 min after breathing (Pabdominal breathing (PAbdominal breathing for 3 minutes increases the tear meniscus volume in healthy women. Consequently, abdominal breathing may be considered in the treatment of dry eye disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Is absorption of irrigation fluid a problem in Thulium laser vaporization of the prostate? A prospective investigation using the expired breath ethanol test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, Livio; Abt, Dominik; Müllhaupt, Gautier; Engeler, Daniel S; Lüthi, Andreas; Schmid, Hans-Peter; Schwab, Christoph

    2015-04-24

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent entity in elderly men. If medical treatment fails, monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TUR-P) is still considered as the standard treatment. The proportion of high-risk patients with cardiac comorbidities increases and TUR-P goes along with a relevant perioperative risk. Especially large volume influx of irrigation fluid and transurethral resection syndrome (TUR syndrome) represent serious threats to these patients. Using isotonic saline as irrigation fluid like in transurethral laser vaporization (TUV-P), TUR syndrome can be prevented. However, no prospective trial has ever assessed occurrence or extent of irrigation fluid absorption in Thulium Laser TUV-P. This is a single-center prospective trial, investigating, if absorption of irrigation fluid occurs during Thulium Laser TUV-P by expired breath ethanol test. The expired breath ethanol technique is an established method of investigating intraoperative absorption of irrigation fluid: A tracer amount of ethanol is added to the irrigation fluid and the absorption of irrigation fluid can be calculated by measuring the expiratory ethanol concentrations of the patient with an alcohol breathalyzer. Fifty consecutive patients undergoing TUV-P at our tertiary referral center are included into the trial. Absorption volume of irrigation fluid during Thulium Laser TUV-P is defined as primary endpoint. Pre- to postoperative changes in bladder diaries, biochemical and hematological laboratory findings, duration of operation and standardized questionnaires are assessed as secondary outcome measures. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of Thulium Laser TUV-P in regard to absorption of irrigation fluid.

  13. Application of LaserBreath-001 for breath acetone measurement in subjects with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2016-11-01

    Breath acetone is a promising biomarker of diabetes mellitus. With an integrated standalone, on-site cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer, LaserBreath-001, we tested breath samples from 23 type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients, 312 type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, 52 healthy subjects. In the cross-sectional studies, the obtained breath acetone concentrations were higher in the diabetic subjects compared with those in the control group. No correlation between breath acetone and simultaneous BG was observed in the T1D, T2D, and healthy subjects. A moderate positive correlation between the mean individual breath acetone concentrations and the mean individual BG levels was observed in the 20 T1D patients without ketoacidosis. In a longitudinal study, the breath acetone concentrations in a T1D patient with ketoacidosis decreased significantly and remained stable during the 5-day hospitalization. The results from a relatively large number of subjects tested indicate that an elevated mean breath acetone concentration exists in diabetic patients in general. Although many physiological parameters affect breath acetone concentrations, fast (diabetic screening and management under a specifically controlled condition.

  14. Beware Postpartum Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Guleser; Ipekci, Afsin; Gulen, Bedia; Ikizceli, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is one of the potentially life-threatening complications of pregnancy. We report a case of a 36-year-old female patient who presented with shortness of breath, swelling of feet after giving birth to triplets, and her tests revealed that left ventricle is dilated with its diameter on the borderline and she had EF 35% with advanced systolic dysfunction. Anterior wall and septum were severely hypokinetic. In the presence of these findings, the patient was evaluated as PPCM. PPCM must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with shortness of breath and swelling of feet, which are also common in pregnancy. PMID:26649031

  15. Examining the Effects of Stereotype Threat on Test-Taking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A.; Blanshetyn, Victoria; Marshall-Wolp, Elizabeth; McCue, Elizabeth; Strauss, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between stereotype threat and individual test-taking behaviors. Previous research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on test scores, but little research has examined the impact of stereotype threat on the test-taking behaviors impacting those scores. Using a pre-post experimental design, stereotype…

  16. Spontanous periodic breathing is associated with sympathetic hyperreactivity and baroreceptor dysfunction in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binggeli, Christian; Sudano, Isabella; Corti, Roberto; Spieker, Lukas; Jenni, Rolf; Lüscher, Thomas F; Noll, Georg

    2010-05-01

    Intermittent periods of hypoxemia such as during periodic breathing are associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic activity. In patients with sleep apnea syndrome, hypertension is common. Treating apnea improves hypertension and reduces sympathetic outflow. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenomenon and mechanisms of spontaneous periodic breathing in patients with hypertension. We examined 43 hypertensive patients with untreated hypertension without left-ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or sleep apnea syndrome. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and respiration were continuously recorded at rest and during cold-pressor testing. Oxygen and a CO2-enriched gas were used to test central and peripheral chemoreceptors, respectively. Baroreceptor gain was measured using the alpha method. Seven out of 43 patients showed spontaneous periodic breathing while awake. No difference in MSA, HR and BP was seen between patients with and without periodic breathing at rest except the breathing pattern. However, the cold-pressor test caused a larger increase of MSA in patients with periodic breathing (203 +/- 62 vs. 62 +/- 8%, P common in patients with hypertension and is associated with greatly enhanced responses to cold-pressor testing. We suggest increased baroreceptor gain and sympathetic outflow as a cause for the oscillatory respiration pattern via barorespiratory coupling.

  17. [Further examination of COPD using spirometry, respiratory function test, and impulse oscillometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Masaru; Kitada, Junya

    2011-10-01

    Spirometry is essential for diagnosis and staging of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Characteristic of physiological change of small airways in COPD is heterogeneous distribution of small airway narrowing, resulting in air-trapping and nonhomogeneous ventilation. FEF25-75, residual volume/total lung capacity, delta N2 in phase III slope of single breath N2 washout test, closing volume, static and dynamic compliance, and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor) are measured for detecting small airways disease. Impulse oscillometry is also useful for assessment of small airways disease, especially indices of frequent resonance (Fres) and frequent dependent of resistance change of R5-R20; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz. Impulse oscillometry seems to have a complemental role of spirometry in managing COPD.

  18. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    K K Dinesh Kumar; Neerja Bhardwaj; Sandhya Yaddanapudi

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2?8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The chi...

  19. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain...... species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplos/emum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air...... overlap considerably in their kinematics (turning rates and distance covered), suggesting that air breathing in this species is performed using escapelike C-start motions. This demonstrates that C-starts in fish do not need external stimulation and can be spontaneous behaviours used outside the context...

  20. Finger dexterity and visual discrimination following two yoga breathing practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Telles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Practicing yoga has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. Though attention is required for fine motor and discrimination tasks, the effect of yoga breathing techniques on fine motor skills and visual discrimination has not been assessed. Aim: To study the effect of yoga breathing techniques on finger dexterity and visual discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of one hundred and forty subjects who had enrolled for stress management. They were randomly divided into two groups, one group practiced high frequency yoga breathing while the other group practiced breath awareness. High frequency yoga breathing (kapalabhati, breath rate 1.0 Hz and breath awareness are two yoga practices which improve attention. The immediate effect of high frequency yoga breathing and breath awareness (i were assessed on the performance on the O′Connor finger dexterity task and (ii (in a shape and size discrimination task. Results: There was a significant improvement in the finger dexterity task by 19% after kapalabhati and 9% after breath awareness (P<0.001 in both cases, repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc analyses. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001 in error (41% after kapalabhati and 21% after breath awareness as well as time taken to complete the shape and size discrimination test (15% after kapalabhati and 15% after breath awareness; P<0.001 was also observed. Conclusion: Both kapalabahati and breath awareness can improve fine motor skills and visual discrimination, with a greater magnitude of change after kapalabhati.

  1. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  2. Rapid 3D imaging of the lower airway by MRI in patients with congenital heart disease: A retrospective comparison of delayed volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) to turbo spin echo (TSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goot, Benjamin H; Patel, Sonali; Fonseca, Brian

    2017-01-01

    When imaging the lower airway by MRI, the traditional technique turbo spin echo (TSE) results in high quality 2D images, however planning and acquisition times are lengthy. An alternative, delayed volume interpolated breath-holds examination (VIBE), is a 3D gradient echo technique that produces high spatial resolution imaging of the airway in one breath-hold. The objective of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the accuracy of lower airway measurements obtained by delayed VIBE when compared to TSE. Patients with congenital heart disease who underwent a cardiac MRI (CMR) that included a delayed VIBE sequence from 5/2008 to 9/2013 were included. Standard TSE imaging was performed and delayed VIBE was acquired 5 min after gadolinium contrast administration. Airway measurements were made on both sequences by two observers in a blinded fashion to the other observer and other technique. Intraclass correlations (ICC) were calculated to assess for agreement between both techniques and the observers. 29 studies met inclusion criteria with a mean patient age of 8.8 years (2 months to 63 years) and mean patient weight of 30.2 kg (3.5-110). All delayed VIBE and TSE sequences were found to be of diagnostic quality. Mean acquisition time was shorter for the delayed VIBE (13.1 seconds) than TSE (949.9 seconds). Overall there was very good agreement between the delayed VIBE and TSE measurements for both observers (ICC 0.78-0.94) with the exception of the distal right bronchus (ICC 0.67) The interobserver agreement was also excellent for both TSE (ICC 0.78-0.96) and VIBE (ICC 0.85-0.96). Delayed VIBE is rapid and at least as accurate as the alternative TSE imaging for assessment of the lower airway by MRI across a wide spectrum of patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Examining the Impact of Covariates on Anchor Tests to Ascertain Quality over Time in a College Admissions Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; von Davier, Alina A.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a comprehensive procedure for the implementation of a quality control process of anchor tests for a college admissions test with multiple consecutive administrations. We propose to examine the anchor tests and their items in connection with covariates to investigate if there was any unusual behavior in the anchor test results over time…

  4. Testing the efficacy of Yoga as a Complementary Therapy for Smoking Cessation: Design and Methods of the BreathEasy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Beth C; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Fava, Joseph L.; Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Jennings, Ernestine; Thind, Herpreet; Carmody, James; Dunsiger, Shira I; Gidron, Naama; Becker, Bruce M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2014-01-01

    Smokers trying to quit encounter many challenges including nicotine withdrawal symptoms, cigarette craving, increased stress and negative mood and concern regarding weight gain. These phenomena make it difficult to successfully quit smoking. Studies in non-smoking populations show that yoga reduces stress and negative mood and improves weight control. By increasing mindfulness we anticipate that yoga may also improve smokers’ ability to cope with the negative symptoms associated with quitting. Yoga may also improve cognitive deliberation which is needed to make effective choices and avoid smoking in tempting situations. The BreathEasy study is a rigorous, randomized controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of Iyengar yoga as a complementary therapy to cognitive-behavioral therapy for smoking cessation. All participants are given an 8-week program of smoking cessation classes, and are randomized to either twice weekly yoga (Yoga) or twice-weekly health and wellness classes which serve as a control for contact and participant burden (CTL). Assessments are conducted at baseline, 8 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months follow up. The primary outcome is prolonged abstinence using an intention-to-treat approach. Multiple internal and external audits using blind data collection are employed to ensure treatment fidelity and reliability of study results. To understand why yoga may be more effective than CTL, we will examine mechanisms of action (i.e., mediators) underlying intervention efficacy. We will examine maintenance of yoga practice and smoking status at each follow up. Focus groups and interviews will be used to enrich our understanding of the relationship of yoga practice and smoking abstinence. PMID:24937018

  5. Comparison of one-day oral dosing with three bismuth compounds for the suppression of Helicobacter pylori assessed by the 13C-urea breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewett, E J; Luk, Y W; Fraser, A G; Lam, W M; Pounder, R E

    1992-02-01

    Assessment of intragastric urease activity by the 13C-urea breath test was performed before and after one day of dosing with either De-Noltabs (tripotassium dicitrato bismuthate, one tablet 1 q.d.s.), Pepto-Bismol liquid (bismuth salicylate 30 ml q.d.s.), or Roter tablets (bismuth subnitrate, one tablet q.d.s.) in twelve Helicobacter pylori-positive patient volunteers. There was a significant decrease in the excess of 13CO2 after one day of dosing with each of the three bismuth compounds, but analysis of variance could detect no difference between the effects of the three compounds. Systemic absorption of bismuth following oral dosing with either Pepto-Bismol or Roter is minimal, yet both compounds have a suppressive effect on H. pylori similar to that of De-Noltab. This study suggests that the action of all three bismuth compounds is within the gastric lumen, and that systemic absorption of bismuth is not necessary for activity against H. pylori.

  6. Which physical examination tests provide clinicians with the most value when examining the shoulder? Update of a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Goode, Adam P; Cook, Chad E; Michener, Lori; Myer, Cortney A; Myer, Daniel M; Wright, Alexis A

    2012-11-01

    To update our previously published systematic review and meta-analysis by subjecting the literature on shoulder physical examination (ShPE) to careful analysis in order to determine each tests clinical utility. This review is an update of previous work, therefore the terms in the Medline and CINAHL search strategies remained the same with the exception that the search was confined to the dates November, 2006 through to February, 2012. The previous study dates were 1966 - October, 2006. Further, the original search was expanded, without date restrictions, to include two new databases: EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, version 2 (QUADAS 2) tool was used to critique the quality of each new paper. Where appropriate, data from the prior review and this review were combined to perform meta-analysis using the updated hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and bivariate models. Since the publication of the 2008 review, 32 additional studies were identified and critiqued. For subacromial impingement, the meta-analysis revealed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity for the Neer test was 72% and 60%, respectively, for the Hawkins-Kennedy test was 79% and 59%, respectively, and for the painful arc was 53% and 76%, respectively. Also from the meta-analysis, regarding superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, the test with the best sensitivity (52%) was the relocation test; the test with the best specificity (95%) was Yergason's test; and the test with the best positive likelihood ratio (2.81) was the compression-rotation test. Regarding new (to this series of reviews) ShPE tests, where meta-analysis was not possible because of lack of sufficient studies or heterogeneity between studies, there are some individual tests that warrant further investigation. A highly specific test (specificity >80%, LR+ ≥ 5.0) from a low bias study is the passive distraction test for a SLAP lesion. This test may

  7. Sleep Disordered Breathing in Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Casement, Melynda; Chen, Chiau-Fang; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Individuals with major depressive disorder often experience obstructive sleep apnea. However, the relationship between depression and less severe sleep disordered breathing is less clear. This study examines the rate of sleep disordered breathing in depression after excluding those who had clinically significant sleep apnea (> 5 apneas/hr). Archival data collected between 1991 and 2005 was used to assess the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing events in 60 (31 depressed; 29 healthy controls) unmedicated participants. Respiratory events were automatically detected using a program developed in-house measuring thermal nasal air-flow and chest pressure. Results show that even after excluding participants with clinically significant sleep disordered breathing, individuals with depression continue to exhibit higher rates of sleep disordered breathing compared to healthy controls (Depressed group: AHI mean=.524, SE =.105; Healthy group: AHI mean =.179, SE =.108). Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess for rates of exclusion in depression studies due to sleep-disordered breathing. Study exclusion of sleep disordered breathing was quantified based on self-report during telephone screening, and via first night polysomnography. Results from phone screening data reveal that individuals reporting depression were 5.86 times more likely to report a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea than presumptive control participants. Furthermore, all of the participants excluded for severe sleep disordered breathing detected on the first night were participants with depression. These findings illustrate the importance of understanding the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and depression, and suggests that screening and quantification of sleep disordered breathing should be considered in depression research. PMID:23350718

  8. Cut-off optimization for (13)C-urea breath test in a community-based trial by mathematic, histology and serology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe-Xuan; Huang, Lei-Lei; Liu, Cong; Formichella, Luca; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Jun-Ling; Liu, Wei-Dong; Ulm, Kurt; Wang, Jian-Xi; Zhang, Lei; Bajbouj, Monther; Li, Ming; Vieth, Michael; Quante, Michael; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Le-Hua; Suchanek, Stepan; Soutschek, Erwin; Schmid, Roland; Classen, Meinhard; You, Wei-Cheng; Gerhard, Markus; Pan, Kai-Feng

    2017-05-18

    The performance of diagnostic tests in intervention trials of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) eradication is crucial, since even minor inaccuracies can have major impact. To determine the cut-off point for (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) and to assess if it can be further optimized by serologic testing, mathematic modeling, histopathology and serologic validation were applied. A finite mixture model (FMM) was developed in 21,857 subjects, and an independent validation by modified Giemsa staining was conducted in 300 selected subjects. H.pylori status was determined using recomLine H.pylori assay in 2,113 subjects with a borderline (13)C-UBT results. The delta over baseline-value (DOB) of 3.8 was an optimal cut-off point by a FMM in modelling dataset, which was further validated as the most appropriate cut-off point by Giemsa staining (sensitivity = 94.53%, specificity = 92.93%). In the borderline population, 1,468 subjects were determined as H.pylori positive by recomLine (69.5%). A significant correlation between the number of positive H.pylori serum responses and DOB value was found (rs = 0.217, P mathematical approach such as FMM might be an alternative measure in optimizing the cut-off point for (13)C-UBT in community-based studies, and a second method to determine H.pylori status for subjects with borderline value of (13)C-UBT was necessary and recommended.

  9. Měření dechové frekvence z EKG signálu s ohledem na vyšetření aktivit autonomního nervového systému Measurement of breathing frequency from ECG in the examination of autonomous nervous system activities: Suggested methods and their verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krejčí

    2005-02-01

    pertaining to breathing frequency measurement we opted for the less frequent method of breathing frequency diagnosis originating from the assessment of changes in ECG signal parameters pursuant to changes in thoracic volume during expiration and inspiration. The principal reason for selecting this method was in the fact that in the assessment of autonomous nervous system (ANS activity the ECG signal is monitored and this can also be used for diagnosing breathing frequency. Changes in ECG signal parameters were analysed by the method of spectral analysis of heart rate frequency (BFrr, the method of spectral analysis of variability amplitudes of QRS complexes (BFqrs and time analysis of periodicity in amplitudes changes of QRS complexes (BFv in order to suggest the optimal method of measuring breathing frequency. Monitoring of the ECG signal and calculation of ECG parameters, including the mentioned analysis, were processed by the VarCor PF6 system with modified programme equipment. Statistical verification of the selected method and recommendation of the optimal method for breathing frequency measurement was carried out with the help of reference values of breathing frequency at 9 and 12 cycles/min that were via acoustic signals transmitted to the tested subjects. Characteristics of the sample set: 55 men and women aged 22.7 ± 2.4 years, measurement was done in the positions supine 1 – standing – supine 2, the total number of statistically processed sets was n = 118. Based on the statistical results where the significance of differences between average values regarding reference values were tested by t-test and furthermore, based on the calculation of values based on absolute differences between breathing frequencies, the BFqrs method was recommended since it allows for diagnosing breathing frequency in the range of 6–25 cycles/min. The designed method will be applied to the existing algorithm of the diagnostic system VarCor PF6, thereby helping to specify the

  10. Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Student Examiners' Learning with Deliberate Test Practice and Examinees' Intelligence Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.; Rottman, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implications of deliberate practice when teaching test administration skills, novice, but trained, graduate student examiners administered intelligence tests to a convenience sample of volunteer school-age examinees assigned to a first test session. A second, different convenience sample of volunteer school-age examinees were…

  11. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  12. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  13. Evaluation of Computer Based Testing in lieu of Regular Examinations in Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Koichi

    Because computer based testing (CBT) has many advantages compared with the conventional paper and pencil testing (PPT) examination method, CBT has begun to be used in various situations in Japan, such as in qualifying examinations and in the TOEFL. This paper describes the usefulness and the problems of CBT applied to a regular college examination. The regular computer literacy examinations for first year students were held using CBT, and the results were analyzed. Responses to a questionnaire indicated many students accepted CBT with no unpleasantness and considered CBT a positive factor, improving their motivation to study. CBT also decreased the work of faculty in terms of marking tests and reducing data.

  14. The Comparison between National Final Examination Test Items and English Teacher Made-Test Items of 2010 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Razali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to determine the relevance between the scope of the national final examination test items in English lesson and the English teacher made test items. It is also to identify the relevance between the deepness of national final examination test items in English subject and the English teacher made test item. The finding showed that  more than fifty percents of tryout out test items are not relevant with the national test items. Meanwhile, the final national test items were design with higher cognitive domain than teacher made test items. It means the teacher made test items (tryout is more superficial than final national test items. It can be a reason why the students who are can pass the tryout test which is made in teacher cannot pass the national final examination test (standardized test. It is expected that this study provides empirical evidence to devise on their optimal uses in EFL teaching.  Copyright © 2015 by Al-Ta'lim All right reserved

  15. International consensus on the most useful physical examination tests used by physiotherapists for patients with headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luedtke, K; Boissonnault, W; Caspersen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A wide range of physical tests have been published for use in the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. Which tests are used depends on a physiotherapist's clinical and scientific background as there is little guidance on the most clinically useful tests....... OBJECTIVES: To identify which physical examination tests international experts in physiotherapy consider the most clinically useful for the assessment of patients with headache. DESIGN/METHODS: Delphi survey with pre-specified procedures based on a systematic search of the literature for physical examination...... tests proposed for the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunction in patients with headache. RESULTS: Seventeen experts completed all three rounds of the survey. Fifteen tests were included in round one with eleven additional tests suggested by the experts. Finally eleven physical examination tests were...

  16. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  17. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  18. An Examination of Some Language Proficiency Tests from a Communicative Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.

    A theoretical framework that distinguishes the knowledge, or competence, aspect of language proficiency from the skills aspect is outlined, and the factors in the language testing situation that affect performance on language tests are examined. The model is intended for use in assessing the construct validity of tests of language proficiency and…

  19. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  20. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of goniometer and inclinometer use in Craig’s test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-ram; Kang, Sun-young

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of measurement methods for femoral anterversion during Craig’s test. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 37 healthy participants (20 males and 17 females). Two novice examiners (Department of Physical Therapy students at Silla University) used three different methods to measure the femoral anterversion during Craig’s test: a goniometer, a goniometer with a laser beam, and an inclinometer. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability was high for both examiners with all three measurement methods, with scores of 0.82, 0.86, and 0.73 for examiner 1 and 0.74, 0.78, and 0.72 for examiner 2 for the goniometer, goniometer with the laser beam, and inclinometer, respectively. The inter-examiner reliability during Craig’s test was below moderate for both the goniometer (0.25) and inclinometer (0.27) and moderate for the goniometer with the laser beam (0.62). [Conclusion] This study found that Craig’s test using a goniometer with a laser beam had high intra-examiner reliability and moderate inter-examiner reliability. Clinically, these findings may supplement existing measurement skills and reduce the difficulty of locating the goniometer axis during Craig’s test. PMID:25995575

  1. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of goniometer and inclinometer use in Craig's test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bo-Ram; Kang, Sun-Young

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of measurement methods for femoral anterversion during Craig's test. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 37 healthy participants (20 males and 17 females). Two novice examiners (Department of Physical Therapy students at Silla University) used three different methods to measure the femoral anterversion during Craig's test: a goniometer, a goniometer with a laser beam, and an inclinometer. [Results] The intra-examiner reliability was high for both examiners with all three measurement methods, with scores of 0.82, 0.86, and 0.73 for examiner 1 and 0.74, 0.78, and 0.72 for examiner 2 for the goniometer, goniometer with the laser beam, and inclinometer, respectively. The inter-examiner reliability during Craig's test was below moderate for both the goniometer (0.25) and inclinometer (0.27) and moderate for the goniometer with the laser beam (0.62). [Conclusion] This study found that Craig's test using a goniometer with a laser beam had high intra-examiner reliability and moderate inter-examiner reliability. Clinically, these findings may supplement existing measurement skills and reduce the difficulty of locating the goniometer axis during Craig's test.

  2. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  3. Examining the Use of Web-Based Tests for Testing Academic Vocabulary in EAP Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtestani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Interest in Web-based and computer-assisted language testing is growing in the field of English for academic purposes (EAP). In this study, four groups of undergraduate EAP students (n = 120), each group consisted of 30 students, were randomly selected from four different disciplines, i.e. biology, political sciences, psychology, and law. The four…

  4. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...... at the surface. Air breathing is a common behaviour in many fish species when exposed to hypoxia, although certain species perform air-breathing in normoxia to fill their swim bladders for buoyancy control and/or sound transduction. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South...... America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of a fast air-gulping motion at the surface, followed by swimming towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of spontaneous air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia...

  5. Physical examination tests for the diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Carrillo, Aitana; Medina-Porqueres, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Numerous clinical tests have been proposed to diagnose FAI, but little is known about their diagnostic accuracy. To summarize and evaluate research on the accuracy of physical examination tests for diagnosis of FAI. A search of the PubMed, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases was performed. Studies were considered eligible if they compared the results of physical examination tests to those of a reference standard. Methodological quality and internal validity assessment was performed by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) tool. The systematic search strategy revealed 298 potential articles, five of which articles met the inclusion criteria. After assessment using the QUADAS score, four of the five articles were of high quality. Clinical tests included were Impingement sign, IROP test (Internal Rotation Over Pressure), FABER test (Flexion-Abduction-External Rotation), Stinchfield/RSRL (Resisted Straight Leg Raise) test, Scour test, Maximal squat test, and the Anterior Impingement test. IROP test, impingement sign, and FABER test showed the most sensitive values to identify FAI. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests to assess FAI is limited due to its heterogenecity. There is a strong need for sound research of high methodological quality in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontists frequently treat children with mouth breathing. The purpose of the present study was to examine dental positions, skeletal effects and the pharyngeal airway space of children with chronic allergic rhinitis, when compared with a control group exhibiting a normal breathing pattern. Seventy Caucasian children from Santa Maria University Hospital - North Lisbon Hospital Center were evaluated, between September 2009 and February 2013. The study group comprised of 35 children with chronic allergic rhinitis, both genders, aged 5 - 14, with positive reaction to allergens, mouth breathing and malocclusion. The control group was composed of 35 children, both genders, displaying normal nasal breathing and malocclusion, who resorted to the orthodontic department. Measures of Ricketts, Steiner and McNamara's analysis were used and the t- Student test was applied to the data obtained. Statistically significant differences were observed between the oral and nasal breathers, respectively: lower facial height (49.1/45.9 mm), Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle (30.1/26.9º) and Sela-Nasion - oclusal plane angle (17.3/15º), maxillary length (78.4/82.4 mm), mandibular length (102.4/107 mm), overbite (0.8/3.1mm) and overjet (4/4.7 mm). Comparison between the allergic rhinitis and control group showed that there is an increased lower facial height, larger Frankfurt â mandibular plane angle and Sela-Nasion oclusal plane angle in children with chronic allergic rhinitis. This group also had a shorter maxillary and mandibular length, less overbite and decreased upper airway space. Children with allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing have longer faces, shorter maxillas and mandibles and a narrowed pharyngeal airway space. No statistical differences between the groups in sagital relationships or in dental inclinations were found.

  7. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  8. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bacteria love to hang out there. It's equally important to floss because brushing alone won't remove harmful plaque and food particles that become stuck between your teeth and gums. Myth #3: If you breathe into ...

  9. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breathing Problems URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breathingproblems.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  10. Bad Breath - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bad Breath URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/badbreath.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  11. The Diagnostic Validity of Citric Acid-Free, High Dose (13)C-Urea Breath Test After Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Ju Yup; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Kichul; Hwang, Jae Jin; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, AeRa; Jeong, Yeon Sang; Oh, Sooyeon; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-06-01

    The (13)C-urea breath test ((13)C-UBT) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic validity of the (13)C-UBT cutoff value and to identify influencing clinical factors responsible for aberrant results. (13)C-UBT (UBiTkit; Otsuka Pharmaceutical, cutoff value: 2.5‰) results in the range 2.0‰ to 10.0‰ after H. pylori eradication therapy were compared with the results of endoscopic biopsy results of the antrum and body. Factors considered to affect test results adversely were analyzed. Among patients with a positive (13)C-UBT result (2.5‰ to 10.0‰, n = 223) or a negative (13)C-UBT result (2.0‰ to pylori eradication, 73 patients (34.0%) were false positive, and one (1.5%) was false negative as determined by endoscopic biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate, and false-negative rate for a cutoff value of 2.5‰ were 99.3%, 47.1%, 52.9%, and 0.7%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of the (13)C-UBT were 67.3% and 98.5%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that a history of two or more previous H. pylori eradication therapies (OR = 2.455, 95%CI = 1.299-4.641) and moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia (OR = 3.359, 95%CI = 1.572-7.178) were associated with a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. The (13)C-UBT cutoff value currently used has poor specificity for confirming H. pylori status after eradication, and this lack of specificity is exacerbated in patients that have undergone multiple prior eradication therapies and in patients with moderate to severe gastric intestinal metaplasia. In addition, the citric-free (13)C-UBT would increase a false-positive (13)C-UBT result. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mapleson's Breathing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-01-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where...

  13. Every breath you take

    OpenAIRE

    Padfield, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    The air we breathe is vital to our health. Researchers at the Department of Geosciences (University of Malta) are measuring how clean Malta’s air is. They are also optimising a model of the Mediterranean atmosphere to see how climate change will affect the Maltese Islands and their surrounding region. Words by Natasha Padfield. Photography by Jean Claude Vancell. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/every-breath-you-take/

  14. Physical examination tests for screening and diagnosis of cervicogenic headache: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ochoa, J; Benítez-Martínez, J; Lluch, E; Santacruz-Zaragozá, S; Gómez-Contreras, P; Cook, C E

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested that differential diagnosis of headaches should consist of a robust subjective examination and a detailed physical examination of the cervical spine. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a form of headache that involves referred pain from the neck. To our knowledge, no studies have summarized the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for CGH. The aim of this study was to summarize the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests used to diagnose CGH. A systematic review following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed in four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase and Scopus). Full text reports concerning physical tests for the diagnosis of CGH which reported the clinometric properties for assessment of CGH, were included and screened for methodological quality. Quality Appraisal for Reliability Studies (QAREL) and Quality Assessment of Studies of Diagnostic Accuracy (QUADAS-2) scores were completed to assess article quality. Eight articles were retrieved for quality assessment and data extraction. Studies investigating diagnostic reliability of physical examination tests for CGH scored poorer on methodological quality (higher risk of bias) than those of diagnostic accuracy. There is sufficient evidence showing high levels of reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the selected physical examination tests for the diagnosis of CGH. The cervical flexion-rotation test (CFRT) exhibited both the highest reliability and the strongest diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of CGH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining the Effectiveness of Test Accommodation Using DIF and a Mixture IRT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Jaehoon; Kingston, Neal

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the validity of test accommodation in third-eighth graders using differential item functioning (DIF) and mixture IRT models. Two data sets were used for these analyses. With the first data set (N = 51,591) we examined whether item type (i.e., story, explanation, straightforward) or item features were associated with item…

  16. Detecting Answer Copying Using Alternate Test Forms and Seat Locations in Small-Scale Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Two types of answer-copying statistics for detecting copiers in small-scale examinations are proposed. One statistic identifies the "copier-source" pair, and the other in addition suggests who is copier and who is source. Both types of statistics can be used when the examination has alternate test forms. A simulation study shows that the…

  17. 20 CFR 416.919k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919k Purchase of medical examinations... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 416.919k Section 416.919k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1519k - Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519k Purchase of medical examinations... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of medical examinations, laboratory tests, and other services. 404.1519k Section 404.1519k Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY...

  19. Perceptions of Examiner Behavior Modulate Power Relations in Oral Performance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, India C.; Bogart, Pamela S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent are the discourse behaviors of examiners salient to participants of an oral performance test? This exploratory study employs a grounded ethnographic approach to investigate the perceptions of the verbal, paralinguistic and nonverbal discourse behaviors of an examiner in a one-on-one role-play task that is one of four tasks in an…

  20. Role delineation and test specification validation study for the CNRN examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowin, M; Ozuna, J

    1988-10-01

    The American Board of Neuroscience Nursing conducted a role delineation and validation study to determine practice areas to be tested. In addition, weighting for each area to be included in the certification examination was determined. This article describes steps taken in the validation process and discusses findings along with application of results to certification examination revision.

  1. Automated simultaneous assembly of multi-stage testing for the uniform CPA examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, A.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2004-01-01

    Some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination are offered as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination will be offered as an adaptive multi-stage test (MST)

  2. Air-Breathing Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph depicts an air-breathing rocket engine prototype in the test bay at the General Applied Science Lab facility in Ronkonkoma, New York. Air-breathing engines, known as rocket based, combined-cycle engines, get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engine relies totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn hydrogen fuel, as opposed to a rocket that must carry its own oxygen, thus reducing weight and flight costs. Once the vehicle has accelerated to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-powered system to propel the craft into orbit or sustain it to suborbital flight speed. NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program at Marshall Space Flight Center, along with several industry partners and collegiate forces, is developing this technology to make space transportation affordable for everyone from business travelers to tourists. The goal is to reduce launch costs from today's price tag of $10,000 per pound to only hundreds of dollars per pound. NASA's series of hypersonic flight demonstrators currently include three air-breathing vehicles: the X-43A, X-43B and X-43C.

  3. Control of breathing in invertebrate model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Syed, Naweed I

    2012-07-01

    The invertebrates have adopted a myriad of breathing strategies to facilitate the extraction of adequate quantities of oxygen from their surrounding environments. Their respiratory structures can take a wide variety of forms, including integumentary surfaces, lungs, gills, tracheal systems, and even parallel combinations of these same gas exchange structures. Like their vertebrate counterparts, the invertebrates have evolved elaborate control strategies to regulate their breathing activity. Our goal in this article is to present the reader with a description of what is known regarding the control of breathing in some of the specific invertebrate species that have been used as model systems to study different mechanistic aspects of the control of breathing. We will examine how several species have been used to study fundamental principles of respiratory rhythm generation, central and peripheral chemosensory modulation of breathing, and plasticity in the control of breathing. We will also present the reader with an overview of some of the behavioral and neuronal adaptability that has been extensively documented in these animals. By presenting explicit invertebrate species as model organisms, we will illustrate mechanistic principles that form the neuronal foundation of respiratory control, and moreover appear likely to be conserved across not only invertebrates, but vertebrate species as well. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1745-1766, 2012.

  4. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin concentration and erythrocyte survival in type 2 diabetes mellitus determined by a modified carbon monoxide breath test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenhe; Liu, Yajing; Mao, Yanfang; Chen, Wenwen; Xiao, Zhangang; Yu, Yangyang

    2017-10-03

    In clinical practice, an unexplained discordance between percentage hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and the progression of diabetes and its complication is observed. HbA1c is determined by blood glucose and red blood cell (RBC) lifespan. Whether RBC lifespan changes in diabetic patients remains undefined because of the lack of the convenient and accurate measuring method. In the present study, we aim to observe the RBC lifespan in type 2 diabetic patients with poor blood glucose control by endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) measurement using a rapid and simplified CO breath test machine. RBC lifespan, age, RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, blood lipids, liver and kidney function were compared between 38 diabetic patients and 40 healthy individuals. Compared with the control group, the RBC lifespan was significantly decreased by 16.9% in diabetic patients (86.08±18.13 d VS 103.6±22.02 d, p=0.00). Although univariate linear correlation analysis showed that RBC lifespan was negatively correlated with fasting blood glucose (r=-0.386, p =0.000), hemoglobin A1c (r=-0.346, p =0.002), and age (r =-0.291, p=0.010), stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that the lifespan of RBC was mostly affected by fasting blood glucose (t=-3.554, p =0.001), but not HbA1c or age, while HbA1c was mostly affected by fasting blood glucose (t=13.989, p =0.000), but not RBC lifespan. RBC lifespan in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control was reduced. The decrease in RBC lifespan caused by hyperglycemia is not associated with HbA1c. Thus decrease in RBC lifespan will lead to an underestimation of the actual level of hyperglycemia and the progression of disease by HbA1c in type 2 diabetic patients if we do not adjust with RBC lifespan. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  5. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  6. A Test of the Validity of the LCSW Examination: "Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, David L.; Thyer, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors administered to 59 first-year MSW students the practice test for the clinical-level examination developed by the Association of Social Work Boards (ASWB); the latter is used by most jurisdictions to qualify individuals to practice as licensed clinical social workers. To assess the practice test's validity, the authors blanked out…

  7. Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing to Entrance Examination for Graduate Studies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Okan; Kan, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is a sophisticated and efficient way of delivering examinations. In CAT, items for each examinee are selected from an item bank based on the examinee's responses to the items. In this way, the difficulty level of the test is adjusted based on the examinee's ability level. Instead of…

  8. Test-retest, inter-assessor and intra-assessor reliability of the modified Touwen examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Lieke H. J.; Maathuis, Karel G. B.; Kouw, Eva; Hamming, Marjolein; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Interest in the Touwen examination (1979) for the assessment of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) is growing. However, information on psychometric properties of this assessment is scarce. Therefore the present study aimed at assessing the test's test-retest, inter- and intra-assessor reliability.

  9. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffas, Eisha M; Sequeira, Reginald P; Namla, Riyadh A Al; Al-Harbi, Khalid S

    2012-01-01

    The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs) are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations. To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program. Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited. Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program. A systematic approach using a documentary and content analysis technique was used to develop test blueprints with additional input from an expert panel as appropriate. Test blueprinting is an important step to ensure the test validity in all residency programs.

  10. Software-assisted small bowel motility analysis using free-breathing MRI: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickelhaupt, Sebastian; Froehlich, Johannes M; Cattin, Roger; Raible, Stephan; Bouquet, Hanspeter; Bill, Urs; Patak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    To validate a software prototype allowing for small bowel motility analysis in free breathing by comparing it to manual measurements. In all, 25 patients (15 male, 10 female; mean age 39 years) were included in this Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5T system after standardized preparation acquiring motility sequences in free breathing over 69-84 seconds. Small bowel motility was analyzed manually and with the software. Functional parameters, measurement time, and reproducibility were compared using the coefficient of variance and paired Student's t-test. Correlation was analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression. The 25 segments were analyzed twice both by hand and using the software with automatic breathing correction. All assessed parameters significantly correlated between the methods (P software (3.90%, standard deviation [SD] ± 5.69) than manual examinations (9.77%, SD ± 11.08). The time needed was significantly less (P software (4.52 minutes, SD ± 1.58) compared to manual measurement, lasting 17.48 minutes for manual (SD ± 1.75 minutes). The use of the software proves reliable and faster small bowel motility measurements in free-breathing MRI compared to manual analyses. The new technique allows for analyses of prolonged sequences acquired in free breathing, improving the informative value of the examinations by amplifying the evaluable data. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Using collaborative two-stage examinations to address test anxiety in a large enrollment gateway course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kimberly A; Couret, Jannelle; Ramsay, Jason B; Caulkins, Joshua L

    2017-09-01

    Large enrollment foundational courses are perceived as "high stakes" because of their potential to act as barriers for progression to the next course or admittance to a program. The nature of gateway courses makes them ideal settings to explore the relationship between anxiety, pedagogical interventions, and student performance. Here, two-stage collaborative examinations were implemented to improve test-taking skills and address widespread test anxiety in an introductory human anatomy course. Test anxiety data were collected (using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) before the first examination and last examination. Most students experienced decreased test anxiety over the course of the semester; however, some students may have experienced performance limiting conditions due to test anxiety at the end of the semester based on academic ability in the course (in "C" students when compared to "A" students: P < 0.00006 and "B" students: P < 0.05), overall academic ability (in academically weaker students: P < 0.025), and demographic factors (in women: P < 0.025). The strongest performances on examinations were primarily observed in already academically strong students (mean individual performance: P < 0.000, mean group performance: P < 0.000). Furthermore, changes in test anxiety were not significantly associated with the group portion of the examinations. Patterns of changes in test anxiety over the course of the semester underscore a complex interaction between test anxiety, student background, and student performance. Results suggest that pathways for test anxiety in "high stakes" courses may be separate from the mechanisms responsible for the benefits of collaborative testing. Anat Sci Educ 10: 409-422. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of scapular physical examination tests for shoulder disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexis A; Wassinger, Craig A; Frank, Mason; Michener, Lori A; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review and critique the evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for the scapula in patients with shoulder disorders. A systematic, computerised literature search of PubMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases (from database inception through January 2012) using keywords related to diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the scapula. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used to critique the quality of each paper. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria; three were considered to be of high quality. Of the three high-quality studies, two were in reference to a 'diagnosis' of shoulder pain. Only one high-quality article referenced specific shoulder pathology of acromioclavicular dislocation with reported sensitivity of 71% and 41% for the scapular dyskinesis and SICK scapula test, respectively. Overall, no physical examination test of the scapula was found to be useful in differentially diagnosing pathologies of the shoulder.

  13. Content Validity and Authenticity of the 2012 English Test in the Senior High School National Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frisca Ayu Desi Widyaningrum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses content validity and authenticity of the English test items in National Examination (UN year 2012. It is worth discussion because UN, which was administered nationally, was the most important standardized test to assess Indonesian students’ competence. The study aimed to find out how valid the content of the English test items of National Examination year 2012 for senior high schools isand how authentic the English test items of National Examination year 2012 for senior high schools is. The writers employed a qualitative research with document analysis to conduct the analysis of both content validity and authenticity of the English test items. The data were obtained from the document and analyzed by using checklists. Besides, to maintain the validitiy of the analysis, a triagulation was done by distributing aquestionnaire to four experts in language assessment. There were twofindings resulted form the analysis. First, the content of the National Examination year 2012 was 98.8% valid since almost all of the contents were relevant to the test specifications. However, there were three reading test versions which failed to represent kinds of texts, namely explanation text. Second, the National Examination year 2012 met the criteria of authenticity with percentage 79.5% since some listening and reading test items failed to conform to authenticity criteria. Natural language use, the relevance of the test topics, and real-world representativeness became problematic aspects to meet the higher standard of authenticity.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160103

  14. Tests examining skill outcomes in sport: a systematic review of measurement properties and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Samuel J; Burnett, Angus F; Cochrane, Jodie

    2014-04-01

    A high level of participant skill is influential in determining the outcome of many sports. Thus, tests assessing skill outcomes in sport are commonly used by coaches and researchers to estimate an athlete's ability level, to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or for the purpose of talent identification. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the methodological quality, measurement properties and feasibility characteristics of sporting skill outcome tests reported in the peer-reviewed literature. A search of both SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE databases was undertaken. Studies that examined tests of sporting skill outcomes were reviewed. Only studies that investigated measurement properties of the test (reliability or validity) were included. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. A customised checklist of assessment criteria, based on previous research, was utilised for the purpose of this review. A range of sports were the subject of the 22 studies included in this review, with considerations relating to methodological quality being generally well addressed by authors. A range of methods and statistical procedures were used by researchers to determine the measurement properties of their skill outcome tests. The majority (95%) of the reviewed studies investigated test-retest reliability, and where relevant, inter and intra-rater reliability was also determined. Content validity was examined in 68% of the studies, with most tests investigating multiple skill domains relevant to the sport. Only 18% of studies assessed all three reviewed forms of validity (content, construct and criterion), with just 14% investigating the predictive validity of the test. Test responsiveness was reported in only 9% of studies, whilst feasibility received varying levels of attention. In organised sport, further tests may exist which have not been investigated in this review. This could be due to such tests firstly not being published in the peer

  15. Physical examination tests for the diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament rupture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopkow, Christian; Freiberg, Alice; Kirschner, Stephan; Seidler, Andreas; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-11-01

    Systematic literature review. To summarize and evaluate research on the accuracy of physical examination tests for diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tear. Rupture of the PCL is a severe knee injury that can lead to delayed rehabilitation, instability, or chronic knee pathologies. To our knowledge, there is currently no systematic review of studies on the diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests to evaluate the integrity of the PCL. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE from 1946, Embase from 1974, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database from 1985 until April 30, 2012. Studies were considered eligible if they compared the results of physical examination tests performed in the context of a PCL physical examination to those of a reference standard (arthroscopy, arthrotomy, magnetic resonance imaging). Methodological quality assessment was performed by 2 independent reviewers using the revised version of the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool. The search strategy revealed 1307 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria for this review. In these studies, 11 different physical examination tests were identified. Due to differences in study types, different patient populations, and methodological quality, meta-analysis was not indicated. Presently, most physical examination tests have not been evaluated sufficiently enough to be confident in their ability to either confirm or rule out a PCL tear. The diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests to assess the integrity of the PCL is largely unknown. There is a strong need for further research in this area. Level of Evidence Diagnosis, level 3a.

  16. [Augmented spontaneous breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T

    1996-09-01

    Impaired pulmonary gas exchange can result from lung parenchymal failure inducing oxygenation deficiency and fatigue of the respiratory muscles, which is characterized by hypercapnia or a combination of both mechanisms. Contractility of and coordination between the diaphragm and the thoracoabdominal respiratory muscles predominantly determine the efficiency of spontaneous breathing. Sepsis, cardiac failure, malnutrition or acute changes of the load conditions may induce fatigue of the respiratory muscles. Augmentation of spontaneous breathing is not only achieved by the application of different technical principles or devices; it also has to improve perfusion, metabolism, load conditions and contractility of the respiratory muscles. Intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) allows spontaneous breathing of the patient and augments alveolar ventilation by periodically applying positive airway pressure tidal volumes, which are generated by the respirator. Potential advantages include lower mean airway pressure (PAW), as compared with controlled mechanical ventilation, and improved haemodynamics. Suboptimal IMV systems may impose increased work and oxygen cost of breathing, fatigue of the respiratory muscles and CO2 retention. During pressure support ventilation (PSV), inspiratory alterations of PAW or gas flow (trigger) are detected by the respirator, which delivers a gas flow to maintain PAW at a fixed value (usually 5-20 cm H2O) during inspiration. PSV may be combined with other modalities of respiratory therapy such as IMV or CPAP. Claimed advantages of PSV include decreased effort of breathing, reduced systemic and respiratory muscle consumption of oxygen, prophylaxis of diaphragmatic fatigue and an improved extubation rate after prolonged periods of mechanical ventilation. Minimum alveolar ventilation is not guaranteed during PSV; thus, close observation of the patient is mandatory to avoid serious respiratory complications. Continuous positive airway pressure

  17. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where...... the exhalation airflow was analyzed. In order to simulate the gaseous exhaled substances in human breathing, N2O was used as a tracer gas. The concentration of N2O and the velocity of the exhaled flow were measured in the center line of the exhalation flow. The velocity decay of the exhalation flow versus...... distance was analyzed for the three ventilation strategies. The relationship between gas concentration values and distance from the manikin was also examined. The measurements showed that the exhalation flow of breathing depends to some extent on the air distribution system. Two equations could be applied...

  18. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF INVERSE RATIO BREATHING VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON INSPIRATORY VITAL CAPACITY AND THORACIC EXPANSION IN ADULT HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Baban Pedamkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The normal inspiratory to expiratory ratio is 1:2.However, the duration of inspiration can be increased voluntarily till the ratio becomes 2:1.This is called as inverse ratio breathing. The effects of inverse ratio ventilation have been studied on patients with respiratory failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. No studies have been carried out to study the effects of inverse ratio breathing in voluntarily breathing individuals. Hence this study was carried out to find the immediate effects of inverse ratio breathing versus diaphragmatic breathing on inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion. Methods: 30 healthy adult females in the age group 20-25 years were included in the study. Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal space was measured using a digital spirometer and an inelastic inch tape respectively. Diaphragmatic breathing was administered for one minute and the same parameters were measured again. A washout period of one day was given and same outcome measures were measured before and after individuals performed inverse ratio breathing with the help of a visual feedback video for one minute. Results: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon test. There was extremely significant difference between the mean increase in the inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at the 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostals space after inverse ratio breathing as compared to diaphragmatic breathing (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion increase significantly after inverse ratio breathing.

  19. Testing Alcohol Myopia Theory: Examining the effects of alcohol intoxication on simultaneous central and peripheral attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Bayless, Sarah; Harvey, Alistair, J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention was examined as a test of Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT). Previous research has supported AMT in the context of visual attention, but few studies have examined the effects of alcohol intoxication on central and peripheral attention. The study followed a 2 (alcohol treatment) × 2 (array size) × 2 (task type) mixed design. Forty-one participants (placebo or intoxicated) viewed an array of four or six colored circles, while simu...

  20. Introduction to an Open Source Internet-Based Testing Program for Medical Student Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hwan Lee

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees’ information, and examinees access the system. The examinee’s score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education.

  1. Introduction to an open source internet-based testing program for medical student examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Hwan

    2009-12-20

    The author developed a freely available open source internet-based testing program for medical examination. PHP and Java script were used as the programming language and postgreSQL as the database management system on an Apache web server and Linux operating system. The system approach was that a super user inputs the items, each school administrator inputs the examinees' information, and examinees access the system. The examinee's score is displayed immediately after examination with item analysis. The set-up of the system beginning with installation is described. This may help medical professors to easily adopt an internet-based testing system for medical education.

  2. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  3. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Related Images View Sources Also Known As H. pylori antibody test, stool antigen, breath tests Urea breath test CLO test Rapid urease test (RUT) for H. pylori Formal Name Helicobacter pylori This article was last ...

  4. Examining the Islamic stock market efficiency: Evidence from nonlinear ESTAR unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Heru Setianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the efficient market hypothesis (EMH in the Islamic stock market namely Jakarta Islamic Index by emphasizing on the random walk behavior and nonlinearity. In the first step, we employ Brock et al. (1996 test to examine the presence of nonlinear behavior in Jakarta Islamic Index. The evidence of nonlinear behavior in the indices, motivate us to use nonlinear ESTAR unit root test procedure recently developed by Kapetanios et al. (2003 and Kruse (2011. The nonlinear unit root test procedure fail to rejects the null hypothesis of unit root for the indices, suggesting that Jakarta Islamic Index characterized by random walk process supporting the theory of efficient market hypothesis. In addition, Lumsdaine and Papel (LP test identified significant structural breaks in the index series.

  5. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  6. DESIGN OF A TEST RIG FOR THE EXAMINATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ROLLING BEARINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał JURECKI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a design basis adopted for the construction of a test facility for the rig testing of rolling bearings. One of the methods of inspection of the bearings is the testing of the bearings as components having already been mounted in a specific machine component unit and tested in the conditions of operation of the unit as a whole. This article presents preliminary engineering requirements and the design of a special test rig for the examination of rolling bearings without the necessity of mounting the bearings in a specific machine component unit. The rig testing is widely used in consideration of numerous good points of such a method. The simulation testing of bearings (on test rigs consists in reproducing as accurately as possible the real conditions of operation of the bearings when mounted in the device for which they are intended. The rigs used for such tests are complicated and expensive, but the results of such tests are more “reliable” and more accurately represent the impact of various operational factors (loads on the durability of the bearings under test.

  7. Pendulum Test: A Highly Accurate and Simple Physical Examination Maneuver to Identify Hip Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Oshima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with hip pathology often complain of various symptoms, e.g. pain or discomfort of low back, lower extremity, hip, groin, thigh, buttock or knee. Physicians may be distracted by these complaints, and misdiagnose and mistreat hip pathology. To avoid this, the pendulum test, which is performed with a patient seated on the examination table and hips and knees are flexed at 90 degrees, while the examiner passively swings the patient's lower extremity in and out as a pendulum, has been employed for all patients with the complaint of low back, hip and knee. Objective: The efficacy and the accuracy of the pendulum test were evaluated. Patients and methods: Consecutive 40 patients, who had complained pain or discomfort of low back, lower extremity, hip, groin, thigh, buttock and knee were examined by the pendulum test. Results: Eighteen patients were positive for the pendulum test, and all of them correlated to the hip pathology. Conclusions: The pendulum test was confirmed to be easily performed and reliable in detecting the hip pathology. Therefore, this test is highly recommended for the differentiation of patients with low back, hip and knee complaints.

  8. Oxidation of linoleic and palmitic acid in pre-hibernating and hibernating common noctule bats revealed by13C breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Elisabeth; Voigt, Christian C

    2018-02-19

    Mammals fuel hibernation by oxidizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from triacylglycerols in adipocytes, yet the relative importance of these two categories as an oxidative fuel may change during hibernation. We studied the selective use of fatty acids as an oxidative fuel in noctule bats ( Nyctalus noctula ). Pre-hibernating noctule bats that were fed 13 C-enriched linoleic acid (LA) showed 12 times higher tracer oxidation rates compared with conspecifics fed 13 C-enriched palmitic acid (PA). After this experiment, we supplemented the diet of bats with the same fatty acids on five subsequent days to enrich their fat depots with the respective tracer. We then compared the excess 13 C enrichment (excess atom percentage, APE) in breath of bats for torpor and arousal events during early and late hibernation. We observed higher APE values in breath of bats fed 13 C-enriched LA than in bats fed 13 C-enriched PA for both states (torpor and arousal), and also for both periods. Thus, hibernating bats selectively oxidized endogenous LA instead of PA, probably because of faster transportation rates of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with saturated fatty acids. We did not observe changes in APE values in the breath of torpid animals between early and late hibernation. Skin temperature of torpid animals increased by 0.7°C between early and late hibernation in bats fed PA, whereas it decreased by -0.8°C in bats fed LA, highlighting that endogenous LA may fulfil two functions when available in excess: serving as an oxidative fuel and supporting cell membrane functionality. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Development and validation of a musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Julie Y; Awan, Hisham M; Rowley, David M; Nagel, Rollin W

    2013-01-01

    Despite a renewed emphasis among educators, musculoskeletal education is still lacking in medical school and residency training programs. We created a musculoskeletal multiple-choice physical examination decision-making test to assess competency and physical examination knowledge of our trainees. We developed a 20-question test in musculoskeletal physical examination decision-making test with content that most medical students and orthopedic residents should know. All questions were reviewed by ratings of US orthopedic chairmen. It was administered to postgraduate year 2 to 5 orthopedic residents and 2 groups of medical students: 1 group immediately after their 3-week musculoskeletal course and the other 1 year after the musculoskeletal course completion. We hypothesized that residents would score highest, medical students 1 year post-musculoskeletal training lowest, and students immediately post-musculoskeletal training midrange. We administered an established cognitive knowledge test to compare student knowledge base as we expected the scores to correlate. Academic medical center in the Midwestern United States. Orthopedic residents, chairmen, and medical students. Fifty-four orthopedic chairmen (54 of 110 or 49%) responded to our survey, rating a mean overall question importance of 7.12 (0 = Not Important; 5 = Important; 10 = Very Important). Mean physical examination decision-making scores were 89% for residents, 77% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained medical students, and 59% 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained medical students (F = 42.07, p<0.001). The physical examination decision-making test was found to be internally consistent (Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 = 0.69). The musculoskeletal cognitive knowledge test was 78% for immediate post-musculoskeletal trained students and 71% for the 1 year post-musculoskeletal trained students. The student physical examination and cognitive knowledge scores were correlated (r = 0.54, p<0.001), but were not

  10. Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asthma: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nagasaki, T; Kanemitsu, Y; Murase, K; Ito, I; Oguma, T; Muro, S; Asai, K; Tabara, Y; Takahashi, K; Bessho, K; Sekine, A; Kosugi, S; Yamada, R; Nakayama, T; Matsuda, F; Niimi, A; Chin, K; Mishima, M

    2016-07-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a known risk factor for asthma onset, often accompanies mouth breathing. Mouth breathing may bypass the protective function of the nose and is anecdotally considered to increase asthma morbidity. However, there is no epidemiological evidence that mouth breathing is independently associated with asthma morbidity and sensitization to allergens. In this study, we aimed to clarify the association between mouth breathing and asthma morbidity and allergic/eosinophilic inflammation, while considering the effect of allergic rhinitis. This community-based cohort study, the Nagahama Study, contained a self-reporting questionnaire on mouth breathing and medical history, blood tests, and pulmonary function testing. We enrolled 9804 general citizens of Nagahama City in the Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Mouth breathing was reported by 17% of the population and was independently associated with asthma morbidity. The odds ratio for asthma morbidity was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.27-2.62) and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.72-2.80) in subjects with mouth breathing alone and allergic rhinitis alone, which additively increased to 4.09 (95% CI, 3.01-5.52) when mouth breathing and allergic rhinitis coexisted. Mouth breathing in nonasthmatics was a risk for house dust mite sensitization, higher blood eosinophil counts, and lower pulmonary function after adjusting for allergic rhinitis. Mouth breathing may increase asthma morbidity, potentially through increased sensitization to inhaled allergens, which highlights the risk of mouth-bypass breathing in the 'one airway, one disease' concept. The risk of mouth breathing should be well recognized in subjects with allergic rhinitis and in the general population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Validity of combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Frémont, Pierre; Pelletier, Bruno; Fallaha, Michel; Sylvain, Belzile; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Jean-Pierre, Pelletier; Feldman, Debbie; Marie-Pierre, Sylvestre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2017-11-08

    to assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude patellofemoral pain (PFP). prospective diagnostic study. orthopaedic outpatients clinics (n=2), family medicine clinics (n=2) and community-dwelling. consecutive patients (n=279) consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n=3) or sport medicine physicians (n=2) for any knee complaint. not applicable. history elements and physical examination tests were obtained by a trained physiotherapist blinded to the reference standard: a composite diagnosis including both physical tests and imaging results interpretation performed by an expert physician. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of PFP and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. two hundred seventy-nine participants were evaluated and 75 had a diagnosis of PFP (26.9%). Different combinations of history elements and physical examination tests including the age of participants, knee pain location, difficulty descending stairs, patellar facets palpation, and passive knee extension range of motion were associated with a diagnosis of PFP and used in clusters to accurately discriminate between PFP and non-PFP individuals. Two diagnostic clusters to confirm the presence of PFP yielded a LR+ of 8.7 (95% CI: 5.2-14.6) and three clusters to exclude PFP yielded a LR-: of 0.12 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Diagnostic clusters combining common history elements and physical examination tests that can accurately diagnose or exclude PFP compared to various knee disorders were developed. External validation is required before clinical use. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  12. Reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders: Evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians often rely on physical examination tests to guide them in the diagnostic process of knee disorders. However, reliability of these tests is often overlooked and may influence the consistency of results and overall diagnostic validity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically review evidence on the reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in databases up to January 2016. Included studies needed to report reliability measures of at least one physical test for any knee disorder. Methodological quality was evaluated using the QAREL checklist. A qualitative synthesis of the evidence was performed. Thirty-three studies were included with a mean QAREL score of 5.5 ± 0.5. Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Thessaly test for meniscal injuries reached moderate inter-rater reliability (k = 0.54). Based on moderate to excellent quality evidence, the Lachman for anterior cruciate ligament injuries reached moderate to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.42 to 0.81). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Tibiofemoral Crepitus, Joint Line and Patellofemoral Pain/Tenderness, Bony Enlargement and Joint Pain on Movement tests for knee osteoarthritis reached fair to excellent inter-rater reliability (k = 0.29 to 0.93). Based on low to moderate quality evidence, the Lateral Glide, Lateral Tilt, Lateral Pull and Quality of Movement tests for patellofemoral pain reached moderate to good inter-rater reliability (k = 0.49 to 0.73). Many physical tests appear to reach good inter-rater reliability, but this is based on low-quality and conflicting evidence. High-quality research is required to evaluate the reliability of knee physical examination tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 34 CFR 98.4 - Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of students' privacy in examination, testing, or treatment. 98.4 Section 98.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STUDENT... are not directly related to academic instruction and that is designed to affect behavioral, emotional...

  14. Examining Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge Using Policy, State Certification Tests and Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Pamela Esprivalo; Eddy, Colleen McLean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mathematics teacher content knowledge in terms of policy maker recommendations, college coursework and teacher certification mathematics test scores. Transcript analysis indicated poor alignment of national policy maker recommendations for mathematics teachers and college degrees in mathematics. Teacher certification test…

  15. 42 CFR 84.1102 - Examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination, inspection and testing of complete respirator assemblies; fees. 84.1102 Section 84.1102 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  16. Examination of Relationships between Participation in School Music Programs of Differing Quality and Standardized Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Memmott, Jenny E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in contrasting school music programs and standardized test scores. Relationships between elementary (third- or fourth-grade) students' academic achievement at comparable schools, but with contrasting music programs as to instructional quality, were…

  17. The Reliability of Results from National Tests, Public Examinations, and Vocational Qualifications in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    National tests, public examinations, and vocational qualifications in England are used for a variety of purposes, including the certification of individual learners in different subject areas and the accountability of individual professionals and institutions. However, there has been ongoing debate about the reliability and validity of their…

  18. 30 CFR 75.900-3 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... current circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment and their auxiliary devices shall be... circuit breakers; procedures. 75.900-3 Section 75.900-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-3 Testing, examination, and...

  19. 30 CFR 75.900-4 - Testing, examination, and maintenance of circuit breakers; record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... circuits serving three-phase alternating current equipment used in the mine. Such record shall be kept in a... circuit breakers; record. 75.900-4 Section 75.900-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Underground Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.900-4 Testing, examination, and...

  20. 77 FR 33264 - National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners Testing Providers Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... motor vehicle drivers to undergo training, pass a certification exam, and be listed on the National... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners Testing... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The National Registry of Certified Medical...

  1. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  2. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with obesity hypoventilation syndrome also have sleep apnea. Deconditioning If you are not active or do not exer- cise regularly, as a result of being out of shape and experiencing muscle fatigue, you may develop shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when ...

  3. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  4. Firefighter's Breathing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlan, P. B.; Giorgini, E. A.; Sullivan, J. L.; Simmonds, M. R.; Beck, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    System, based on open-loop demand-type compressed air concept, is lighter and less bulky than former systems, yet still provides thirty minutes of air supply. Comfort, visibility, donning time, and breathing resistance have been improved. Apparatus is simple to recharge and maintain and is comparable in cost to previously available systems.

  5. Breath Malodour - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Tandon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The term ′Halitosis′, ′Foetor oris′ and ′foetor ex ore′ are used to describe offensive breath. This embarrassing condition causes social, emotional and psychological anxiety. This article provides an insight into etiology, diagnosis and management of oral malodour.

  6. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2016-12-29

    To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p study found some non-cognitive factors related to medical students' test anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.

  7. [The examination of SIgE in perennial allergic rhinitis with mast allergy test system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Li, L; Hou, X; Zhai, Y

    1999-04-01

    To explore the relation between serum specificity immunoglobulin E (SIgE) and skin test (intracutaneous test) as well as nasal provocation in Perennial allergy rhinitis (PAR) by Mast Allergy Test System. Serum allergen-specific IgE (SIgE) were examined by Mast Allergy Test System in 57 case of PAR patients. The SIgE positive rate of fannae and pteronvssinus are highest (52.6%), the sensitive rate of intracutaneous test is 88.4% and nasal provocation is 88.9%. The SIgE positive rates of cludosporium, penicillum and altemana are 26.3%, 24.6% and 21.0%, respectively. The SIgE positive rates of fannae, cockroach, shrimp, crab, egg and milk is direct proportion with intracutaneous test (P 0.05). In addition, the positive rate of ragweed mix SIgE is 22.8%, but there is non of this plant in South China. It is worthy of paying attention in clinic. It indicate that Mast Allergy Test System is one of the better examination for PAR allergens.

  8. The transition of the national certification examination from paper and pencil to computer adaptive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglaniczny, K L

    1996-02-01

    The Council on Certification of Nurse Anesthetists (CCNA) has been exploring computerized adaptive testing (CAT) for the national certification examination (NCE) over the past several years. CCNA representatives have consulted with experts in testing and with individuals from professional associations who use CAT for certification or licensure testing. This article will provide an overview of CAT and discuss how the CCNA plans to implement CAT for the NCE beginning April 8, 1996. A future article that explains the theoretical concepts of CAT will be published in the April 1996 AANA Journal. It is important to note that the NCE will not be a new test, the current content outline and item bank will remain the same. It is only the method of test administration that is changed--from paper and pencil to CAT. Each candidate will answer questions and take a test that is individualized to his or her ability or competence level and meets the specifications of the test outline. All candidates must achieve the same passing score. The implementation of CAT for the NCE will be advantageous for the candidates and provide a more efficient competency assessment. The last paper and pencil examination was administered on December 9, 1995. The transition is a significant event in nurse anesthesia history, just as nurse anesthesia was the first advanced practice nursing specialty to implement the certification credential, the CCNA will be the first to introduce CAT.

  9. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad ...

  10. Individuality of breathing during volitional moderate hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besleaga, Tudor; Blum, Michaël; Briot, Raphaël; Vovc, Victor; Moldovanu, Ion; Calabrese, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the individuality of airflow shapes during volitional hyperventilation. Ventilation was recorded on 18 healthy subjects following two protocols: (1) spontaneous breathing (SP1) followed by a volitional hyperventilation at each subject's spontaneous (HVSP) breathing rate, (2) spontaneous breathing (SP2) followed by hyperventilation at 20/min (HV20). HVSP and HV20 were performed at the same level of hypocapnia: end tidal CO2 (FETCO2) was maintained at 1% below the spontaneous level. At each breath, the tidal volume (VT), the breath (TTOT), the inspiratory (TI) and expiratory durations, the minute ventilation, VT/TI, TI/TTOT and the airflow shape were quantified by harmonic analysis. Under different conditions of breathing, we test if the airflow profiles of the same individual are more similar than airflow profiles between individuals. Minute ventilation was not significantly different between SP1 (6.71 ± 1.64 l·min(-1)) and SP2 (6.57 ± 1.31 l·min(-1)) nor between HVSP (15.88 ± 4.92 l·min(-1)) and HV20 (15.87 ± 4.16 l·min(-1)). Similar results were obtained for FETCO2 between SP1 (5.06 ± 0.54 %) and SP2 (5.00 ± 0.51%), and HVSP (4.07 ± 0.51%) and HV20 (3.88 ± 0.42%). Only TI/TTOT remained unchanged in all four conditions. Airflow shapes were similar when comparing SP1-SP2, HVSP-HV20, and SP1-HVSP but not similar when comparing SP2-HV20. These results suggest the existence of an individuality of airflow shape during volitional hyperventilation. We conclude that volitional ventilation alike automatic breathing follows inherent properties of the ventilatory system. Registered by Pascale Calabrese on ClinicalTrials.gov, # NCT01881945.

  11. Determinants of Difficulty and Discriminating Power of Image-based Test Items in Postgraduate Radiological Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutgers, Dirk R; van Raamt, Fleur; van der Gijp, Anouk; Mol, Christian; Ten Cate, Olle

    2017-11-29

    The psychometric characteristics of image-based test items in radiological written examinations are not well known. In this study, we explored difficulty and discriminating power of these test items in postgraduate radiological digital examinations. We reviewed test items of seven Dutch Radiology Progress Tests (DRPTs) that were taken from October 2013 to April 2017. The DRPT is a semiannual formative examination, required for all Dutch radiology residents. We assessed several stimulus and response characteristics of test items. The response format of test items included true or false, single right multiple choice with 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 answer options, pick-N multiple-choice, drag-and-drop, and long-list-menu formats. We calculated item P values and item-rest-correlation (Rir) values to assess difficulty and discriminating power. We performed linear regression analysis in image-based test items to investigate whether P and Rir values were significantly related to stimulus and response characteristics. Also, we compared psychometric indices between image-based test items and text-alone items. P and Rir values of image-based items (n = 369) were significantly related to the type of response format (P < .001), and not to which of the seven DRPTs the item was obtained from, radiological subspecialty domain, nonvolumetric or volumetric character of images, or context-rich or context-free character of the stimulus. When accounted for type of response format, difficulty and discriminating power of image-based items did not differ significantly from text-alone items (n = 881). Test items with a relatively large number of answer options were generally more difficult, and discriminated better among high- and low-performing candidates. In postgraduate radiological written examinations, difficulty and discriminating power of image-based test items are related to the type of response format and are comparable to those of text-alone items. We recommend a response

  12. Expiration: breathing's other face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Sarah E M; Milsom, William K

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of the aspiration pump seen in tetrapod vertebrates from the buccal-pharyngeal force pump seen in air breathing fish and amphibians appears to have first involved the production of active expiration. Active inspiration arose later. This appears to have involved reconfiguration of a parafacial oscillator (now the parafacial respiratory group/retrotrapezoid nucleus (pFRG/RTN)) to produce active expiration, followed by reconfiguration of a paravagal oscillator (now the preBötC) to produce active inspiration. In the ancestral breathing cycle, inspiration follows expiration, which is in turn followed by glottal closure and breath holding. When both rhythms are expressed, as they are in reptiles and birds, and mammals under conditions of elevated respiratory drive, the pFRG/RTN appears to initiate the respiratory cycle. We propose that the coordinated output of this system is a ventilation cycle characterized by four phases. In reptiles, these consist of active inspiration (I), glottal closure (E1), a pause (an apnea or breath hold) (E2), and an active expiration (E3) that initiates the next cycle. In mammals under resting conditions, active expiration (E3) is suppressed and inspiration (I) is followed by airway constriction and diaphragmatic braking (E1) (rather than glottal closure) and a short pause at end-expiration (E2). As respiratory drive increases in mammals, expiratory muscle activity appears. Frequently, it first appears immediately preceding inspiration (E3) just as it does in reptiles. It can also appear in E1, however, and it is not yet clear what mechanisms underlie when and where in the cycle it appears. This may reflect whether the active expiration is recruited to enhance tidal volume, increase breathing frequency, or both. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosing lactase deficiency in three breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, M; Pohl, D; Vavricka, S R; Fried, M; Tutuian, R

    2011-05-01

    Lactose hydrogen breath tests (H(2)-BTs) are widely used to diagnose lactase deficiency, the most common cause of lactose intolerance. The main time-consuming part of the test relates to the sampling frequency and number of breath samples. Evaluate sensitivities and specificities of two- and three-sample breath tests compared with standard breath sampling every 15 min. Lactose H(2)-BT with probes samples every 15 min served as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of two-sample tests (0-60 min, 0-90 min or 0-120 min) and three-sample tests (0-60-90 min, 0-60-120 min or 0-90-120 min) were calculated. Among 1049 lactose H(2)-BT performed between July 1999 and December 2005, 337 (32%) had a positive result. Two-sample tests had sensitivity and specificity of 52.5 and 100.0% (0-60 min), 81.9 and 99.7% (0-90 min), and 92.6 and 99.2% (0-120 min), respectively. Three-sample tests had sensitivity and specificity of 83.4 and 99.7% (0-60-90 min), 95.0 and 99.2% (0-60-120 min), and 95.0 and 98.9% (0-90-120 min), respectively. A three-sample breath test (baseline, 60/90 min and 120 min) has excellent sensitivity and specificity for lactase deficiency. Lactose H(2)-BT can be simplified but not shortened to <2 h.

  14. [Information Concerning Mean Test Scores for the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) for the National Commission on Excellence in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Robert J.

    Data are provided to the National Commission on Excellence in Education on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT), Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT). Statistics are provided on the following: yearly GMAT mean scores 1965-1966…

  15. Correlation of Simulation Examination to Written Test Scores for Advanced Cardiac Life Support Testing: Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Strom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS courses are evaluated using written multiple-choice tests. High-fidelity simulation is a widely used adjunct to didactic content, and has been used in many specialties as a training resource as well as an evaluative tool. There are no data to our knowledge that compare simulation examination scores with written test scores for ACLS courses. Objective: To compare and correlate a novel high-fidelity simulation-based evaluation with traditional written testing for senior medical students in an ACLS course. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study to determine the correlation between simulationbased evaluation and traditional written testing in a medical school simulation center. Students were tested on a standard acute coronary syndrome/ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest scenario. Our primary outcome measure was correlation of exam results for 19 volunteer fourth-year medical students after a 32-hour ACLS-based Resuscitation Boot Camp course. Our secondary outcome was comparison of simulation-based vs. written outcome scores. Results: The composite average score on the written evaluation was substantially higher (93.6% than the simulation performance score (81.3%, absolute difference 12.3%, 95% CI [10.6-14.0%], p<0.00005. We found a statistically significant moderate correlation between simulation scenario test performance and traditional written testing (Pearson r=0.48, p=0.04, validating the new evaluation method. Conclusion: Simulation-based ACLS evaluation methods correlate with traditional written testing and demonstrate resuscitation knowledge and skills. Simulation may be a more discriminating and challenging testing method, as students scored higher on written evaluation methods compared to simulation.

  16. What is the impact of commercial test preparation courses on medical examination performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Downing, Steven M; Kubilius, Ramune

    2004-01-01

    Commercial test preparation courses are part of the fabric of U.S. medical education. They are also big business with 2,000 sales for 1 firm listed at nearly $250 million. This article systematically reviews and evaluates research published in peer-reviewed journals and in the "grey literature" that addresses the impact of commercial test preparation courses on standardized, undergraduate medical examinations. Thirteen computerized English language databases were searched using 29 search terms and search concepts from their onset to October 1, 2002. Also manually searched was medical education conference proceedings and publications after the end date; and medical education journal editors were contacted about articles accepted for publication, but not yet in print, that were deemed pertinent to this review. Studies that met three criteria were selected: (a) a commercial test preparation course or service was an educational intervention, (b) the outcome variable was one of several standardized medical examinations, and (c) results are published in a peer-reviewed journal or another outlet that insures scholarly scrutiny. The criteria were applied and data extracted by consensus of 2 reviewers. The search identified 11 empirical studies, of which 10 (8 journal articles, 2 unpublished reports) are included in this review. Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes are used. The articles and unpublished reports reveal that current research lacks control and rigor; the incremental validity of the commercial courses on medical examination performance, if any, is extremely small; and evidence in support of the courses is weak or nonexistent; almost no details are given about the form and conduct of the commercial test preparation courses; studies are confined to courses in preparation for the Medical College Admission Test, the former National Board of Medical Examiners Part 1, and the United States Medical Licensing Examination

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the ankle/foot complex: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Braun; Haas, Deniele; Columber, Kirby; Knupp, Darren; Cook, Chad

    2013-08-01

    Orthopedic special tests of the ankle/foot complex are routinely used during the physical examination process in order to help diagnose ankle/lower leg pathologies. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ankle/lower leg special tests. A search of the current literature was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Sources, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Studies were eligible if they included the following: 1) a diagnostic clinical test of musculoskeletal pathology in the ankle/foot complex, 2) description of the clinical test or tests, 3) a report of the diagnostic accuracy of the clinical test (e.g. sensitivity and specificity), and 4) an acceptable reference standard for comparison. The quality of included studies was determined by two independent reviewers using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Nine diagnostic accuracy studies met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review; analyzing a total of 16 special tests of the ankle/foot complex. After assessment using the QUADAS-2, only one study had low risk of bias and low concerns regarding applicability. Most ankle/lower leg orthopedic special tests are confirmatory in nature and are best utilized at the end of the physical examination. Most of the studies included in this systematic review demonstrate notable biases, which suggest that results and recommendations in this review should be taken as a guide rather than an outright standard. There is need for future research with more stringent study design criteria so that more accurate diagnostic power of ankle/lower leg special tests can be determined. 3a.

  18. Pre-examination factors affecting molecular diagnostic test results and interpretation: A case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A; Baluchova, Katarina; Peoc'h, Katell H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, K C Allen; Maekawa, Masato; Mamotte, Cyril; Russomando, Graciela; Rousseau, François; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    Multiple organizations produce guidance documents that provide opportunities to harmonize quality practices for diagnostic testing. The International Organization for Standardization ISO 15189 standard addresses requirements for quality in management and technical aspects of the clinical laboratory. One technical aspect addresses the complexities of the pre-examination phase prior to diagnostic testing. The Committee for Molecular Diagnostics of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (also known as, IFCC C-MD) conducted a survey of international molecular laboratories and determined ISO 15189 to be the most referenced guidance document. In this review, the IFCC C-MD provides case-based examples illustrating the value of select pre-examination processes as these processes relate to molecular diagnostic testing. Case-based examples in infectious disease, oncology, inherited disease and pharmacogenomics address the utility of: 1) providing information to patients and users, 2) designing requisition forms, 3) obtaining informed consent and 4) maintaining sample integrity prior to testing. The pre-examination phase requires extensive and consistent communication between the laboratory, the healthcare provider and the end user. The clinical vignettes presented in this paper illustrate the value of applying select ISO 15189 recommendations for general laboratory to the more specialized area of Molecular Diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Drogset, Jon O; Granviken, Fredrik; Rø, Magne; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2017-01-25

    Physical examination tests of the shoulder (PETS) are clinical examination maneuvers designed to aid the assessment of shoulder complaints. Despite more than 180 PETS described in the literature, evidence of their validity and usefulness in diagnosing the shoulder is questioned. This meta-analysis aims to use diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) to evaluate how much PETS shift overall probability and to rank the test performance of single PETS in order to aid the clinician's choice of which tests to use. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Cochrane guidelines and the PRISMA statement. A fixed effect model was used to assess the overall diagnostic validity of PETS by pooling DOR for different PETS with similar biomechanical rationale when possible. Single PETS were assessed and ranked by DOR. Clinical performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratio. Six thousand nine-hundred abstracts and 202 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 20 articles were eligible and data from 11 articles could be included in the meta-analysis. All PETS for SLAP (superior labral anterior posterior) lesions pooled gave a DOR of 1.38 [1.13, 1.69]. The Supraspinatus test for any full thickness rotator cuff tear obtained the highest DOR of 9.24 (sensitivity was 0.74, specificity 0.77). Compression-Rotation test obtained the highest DOR (6.36) among single PETS for SLAP lesions (sensitivity 0.43, specificity 0.89) and Hawkins test obtained the highest DOR (2.86) for impingement syndrome (sensitivity 0.58, specificity 0.67). No single PETS showed superior clinical test performance. The clinical performance of single PETS is limited. However, when the different PETS for SLAP lesions were pooled, we found a statistical significant change in post-test probability indicating an overall statistical validity. We suggest that clinicians choose their PETS among those with the highest pooled DOR and to assess validity to their own specific clinical

  20. Breathing exercise combined with cognitive behavioural intervention improves sleep quality and heart rate variability in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hui-Ching; Chung, Yu-Chu; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Lee, Jia-Fu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise on sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression. Depression is a long-lasting illness with significant effects not only in individuals themselves, but on their family, work and social relationships as well. Cognitive behavioural therapy is considered to be an effective treatment for major depression. Breathing relaxation may improve heart rate variability, but few studies have comprehensively examined the effect of a cognitive behavioural intervention combined with relaxing breathing on patients with major depression. An experimental research design with a repeated measure was used. Eighty-nine participants completed this study and entered data analysed. The experimental group (n = 43) received the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise for four weeks, whereas the control group (n = 46) did not. Sleep quality and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, posttest1, posttest2 and follow-up. Data were examined by chi-square tests, t-tests and generalised estimating equations. After adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, severity of disease and psychiatric history, the quality of sleep of the experimental group improved, with the results at posttest achieving significance. Heart rate variability parameters were also significantly improved. This study supported the hypothesis that the cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise could improve sleep quality and heart rate variability in patients with major depression, and the effectiveness was lasting. The cognitive behavioural intervention combined with a breathing relaxation exercise that included muscle relaxation, deep breathing and sleep hygiene could be provided with major depression during hospitalisation. Through group practice and experience sharing

  1. Development and examination of a functional reactive agility test for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolewski, Eric J; Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Ryan, Eric D

    2017-06-12

    Reactive agility tests have become popular in sport for talent identification; however, the ability of these tests to evaluate physical function and falls risk in clinical populations warrants future study. To examine the reliability and construct validity of a novel functional reactive agility test (FRAT) across the lifespan. Forty-three young (24 ± 2 years), 32 middle-aged (50 ± 2 years), and 19 old (66 ± 4 years) men performed a FRAT that included a rapid lateral movement (1.5 m) in response to a randomly delayed visual stimulus. Test-retest reliability and minimum difference (MD) scores were determined from a subset of participants. There was no systematic error (P > 0.087) between testing days, and the intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement (% of the mean), and MD values for decision time, movement time, and total time ranged from 0.876 to 0.949, 4.16-9.24%, and 0.128-0.138 s, respectively. The young men had faster decision times (P = 0.027) when compared to the older men and faster total times when compared to the middle-aged and older men (P construct validity between different age groups. Due to its limited space requirements, the FRAT may serve as a useful tool in future studies examining clinical populations.

  2. Inter-examiner reproducibility of clinical tests and criteria to identify subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Mikkel; Bogh, Søren Bie; Larsen, Camilla Marie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A specific algorithm has been proposed for classifying impingement related shoulder pain in athletes with overhead activity. Data on the inter-examiner reproducibility of the suggested clinical tests and criteria and their mutual dependencies for identifying subacromial...... was followed, consisting of a training, an overall agreement and a study phase. To proceed to the study phase, an overall agreement of 0.80 was required. In total 10, 20 and 44 subjects were included in the three phases, respectively. The case prevalence in the study phase was 50%. The inclusion criterion...... reproducibility in clinical practice, as well as the validity of the tests and criteria for SIS....

  3. Examining publication bias—a simulation-based evaluation of statistical tests on publication bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings. Methods Four tests on publication bias, Egger’s test (FAT), p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES), as well as the caliper test, were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation. Two different types of publication bias and its degree (0%, 50%, 100%) were simulated. The type of publication bias was defined either as file-drawer, meaning the repeated analysis of new datasets, or p-hacking, meaning the inclusion of covariates in order to obtain a significant result. In addition, the underlying effect (β = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5), effect heterogeneity, the number of observations in the simulated primary studies (N = 100, 500), and the number of observations for the publication bias tests (K = 100, 1,000) were varied. Results All tests evaluated were able to identify publication bias both in the file-drawer and p-hacking condition. The false positive rates were, with the exception of the 15%- and 20%-caliper test, unbiased. The FAT had the largest statistical power in the file-drawer conditions, whereas under p-hacking the TES was, except under effect heterogeneity, slightly better. The CTs were, however, inferior to the other tests under effect homogeneity and had a decent statistical power only in conditions with 1,000 primary studies. Discussion The FAT is recommended as a test for publication bias in standard meta-analyses with no or only small effect heterogeneity. If two-sided publication bias is suspected as well as under p-hacking the TES is the first alternative to the FAT. The 5%-caliper test is recommended under conditions of effect heterogeneity and a large number of primary studies, which may be found if publication bias is examined in a discipline

  4. Examining publication bias—a simulation-based evaluation of statistical tests on publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schneck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Publication bias is a form of scientific misconduct. It threatens the validity of research results and the credibility of science. Although several tests on publication bias exist, no in-depth evaluations are available that examine which test performs best for different research settings. Methods Four tests on publication bias, Egger’s test (FAT, p-uniform, the test of excess significance (TES, as well as the caliper test, were evaluated in a Monte Carlo simulation. Two different types of publication bias and its degree (0%, 50%, 100% were simulated. The type of publication bias was defined either as file-drawer, meaning the repeated analysis of new datasets, or p-hacking, meaning the inclusion of covariates in order to obtain a significant result. In addition, the underlying effect (β = 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, effect heterogeneity, the number of observations in the simulated primary studies (N = 100, 500, and the number of observations for the publication bias tests (K = 100, 1,000 were varied. Results All tests evaluated were able to identify publication bias both in the file-drawer and p-hacking condition. The false positive rates were, with the exception of the 15%- and 20%-caliper test, unbiased. The FAT had the largest statistical power in the file-drawer conditions, whereas under p-hacking the TES was, except under effect heterogeneity, slightly better. The CTs were, however, inferior to the other tests under effect homogeneity and had a decent statistical power only in conditions with 1,000 primary studies. Discussion The FAT is recommended as a test for publication bias in standard meta-analyses with no or only small effect heterogeneity. If two-sided publication bias is suspected as well as under p-hacking the TES is the first alternative to the FAT. The 5%-caliper test is recommended under conditions of effect heterogeneity and a large number of primary studies, which may be found if publication bias is examined in a

  5. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Nicola J; Jones, Mandy; O'Connell, Neil E; Everard, Mark L

    2013-12-18

    Dysfunctional breathing is described as chronic or recurrent changes in breathing pattern causing respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms. It is an umbrella term that encompasses hyperventilation syndrome and vocal cord dysfunction. Dysfunctional breathing affects 10% of the general population. Symptoms include dyspnoea, chest tightness, sighing and chest pain which arise secondary to alterations in respiratory pattern and rate. Little is known about dysfunctional breathing in children. Preliminary data suggest 5.3% or more of children with asthma have dysfunctional breathing and that, unlike in adults, it is associated with poorer asthma control. It is not known what proportion of the general paediatric population is affected. Breathing training is recommended as a first-line treatment for adults with dysfunctional breathing (with or without asthma) but no similar recommendations are available for the management of children. As such, breathing retraining is adapted from adult regimens based on the age and ability of the child. To determine whether breathing retraining in children with dysfunctional breathing has beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices.To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing retraining in young people with dysfunctional breathing. We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. We searched the National Research Register (NRR) Archive, Health Services Research Projects in Progress (HSRProj), Current Controlled Trials register (incorporating the metaRegister of Controlled Trials and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) to identify research in progress and unpublished research. The latest search was undertaken in October 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster-randomised controlled trials. We excluded observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross

  6. Concurrent criterion-related validity of physical examination tests for hip labral lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibold, M Rebecca; Huijbregts, Peter A; Jensen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Hip injuries are prevalent, especially within the athletic population. Of the hip injuries in this population, some 18-55% are lesions to the labrum of the hip. Clinical diagnosis of hip labral lesions is difficult because data on prevalence are varied. In addition, data on the prevalence of internal and external risk factors are absent as are data on the correlation of these risk factors with labral lesions, making it difficult to gauge the diagnostic utility. The mechanism of injury is often unknown or not specific to labral lesions. Internal risk factors may remain hidden to physical therapists because in most jurisdictions, ordering imaging tests is not within their scope of practice. Anterior inguinal pain seems highly sensitive for the diagnosis of patients with labral lesions but can hardly be considered specific; data on other pain-related and mechanical symptoms clearly have little diagnostic utility, making these data collected during the patient history almost irrelevant to diagnosis. By way of a comprehensive literature review and narrative and systematic analysis of the methodological quality of the retrieved diagnostic utility studies, this paper aimed to determine a diagnostic physical examination test or test cluster based on current best evidence for the diagnosis of hip labral lesions. Current best evidence indicates that a negative finding for the flexion-adduction-internal rotation test, the flexion-internal rotation test, the impingement provocation test, the flexion-adduction-axial compression test, the Fitzgerald test, or a combination of these tests provides the clinician with the greatest evidence-based confidence that a hip labral lesion is absent. Currently, research has produced no tests with sufficient specificity to help confidently rule in a diagnosis of hip labral lesion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  7. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Obesity Coverage on Medical Licensing Examinations in the United States. What Is Being Tested?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Butsch, W Scott; Kahan, Scott; Machineni, Sriram; Cook, Stephen; Aronne, Louis J

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon. As one of the most common chronic disease affecting adults and children, obesity is a major contributor to noncommunicable diseases, both nationally and globally. Obesity adversely affects every organ system, and as such it is imperative that the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) adequately assesses students' knowledge about the science and practice of obesity management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the coverage and distribution of obesity-related items on the three USMLE Step examinations. Examination items that included obesity-related keywords were identified by National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) staff. A panel of 6 content experts evaluated all items and coded obesity-relevant items using the American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM) test outline rubric into 4 domains and 107 subdomains. There were 802 multiple-choice items containing obesity-related keywords identified by NBME, of which 289 (36%) were identified as being relevant to obesity and were coded into appropriate domains and subdomains. Among the individual domains, the Diagnosis & Evaluation domain comprised most of the items (174) for all 3 Step examinations. Fifty-eight percent of items were represented by 4 of 17 organ systems, and 80% of coded items were represented by 6 ABOM subdomains. The majority of obesity-coded items pertained to the diagnosis and management of obesity-related comorbid conditions rather than addressing the prevention, diagnosis, or management of obesity itself. Insights. The most important concepts of obesity prevention and treatment were not represented on the Step exams. Exam items primarily addressed the diagnosis and treatment of obesity-related comorbid conditions instead of obesity itself. The expert review panel identified numerous important obesity-related topics that were insufficiently addressed or entirely absent from the examinations. The reviewers recommend that the areas identified for improvement may promote

  9. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  10. [TMJ, eating and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheynet, F

    2016-09-01

    The study of the relationship between temporomandibular joints (TMJ), mastication and ventilation and the involvement of these two functions in the genesis of primary Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and in some dentofacial deformities, was initiated in France, more than 30years, by Professor Raymond Gola. Once criticized the weakness of the scientific literature in this domain, the originality of the TMJ within the masticatory system is recalled with its huge adaptation potential to very different biomechanical constraints according to the age and masticatory activities during the day. But the biomechanics of the masticatory system does not stop at night and the positions of the mandible and head during sleep should be studied carefully. In case of nocturnal mouth breathing with open mouth, the predominant sleeping position (generating small but long-term strengths) may be deleterious to the condyle-disc complex, to the surrounding muscles and the occlusal relationships. Some condyle-disc displacements and asymmetric malocclusions occur in this long portion of life what sleep, especially as oral breathing leads to a lot of dysfunctions (low position of the tongue, labio-lingual dysfunctions, exacerbation of bruxism sleep…). The aim of this work was to share our multidisciplinary experience of the biomechanical consequences of the nocturnal mouth breathing on the face involving orthodontists, maxillofacial surgeons, ENT, allergists, speech therapists, physiotherapists and radiologists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysts examine implications of U.S. Senate defeat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Senate's October 14 vote against the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) came in the wake of the October 12 military coup in Pakistan—the first-ever coup in a nuclear state. Shortly beforehand, representatives from 92 nations attending an October 6-8 conference in Vienna, Austria, had urged laggards to speed their ratification of the CTBT On October 6, AGU and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) issued a joint position statement expressing confidence that the combined worldwide nuclear test monitoring resources, when implemented, would meet the verification goals of the CTBT.In the aftermath of the Senate vote, politicians and analysts are examining the potential fallout from that action, including the international reaction, the possibility of achieving the accord's goal of halting the proliferation and testing of nuclear weapons, and the future of the treaty itself.

  12. Enhanced non-invasive respiratory sampling from bottlenose dolphins for breath metabolomics measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O.; Aksenov, Alexander A.; Baird, Mark; Pasamontes, Alberto; Parry, Celeste; Foutouhi, Soraya; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Weimer, Bart C.; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical analysis of exhaled breath metabolites is an emerging alternative to traditional clinical testing for many physiological conditions. The main advantage of breath analysis is its inherent noninvasive nature and ease of sample collection. Therefore, there exists a great interest in further development of this method for both humans and animals. The physiology of cetaceans is exceptionally well suited for breath analysis due to their explosive breathing behavior and respiratory tract mo...

  13. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mandy; Harvey, Alex; Marston, Louise; O'Connell, Neil E

    2013-05-31

    Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tremor and paraesthesia. DB/HVS has an estimated prevalence of 9.5% in the general adult population, however, there is little consensus regarding the most effective management of this patient group. (1) To determine whether breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS have beneficial effects as measured by quality of life indices (2) To determine whether there are any adverse effects of breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials for consideration using both electronic and manual search strategies. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and four other databases. The latest search was in February 2013. We planned to include randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which breathing exercises, or a combined intervention including breathing exercises as a key component, were compared with either no treatment or another therapy that did not include breathing exercises in patients with DB/HVS. Observational studies, case studies and studies utilising a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion.We considered any type of breathing exercise for inclusion in this review, such as breathing control, diaphragmatic breathing, yoga breathing, Buteyko breathing, biofeedback-guided breathing modification, yawn/sigh suppression. Programs where exercises were either supervised or unsupervised were eligible as were relaxation techniques and acute-episode management, as long as it was clear that breathing exercises were a key component of the intervention.We excluded any intervention without breathing exercises or

  14. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  15. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  16. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  17. CADAVERIC EVALUATION OF THE LATERAL-ANTERIOR DRAWER TEST FOR EXAMINING POSTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INTEGRITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Gesine H.; Wilhelm, Marc P.; Windisch, Gunther; Appell Coriolano, Hans-Joachim; Matthijs, Omer C.; Sizer, Philip S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Common clinical tests often fail to identify posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) ruptures, leading to undetected tears and potential degenerative changes in the knee. The lateral-anterior drawer (LAD) test has been proposed but not yet evaluated regarding its effectiveness for diagnosing PCL-ruptures. Hypothesis The LAD will show greater tibial translation values in lateral-anterior direction in a PCL-Cut condition compared to a PCL-Intact condition, thus serving as a useful test for clinical diagnosis of PCL integrity. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods Threaded markers were inserted into the distal femur and proximal tibia in eighteen cadaveric knees. Each femur was stabilized and the tibia translated in lateral-anterior direction for the LAD test versus in a straight posterior direction for the posterior sag sign (PSS). Each test was repeated three times with the PCL both intact and then cut, in that order. During each trial, digital images were captured at start and finish positions for the evaluation of tibial marker displacement. Tibial marker translation during each trial was digitally analyzed using photography. The PSS values served as a reference standard. Results The LAD tibial translation was significantly greater (U=-3.680; pphysical examination tool for diagnosing PCL injuries. Level of Evidence 2 (laboratory study) PMID:28900563

  18. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  19. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  20. The examination of different tests for the evaluation of the efficiency of the eggbeater kicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, Igor; Strmecki, Jernej; Strojnik, Vojko

    2014-06-28

    The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump) on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head) position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.

  1. The Examination of Different Tests for the Evaluation of the Efficiency of the Eggbeater Kicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirn Igor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The eggbeater kick presents an important basic technical skill in water polo. The aim of this study was to examine some different tests in order to recommend the best ones for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Twenty eight young male water polo players performed one test (squat jump on land and ten tests in water: tethered swimming with legs only, using alternating and simultaneous eggbeater kicks, jumps out of water from basic and vertical (arms vertically above the head position, water start and swimming two meters and swimming horizontally with legs only five meters with a flying start. The differences between tests were checked by executing dependent t-tests, while Pearson"s correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate the correlation between different parameters. Results showed that when performing alternate eggbeater kicks greater average forces were produced by the water polo players when compared to consecutive simultaneous eggbeater kicks. However, a short time maximal acceleration of the body in the vertical and horizontal plane was greater when the single simultaneous kick was performed. It was determined that horizontal swimming using legs only and a squat jump were less useful for the evaluation of the eggbeater kick. Therefore, the recommendation was to measure the average force of successive alternating eggbeater kicks, the height of the jump out of the water from the basic position and the water start and swim over a distance of 2 meters.

  2. EMG of the hip adductor muscles in six clinical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Gregory A; Blanch, Peter D; Barnes, Christopher J

    2012-08-01

    To assess activation of muscles of hip adduction using EMG and force analysis during standard clinical tests, and compare athletes with and without a prior history of groin pain. Controlled laboratory study. 21 male athletes from an elite junior soccer program. Bilateral surface EMG recordings of the adductor magnus, adductor longus, gracilis and pectineus as well as a unilateral fine-wire EMG of the pectineus were made during isometric holds in six clinical examination tests. A load cell was used to measure force data. Test type was a significant factor in the EMG output for all four muscles (all muscles p EMG activation was highest in Hips 0 or Hips 45 for adductor magnus, adductor longus and gracilis. EMG activation for pectineus was highest in Hips 90. Injury history was a significant factor in the EMG output for the adductor longus (p test type was a significant factor (p EMG output). Muscle EMG varied significantly with clinical test position. Athletes with previous groin injury had a significant fall in some EMG outputs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Seasonal KPSS Test: Examining Possible Applications with Monthly Data and Additional Deterministic Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassen El Montasser

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been notably less definitive in distinguishing between finite sample studies of seasonal stationarity than in seasonal unit root tests. Although the use of seasonal stationarity and unit root tests is advised to determine correctly the most appropriate form of the trend in a seasonal time series, such a use is rarely noted in the relevant studies on this topic. Recently, the seasonal KPSS test, with a null hypothesis of no seasonal unit roots, and based on quarterly data, has been introduced in the literature. The asymptotic theory of the seasonal KPSS test depends on whether data have been filtered by a preliminary regression. More specifically, one may proceed to extracting deterministic components, such as the mean and trend, from the data before testing. In this paper, we examine the effects of de-trending on the properties of the seasonal KPSS test in finite samples. A sketch of the test’s limit theory is subsequently provided. Moreover, a Monte Carlo study is conducted to analyze the behavior of the test for a monthly time series. The focus on this time-frequency is significant because, as we mentioned above, it was introduced for quarterly data. Overall, the results indicated that the seasonal KPSS test preserved its good size and power properties. Furthermore, our results corroborate those reported elsewhere in the literature for conventional stationarity tests. These subsequent results assumed that the nonparametric corrections of residual variances may lead to better in-sample properties of the seasonal KPSS test. Next, the seasonal KPSS test is applied to a monthly series of the United States (US consumer price index. We were able to identify a number of seasonal unit roots in this time series. [1] [1]    Table 1 in this paper is copyrighted and initially published by JMASM in 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp. 69–77, ISSN: 1538–9472, JMASM Inc., PO Box 48023, Oak Park, MI 48237, USA, ea@jmasm.com.

  4. The effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on confrontation naming performance: An examination of three naming tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Marceaux, Janice C; Galindo, Juliette; Sordahl, Jeffrey A; Highsmith, Jonathan M; O'Rourke, Justin J F; González, David Andrés; Critchfield, Edan A; McCoy, Karin J M

    2016-01-01

    Confrontation naming tests are a common neuropsychological method of assessing language and a critical diagnostic tool in identifying certain neurodegenerative diseases; however, there is limited literature examining the visual-perceptual demands of these tasks. This study investigated the effect of perceptual reasoning abilities on three confrontation naming tests, the Boston Naming Test (BNT), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test, and Visual Naming Test (VNT) to elucidate the diverse cognitive functions underlying these tasks to assist with test selection procedures and increase diagnostic accuracy. A mixed clinical sample of 121 veterans were administered the BNT, NAB, VNT, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (WAIS-IV) Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) and Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation. Multiple regression indicated that PRI accounted for 23%, 13%, and 15% of the variance in BNT, VNT, and NAB scores, respectively, but dropped out as a significant predictor once VCI was added. Follow-up bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that PRI had a significant indirect effect on naming performance after controlling education, primary language, and severity of cognitive impairment, as well as the mediating effect of general verbal abilities for the BNT (B = 0.13; 95% confidence interval, CI [.07, .20]), VNT (B = 0.01; 95% CI [.002, .03]), and NAB (B = 0.03; 95% CI [.01, .06]). Findings revealed a complex relationship between perceptual reasoning abilities and confrontation naming that is mediated by general verbal abilities. However, when verbal abilities were statistically controlled, perceptual reasoning abilities were found to have a significant indirect effect on performance across all three confrontation naming measures with the largest effect noted with the BNT relative to the VNT and NAB Naming Test.

  5. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing.

  6. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one's physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiazzi, Julie; Everard, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice.Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD).Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes.Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual's complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise--induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for

  7. Examination of a Rotorcraft Noise Prediction Method and Comparison to Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Greenwood, Eric; Watts, Michael E.; Lopes, Leonard V.

    2017-01-01

    With a view that rotorcraft noise should be included in the preliminary design process, a relatively fast noise prediction method is examined in this paper. A comprehensive rotorcraft analysis is combined with a noise prediction method to compute several noise metrics of interest. These predictions are compared to flight test data. Results show that inclusion of only the main rotor noise will produce results that severely underpredict integrated metrics of interest. Inclusion of the tail rotor frequency content is essential for accurately predicting these integrated noise metrics.

  8. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    , and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath...

  9. Relevance of the test content of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination to nursing job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sook Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed at identifying if there is a relevance of content of the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination (KNLE revised in 2014 to nursing job. It will be able to provide the validity of revised content of the KNLE. Methods: From October 13 to November 13, 2015, print version of 8 duties with 49-tasks, 155-job item questionnaires were distributed to 1,305 hospital nurses and 202 nursing faculties in Korea. Results were treated by descriptive statistics and comparison analysis. There were responses from 946 nurses or professors (72.5%. Results: The relevance of test content of KNLE to nursing job was shown to be valid with over 3 points out of 4 point Likert scale in all items: from 3.23 at lowest to 3.64 at top. Conclusion: Above results showed that the revised version of KNLE in 2014 was valid to test the nursing students’ knowledge for job performance.

  10. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  11. Examining the Exam: A Critical Look at The California Critical Thinking Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, Don; O'Meara, Bill; Weber, Dave; Flage, Dan

    This paper examines the content of The California Critical Thinking Skills Test (1990). This report is not a statistical review. Instead it brings under scrutiny the content of the exam. This content will be of interest to the general reader, because the issues range from logic to ethics to pedagogy, and to questions of evidential and epistemological support. Anyone interested in clear thought and expression will find these issues of significance. Although the exam has a number of strengths and has the clearest instructions of all the presently available Critical Thinking exams, the content of 9 of the exams 34 questions is defective, namely the content of questions 6, 7, 8, 19, 21, 23, 24, 29, and 33. These questions make errors in critical thinking. Hence, no statistical results pertaining to the administration of these questions to students can be acceptable. The remaining questions are acceptable as to content. But until the problems are corrected, those who may use the exam should remove the defective questions from test administration or from data collection and reporting.The scope of the exam also is quite limited, but this may be unavoidable for any instrument designed to be completed in about an hour. Further, the scores resulting from any such testing can be understood only as a measure of minimal competency (below which remediation likely is needed) for the skills tested, but not as an adequate measure of critical thinking.

  12. Examination of cadmium safety rod thermal test specimens and failure mechanism evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.K.; Peacock, H.B.; Iyer, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    The reactor safety rods may be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level has dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Accordingly, an experimental cadmium safety rod testing subtask was established as part of a task to address the response of reactor core components to this accident. Companion reports describe the experiments and a structural evaluation (finite element analysis) of the safety rod. This report deals primarily with the examination of the test specimens, evaluation of possible failure mechanisms, and confirmatory separate effects experiments. It is concluded that the failures observed in the cadmium safety rod thermal tests which occurred at low temperature (T < 600{degrees}C) with slow thermal ramp rates (slow cladding strain rates) resulted from localized dissolution of the stainless steel cladding by the cadmium/aluminum solution and subsequent ductility exhaustion and rupture. The slow thermal ramp rate is believed to be the root cause for the failures; specifically, the slow ramp rate led to localized cladding shear deformation which ruptured the protective oxide film on the cladding inner surface and allowed dissolution to initiate. The test results and proposed failure mechanism support the conclusion that the rods would not fail below 500{degrees}C even at slow ramp rates. The safety rod thermal test specimen failures which occurred at high temperature (T > 800{degrees}C) with fast thermal ramp rates are concluded to be mechanical in nature without significant environmental degradation. Based on these tests, tasks were initiated to design and manufacture B{sub 4}C safety rods to replace the cadmium safety rods. The B{sub 4}C safety rods have been manufactured at this time and it is currently planned to charge them to the reactor in the near future. 60 refs.

  13. Estado nutricional e teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado com lactose e lactulose em crianças indígenas terenas Nutritional status and breath hydrogen test with lactose and lactulose in Terena Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildney Maria dos Santos Alves

    2002-04-01

    ão Verde and Córrego Seco in Mato Grosso do Sul. The nutritional status was assessed based upon weight and height, using NCHS data as reference. The breath hydrogen test after an oral lactose (18g administration was used for evaluation of lactose absorption and tolerance. The occurrence of bacterial overgrowth was evaluated using the breath hydrogen test after the administration of lactulose (5g. Results: the median z scores of weight-for-age, weight-for-height and height-for-age were, respectively, in infants under 1 year (n=34: -0.66, +0.60 and -0.85. Between 1 and 5 years (n=111, the values were: -0.50, +0.28 and -1.17. Between 5 and 10 years (n=119, these anthropometric values were, respectively: -0.09, +0.50 and -0.60. Deficient lactose absorption or malabsorption was verified only after the fourth year of age in 89.3% of the 197 evaluated children. Lactose intolerance was found in 37.1% of them. Small-bowel overgrowth was detected in 11.5% of the Terena Indian children (n=252. Conclusions: the prevalence of recent malnutrition was low, but the median height-for-age was lower than the NCHS reference. The prevalence of ontogenetic lactase deficiency was high. Bacterial overgrowth may be considered as evidence of the occurrence of nonsymptomatic environmental enteropathy in Terena Indian children.

  14. Post-test examination of a copper electrode from deposition hole 5 in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Rosborg Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    Three copper electrodes have been exposed for eight years in the outer section of the Prototype Repository at Aespoe. The electrodes were installed in the upper bentonite block of deposition hole 5 in May 2003. Most of the time the temperature of the electrodes has been somewhat below 35 deg C. The electrodes were retrieved for post-test examination in September 2011. This report presents results from electrochemical measurements and the post-test examination of one of the electrodes. The corrosion potential of the examined copper electrode was -40 mV SHE (2011-02-04) when part of the concrete plug to the outer section of the repository had been removed and made measurements possible. When the back-fill in the deposition tunnel had been removed it was 25 mV SHE (2011-09-12). Finally, before letting loose the copper electrode from the retrieved bentonite block, the corrosion potential was found to be 165 mV SHE (2011-11-15) being a sign of air ingress to the electrode/ bentonite interface. It was immediately obvious from the appearance of the copper electrode, when part of the surrounding bentonite had been removed, that both Cu(I) and Cu(II) corrosion products existed on the electrode surface. X-ray diffraction measurements also verified the presence of cuprite, Cu{sub 2}O, and malachite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, on the electrode; however, paratacamite, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl, was not found. The performed Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy confirmed these observations. The corrosion product film, of which cuprite is the main part, was quite uneven and porous. No unmistakable signs of pitting have been found. The appearance of the copper electrode reminded of the coupons from the retrieved LOT test parcels, but was different from the appearance of the surface on the full-size canisters. For the latter blue-green Cu(II) corrosion products have not or only rarely been observed from visual examination immediately after removing the surrounding

  15. Sleep-disordered breathing in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; D Casement, Melynda; Chen, Chiau-Fang; Hoffmann, Robert F; Armitage, Roseanne; Deldin, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with major depressive disorder often experience obstructive sleep apnea. However, the relationship between depression and less severe sleep-disordered breathing is unclear. This study examined the rate of sleep-disordered breathing in depression after excluding those who had clinically significant sleep apnea (>5 apneas∙h⁻¹). Archival data collected between 1991 and 2005 were used to assess the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing events in 60 (31 depressed; 29 healthy controls) unmedicated participants. Respiratory events were automatically detected using a program developed in-house measuring thermal nasal air-flow and chest pressure. Results show that even after excluding participants with clinically significant sleep-disordered breathing, individuals with depression continue to exhibit higher rates of sleep-disordered breathing compared with healthy controls (depressed group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.524, SE = 0.105; healthy group: apnea-hypopnea index mean = 0.179, SE = 0.108). Exploratory analyses were also conducted to assess for rates of exclusion in depression studies due to sleep-disordered breathing. Study exclusion of sleep-disordered breathing was quantified based on self-report during telephone screening, and via first night polysomnography. Results from phone screening data reveal that individuals reporting depression were 5.86 times more likely to report a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea than presumptive control participants. Furthermore, all of the participants excluded for severe sleep-disordered breathing detected on the first night were participants with depression. These findings illustrate the importance of understanding the relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and depression, and suggest that screening and quantification of sleep-disordered breathing should be considered in depression research. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina na doença hepática crônica pelo vírus C 13C-methacetin breath test in hepatitis C chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Oliveira

    2006-03-01

    óticos (19,2 ± 7,1% para cirróticos compensados e 14,7 ± 4,0% para os cirróticos descompensados que nos grupos controle (29,9 ± 4,5% e com hepatite crônica (27,8 ± 6,1%. A melhor acurácia no diagnóstico de cirrose entre os portadores de hepatite crônica C foi encontrada para o teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina 120 min com 81% de sensibilidade e 77% de especificidade. CONCLUSÃO: O teste respiratório da 13C-metacetina se correlaciona com alterações estruturais encontradas na hepatite crônica pelo vírus C e o percentual de recuperação de 13CO2 aos 120 minutos é um sensível parâmetro para identificar a presença de cirrose nesses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The 13C-methacetin breath test is a non-invasive method to evaluate hepatic microssomal function that allows a quantitative assessment of the functional hepatic mass. AIM: To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the 13C-methacetin breath test in patients with hepatitis C chronic liver disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy eight patients with chronic hepatitis C and 13 matched healthy controls were studied. HCV patients were classified as having chronic hepatitis (n = 51, cirrhosis (n = 27, being seven with decompensated disease (presence of ascite, jaundice and/or encephalopathy. HbsAg/HIV co-infected patients, chronic alcohol drinker, having other chronic diseases and those using drugs that could interfere with hepatic cytochrome P450, were excluded. The disease stage and activity in biopsy fragments were determined according the Brazilian Society of Hepatology criteria. Breath test was performed with 75 mg of 13C-methacetin, and the 13CO2 in the expired air was measured through a nondispersive infra red spectrometry. The delta over baseline, and the cumulative recovery of 13CO2 at 40 (13C-methacetin breath test 40 min and 120 minutes (13C-methacetin breath test 120 min were calculated. RESULTS: 13C-methacetin breath test parameters correlate only with hepatic staging but not with necroinflammatory

  17. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  18. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall D McCue

    Full Text Available Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  19. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  20. Examination of Substance Use, Risk Factors, and Protective Factors on Student Academic Test Score Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Michael W; Brown, Eric C; Briney, John S; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F; Becker, Linda; Langer, Michael; Mueller, Martin T

    2015-08-01

    School administrators and teachers face difficult decisions about how best to use school resources to meet academic achievement goals. Many are hesitant to adopt prevention curricula that are not focused directly on academic achievement. Yet, some have hypothesized that prevention curricula can remove barriers to learning and, thus, promote achievement. We examined relationships among school levels of student substance use and risk and protective factors that predict adolescent problem behaviors and achievement test performance. Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to predict associations involving school-averaged levels of substance use and risk and protective factors and students' likelihood of meeting achievement test standards on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning, statistically controlling for demographic and economic factors known to be associated with achievement. Levels of substance use and risk/protective factors predicted the academic test score performance of students. Many of these effects remained significant even after controlling for model covariates. Implementing prevention programs that target empirically identified risk and protective factors has the potential to have a favorable effect on students' academic achievement. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  1. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  2. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a Predictor of Success at the Naval Postgraduate School: A Validation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    8 3. Dreese/Russel Finally, in 1964, Dreese and Russel examined the Graduate Record Examination, the Structured-Objective Rorschach Test -Sort...PREDICTOR OF SUCCESS AT THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL: A VALIDATION TEST by Ronna C. Neil June 1989 Thesis Advisor: Roger D. Evered Aonroved for nublic...GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATION (GRE) AS A PREDICTOR OF SUCCESS AT THE NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL: A VALIDATION TEST 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Neil, Ronna C

  3. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  4. Avaliação do teste de respiração espontânea na extubação de neonatos pré-termo Spontaneous breathing trial evaluation in preterm newborns extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza Andrade

    2010-06-01

    workload. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT, performed immediately before extubation, can provide useful information on the patient's spontaneous breathing ability. This study aimed to assess the SBT effectiveness for extubation success prediction in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: After Ethics Committee approval, an observational, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted. A sample of 60 preterm infants compliant with the weaning criteria was categorized in two groups: 'SBT' group (n=30, with the patients who underwent 30 minutes spontaneous breathing trial (SBT with continuous positive pressure airway (CPAP, and the control group (n=30 where the extubation was performed without spontaneous breathing trial. The heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, pulse oxymetry oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the Silverman-Andersen score were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the spontaneous breathing trial. Were also assessed for both groups, and versus extubation success or failure, the weight, gestational age, Apgar score, mean airway pressure, inspired oxygen concentration, and tracheal tube time. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normal distribution. Extubation success was defined as a 48 hours period with no reintubation requirement. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified between the groups for the analyzed variables, except for the mean airway pressure. A significant association was shown between spontaneous breathing trial and successful extubation. CONCLUSION: The significant association between SBT and extubation success may contribute for prediction of successful weaning in preterm infants.

  5. Test anxiety and intelligence testing: a closer examination of the stage-fright hypothesis and the influence of stressful instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2007-03-01

    The influence of test anxiety and the content of instruction (stressful versus reassuring) on measurements of intelligence were investigated. It was expected that components of test anxiety would show differential effects on test performance. A Latin Square design was used to unravel the effects of test type and test order. Furthermore, effects of type of instruction, stressful versus reassuring, were studied by means of a within-subjects design. Test anxiety was measured with the Revised Worry-Emotionality Questionnaire. Measurements for verbal ability, reasoning, and memory were administered. Performance on memory tests showed less vulnerability to test anxiety compared with the other tests, with a picture recall test being insensitive. The negative effect of test anxiety was mostly confined to the beginning of a test session, independent of the type of test. Partial support for the so-called stage-fright hypothesis was found. The effect of instructional content was equivocal.

  6. Examination of Alternaria alternata mutagenicity and effects of nitrosylation using the Ames Salmonella test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T J; Cherry, W; Soper, K; Langlois, I; Vijay, H M

    2001-01-01

    Molds of the genus Alternaria are common food pathogens responsible for the spoilage of fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. Although consumption of Alternaria alternata-contaminated foodstuffs has been implicated in an elevated incidence of esophageal carcinogenesis, the mutagenic potencies of several A. alternata toxins seem unable to account for the levels of activity found using crude mycelial extracts. In this study, the mutagenic effects of nitrosylation were examined with the major Alternaria metabolites Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME), Altertoxin I (ATX I), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic Acid (TA), and Radicinin (RAD) using the Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100. In the absence of nitrosylation, ATX I was mutagenic when tested from 1 to 100 microg/plate in TA98 with rat liver S9 for activation, while AOH and ATX I were weakly mutagenic +/- S9 in TA100. Incubation with nitrite generally increased mutagenic potencies with ATX I strongly mutagenic +/- S9 in both TA98 and TA100, while ALT, AOH, AME, and RAD responses were enhanced in TA100 + S9. However, subsequent examination of three extracts made from A. alternata culture broth, acetone-washed mycelia, and the acetone washes showed a different mutagenic response with both broth and acetone washes directly mutagenic in TA98 and TA100 but with a reduced response + S9. The acetone-washed mycelial extract was found to have the lowest mutagenic activity of the three extracts tested. Nitrosylation had little effect on the mutagenicity of any of the extracts. Thus, while nitrosylation increases the mutagenicity of ATX I, and to a lesser extent that of several other Alternaria toxins, the results demonstrate that Alternaria produces a major mutagenic activity with a S. typhimurium response different from that found with the purified toxins. Efforts are currently underway to chemically identify this mutagenic species. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Investigation into breath meditation: Phenomenological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This integral heuristic phenomenological investigation records participants' experiences of a single session of breath meditation with special reference to psychotherapy and sport psychology. There were 8 participants, 4 men and 4 women, with mean age of 45 years and age range from 31 to 62 years. Various breathing ...

  9. Does a Smaller Waist Mean Smelly Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... when saliva production is diminished." ; Tips to combat halitosis: ; 1. Drink water to wash away germs ; Drinking ...

  10. Effects of the hippocampus on the motor expression of augmented breaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itopa E Ajayi

    Full Text Available Augmented breaths, also known as sighs, constitute the normal repertoire of breathing in freely behaving humans and animals. The breaths are believed to be generated by neurones in the preBötzinger complex but under modulatory influence from higher brain centres, particularly in the limbic system due to the strong correlations between the expression of emotional behaviours such as anxiety and the occurrence of augmented breaths. The current study examines the role of the hippocampus in the motor expression of augmented breaths, and also examines the characteristics of eupneic breaths surrounding a sigh before and after stimulating the hippocampus in urethane anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurochemical microstimulation using the excitatory amino acid, D,L-Homocysteic acid, was used to locate areas in the hippocampus with the potential to modulated the motor expression of augmented breaths. The CA1 neurone cluster of the ventral hippocampus was found to completely suppress the expression of augmented breaths without affecting the intrinsic properties of the breaths. A similar neurone cluster, but in the dorsal field of the hippocampus, was also investigated and found to have no effects over the expression of augmented breaths. The data supports the hypothesis that there is a structural or functional relationship between neurones of the ventral hippocampus and brainstem nuclei that control augmented breaths. The implications of these findings in the context of behaviours are discussed but with due consideration of experimental conditions.

  11. Examination of daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance testing in patients with primary insomnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available While individuals with insomnia consistently complain of cognitive impairment, previous studies on the effect of insomnia on objective measures of cognitive function have obtained ambiguous results. The relationship between daytime sleepiness and cognitive manifestations in insomnia patients is not clear.Thirty-six primary insomnia patients (PIPs and 26 good sleep controls (GSCs with age and gender matched manner were included in the study. Participants underwent an overnight polysomnography followed by a multiple sleep latency test (MSLT and an examination of the attention network test (ANT. ANT reflected three attentional networks including alerting, orienting and executive control. According to whether accompanied with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, the insomnia group were subdivided into PIPs with EDS (n = 12, score on MSLT<10 min and PIPs without EDS (n = 24, score on MSLT≥10 min.PIPs only performed worse on executive control function than GSCs in ANT. PIPs with EDS had longer overall reaction time (RT related to PIPs without EDS. Further analyses with Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the overall RT and MSLT latency in insomniacs (r = -0.444, p<0.01, whereas no such correlation was found in controls.Results suggest that PIPs do show executive control function deficits compared with GSCs. Daytime sleepiness in terms of MSLT latency was associated with poor cognitive manifestations in patients with insomnia.

  12. Cephalometric evaluation of children with allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso Agostinho, Helena; Álvares Furtado, Ivo; Salvado e Silva, Francisco; Ustrell i Torrent, Josep Maria, 1953-

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontists frequently treat children with mouth breathing. The purpose of the present study was to examine dental positions, skeletal effects and the pharyngeal airway space of children with chronic allergic rhinitis, when compared with a control group exhibiting a normal breathing pattern. Material and Methods: Seventy Caucasian children from Santa Maria University Hospital - North Lisbon Hospital Center were evaluated, between September 2009 and February 2013. The study gro...

  13. Energy breathing of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynich, Raman A.

    2015-06-01

    The paper considers the energy exchange process of the electromagnetic wave with a spherical metal nanoparticle. Based on the account of the temporal dependencies of electric and magnetic fields, the author presents an analytical dependence of the energy flow passing through the spherical surface. It is shown that the electromagnetic energy, localized in metal nanoparticles, is not a stationary value and periodically varies with time. A consequence of the energy nonstationarity is a nonradiating exit of the electromagnetic energy out of the nanoparticle. During the time equal to the period of wave oscillations, the electromagnetic energy is penetrating twice into the particle and quits it twice. The particle warms up because of the difference in the incoming and outgoing energies. Such "energy breathing" is presented for spherical Ag and Au nanoparticles with radii of 10 i 33 nm, respectively. Calculations were conducted for these nanoparticles embedded into the cell cytoplasm near the frequencies of their surface plasmon resonances.

  14. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  15. Isopropanol interference with breath alcohol analysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, B K; Gullberg, R G; Elenbaas, J K

    1994-07-01

    The presence of interfering substances, particularly acetone, has historically been a concern in the forensic measurement of ethanol in human breath. Although modern infrared instruments employ methods for distinguishing between ethanol and acetone, false-positive interferant results can arise from instrumental or procedural problems. The case described gives the analytical results of an individual arrested for driving while intoxicated and subsequently providing breath samples in two different BAC Verifier Datamaster infrared breath alcohol instruments. The instruments recorded ethanol results ranging from 0.09 to 0.17 g/210 L with corresponding interferant results of 0.02 to 0.06 g/210 L over approximately three hours. Breath and venous blood specimens collected later were analyzed by gas chromatography and revealed in the blood: isopropanol 0.023 g/100 mL, acetone 0.057 g/100 mL and ethanol 0.076g/100 mL. Qualitative analysis of the breath sample by GCMS also showed the presence of all three compounds. This individual had apparently consumed both ethanol and isopropanol with acetone resulting from the metabolism of isopropanol. An important observation is that the breath test instruments detected the interfering substances on each breath sample and yet they did not show tendencies to report false interferences when compared with statewide interferant data.

  16. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  17. Teaching and testing physical examination skills without the use of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Bernard; Thornton, William; Frye, Ann W

    2002-07-01

    To design a cardiopulmonary physical exam curriculum that does not involve the use of patients. Bedside teaching is becoming a lost art, and the use of alternative methods of instruction such as simulation has become increasingly important. Simulators have been shown to enhance physical examination skills of students and physicians in training.(1) In 1995, a program was started to improve cardiopulmonary physical diagnosis and the teaching of auscultation at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston (UTMB). The teaching manikin "Harvey" played a vital role in the development of the new curriculum. In 1997, UTMB adopted an organ-based approach to the basic science curriculum. The cardiopulmonary module in the basic science curriculum was a ten-week course taught in the second year of medical school. The physical diagnosis section of that course involved six instructional hours; four of the six hours were dedicated to cardiac auscultation and two hours to pulmonary auscultation. Only simulators and CD-ROMs were used for instruction. The 184 second-year medical students at UTMB were formed into small groups for instruction and practice. Although "Harvey" was an effective teaching tool, other simulators had to be developed for testing students' skills after instruction. It would be very difficult to administer a skills OSCE for 184 students without the development of several smaller transportable simulators. A commercially available blood pressure simulator from the Medical Plastics Laboratory, Inc., Gatesville, TX, was used to test the accuracy of students' blood pressure readings. Small auscultation transducers combined with a palpable pulse simulator, developed by one of the authors (WT) in collaboration with Andries Acoustics, Spicewood, TX, were used to efficiently test students' proficiency in cardiopulmonary auscultation. Digital simulated cardiopulmonary sounds were recorded onto a standard CD-ROM mini-disc and transmitted to the small transducers

  18. Association Between Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Francesca L; Parker, Corette B; Reddy, Uma M; Silver, Robert M; Koch, Matthew A; Louis, Judette M; Basner, Robert C; Chung, Judith H; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Pien, Grace W; Redline, Susan; Grobman, William A; Wing, Deborah A; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Haas, David M; Mercer, Brian M; Parry, Samuel; Mobley, Daniel; Hunter, Shannon; Saade, George R; Schubert, Frank P; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate whether sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). In this prospective cohort study, nulliparous women underwent in-home sleep-disordered breathing assessments in early (6-15 weeks of gestation) and midpregnancy (22-31 weeks of gestation). Participants and health care providers were blinded to the sleep test results. An apnea-hypopnea index of 5 or greater was used to define sleep-disordered breathing. Exposure-response relationships were examined, grouping participants into four apnea-hypopnea index groups: 0, greater than 0 to less than 5, 5 to less than 15, and 15 or greater. The study was powered to test the primary hypothesis that sleep-disordered breathing occurring in pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of preeclampsia. Secondary outcomes were rates of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, defined as preeclampsia and antepartum gestational hypertension, and GDM. Crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Three thousand seven hundred five women were enrolled. Apnea-hypopnea index data were available for 3,132 (84.5%) and 2,474 (66.8%) women in early and midpregnancy, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing was 3.6% and 8.3%. The prevalence of preeclampsia was 6.0%, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 13.1%, and GDM 4.1%. In early and midpregnancy the adjusted odds ratios for preeclampsia when sleep-disordered breathing was present were 1.94 (95% CI 1.07-3.51) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18-3.23), respectively; hypertensive disorders of pregnancy 1.46 (95% CI 0.91-2.32) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.19-2.52); and GDM 3.47 (95% CI 1.95-6.19) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.63-4.77). Increasing exposure-response relationships were observed between apnea-hypopnea index and both hypertensive disorders and GDM. There is an

  19. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Background: Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. Methods: A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Conclusions: Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  20. Ethylene and ammonia traces measurements from the patients' breath with renal failure via LPAS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, C.; Dutu, D. C. A.; Cernat, R.; Matei, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Banita, S.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-11-01

    The application of laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) for fast and precise measurements of breath biomarkers has opened up new promises for monitoring and diagnostics in recent years, especially because breath test is a non-invasive method, safe, rapid and acceptable to patients. Our study involved assessment of breath ethylene and breath ammonia levels in patients with renal failure receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment. Breath samples from healthy subjects and from patients with renal failure were collected using chemically inert aluminized bags and were subsequently analyzed using the LPAS technique. We have found out that the composition of exhaled breath in patients with renal failure contains not only ethylene, but also ammonia and gives valuable information for determining efficacy and endpoint of HD. Analysis of ethylene and ammonia traces from the human breath may provide insight into severity of oxidative stress and metabolic disturbances and may ensure optimal therapy and prevention of pathology at patients on continuous HD.

  1. An examination of Cyriax's passive motion tests with patients having osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, K W; Petersen, C; Falconer, J

    1994-08-01

    We explored the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the passive motion component of the Cyriax soft tissue diagnosis system. We compared the hypothesized and actual patterns of restriction, end-feel, and pain/resistance sequence (P/RS) of 79 subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and examined associations among these indicators of dysfunction and related constructs of joint motion, pain intensity, and chronicity. Subjects had a mean age of 68.5 years (SD = 13.3, range = 28-95), knee stiffness for an average of 83.6 months (SD = 122.4, range = 1-612), knee pain averaging 5.6 cm (SD = 3.1, range = 0-10) on a 10-cm visual analogue scale, and at least a 10-degree limitation in passive range of motion (ROM) of the knee. Passive ROM (goniometry, n = 79), end-feel (n = 79), and P/RS during end-feel testing (n = 62) were assessed for extension and flexion on three occasions by one of four experienced physical therapists. Test-retest reliability was estimated for the 2-month period between the last two occasions. Consistent with hypotheses based on Cyriax's assertions about patients with OA, most subjects had capsular end-feels for extension; subjects with tissue approximation end-feels for flexion had more flexion ROM than did subjects with capsular end-feels, and the P/RS was significantly correlated with pain intensity (rho = .35, extension; rho = .30, flexion). Contrary to hypotheses based on Cyriax's assertions, most subjects had noncapsular patterns, tissue approximation end-feels for flexion, and what Cyriax called pain synchronous with resistance for both motions. Pain intensity did not differ depending on end-feel. The P/RS was not correlated with chronicity (rho = .03, extension; rho = .01, flexion). Reliability, as analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC[3,1]) and Cohen's kappa coefficients, was acceptable (> or = .80) or nearly acceptable for ROM (ICC = .71-.86, extension; ICC = .95-.99, flexion) but not for end-feel (kappa

  2. Weldability examination of ASTM A 240 S41500 martensitic stainless steel by thermal cycles simulation testings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Velázquez-del Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The weldability assets of ASTM A 240 S41500 (ASTM A 240/A 240M martensitic stainless steel are presented through the study of the effects of single and double thermal weld cycles on mechanical properties and microstructure of base metal (BM and the artificial heat affected zone (HAZ created by thermal weld simulations. For single cycles, separate peak temperatures of 1000 ºC/12 s and 1350 ºC/12 s (cooling times: 12 s in both cases were evaluated, whilst two combinations of peak temperatures: (1350 ºC/5 s + 1000 ºC/5 s ºC and (1350 ºC/12 s + 1000 ºC/12 s ºC (cooling times: 5 s and 12 s, were applied for double cycles. Post weld heat treatment (PWHT with short and long holding times were applied and Vickers hardness, impact toughness and metallographic examinations were used in order to assess mechanical and metallographic properties in the as-simulated (no heat treated and postweld heat treated conditions. Best properties of the welded joint for double thermal weld cycles with long holding times were reached, which reveals the good weldability and applicability of the tested material in post weld heat treated conditions.

  3. Examination of the diurnal assumptions of the test of variables of attention for elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, David P; Lasater, Kara A; Erickson, Sara E; Kiesling, Nicole E

    2013-04-01

    To examine the diurnal assumptions of the test of variables of attention (TOVA). The present study assessed 122 elementary students aged 5.5 to 10.0 years who were randomly assigned to one of four different groups based on time of administration (M-M: morning-morning, M-A: morning-afternoon, A-M: afternoon-morning, and A-A: afternoon-afternoon). Morning administration occurred between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m., and afternoon administration occurred between 1:00 and 3:00 p.m. Reliability was consistent across groups, and there were no significant differences between groups. Classification of the students into ADHD or non-ADHD groups was similar across groups, and the children who were identified as ADHD with the Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic teacher rating scale were consistently classified as ADHD on the TOVA regardless of time of day. The results of the present study indicate that the psychometric values of the TOVA remain intact whether its administration was in the morning or afternoon.

  4. Hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule of SA 533 cl. 1 reactor pressure vessel (1st test report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yong Sun; Jung, Y. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Baik, S. J.; Oh, W. H.; Soong, W. S.; Hong, K. P

    2000-08-01

    The post-irradiated examinations such as impact test, tensile test, composition analysis and etc. were conducted to monitor and to evaluate the radiation-induced changes, so called radiation embrittlement, in the mechanical properties of ferritic materials. Those data should be applied to confirm safety as well as reliability of reactor pressure vessel. The scopes and contents of hot cell examination on the surveillance capsule are as follows; - Capsule transportation, cutting, dismantling and classification - Shim block and Dosimeter cutting and dismantling - Impact test - Tensile test - Composition analysis by EPMA - SEM observation on the fractured surface - Hardness test - Radwaste treatment.

  5. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  6. Impact of Test Design, Item Quality, and Item Bank Size on the Psychometric Properties of Computer-Based Credentialing Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Dehui; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2004-01-01

    Computer-based testing by credentialing agencies has become common; however, selecting a test design is difficult because several good ones are available - parallel forms, computer adaptive (CAT), and multistage (MST). In this study, three computer-based test designs under some common examination conditions were investigated. Item bank size and…

  7. Acute effect of pure oxygen breathing on diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinten, Carl Martin; La Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. A small-scale pilot study of the pathophysiology of diabetic macular edema (DME) was made by assessing concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal artery diameter (RAD), and retinal vein diameter (RVD) in response...... to 120 minutes of pure oxygen breathing. Methods. Eleven eyes of 11 patients with DME were examined at baseline and while breathing pure oxygen for 120 minutes followed by 120 minutes of breathing atmospheric air. Macular volume was determined by optical coherence tomography, retinal trunk vessel...... diameters by fundus photography, intraocular pressure by pulse-air tonometry, and arterial blood pressure by sphygmomanometry. Results. After initiation of pure oxygen breathing, reductions of 2.6% in RAD (p=0.04) and 11.5% reduction in RVD (p...

  8. Using Testlet Response Theory to Examine Local Dependence in C-Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Thomas; Baghaei, Purya

    2015-01-01

    C-tests are gap-filling tests widely used to assess general language proficiency for purposes of placement, screening, or provision of feedback to language learners. C-tests consist of several short texts in which parts of words are missing. We addressed the issue of local dependence in C-tests using an explicit modeling approach based on testlet…

  9. Using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test Measurement Invariance in Raters: A Clinical Skills Examination Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Brown, Crystal B.

    2015-01-01

    Psychometric models based on structural equation modeling framework are commonly used in many multiple-choice test settings to assess measurement invariance of test items across examinee subpopulations. The premise of the current article is that they may also be useful in the context of performance assessment tests to test measurement invariance…

  10. A Subgroup Analysis of the Impact of Self-testing Frequency on Examination Scores in a Pathophysiology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panus, Peter C; Stewart, David W; Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Thigpen, Jim C; Brooks, Lauren

    2014-11-15

    To determine if the frequency of self-testing of course material prior to actual examination improves examination scores, regardless of the actual scores on the self-testing. Practice quizzes were randomly generated from a total of 1342 multiple-choice questions in pathophysiology and made available online for student self-testing. Intercorrelations, 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc tests, and 2-group comparisons following rank ordering, were conducted. During each of 4 testing blocks, more than 85% of students took advantage of the self-testing process for a total of 7042 attempts. A consistent significant correlation (p≤0.05) existed between the number of practice quiz attempts and the subsequent examination scores. No difference in the number of quiz attempts was demonstrated compared to the first testing block. Exam scores for the first and second testing blocks were both higher than those for third and fourth blocks. Although self-testing strategies increase retrieval and retention, they are uncommon in pharmacy education. The results suggested that the number of self-testing attempts alone improved subsequent examination scores, regardless of the score for self-tests.

  11. Palliative care - shortness of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000471.htm Palliative care - shortness of breath To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Palliative care is a holistic approach to care that focuses ...

  12. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler fuel (KFH-067). Metallographic and density test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H.; Oho, W. U.; Kim, B. K

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd phase post irradiation examination (PIE) of nuclear fuel for HANARO which is a multi purpose research reactor. Built at KAERI has been performed in order to meet the licensing requirement of it. Changes of microstructure and density between fules with 50 and 80 at% burnup have been examined and compared with each other. The detailed PIE items are as follows; microstructure of diameter relate the swelling of fuel, measurement reaction larger particles and aluminum matrix, measurement of oxide layer thickness of fuel cladding, distribute of U3Si, examination of welding part of end plug examination of end plug part feature, and density measurement of fuel with burnup.

  13. European interlaboratory comparison of breath (CO2)-C-13 analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, F; Geypens, B

    1998-01-01

    The BIOMED I programme Stable Isotopes in Gastroenterology and Nutrition (SIGN) has focused upon evaluation and standardisation of stable isotope breath tests using C-13 labelled substrates. The programme dealt with comparison of C-13 substrates, test meats, test conditions, analysis techniques, and

  14. Postirradiation examination of recycle test elements from the Peach Bottom Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    The Recycle Test Elements were a series of tests of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fuels irradiated in Core 2 of the Peach Bottom Unit 1 Reactor. They tested a wide variety of fissile and fertile fuel types of prime interest when the tests were designed. The fuel types included UO/sub 2/, UC/sub 2/, (2Th,U)O/sub 2/, (4Th,U)O/sub 2/, ThC/sub 2/, and ThO/sub 2/. The mixed thorium--uranium oxides and the pure thorium oxide were tested as Biso-coated particles only, while the others were tested as both Biso- and Triso-coated particles. The Biso coatings on the fissile kernels contained the fission products inadequately but on the fertile kernels they did so acceptably. The results from accelerated and real-time tests on the particle types agreed well.

  15. History, Physical Examination, Laboratory Testing, and Emergency Department Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashika; Mehta, Ninfa; Secko, Michael; Schechter, Joshua; Papanagnou, Dimitri; Pandya, Shreya; Sinert, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination, and bedside laboratory tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of history and physical examination (H&P), laboratory studies, and ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: patients-ED patients suspected of AC; interventions-H&P, laboratory studies, and US findings commonly used to diagnose AC; comparator-surgical pathology or definitive diagnostic radiologic study confirming AC; and outcome-the operating characteristics of the investigations in diagnosing AC were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated using Meta-DiSc with a random-effects model (95% CI). Study quality and risks for bias were assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Separate PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS searches retrieved studies for H&P (n = 734), laboratory findings (n = 74), and US (n = 492). Three H&P studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria with AC prevalence of 7%-64%. Fever had sensitivity ranging from 31% to 62% and specificity from 37% to 74%; positive LR [LR+] was 0.71-1.24, and negative LR [LR-] was 0.76-1.49. Jaundice sensitivity ranged from 11% to 14%, and specificity from 86% to 99%; LR+ was 0.80-13.81, and LR- was 0.87-1.03. Murphy's sign sensitivity was 62% (range = 53%-71%), and specificity was 96% (range = 95%-97%); LR+ was 15.64 (range = 11.48-21.31), and LR- was 0.40 (range = 0.32-0.50). Right upper quadrant pain had sensitivity ranging from 56% to 93% and specificity of 0% to 96%; LR+ ranged from 0.92 to 14.02, and LR- from 0.46 to 7.86. One laboratory study met

  16. 30 CFR 75.1103-8 - Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensor and warning device...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1103-8 Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems; examination and test requirements. (a) Automatic fire sensor and warning device systems shall be examined at...

  17. Prevalence of the absence of palmaris longus muscle assessed by a new examination test (Hiz-Ediz Test in the population residing in the area of Van, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Erden

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The primary goal of this trial was to show the compatibility between a new test technique (Hiz-Ediz test for detection of palmaris longus muscle (PLM agenesis, which we recently developed, and the former tests, the Schaeffer and Mishra’s second tests.Materials and methods: One thousand cases were enrolled in this trial. Schaeffer’s test, Mishra’s second test and Hiz-Ediz tests were applied to all cases. Examinations were performed to determine differences between genders and both hands. Consistency between all three tests was investigated.Results: In the Hiz-Ediz test, PLM agenesis was determined in 15.1%. No significant difference was found between the rates of unilateral and bilateral tendon agenesis determined by three tests (p>0.05. When the consistency of the three tests was evaluated using the kappa test, full consistency was determined between Mishra’s second and the Hiz-Ediz test; however, full consistency was not determined between the Schaffer’s and the other two tests. But, no statistical difference was found between the three tests.Conclusion: Our results indicate that the prevalence of PLM agenesis is consistent with the available data. The Hiz-Ediz test can be applied easily and safely to determine and to visualize the PLM agenesis, when compared to the Mishra’s second test and the Schaeffer’s test. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 254-259.

  18. Sleep Disorders: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders or sleep-disordered breathing are characterized by abnormal respiration during sleep. They are grouped into obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), central sleep apnea, sleep-related hypoventilation, and sleep-related hypoxemia disorder. OSA is a common disorder encountered in the family medicine setting that is increasingly being recognized because of the obesity epidemic and greater public and physician awareness. OSA is characterized by recurrent episodes of partial or complete closure of the upper airway resulting in disturbed breathing during sleep. It is associated with decreased quality of life and significant medical comorbidities. Untreated OSA can lead to a host of cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease, stroke, and atrial fibrillation. Patients who report symptoms of snoring, witnessed apneas, or daytime sleepiness should be screened for sleep apnea. In-laboratory attended diagnostic polysomnography or portable home sleep testing can be used to diagnose sleep apnea. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy is the first-line treatment for OSA in adults. Other modalities include mandibular advancement devices, surgery, or upper airway stimulation therapy. Adjunctive therapy should include weight loss in overweight patients, avoidance of sedatives and alcohol before sleep, and possibly positional therapy. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  19. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  20. Test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test for the shoulder and hip joints by unskilled examiners using a manual goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze test-retest reliability of an active range of motion test using a manual goniometer by unskilled examiners. [Subjects and Methods] Active range of motion was measured in 30 students attending U university (4 males, 26 females). Range of motion during flexion and extension of the shoulder and hip joints were measured using a manual goniometer. [Results] Flexion and extension of the shoulder joint (ICC=0.906 and ICC=0.808) and (ICC=0.946 and ICC=0. 955) of the hip joint showed excellent reliabilities. [Conclusion] The active range of motion test using a manual goniometer showed very high test-retest reliability in unskilled examiners. When examiners are aware of the method of the test, an objective assessment can be conducted.

  1. Time in Computerized Tests: A Multitrait, Multimethod Investigation of General-Knowledge and Mathematical-Reasoning On-Line Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Sheizaf; Tractinsky, Noam

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of time-related measures in computerized ability tests focuses on a study of college students that used two intelligence test item types to develop a multitrait, multimethod assessment of response time measures. Convergent and discriminant validation are discussed, correlations between response time and accuracy are examined, and…

  2. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a description... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample...

  3. Post irradiation examination of HANARO nucler mini-element fuel (metallographic and density test)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Ok; Hong, K. P.; Park, D. G.; Choo, Y. S.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Kim, H. C.; Jung, Y. H

    2001-05-01

    The post irradiation examination of a HANARO mini-element nuclear fuel, KH96C-004, was done in June 6, 2000. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the in-core performance and reliability of mini-element nuclear fuel for HANARO developed by the project ''The Nuclear Fuel Material Development of Research Reactor''. And, in order to examine the performance of mini-element nuclear fuel in normal output condition, the post irradiation examination of a nuclear fuel bundle composed by 6 mini nuclear fuel rods and 12 dummy fuel rods was performed. Based on these examination results, the safety and reliability of HANARO fuel and the basic data on the design of HANARO nuclear fuel can be ensured and obtained,.

  4. The reliability of physical examination tests for the diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament rupture--A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Freiberg, Alice; Dröge, Patrik; Lützner, Jörg; Schmitt, Jochen; Kopkow, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Systematic literature review. Despite their frequent application in routine care, a systematic review on the reliability of clinical examination tests to evaluate the integrity of the ACL is missing. To summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research on physical examination tests used for the diagnosis of ACL tears. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and AMED until May 30th 2013. Studies were included if they assessed the intra- and/or interrater reliability of physical examination tests for the integrity of the ACL. Methodological quality was evaluated with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by two independent reviewers. 110 hits were achieved of which seven articles finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the reliability of four physical examination tests. Intrarater reliability was assessed in three studies and ranged from fair to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.22-1.00). Interrater reliability was assessed in all included studies and ranged from slight to almost perfect (Cohen's k = 0.02-0.81). The Lachman test is the physical tests with the highest intrarater reliability (Cohen's k = 1.00), the Lachman test performed in prone position the test with the highest interrater reliability (Cohen's k = 0.81). Included studies were partly of low methodological quality. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity in study populations, reliability measures and methodological quality of included studies. Systematic investigations on the reliability of physical examination tests to assess the integrity of the ACL are scarce and of varying methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RITED (Registro Italiano Test Eco-Dobutamina): side effects and complications of echo-dobutamine stress test in 3041 examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzano, A; Gentile, F; Mantero, A; Morabito, A; Ravizza, P

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study was to report the incidence and clinical meaning of side-effects caused by echo-dobutamine testing in a large population and to evaluate any possible correlation between dobutamine dose and side-effects. The study population consisted of 3041 patients enrolled from January 1994 to August 1995 at 63 centers participating in the Italian Register of Echo-Dobutamine Testing (Registro Italiano Test Eco-Dobutamina, RITED). The four major indications were myocardial infarction older than one month (40.4%), recent myocardial infarction (22.7%), coronary artery disease without a history of myocardial infarction (10.8%) and suspected coronary artery disease (19.3%). Dobutamine was administered in a peripheral vein at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 micrograms/kg/minute + atropine 1 mg in four divided doses of 0.25 mg/minute. Severe complications were asystole, which went as high as 6" in one patient, and ventricular fibrillation in two patients. The clinical side-effects were headache (2.5%), hypotension (2.2%), nausea (1.7%), bradycardia (1.4%), palpitations (0.5%), tremors (0.3%), dyspnea (0.2%), paresthesia (0.2%) and hypertension (0.2%). Atrial arrhythmia was recorded in 10.6% of patients, while ventricular arrhythmia was recorded in 26.5%. The percentage of supraventricular and ventricular repetitive arrhythmia did not increase with dosage. The cumulative incidence of supraventricular and ventricular repetitive arrhythmia, considered as an interruption criteria, was 6.6% and 5.9%, respectively. Echo-dobutamine stress test seems to be a very safe and reliable test for unmasking myocardial ischemia or viability in known or suspected coronary artery disease. It has been shown to be widely applicable in clinical practice for outpatients as well, as long as a protected environment is available.

  6. Breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing in asthma: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, M.; Mckinley, R; Freeman, E.; Foy, C.; Prodger, P; Price, D.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Functional breathing disorders may complicate asthma and impair quality of life. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of physiotherapy based breathing retraining for patients treated for asthma in the community who have symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathing.

  7. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  8. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  9. Design and results of an exploratory double blind testing program in firearms examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, W.; Stoel, R.D.; Berger, C.E.H.; Mattijssen, E.J.A.T.; Hermsen, R.; Smits, N.; Hardy, H.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) and the University of Amsterdam (UvA) started a series of tests for the NFI's Firearms Section. Ten cartridge case and bullet comparison tests were submitted by various external parties as regular cases and mixed in the flow of real cases. The

  10. Meta-Analysis of Integrity Tests: A Critical Examination of Validity Generalization and Moderator Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Conference on the 16PF Test, pp. 85-94. Klump, C. S. (1964). Stnton Su . Charlotte, NC: Stanton Corporation. Law, K. S., Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. E...Conference on the 16PF Test. pp. 85-94. Jones. J.W., & Terris, W. (1983b). Predicting employees’ theft in home improvement centers. Psychological Reports

  11. An Examination of CLAST Retake Performance: Is More Time an Advantage to Test Takers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, Marcia J.; Einspruch, Eric

    1987-01-01

    The appropriateness of using time limits when measuring students' competence is questionable. This study assessed whether students who had failed the College Level Academic Skills Test (CLAST) could improve their performance if they were allowed additional time on retaking the test. Subjects were 641 students who took the CLAST from fall 1982…

  12. A study on the satisfaction of medical licensing examination and the present condition of skill test in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hee Park

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available lt has been an issue whether the current medical examination system can evaluate medical students' competencies efficiently. This study was performed to survey on the satisfaction for the current medical examination system and present situation for clinical skill test in medical schools. We conducted a survey for this research and the subjects of this study were deans, medical professors, resident and medical students. We met with interesting results. First, most respondents answered the current medical examination system couldn't evaluate the medical students' competencies efficiently. Second, many residents thought preparing for paper-pencil test was not helpful for training, while experiencing clinical skill test was helpful for it. Third, the current contents and methods to evaluate clinical skill in the medical schools were variable and desirable. We concluded it was high time to change our medical examination system for evaluating the clinical skill performance of medical students.

  13. An empirical examination of the generalized Fisher effect using cross-sectional correlation robust tests for panel cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Omay, Tolga; Yüksel, Aslı; Yüksel, Sadettin Aydın

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the generalized Fisher hypothesis as applied to common stocks by using the recently proposed second generation panel cointegration tests. Unlike their predecessors, these new tests assume the existence of cross-section dependence in the data. For the sample analyzed, we report that these new tests, but not their predecessors, provide strong support for the existence of cointegration between stock and goods prices. Moreover, further analysis cannot reject the hypothesis tha...

  14. A systematic review of the diagnostic performance of orthopedic physical examination tests of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Labib Ataur; Adie, Sam; Naylor, Justine Maree; Mittal, Rajat; So, Sarah; Harris, Ian Andrew

    2013-08-30

    Previous reviews of the diagnostic performances of physical tests of the hip in orthopedics have drawn limited conclusions because of the low to moderate quality of primary studies published in the literature. This systematic review aims to build on these reviews by assessing a broad range of hip pathologies, and employing a more selective approach to the inclusion of studies in order to accurately gauge diagnostic performance for the purposes of making recommendations for clinical practice and future research. It specifically identifies tests which demonstrate strong and moderate diagnostic performance. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Embase Classic and CINAHL was conducted to identify studies of hip tests. Our selection criteria included an analysis of internal and external validity. We reported diagnostic performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Likelihood ratios were used to identify tests with strong and moderate diagnostic utility. Only a small proportion of tests reported in the literature have been assessed in methodologically valid primary studies. 16 studies were included in our review, producing 56 independent test-pathology combinations. Two tests demonstrated strong clinical utility, the patellar-pubic percussion test for excluding radiologically occult hip fractures (negative LR 0.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.03-0.08) and the hip abduction sign for diagnosing sarcoglycanopathies in patients with known muscular dystrophies (positive LR 34.29, 95% CI 10.97-122.30). Fifteen tests demonstrated moderate diagnostic utility for diagnosing and/or excluding hip fractures, symptomatic osteoarthritis and loosening of components post-total hip arthroplasty. We have identified a number of tests demonstrating strong and moderate diagnostic performance. These findings must be viewed with caution as there are concerns over the methodological quality of the primary studies from which we have extracted our

  15. Reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Matthijs, Omer; Jain, Nitin B; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Shoulder pain in the general population is common and to identify the aetiology of shoulder pain, history, motion and muscle testing, and physical examination tests are usually performed. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and evaluate intrarater and inter-rater reliability of physical examination tests in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) through 20 March 2015. Methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) tool by 2 independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 18 finally met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 62 test and test variations used for the specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. Methodological quality ranged from 2 to 7 positive criteria of the 11 items of the QAREL tool. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating inter-rater as well as intrarater reliability of specific physical examination tests for the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. PROSPERO CRD42014009018. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  17. The examination of the heart rate regulation in healthy people with the stochastic tests methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The determination of relations between the complexity of the cardiovascular system regulation and the com-plexity of the test signal is not a fully solved problem. The elimination of this uncertainty can be done using stochastic test signals and power value which changes are random. Aim of research: To compare the reaction of cardio - vascular system during the deterministic and random loads. Material and methods:In the research,h two types of physical loads were used: the traditional bicycle ergometer test with stepwise increasing load and 3 minutes steps duration and test with a stochastic pseudonormal load values distribution and 30 seconds steps duration. Results: It is established that the average load required to achieve a submaximal heart rate was 509 W for the traditional and 445 W for the stochastic test, respectively. The time of obtained submaximal heart rate during stepwise-increasing load was 7 min., whereas during the stochastic load significantly less - 5min. The results show that the limit of efficiency of the cardio-vascular system during stochastic load test is achieved faster than during deterministic load test. Conclusions: Stress tests using random loads can be useful for the athletes training. Supposedly, the use of stochastic loads must be effective during rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular diseases, for instance the increasing of the physical load time in each stage can be used in order to reach steady state. Also, the proposed study confirms the perspectives of non-linear and stochastic methods in the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system diseases.

  18. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzgraf, J.F.; McCord, F.; Miller, C.M.; Norman, B.L.; Saurwein, J.J.; Wallroth, C.F.

    1979-02-01

    Peach Bottom fuel test elements FTE-14 and FTE-15 were companion nonaccelerated tests of fuel rods and fuel particles representative of the Large High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (LHTGR). The purpose of the tests was to broaden the data base of H-327 graphite and various fuel types; specifically, UO/sub 2/, UC/sub 2/, weak acid resin UC/sub x//O/sub y/, and several fertile fuel types were tested. The irradiation reached peak fuel temperatures of 1600/sup 0/C volume- and time-averaged temperatures of 1300/sup 0/C, and fast fluence exposures up to 2 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Experimental results were compared with predictions based on accelerated irradiation tests, postirradiation heating, and other Peach Bottom test elements to validate HTGR design codes. The nuclear design predictions were modified by measurements which allowed the verification of thermal design calculations and thermocouple readings.

  19. Evaluation of breathing pattern: comparison of a Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and respiratory induction plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Rosalba; van Dixhoorn, Jan; Cohen, Marc

    2008-06-01

    Altered breathing pattern is an aspect of dysfunctional breathing but few standardised techniques exist to evaluate it. This study investigates a technique for evaluating and quantifying breathing pattern, called the Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and compares it to measures performed with Respiratory Induction Plethysmography (RIP). About 12 subjects altered their breathing and posture while 2 examiners assessed their breathing using the MARM. Simultaneous measurements with RIP were taken. Inter-examiner agreement and agreement between MARM and RIP were assessed. The ability of the measurement methods to differentiate between diverse breathing and postural patterns was compared. High levels of agreement between examiners were found with the MARM for measures of the upper rib cage relative to lower rib cage/abdomen motion during breathing but not for measures of volume. The measures of upper rib cage dominance during breathing correlated with similar measures obtained from RIP. Both RIP and MARM measures methods were able to differentiate between abdominal and thoracic breathing patterns, but only MARM was able to differentiate between breathing changes occurring as result of slumped versus erect sitting posture. This study suggests that the MARM is a reliable clinical tool for assessing breathing pattern.

  20. Physical examination tests for assessing a torn meniscus in the knee: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Eric J; Cook, Chad; Hasselblad, Victor; Goode, Adam; McCrory, Douglas C

    2007-09-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. To identify, analyze, and synthesize the literature to determine which physical examination tests, if any, accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus. Knee pain has a lifetime prevalence of up to 45%, and as many as 31% of individuals with knee pain will consult a general practitioner. Roughly 5% of these individuals will undergo a tibial meniscectomy and many more will undergo partial meniscectomy or meniscus repair. Determining which of these individuals is appropriate for surgical consult depends on clinical examination findings. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus from1966 to August 2006 and extracted all English- and German-language studies that reported the diagnostic accuracy of individual physical examination tests for a torn meniscus. We retrieved data regarding true positives, false positives, true negatives, and false negatives to create 2-by-2 tables for each article and test. Like tests were then subjected to meta-analysis and subanalysis. Cochran Q test and the 12 statistic were used to examine for the presence of heterogeneity and the extent of the effect of heterogeneity, respectively. A qualitative analysis was also performed using the QUADAS tool. Eighteen studies qualified for the final analyses. Three physical examination tests (McMurray's, Apley's, and joint line tenderness) were examined in more than 7 studies and had enough data to consider meta-analysis. However, study results were heterogeneous. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 70% and 71% for McMurray's, 60% and 70% for Apley's, and 63% and 77% for joint line tenderness. Large between-study differences could not be explained by prevalence, study quality, or how well an index test was described. No single physical examination test appears to accurately diagnose a torn tibial meniscus and the value of history plus physical examination is unknown. Differences between studies in diagnostic performance remain unexplained, presumably due to

  1. Clinical and para-clinical tests in the routine examination of headache patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Sandrini, G; Jänig, W

    2000-01-01

    Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a consensus that some common procedures and recommendations should be created. In the Fall of 19...

  2. Re-Examining Test Item Issues in the TIMSS Mathematics and Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    As the largest international study ever taken in history, the Trend in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) has been held as a benchmark to measure U.S. student performance in the global context. In-depth analyses of the TIMSS project are conducted in this study to examine key issues of the comparative investigation: (1) item flaws in mathematics…

  3. Apical bud toughness tests and tree sway movements to examine crown abrasion: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler Brannon; Wayne Clatterbuck

    2012-01-01

    Apical bud toughness differences were examined for several species to determine if crown abrasion affects shoot growth of determinate and indeterminate species during stand development. Determinate buds will set and harden after initial shoot elongation in the spring, while the indeterminate shoots form leaves from the apical meristem continuously based on the...

  4. The Clock Drawing Test versus Mini-mental Status Examination as a Screening Tool for Dementia: A Clinical Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsetia, Delnaz; Rao, G. Prasad; Tiwari, Sarvada C.; Lodha, Pragya; De Sousa, Avinash

    2018-01-01

    There is a growing incidence of dementia patients in the community, and with this growth, there is need for rapid, valid, and easily administrable tests for the screening of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in the community. This review looks at the two most commonly used tests in dementia screening, namely, the clock drawing test (CDT) and the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Both these tests have been used in dementia screening over the past three decades and have been the subject of scrutiny of various studies, reviews, and meta-analysis. Both these tests are analyzed on their ability to assess dementia and screen for it in the community, general practice and general hospital settings. The methods of administration and scoring of each test are discussed, and their advantages and disadvantages are explained. There is also a direct comparison made between the MMSE and CDT in dementia screening. Future research needs with these tests are also elucidated. PMID:29403122

  5. Validation of the Danish Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination as a screening test in a memory clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Vogel, Asmus; Johannsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    -off points for optimal trade-off between sensitivity and specificity for ACE were 85/86 (sensitivity 0.99, specificity 0.94). When these cut-off points were applied to the group of depressive patients, the specificity dropped to 0.64, indicating a great overlap in individual test scores for demented...... and depressed patients. CONCLUSION: The optimal cut-off points for ACE found in this Danish study were close to what is reported in most other European studies. The great overlap in ACE scores for demented and depressed patients emphasize that test scores must be interpreted with great caution when used...... of this study was to evaluate the Danish version of ACE as a screening test for early dementia in an outpatient memory clinic. Further, we wanted to investigate the ability of the ACE to discriminate patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from patients with depression. METHOD: 78 patients with mild AD...

  6. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    for the health system. It is hard to detect sleep apnea it is beneficial to have a sleep monitoring system in homes of people in high risk zones. However, this system would have to be unobtrusive in order for people to accept to implement them while sleeping. The only really unobtrusive way is through wireless...... human beings life as side effects from not breathing may include death. Breathing monitoring is often used in hospitals, however, the monitoring systems are usually based on physical contact with the patient. As a result, they are often a nuisance to the patient and they may even be disconnected....... A better solution is contactless non-intrusive wireless measurement of the breathing. It is found that up to 20% of the population will suffer from sleep apnea. Sleep apnea has several health related drawback. Among them are several cardiovascular outcomes, increases illness- and accident- related cost...

  7. Interfering substances identified in the breath of drinking drivers with Intoxilyzer 5000S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A W

    1996-01-01

    The selectivity of analytical methods used to determine ethanol in body fluids has always been an important concern in connection with chemical testing for intoxication. Allegations of false high breath-alcohol readings obtained because of the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) other than ethanol is a well-known defense argument in trials concerning driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). However, not much information exists to substantiate this claim, especially when modern analytical technology such as multiple wavelength infrared breath-alcohol instruments is used for forensic purposes. Whenever breath tests were aborted because interfering substances were ostensibly detected during routine evidential breath-alcohol analysis in Sweden with the Intoxilyzer 5000S, a sample of venous blood was taken for analysis by headspace gas chromatography. Most of the aborted breath tests could be explained by abnormally high concentrations of acetone, isopropanol, or methyl ethyl ketone in the samples analyzed. These VOCs originate in blood and breath after DUI suspects consume denatured alcohol preparations containing these solvents. However, the intoxilyzer 5000S sometimes aborted the evidential breath test even though VOCs other than ethanol were not identified in the blood samples. The reason for these latter tests being aborted is hard to understand because the blood-breath ratios of ethanol were within the range expected (1900:1 to 2800:1) for a large number of other DUI suspects tested with Intoxilyzer 5000S under the same conditions when interfering substances were not detected.

  8. Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Angela; McNair, Peter; Laslett, Mark; Hing, Wayne

    2013-05-01

    Despite numerous methodological flaws in previous study designs and the lack of validation in primary care populations, clinical tests for identifying acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) pain are widely utilised without concern for such issues. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of traditional ACJ tests and to compare their accuracy with other clinical examination features for identifying a predominant ACJ pain source in a primary care cohort. Consecutive patients with shoulder pain were recruited prospectively from primary health care clinics. Following a standardised clinical examination and diagnostic injection into the subacromial bursa, all participants received a fluoroscopically guided diagnostic block of 1% lidocaine hydrochloride (XylocaineTM) into the ACJ. Diagnostic accuracy statistics including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) were calculated for traditional ACJ tests (Active Compression/O'Brien's test, cross-body adduction, localised ACJ tenderness and Hawkins-Kennedy test), and for individual and combinations of clinical examination variables that were associated with a positive anaesthetic response (PAR) (P≤0.05) defined as 80% or more reduction in post-injection pain intensity during provocative clinical tests. Twenty two of 153 participants (14%) reported an 80% PAR. None of the traditional ACJ tests were associated with an 80% PAR (P0.05). Five clinical examination variables (repetitive mechanism of pain onset, no referred pain below the elbow, thickened or swollen ACJ, no symptom provocation during passive glenohumeral abduction and external rotation) were associated with an 80% PAR (Ppain of non-traumatic onset, traditional ACJ tests were of limited diagnostic value. Combinations of other history and physical examination findings were able to more accurately identify injection-confirmed ACJ pain in this cohort.

  9. [Ninhydrin permeability tests of common packaging materials in the field of fingerprint examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lothar; Hermanowski, Mona-Lena

    2008-01-01

    With a simple experimental set-up, common packaging materials were tested for their ninhydrin permeability. The packaging material was loaded with a ninhydrin treated paper on the inside and covered with an amino acid treated paper on the outside. If ninhydrin penetrates through the packaging film, "Ruhemann's purple" will form on the amino acid treated paper. In all, 28 packaging materials were tested over a period of 24 weeks. It turned out that all the films made of polyethylene (PE) showed ninhydrin permeability. With one exception, this permeability occurred after three days already. All packages made of other film material were not permeable to ninhydrin.

  10. Rasch analysis examining processing mechanisms of the object location memory test revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Tracy L; Schmidt, Karen M

    2005-01-01

    This study's objective was the construction and examination of the Object Location Memory Revised (OLM-R), an instrument designed to measure spatial memory. The OLM-R measured a participant's (N=111) ability to inspect a spatial array and recall image identities and positions after a distractor task. Rasch methodology and regression analyses were employed to explore the influence a priori design factors have on performance and item difficulty. Rasch analyses revealed that, while the OLM-R has a misfitting item, overall the instrument shows good measurement properties. Specific analyses examining complexity factors indicated that Object Manipulation (e.g., moving, replacing, or unchanging) and the Number of Items in an array were leading influences of OLM-R performance.

  11. Examination of Mutagenic Effects of GAL-57 Herbicide (Bentazone+Dicamba Using Mouse Micronucleus Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Karan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A micronucleus test was run to investigate mutagenic potential of the herbicide GAL-57, a formulated mixture of bentazone and dicamba.The test was applied to mice of both sexes (strain: CRL: NMRI BR and the herbicide (product was administered by gavage at 2000 mg/kg rate, twice within 24 hs. Cyclophosphamide (positive control was administered at 60 mg/kg, while distilled water as a solvent was negative control. The animals were sacrificed 24 hs after second treatment, their bone marrow cells isolated from femur, and effects evaluated.The data acquired showed that repeated treatment of mice with GAL-57 caused neither biological nor significant statistical increase in the number of micronuclei in treated animals. At the same time, the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of animals treated with cyclophosphamide (positive control showed a significant statistical increase. The results suggest that the herbicide product tested did not show any mutagenic activity under the conditions of mouse micronucleus test.

  12. HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process.

  13. Re-examining the pitch/coke wetting and penetration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinan; Buckley, Alan N.; Tomsett, Alan

    2002-02-01

    To produce structurally soundcarbon anodes for use in aluminum smelting, a strong bond between filler and binder coke is necessary. Bond strength results from mechanical interlocking and adhesion of the binder coke to the filler coke. Critical for creating such bonds is the ability of the pitch to wet the coke surface and penetrate the coke porosity during mixing and forming. Wettability is normally assessed from the pitch behavior during the initial stages of a penetration test. In the test, the observed contact angle between a pitch droplet and a bed of fine coke particles is recorded as the temperature is increased. The temperature at which this contact angle becomes 90° is referred to as the wetting temperature of the pitch. The penetration test may be useful to identify pitch and coke combinations that are unlikely to produce baked anodes of acceptable quality with standard paste preparation conditions. It does not, however, provide a measure of the true wettability of a coke by a pitch. The isothermal penetration experiments reported here demonstrate that the observed contact angle of a pitch against a coke bed changes continuously from >90° to <90°, even to 0‡, at a temperature much lower than the wetting temperature derived from the penetration test. The requirements for the measurement of a true contact angle and the difference between the concepts of adhesion and wetting are discussed.

  14. Mechanical testing of internal fixation devices: A theoretical and practical examination of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Caroline A; Schuetz, Michael; Epari, Devakar

    2015-11-26

    Successful healing of long bone fractures is dependent on the mechanical environment created within the fracture, which in turn is dependent on the fixation strategy. Recent literature reports have suggested that locked plating devices are too stiff to reliably promote healing. However, in vitro testing of these devices has been inconsistent in both method of constraint and reported outcomes, making comparisons between studies and the assessment of construct stiffness problematic. Each of the methods previously used in the literature were assessed for their effect on the bending of the sample and concordant stiffness. The choice of outcome measures used in in vitro fracture studies was also assessed. Mechanical testing was conducted on seven hole locked plated constructs in each method for comparison. Based on the assessment of each method the use of spherical bearings, ball joints or similar is suggested at both ends of the sample. The use of near and far cortex movement was found to be more comprehensive and more accurate than traditional centrally calculated interfragmentary movement values; stiffness was found to be highly susceptible to the accuracy of deformation measurements and constraint method, and should only be used as a within study comparison method. The reported stiffness values of locked plate constructs from in vitro mechanical testing is highly susceptible to testing constraints and output measures, with many standard techniques overestimating the stiffness of the construct. This raises the need for further investigation into the actual mechanical behaviour within the fracture gap of these devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Juridification of Examination Systems: Extending State Level Authority over Teacher Assessments through Regrading of National Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Judit; Carlbaum, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Since 2009, the Swedish Government uses an "audit" agency--the Swedish Schools Inspectorate--to monitor and assess the accuracy with which teachers grade student responses on national tests. This study explores the introduction and subsequent establishment of the Inspectorate's regrading programme as an example of political management of…

  16. The Moral Competence Test: An Examination of Validity for Samples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Donald A.; Colesante, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The Moral Competence Test (MCT) was designed over 30 years ago to provide a resource for educators interested in conducting cross-cultural studies of moral development and education. Since its origin, it has been translated into at least 30 languages and used in hundreds of studies. However, few studies provide evidence to support the use of the…

  17. Noise Reduction in Breath Sound Files Using Wavelet Transform Based Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Situmeang, S. I. G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of science and technology in the field of healthcare increasingly provides convenience in diagnosing respiratory system problem. Recording the breath sounds is one example of these developments. Breath sounds are recorded using a digital stethoscope, and then stored in a file with sound format. This breath sounds will be analyzed by health practitioners to diagnose the symptoms of disease or illness. However, the breath sounds is not free from interference signals. Therefore, noise filter or signal interference reduction system is required so that breath sounds component which contains information signal can be clarified. In this study, we designed a filter called a wavelet transform based filter. The filter that is designed in this study is using Daubechies wavelet with four wavelet transform coefficients. Based on the testing of the ten types of breath sounds data, the data is obtained in the largest SNRdB bronchial for 74.3685 decibels.

  18. Additional prognostic value of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography for coronary risk assessment in primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournot, Maxime; Taraszkiewicz, Dorota; Cambou, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Michel; Boccalon, Henri; Hanaire-Broutin, Hélène; Chamontin, Bernard; Carrié, Didier; Ferrières, Jean

    2009-11-01

    The choice of noninvasive tests used in primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases must be based on medical evidence. The aim of this study was to assess the additional prognostic value, over conventional risk factors, of physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography, in predicting a first coronary event. A prospective cohort study was conducted between 1996 and 2004 (n = 2,709), with follow-up in 2006 (response rate 96.6%). Participants had no history or symptoms of cardiovascular disease and had a standardized physical examination, a cardiac exercise testing, and carotid and femoral ultrasonography at baseline. Incident cases of definite coronary events were recorded during follow-up. Over the Framingham risk score, femoral bruit, positive exercise test, intima-media thickness >0.63 mm, and a femoral plaque provided significant additional information to the prediction model. The addition of the exercise test to the traditional risk factors, then the intima-media thickness and lastly the presence of femoral plaques, produces incremental increases in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.73-0.78, P = .02) and about a 50% increase in the positive predictive value (15.8%-31.4%), with no effect on the negative predictive value (96.4%-96.9%). Physical examination, exercise testing, and arterial ultrasonography provide incremental information on the risk of coronary event in asymptomatic adults. Exercise testing and femoral ultrasonography also improve the accuracy of the risk stratification.

  19. Diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for common knee disorders: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Ouellet, Philippe; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Desmeules, François

    2017-01-01

    More evidence on diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders is needed to lower frequently used and costly imaging tests. To conduct a systematic review of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) evaluating the diagnostic validity of physical examination tests for knee disorders. A structured literature search was conducted in five databases until January 2016. Methodological quality was assessed using the AMSTAR. Seventeen reviews were included with mean AMSTAR score of 5.5 ± 2.3. Based on six SR, only the Lachman test for ACL injuries is diagnostically valid when individually performed (Likelihood ratio (LR+):10.2, LR-:0.2). Based on two SR, the Ottawa Knee Rule is a valid screening tool for knee fractures (LR-:0.05). Based on one SR, the EULAR criteria had a post-test probability of 99% for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Based on two SR, a complete physical examination performed by a trained health provider was found to be diagnostically valid for ACL, PCL and meniscal injuries as well as for cartilage lesions. When individually performed, common physical tests are rarely able to rule in or rule out a specific knee disorder, except the Lachman for ACL injuries. There is low-quality evidence concerning the validity of combining history elements and physical tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Benzodiazepines and workplace safety: an examination of postaccident urine drug tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James W

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines were introduced for clinical use since the 1960s and rapidly became the sedative-hypnotic of choice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether benzodiazepine use as measured by drug tests is higher in postaccident drug tests than in random tests. This is a case-control study comparing the proportion of benzodiazepine laboratory positive urine specimens for random versus postaccident samples. Any sample that tested positive for 1 or more substances other than benzodiazepines was eliminated from the study to correct for the confounding effect of other potentially impairing substances. The group prevalence of benzodiazepine positive samples was compared via the odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and the P-values. The study began with 4756 urine samples with 2161 postaccident specimens and 2595 random specimens. A total of 243 of the samples were confirmed positive for drugs other than benzodiazepines. The study was left with 2016 postaccident and 2497 random samples. In the controlled postaccident group, there were 57 positive screens and 17 (29.8%) were confirmed as positive for either a benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine metabolites. In the controlled random group, there were 48 positive screens and 10 (20.8%) were confirmed as positive for either a benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine metabolites. The OR comparing the total confirmed laboratory positive benzodiazepine specimens after controlling for other substances was 2.1150 (0.9663-4.6292) with a P-value of 0.0609. The results for comparing the total confirmed laboratory positive benzodiazepine tests controlled for other substances, although suggestive of an association, did not achieve statistical significance.

  1. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  2. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB, DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05. RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs.

  3. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places......This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh M Punjabi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older.We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: or=30.0 events/h sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80-1.08, 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97-1.42, and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14-1.86, respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40-70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31-3.33. Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease-related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality.Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40-70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Gu, X.; Haldenman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C. G.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  6. Postirradiation examination and evaluation of Peach Bottom fuel test element FTE-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, C.F.; Holzgraf, J.F.; Jensen, D.D.

    1977-09-01

    Fuel test element FTE-6 was irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) for 645 equivalent full power days. Four fuel varieties, contained in H-327 graphite bodies, were tested. A primary result of this test has been to demonstrate acceptable performance even with calculated high stresses in the graphite bodies. Heterogeneous fuel loadings in the element caused local power peaking and azimuthal power variations, deforming the graphite fuel bodies and thereby causing bowing nearly five times as large as the diametral clearance within the sleeve. The axial stresses resulting from interference between the fuel bodies and sleeve were estimated to have reached 45% of the ultimate material strength at the end of the irradiation. Residual stresses from differential contraction within the fuel body resulted in probable in-plane stress levels of 130% of the material strength at the end-of-life shutdown and of up to 150% of the strength at shutdown during the irradiation cycle. The high in-plane stresses are local peaks at the corners of a sharp notch in the element, which may account for the stresses failing to cause damage. The lack of observable damage, however, indicates that the methods and data used for stress analysis give results that are either fairly accurate or conservative.

  7. Examination of a Standardized Test for Evaluating the Degree of Cure of EVA Encapsulation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Gu, X.; Haldeman, S.; Hidalgo, M.; Malguth, E.; Reid, C.; Shioda, T.; Schulze, S.; Wang, Z.

    2013-11-01

    The curing of cross-linkable encapsulation is a critical consideration for photovoltaic (PV) modules manufactured using a lamination process. Concerns related to ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) include the quality (e.g., expiration and uniformity) of the films or completion (duration) of the cross-linking of the EVA within a laminator. Because these issues are important to both EVA and module manufacturers, an international standard has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the degree of cure for EVA encapsulation. The present draft of the standard calls for the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the rapid, enabling secondary (test) method. Both the residual enthalpy- and melt/freeze-DSC methods are identified. The DSC methods are calibrated against the gel content test, the primary (reference) method. Aspects of other established methods, including indentation and rotor cure metering, were considered by the group. Key details of the test procedure will be described.

  8. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  9. 46 CFR 160.077-19 - Approval Testing-Recreational Hybrid PFD's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the test subjects must be as prescribed in section 11 of UL 1517. (b) Tests. Each PFD design must.... The subject may use lightweight breathing aids to avoid inhaling water. (ii) Inflation, UL 1517...) Puncture Test, UL 1517, section 27. (c) Visual Examination. One complete PFD must be visually examined for...

  10. Musculoskeletal ultrasound objective structured clinical examination: an assessment of the test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissin, Eugene Y; Grayson, Peter C; Cannella, Amy C; Demarco, Paul J; Evangelisto, Amy; Goyal, Janak; Al Haj, Rany; Higgs, Jay; Malone, Daniel G; Nishio, Midori J; Tabechian, Darren; Kaeley, Gurjit S

    2014-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS). A 9-station OSCE was administered to 35 rheumatology fellows trained in MSUS and to 3 expert faculty (controls). Participants were unaware of joint health (5 diseased/4 healthy). Faculty assessors (n = 9) graded image quality with predefined checklists and a 0-5 global rating, blinded to who performed the study. Interrater reliability, correlation between a written multiple choice question examination (MCQ) and OSCE performance, and comparison of fellow OSCE results with those of the faculty were measured to determine OSCE reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity. Assessors' interrater reliability was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] 0.7). Score reliability was good in the normal wrist and ankle stations (ICC 0.7) and moderate in the abnormal wrist and ankle stations (ICC 0.4). MCQ grades significantly correlated with OSCE grades (r = 0.52, P skill. Normal joint assessment stations are more reliable than abnormal joint assessment stations and better discriminate poorly performing fellows from faculty. Therefore, MSUS OSCE with normal joints can be used for the assessment of MSUS skill competency. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Analysis of ketone bodies in exhaled breath and blood of ten healthy Japanese at OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, Naoko; Hinokio, Yoshinori; Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Koseki, Takeyoshi

    2014-11-24

    Ketone bodies including acetone are disease biomarkers for diabetes that sometimes causes severe ketoacidosis. The present study was undertaken to clarify the significance of exhaled acetone and plasma ketone bodies at bedside in a clinical setting. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 10 healthy Japanese volunteers (five females and five males). Exhaled breath acetone and volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) in mouth air were measured simultaneously with blood sampling during the OGTT using a portable gas chromatograph equipped with an In2O3 thick-film type gas sensor and a VSC monitor. Acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) in blood plasma as well as glucose and insulin were examined. Oral conditions were examined based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) by one dentist. In addition, the same type of analysis was applied to two uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus patients hospitalized at Tohoku University Hospital. Exhaled acetone was measured at the same time as blood withdrawal in the morning before breakfast and at night before bed at the beginning, the middle, and the end of hospitalization. All volunteers showed normal OGTT patterns with no ketonuria and periodontitis; however, there were significant correlations between breath acetone and plasma β-ΟΗΒ and between breath acetone and plasma AcAc under fasting conditions. Breath acetone of the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed positive correlations with plasma glucose when the level of plasma glucose tended to decrease during hospitalization. In spite of a very limited number of cases, our results support the idea that exhaled breath acetone may be related to plasma β-OHB and AcAc, which reflect glucose metabolism in the body.

  12. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  13. Examining Nurse Empathy for Infant Procedural Pain: Testing a New Video Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Latimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research reporting effective pain care strategies exists, yet it is not translated to care. Little is known about how repeated pain exposure has affected nurses’ ability to be empathetic and use their knowledge to provide evidence-based care. Concerns have been raised regarding the validity of self-report empathy instruments; therefore, a novel video program was developed for testing. It was hypothesized that those who viewed infants in painful and nonpainful states would have a measureable empathy (pain rating response correlating to the level of pain expressed by the infants.

  14. MICROSTRUCTURAL EXAMINATION AND DEUTERIUM PERMEATION TESTING OF ADVANCED COATINGS FOR TRITIUM SERVICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2004-01-24

    A plant directed research and development task to develop and study new, improved, and low cost tritium permeation barriers was initiated in FY02. The project was intended to determine the permeation rate and permeation reduction factor of substrate materials and coated materials. The samples were characterized for microstructural and microchemical consistency. Permeation tests were also run. The sample geometry and sample sealing method selected for the coatings posed significant schedule and technical challenges. Diffusivity were consistent with published values but permeation data exhibited an unexpected sample to sample variation. The effort has lead to an improved sample design that will be used to support a Process Development task.

  15. [Guidelines for the point-of-care testing post-examination phase management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, S; Vuillaume, I; Nicolas, T; Szymanowicz, A; Houlbert, C; Pernet, P

    2012-02-01

    For point-of-care-testing (POCT), the French regulation on medical biology states allows a unique situation where a delayed validation of results is possible. This paper proposes guidelines to organize POCT post-analytical phase in agreement with the local regulation and ISO 22870 requirements. In the first part, organization of POCT validation is detailed (since analysis results reading by the physician until validation of results by the medical biologist and their integration into the patient record). In a second part, elements to include in POCT presentation of results are discussed and a model is proposed.

  16. [45-year old patient with progressive shortness of breath and "crazy paving"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwieler, S; Smektala, E; Waldburg, N; Hachenberg, T; Küster, D; Schreiber, J

    2012-11-01

    A 45-year-old man referred with progressive shortness of breath. Chest X-ray revealed a diffuse parenchymal process in the lungs, which was characterized as a "crazy paving" pattern in the thoracic CT. Pulmonary function test showed severe impairment of diffusion capacity and apparent respiratory insufficiency. Bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examinations of transbronchial lung biopsies revealed alveolar proteinosis. Because of the presence of anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies, a primary form of this disorder was diagnosed. Therapeutic whole-lung lavage was performed twice and resulted in a continuing remission.

  17. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy. The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice. Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD). Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes. Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual’s complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of

  18. Examining the large-time wellbore flux of constant head test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hund-Der; Wang, Chih-Tse; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan G.

    2010-09-01

    The function 1/[p ln (p/λ)] comes from the wellbore flux solution in the Laplace domain for a constant head aquifer test when the Laplace variable p is small. The resulting inverse Laplace transform v(λt), representing the large-time wellbore flux, grows exponentially with time, which does not agree with the physical behavior of the wellbore flux. Based on this result, Chen and Stone (1993) asserted that the well-known relationship of small p-large t may fail to yield the correct large-time asymptotic solution. Yeh and Wang (2007) pointed out that the large-time wellbore flux is not ν(λt) if the inversion of 1/[p ln (p/λ)] is subject to the constraint Re p > λ. Chen (2009) subsequently questioned the necessity of imposing this constraint on the Laplace transform in the inversion of the large-time wellbore flux. Motived by Chen's comment, we reexamine the inversion of 1/[p ln (p/λ)] and demonstrate that this contradictory issue originates from a spurious pole introduced when applying the small p-large t correspondence to the Laplace domain solution. We explain why this occurs and why the actual wellbore flux at large times is proportional to the function N(λt), known as Ramanujan's integral. The function N(λt) does decay at large time, which agrees with the steady state wellbore flux of the constant head test.

  19. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  20. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  1. Probabilistic Approaches to Examining Linguistic Features of Test Items and Their Effect on the Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…

  2. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  3. Examining the Practice of a Reading-to-Speak Test Task: Anxiety and Experience of EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, little research has hitherto been conducted to examine the implementation of integrated speaking test tasks. This study, in response, set out to compare the anxiety induced by a reading-to-speak task and the anxiety produced by a speaking-only task and to explore students' experiences of taking the reading-to-speak task.…

  4. Situational Judgment Tests and Transformational Leadership: An Examination of the Decisions, Leadership, and Experience in Undergraduate Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Greg; Sharf, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    We examined a large multi-year undergraduate leadership development program (LDP) across seven universities and used an integrated framework of transformational leadership and situational judgment tests (SJTs) during a critical and formative period of leadership development. This study was the first to show a significant relationship between…

  5. Examining the Stability of the 7-Item Social Physique Anxiety Scale Using a Test-Retest Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lisa A.; Burke, Kevin L.; Joyner, A. Barry; Brand, Jennifer S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the stability of the 7-item Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS-7) using a test-retest method. Collegiate, undergraduate (N = 201) students completed two administrations of the SPAS-7, with a 14-day separation between the administrations. The scale was administered either at the beginning or end of the physical activity class.…

  6. Testicular Self-Examination: A Test of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenahan, Carol; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Bennett, Cara; O'Neill, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the utility and efficiency of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM) in predicting testicular self-examination (TSE) behaviour. A questionnaire was administered to an opportunistic sample of 195 undergraduates aged 18-39 years. Structural equation modelling indicated that, on the…

  7. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... BAC, respectively. It also included a test for the presence of acetone and an expanded definition of... BAC Systems, Inc., Ontario, Canada: Breath Analysis Computer X X CAMEC Ltd., North Shields, Tyne and... Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

  8. An efficient and reproducible method for measuring hydrogen peroxide in exhaled breath condensate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, W.J.C van; Harff, G.A.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Bosch, M.J. van den; Creemers, J.P.H.M.; Smeenk, F.J.M.W.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity and reproducibility of a test procedure for measuring hydrogen peroxide (H202) in exhaled breath condensate and the effect of storage of the condensate on the H2O2 concentration, and compared the results to previous studies.Twenty stable COPD patients breathed into

  9. Scintigraphic determination of gastrointestinal transit times. A comparison with breath hydrogen and radiologic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J L; Larsen, N E; Hilsted, J

    1991-01-01

    A scintigraphic method for determination of gastrointestinal transit times was compared with the breath hydrogen test and a multiple-bolus, single-radiograph technique. A close temporal association was found between the caecal appearance of radioactivity and the onset of breath hydrogen excretion...

  10. Tenth anniversary special issue of the Journal of Breath Research: looking forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Journal of Breath Research has now reached its 10th anniversary of publication. From the general public’s perspective, breath analysis had always revolved around drinking and driving, and to some lesser extent pulmonary function testing of athletes. However, at the ince...

  11. Examination of high heat flux components for the ITER divertor after thermal fatigue testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M., E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Escourbiac, F., E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Schmidt, A., E-mail: a.schmidt@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IFE-2 (Germany); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion For Energy, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Bobin-Vastra, I., E-mail: isabelle.bobinvastra@areva.com [AREVA-NP, 71200 Le Creusot (France)

    2011-10-01

    An extensive development programme has been carried out in the EU on high heat flux components within the ITER project. In this framework, a full-scale vertical target (VTFS) prototype was manufactured with all the main features of the corresponding ITER divertor design. The fatigue cycling campaign on CFC and W armoured regions, proved the capability of such a component to meet the ITER requirements in terms of heat flux performances for the vertical target. This paper discusses metallographic observations performed on both CFC and W part after this intensive thermal fatigue testing campaign for a better understanding of thermally induced mechanical stress within the component, especially close to the armour-heat sink interface.

  12. Examination of an Optical Transmittance Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Bengoechea, J.; Bokria, J.; Kohl, M.; Powell, N. E.; Smith, M. E.; White, M. D.; Wilson, H. R.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2013-09-01

    The optical transmittance of encapsulation materials is a key characteristic for their use in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Changes in transmittance with time in the field affect module performance, which may impact product warranties. Transmittance is important in product development, module manufacturing, and field power production (both immediate and long-term). Therefore, an international standard (IEC 62788-1-4) has recently been proposed by the Encapsulation Task-Group within the Working Group 2 (WG2) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC82) for the quantification of the optical performance of PV encapsulation materials. Existing standards, such as ASTM E903, are general and more appropriately applied to concentrated solar power than to PV. Starting from the optical transmittance measurement, the solar-weighted transmittance of photon irradiance, yellowness index (which may be used in aging studies to assess durability), and ultraviolet (UV) cut-off wavelength may all be determined using the proposed standard. The details of the proposed test are described. The results of a round-robin experiment (for five materials) conducted at seven laboratories to validate the test procedure using representative materials are also presented. For example, the Encapsulation Group actively explored the measurement requirements (wavelength range and resolution), the requirements for the spectrophotometer (including the integrating sphere and instrument accessories, such as a depolarizer), specimen requirements (choice of glass-superstrate and -substrate), and data analysis (relative to the light that may be used in the PV application). The round-robin experiment identified both intra- and inter-laboratory instrument precision and bias for five encapsulation materials (encompassing a range of transmittance and haze-formation characteristics).

  13. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: Examining cross-linguistic generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDilley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /stərʌ'na/ side vs. /strʌ'na/ country. In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010 extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  14. The "other" respiratory effect of opioids: suppression of spontaneous augmented ("sigh") breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Harold J; Azubike, Elizabeth; Haouzi, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a clinically relevant opioid on the production of augmented breaths (ABs) in unanesthetized animals breathing normal room air, using a dosage which does not depress breathing. To do this we monitored breathing noninvasively, in unrestrained animals before and after subcutaneous injection of either morphine, or a saline control. The effect of ketamine/xylazine was also studied to determine the potential effect of an alternative sedative agent. Last, the effect of naloxone was studied to determine the potential influence of endogenous opioids in regulating the normal incidence of ABs. Morphine (5 mg/kg) had no depressive effect on breathing, but completely eliminated ABs in all animals in room air (P = 0.027). However, when animals breathed hypoxic air (10% O(2)), animals did express ABs, although their incidence was still reduced by morphine (P ABs continued at their normal rate in room air during sedation with ketamine. Naloxone had no effect on breathing or AB production, and so endogenous opioids are not likely involved in regulating their rate of production under normal conditions. Our results show that in unanesthetized animals breathing normal room air, a clinically relevant opioid eliminates ABs, even at a dose that does not cause respiratory depression. Despite this, hypoxia-induced stimulation of breathing can facilitate the production of ABs even with the systemic opioid present, indicating that peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation provides a potential means of overcoming the opioid-induced suppression of these respiratory events.

  15. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  16. Standard practice for in situ examination of ferromagnetic Heat-Exchanger tubes using remote field testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during remote field examination of installed ferromagnetic heat-exchanger tubing for baseline and service-induced discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on ferromagnetic tubes with outside diameters from 0.500 to 2.000 in. [12.70 to 50.80 mm], with wall thicknesses in the range from 0.028 to 0.134 in. [0.71 to 3.40 mm]. 1.3 This practice does not establish tube acceptance criteria; the tube acceptance criteria must be specified by the using parties. 1.4 Units—The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this practice to establ...

  17. Test Anxiety in Spanish Adolescents: Examining the Role of Emotional Attention, and Ruminative Self-focus and Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pena

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional attention has been found as a key predictive dimension of stress. However, very few studies have investigated the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The objective of the present study was to analyze the role of emotional attention, measured using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS, on the level of test anxiety, and measured using the Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI. In addition, we examined the potential mediating role of Self-Rumination and Self-Reflection, as measured through the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ, on the relationship between emotional attention and test anxiety. The sample included 385 Spanish adolescents between 14 and 19 years of age. Mediation analysis results are consistent with a model in which Self-Rumination, but no Self-Reflection, mediates the relationship between Emotional Attention and Test Anxiety. Finally, several potential implications of these findings to improve quality of life in adolescents are discussed.

  18. Chiari malformation and sleep related breathing disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvilliers, Y; Stal, V; Abril, B; Coubes, P; Bobin, S; Touchon, J; Escourrou, P; Parker, F; Bourgin, P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency, mechanisms and predictive factors of sleep apnoea syndrome (SAS) in a large group of children and adults with type I (CMI) and II (CMII) Chiari malformation (CM). Background The anatomical and functional integrity of both respiratory circuits and lower cranial nerves controlling the upper airway is necessary for breathing control during sleep. These latter structures may be altered in CM, and a few investigations have reported CM related sleep disordered breathing. Methods Forty‐six consecutive unrelated patients with CM (40 CMI, six CMII), of which 20 were children (eight males) and 26 were adults (12 males), underwent physical, neurological and oto‐rhino‐laryngoscopic examination, MRI and polysomnography. Results SAS was present in 31 (67.4%) of the patients with CM (70% of CMI, 50% of CMII, including mainly children). Sixty per cent of children with CM exhibited SAS, including 35% with obstructive (OSAS) and 25% with central (CSAS) sleep apnoea syndrome. SAS was observed in 73% of CM adults (57.7% OSAS, 15.4% CSAS). Severe SAS was found in 23% of CM adults. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age, type II Chiari and vocal cord paralysis predicted the central apnoea index. Conclusion SAS is highly prevalent in all age groups of patients suffering from CM. CSAS, a rare condition in the general population, was common among the patients with CM in our study. Sleep disordered breathing associated with CM may explain the high frequency of respiratory failures observed during curative surgery of CM. Our results suggest that SAS should be systematically screened for in patients with CM, especially before surgery. PMID:17400590

  19. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  20. Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010-2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson's correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1.

  1. Orthopedic In-Training Examination Question Metrics and Resident Test Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePasse, John Mason; Haglin, Jack; Eltorai, Adam E M; Mulcahey, Mary K; Eberson, Craig P; Daniels, Alan H

    2017-06-23

    First administered in November 1963, the orthopedic in-training examination (OITE) is now distributed to more than 4000 residents in over 20 countries and has become important for evaluation of resident fund of knowledge. Several studies have assessed the effect of didactic programs on resident performance, but only recently has it become possible to assess detailed testtaking metrics such as time spent per question. Here, we report the first assessment of resident OITE performance utilizing this full electronic dataset from two large academic institutions. Full 2015 OITE score reports for all orthopedic surgery residents at two institutions were anonymized and compiled. For every question answered by each resident, the resident year, question content or domain, question result (correct or incorrect), and answer speed were recorded. Data were then analyzed to determine whether resident year, result, or domain affected answer speed and whether performance in each subspecialty domain varied based on resident year in training. Data was available for 46 residents and 12,650 questions. Mean answer speed for questions answered correctly, 54.0±48.1 s, was significantly faster than for questions answered incorrectly, 72.2±61.2 s (Pquestions, compared to only 40 seconds on basic science questions (Pquestions is often considered a sign of mastery of the material and more confidence in the answer. Though faster answer speed was strongly associated with correct answers, this study demonstrates that answer speed is not reliably associated with resident year. While answer speed varies between domains, it is likely that the majority of this variation is due to question type as opposed to confidence. Nevertheless, it is possible that in domains with more tiered experience such as shoulder, answer speed correlates strongly with resident year and percentage correct.

  2. Computer-aided fit testing: an approach for examining the user/equipment interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Brian D.; Beecher, Robert M.; Paquette, Steven

    1997-03-01

    Developments in laser digitizing technology now make it possible to capture very accurate 3D images of the surface of the human body in less than 20 seconds. Applications for the images range from animation of movie characters to the design and visualization of clothing and individual equipment (CIE). In this paper we focus on modeling the user/equipment interface. Defining the relative geometry between user and equipment provides a better understanding of equipment performance, and can make the design cycle more efficient. Computer-aided fit testing (CAFT) is the application of graphical and statistical techniques to visualize and quantify the human/equipment interface in virtual space. In short, CAFT looks to measure the relative geometry between a user and his or her equipment. The design cycle changes with the introducing CAFT; now some evaluation may be done in the CAD environment prior to prototyping. CAFT may be applied in two general ways: (1) to aid in the creation of new equipment designs and (2) to evaluate current designs for compliance to performance specifications. We demonstrate the application of CAFT with two examples. First, we show how a prototype helmet may be evaluated for fit, and second we demonstrate how CAFT may be used to measure body armor coverage.

  3. Testing CREATE at Community Colleges: An Examination of Faculty Perspectives and Diverse Student Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Kristy L.; Onorato, Morgan E.; Gottesman, Alan J.; Hoque, Jamila; Hoskins, Sally G.

    2016-01-01

    CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate the hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) is an innovative pedagogy for teaching science through the intensive analysis of scientific literature. Initiated at the City College of New York, a minority-serving institution, and regionally expanded in the New York/New Jersey/Pennsylvania area, this methodology has had multiple positive impacts on faculty and students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. To determine whether the CREATE strategy is effective at the community college (2-yr) level, we prepared 2-yr faculty to use CREATE methodologies and investigated CREATE implementation at community colleges in seven regions of the United States. We used outside evaluation combined with pre/postcourse assessments of students to test related hypotheses: 1) workshop-trained 2-yr faculty teach effectively with the CREATE strategy in their first attempt, and 2) 2-yr students in CREATE courses make cognitive and affective gains during their CREATE quarter or semester. Community college students demonstrated positive shifts in experimental design and critical-thinking ability concurrent with gains in attitudes/self-rated learning and maturation of epistemological beliefs about science. PMID:26931399

  4. Lung function, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, Sébastien; Boulé, Michèle; Baujat, Geneviève; Ramirez, Adriana; Couloigner, Vincent; Beydon, Nicole; Zerah, Michel; di Rocco, Federico; Lemerrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Children with achondroplasia are at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate lung function and sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia. An interview, clinical examination, lung function tests with blood gases, and a polygraphic sleep study were obtained as part of routine annual evaluation in consecutive children with achondroplasia. We included 30 children (median age 3.0 years, range: 0.4-17.1) over a period of 21 months. Habitual snoring and witnessed apneas were observed in 77% and 33% of the patients, respectively. Prior to the sleep study, 10/29 (34%) patients had undergone upper airway surgery and 5/29 (17%) craniocervical decompression operation. Arterial blood gases were abnormal in two (7%) patients. Sleep findings were abnormal in 28/30 (93%) patients. Eleven (37%) patients had an apnea index≥1 event/hr and 26 (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index≥5 events/hr. The ≥3% desaturation index was >5/hr in 22 (73%) patients. Sixteen (53%) patients had a minimal pulse oximetry50 mmHg during sleep. As a consequence, the following therapeutic interventions were performed: upper airway surgery in four patients and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in five other patients, resulting in an improvement in sleep studies in all nine patients. Systematic sleep studies are recommended in children with achondroplasia because of the high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Upper airway surgery and NPPV are effective treatments of sleep-disordered breathing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  6. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eRochet-Capellan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000, Brain Research, 862(1-2, p. 194. The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers or slow speech (female only. These recordings were then played back to forty-eight female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialogue, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  7. Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

    2011-01-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such

  8. The Examination of Reliability of Vee Diagrams According to Classical Test Theory and Generalizability Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül POLAT DEMİR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate reliability of score obtained from vee diagrams. Therefore in this study, the Classical test theory and generalizability theory were used. The study was carried out with descriptive research model. The participants of this research were composed of 32 students at 7th and 8th grades in Niğde. The responses given to the vee diagrams were scored through the holistic rubric. In CTT, Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient and Kendall’s concordance coefficient for interrater reliability; in G theory, Ep2 (G and Ф (Phi coefficients with univariate model were computed. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficients estimated were 0,77, 0,76, and 0,76 for each rater, respectively. For determination of interrater consistency, Kendall’s concordance coefficient was calculated as W=0,959 for the first vee diagram, W= 0,924 for the second one, W=0,963 for the third one, W=0,954 for the fourth one. For the purpose of estimating variances and percent of variances in G study, fully crossed design was applied. Generalizability coefficient for vee diagram scores was 0,918 and phi coefficient was 0,899. As a result of the G study, it was determined that the variance component estimated for the student (s main effect accounted for 42,4% of the total variance, and it was the variance component that had the highest value. The variance component estimated for raters (p main effect, which is the lowest variance component in all main effect, accounted for 0,1% of the total variance. According to all results, it was seen that vee diagram was reliable for determination of students’ mathematics achievement.

  9. Orthopedic in-training examination question metrics and resident test performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mason DePasse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First administered in November 1963, the orthopedic in-training examination (OITE is now distributed to more than 4000 residents in over 20 countries and has become important for evaluation of resident fund of knowledge. Several studies have assessed the effect of didactic programs on resident performance, but only recently has it become possible to assess detailed testtaking metrics such as time spent per question. Here, we report the first assessment of resident OITE performance utilizing this full electronic dataset from two large academic institutions. Full 2015 OITE score reports for all orthopedic surgery residents at two institutions were anonymized and compiled. For every question answered by each resident, the resident year, question content or domain, question result (correct or incorrect, and answer speed were recorded. Data were then analyzed to determine whether resident year, result, or domain affected answer speed and whether performance in each subspecialty domain varied based on resident year in training. Data was available for 46 residents and 12,650 questions. Mean answer speed for questions answered correctly, 54.0±48.1 s, was significantly faster than for questions answered incorrectly, 72.2±61.2 s (P<0.00001. When considering both correct and incorrect answers, PGY-1s were slower than all other years (P<0.02. Residents spent a mean of nearly 80 seconds on foot and ankle and shoulder and elbow questions, compared to only 40 seconds on basic science questions (P<0.05. In education, faster answer speed for questions is often considered a sign of mastery of the material and more confidence in the answer. Though faster answer speed was strongly associated with correct answers, this study demonstrates that answer speed is not reliably associated with resident year. While answer speed varies between domains, it is likely that the majority of this variation is due to question type as opposed to confidence. Nevertheless, it is

  10. Breath analysis: clinical research to the end-user market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T

    2011-09-01

    Breath research is now well established and is solving some of the applications in the area of identifying volatiles for medical diagnosis. This paper looks at how this research has been taken to an end-user market. It is not intended to be an indepth study of the science but simply to draw attention to the role of the commercial link between the researcher and end-user. This market is not only in research but exists in hospitals, clinics, sports medicine and even homecare. The link between research and the end-user market is a vital one to avoid breath analysis being the tool of researchers only. The ubiquitous use of breath analysis depends upon it. This is a review of some of the success stories in commercializing the important breath analysis research that has been conducted over the last few decades. In order to make breath analysis the new blood test, products that have end-user appeal need to be developed and routes to market established.

  11. A Stereo Pair Based Method for Contactless Evaluation of the Human Breathing Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Gnatiuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of contactless monitoring methods of human vital signs is an important goal for modern medicine. The particular relevance of this issue appears with the control of the patient at home on their own, for example, to estimate the parameters of breathing during sleep, quality assessment and identification of various kinds of sleep disorders, such as, for example, sleep apnea disorder (a condition, which is characterized by the cessation of pulmonary ventilation more than for 10 seconds and fall of blood oxygen saturation.In this article we have implemented and tested an algorithm for non-contact monitoring of breathing pattern by two entrenched webcams aimed at the person. The algorithm is based on using the methods of computer vision and processing of video sequences.Authors pay particular attention to disparity map construction approaches and improving the signal / noise ratio by a combination of known functions comparing the intensity of pixels: AD - a function of absolute differences, and Census function, comparing bit strings of investigated image regions.An important role in the noise minimization plays a simple, but effective assumption for aggregation, the gist of which is that pixels having similar intensity belong to the same structures in the image, and hence have a similar disparity. The variability of input parameters of the method and the ability to adjust the number of iterations provide accurate disparity maps for the input image of almost any quality (testing was conducted for webcams CBR CW 833M.The main result of this approach is the breathing profile based on the reconstructed depth maps, reflecting the respiration rate of the person under examination and presenting data on the amplitude variations of his chest.The main difference of the proposed method from other publications is a high accuracy and the breath profile calculation in real-time. It was achieved through OpenCL technology and parallel computations

  12. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  13. Endogenous CO dynamics monitoring in breath by tunable diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Andrian I.; Stepanov, Eugene V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-04-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation as well as sport loading were studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  14. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  15. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisatio...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed.......This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...

  16. PISA Test Items and School-Based Examinations in Greece: Exploring the relationship between global and local assessment discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Kyriaki; Hatzinikita, Vassilia; Christidou, Vasilia; Dimopoulos, Kostas

    2013-03-01

    The paper explores the relationship of the global and the local assessment discourses as expressed by Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test items and school-based examinations, respectively. To this end, the paper compares PISA test items related to living systems and the context of life, health, and environment, with Greek school-based biology examinations' test items in terms of the nature of their textual construction. This nature is determined by the interplay of the notions of classification (content specialisation) and formality (code specialisation) modulated by both the linguistic and the visual expressive modes. The results of the analysis reveal disparities between assessment discourses promoted at the global and the local level. In particular, while PISA test items convey their scientific message (specialised content and code) principally through their visual mode, the specialised scientific meaning of school-based examinations test is mainly conveyed through their linguistic mode. On the other hand, the linguistic mode of PISA test items is mainly compatible with textual practices of the public domain (non-specialised content and code). Such a mismatch between assessment discourses at local and global level is expected to place Greek students at different discursive positions, promoting different types of knowledge. The expected shift from the epistemic positioning promoted in Greece to the one promoted by PISA could significantly restrict Greek students' ability to infer the PISA discursive context and produce appropriate responses. This factor could provide a meaningful contribution in the discussion of the relatively low achievement of Greek students in PISA scientific literacy assessment.

  17. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  18. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study Design - Process implementation with retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroebel Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the value of a pre-ordering process for the pro-active scheduling and completion of appropriate preventive and chronic disease monitoring tests prior to a periodic health examination (PHE. Methods A standardized template was developed and used by our nursing staff to identify and schedule appropriate tests prior to the patients PHE. Chart reviews were completed on all 602 PHE visits for a 3-month interval in a primary care setting. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to a convenience sample of the PHE patients. Results Of all the patients with tests pre-ordered, 87.8% completed the tests. All providers in the division used the process, but some evolved from one template to another over time. Most patients (61% preferred to get their tests done prior to their PHE appointment. Many of our patients had abnormal test results. With this process, patients were able to benefit from face-to-face discussion of these results directly with their provider. Conclusions A pre-order process was successfully implemented to improve the value of the PHE visit in an internal medicine primary care practice using a standardized approach that allowed for provider autonomy. The process was accepted by patients and providers and resulted in improved office efficiency through reduced message handling. Completion of routine tests before the PHE office visit can help facilitate face-to-face discussions about abnormal results and subsequent management that otherwise may only occur by telephone.

  19. Does pre-ordering tests enhance the value of the periodic examination? Study Design - Process implementation with retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Vicki L; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Stroebel, Robert J; North, Frederick

    2011-09-13

    To evaluate the value of a pre-ordering process for the pro-active scheduling and completion of appropriate preventive and chronic disease monitoring tests prior to a periodic health examination (PHE). A standardized template was developed and used by our nursing staff to identify and schedule appropriate tests prior to the patients PHE. Chart reviews were completed on all 602 PHE visits for a 3-month interval in a primary care setting. A patient satisfaction survey was administered to a convenience sample of the PHE patients. Of all the patients with tests pre-ordered, 87.8% completed the tests. All providers in the division used the process, but some evolved from one template to another over time. Most patients (61%) preferred to get their tests done prior to their PHE appointment. Many of our patients had abnormal test results. With this process, patients were able to benefit from face-to-face discussion of these results directly with their provider. A pre-order process was successfully implemented to improve the value of the PHE visit in an internal medicine primary care practice using a standardized approach that allowed for provider autonomy. The process was accepted by patients and providers and resulted in improved office efficiency through reduced message handling. Completion of routine tests before the PHE office visit can help facilitate face-to-face discussions about abnormal results and subsequent management that otherwise may only occur by telephone.

  20. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.